How to Select A Bladeless Trocar With High Quality Control Test

The trocar is a device used in minimal invasive surgery to access and drain collections of fluid and tissue from patient’s abdominal. While this device has historically had many uses it is currently most often used to perform laparoscopic surgery. Traditionally this device had a three points or pyramid design which carried the potential for additional patient damage during the procedure. Today, it is more common for surgeons to use a bladeless trocar to limit the potential for medical complications and enhance overall patient safety while minimizing recovery time. At a glance, every trocar may look the same however there are a few key differences and design which can make one bladeless trocar significantly safer than another.

The first feature to consider is the ability to mount a scope on the trocar. This allows operators to observe any potential damage to abdominal walls during insertion. Along with the ability to mount a scope, it is important the scope angle allows for accurate depth perception to minimize any potential for damage.

The use of a transparency sleeve has become a key feature of a bladeless trocar. The transparent sleeve structure should offer stability and convenience during operation while minimizing strain in the abdominal wall. Additionally, the sleeve should be available in a variety of length and shapes depending on the purpose of use.

Another key safety feature is a one touch release button. This allows the surgeon to separate or combine the bladeless trocar with one hand. Not only does this make it easier to take out tissue also allows the surgeon greater freedom of movement during surgery.

The final important feature of a bladeless trocar is the tip itself. A bladeless tip must have a precise design to ensure it does not need a large opening during the insertion process. If it requires a large opening that offers no significant advantage over a bladed trocar. The best bladeless tips are much more precise and safer than their steel made bladed counterparts. Not only do the flat incisions make it easier for the wound to close but can also decrease the pain a patient experiences during the recovery process.

Along with specific features and capabilities of a bladeless trocar it is important the device undergoes specific tests during the design and manufacturing phase. One important test is the resistance and durability test. This specifically focuses on the sealing part. For resistance test to provide the best results it is critical the part is tested in both the forward and reverse direction. Durability test could show how the sealing part is durable especially circle silicone part. The other important test is an air leak test. It is essential and the feature of this test both a low-pressure and high-pressure test to ensure effectiveness of sealing part’s design. To be considered safe, a bladeless trocar must include all the key design features and both tests have been conducted.

The Benefits of Having an Electric Hole Punch

Whether at home or in the office, there is always a great need to organize personal or public space. This includes important documents that may be needed in case of an emergency. A lot of times, people tend to discount the importance of organizing their files. At home, this can be bills, certificates or receipts. In the office, this can mean important documents, presentations or notes.

No matter what important documents you have at home or in the office, it is really important that you get these organized, as you never know when you will need them. There is a lot of panic and stress caused by misplaced files, as you will tend to worry and be anxious about having them when they are needed. The moment you realize you don’t know where these important documents are is the moment stress kicks in. It is therefore important that you appreciate and practice good organization.

Part of good organization skills is having all the right tools with you. One of these is the electric hole punch. This nifty desk item ensures that all important or related documents are bound and compiled together, whether in a folder or a binder, so that you will be able to access all of them at the same time whenever you need them.

The Electric Hole Punch: At Home

Are you trying to do your monthly accounting? This hole punch can be of great help to you. Organizing all your receipts and bills monthly in a binder or a folder will allow you to locate all the necessary and important documents without wasting a large amount of time just trying to find them in different parts of the house. With this hole punch, you will be able to compile your bills and receipts monthly so that all you have to do when it is time for your monthly accounting is to get the folder for that month and start computing. No need to waste time worrying over where that month’s electric bill went.

The Electric Hole Punch: In the Office

Got a major client presentation and you have a lot of notes to peruse? Use an electric hole punch to gather all these notes at the end of every meeting or brainstorming session and put all of these in one ring folder or binder. Then, when presentation time comes, all you have to do is grab that folder or binder, and out you to go. No need to spend a lot of time beforehand putting everything together so that you will be able to find everything you need in one place.

As you can see, the hole puncher can be put into really good use if you are bent on organizing all your documents. Thanks to the puncher, life just got a lot easier and less complicated.

You can search and review customer comments of many paper hole punches such

Important Dining Room Decorative Ideas To Give Your Dining Room A Modern Appearance

Beautifying your dining room to give it a fresh appearance is just really easy. You do not have to change everything. There are a lot of ornamental objects like canvas wall art, rugs, centerpiece, and other materials that you can add to give your dining room that particular new appearance that you desired. Here you can find some awesome ideas of decorating that you can use for your dining room decoration.

Redecorate your wall with wall canvas art or wall art painting. This is an awesome way to make an elegant and sophisticated focal point on the wall. Original fine art pieces can be overpriced but you can also find low-priced original pieces of artwork over the internet and in any art shows. You can demand for proof of authenticity if you want to be 100% certain that your artwork piece is really authentic.

Be certain that the artwork piece you have chosen is in harmony with the theme and the interior design of your dining area. The size and design of the canvas should be significant enough to make an impression but it should not overwhelm the space in your wall.

Use brand-new light fixture like chandelier, standing lamps, candle wall sconces, and candlestick. Chandeliers look exquisite above the dining the table. Lamps can add more light to corners. Candles give gently illumination to furniture, oil painting art, and glass objects in the dining area. They can give an unagitated and soothing effect to the room.

An area rug is another way to produce an appealing appearance in your dining room. Position a big rug underneath the table. It should be large enough to include the chairs even though they are pulled out but not too much that it extends the entire floor. The color and design of the rugs has to complement the room interiors, furniture, and framed canvas artwork. One of the best things about area rug is that you can replace it easily should you plan to change the design and color.

Use centerpiece in the dining table so it will not appear dull and uninviting. You can position a fresh bunch of flowers on the center or even faux flowers. Fruits and vegetables centerpiece is also a wonderful alternative for table centerpiece. You can also set the dining table with deluxe tableware and tablecloth to give the room a finish look.

Beautifying with no matter artwork piece, light fixture, rug, and centerpiece are only some of the many amazing and fantastic decorating ideas to give dining room a fresh look. Creativity is the key to have the desired look of your dining area.

Lighting Under Challenging Circumstances

Whether you are new to the world of film, shooting your first scenes, or a seasoned veteran, there are untold combinations of lighting that you have to deal with on a regular and consistent basis, especially when dealing with television. Television lighting poses a great number of challenges for any filmmaker, director, cameraman, or even producers. The reason is that unless you are recording your scenes under a controlled environment, such as a closed studio set, then you will have no choice but to endure what’s thrown your way when you arrive on scene.

In today’s environment, location shooting is rife with challenges, such as natural sunlight and fluorescent tubes. Each of these illumination sources creates different shadows, tones, and color tints on film and video recording stock. Getting the right balance of light for every situation requires different plans, layouts, and equipment. And sometimes, when you are lighting for television, you will be dealing with more than one source at a time.

Think of a scene in an office building. Fluorescent fixtures overhead combine with the sun’s natural rays filtering in through the office windows. Now you have a recipe for some tricky and creative work. Technology will certainly help to some degree, with certain settings on modern cameras that help filter light, determine the white temperature settings and make adjustments accordingly, and even gauge the balance of light.

Determine what type of light you are dealing with

Most fluorescent tubes are considered soft light. In the world of television, or any lighting for film, for that matter, you are going to have two main sources of light: hard and soft light. Hard light is considered light that is produced by a direct source. A main spotlight in a studio setting is one example of hard light. The sun, in an outdoor scene, is another hard light source.

Temperatures of the light

When you are filming under different lighting conditions, you are dealing with different temperatures of light. The goal for any cameraman, then, is to make sure that the light sources that you are using are essentially the same temperature.

Daylight has a color temperature of 5,500 degrees Kelvin. Cool white fluorescents can have a color temperature of 4,000 degrees Kelvin and incandescent lights have an approximate color temperature of 3,000 degrees Kelvin. In order to balance these temperatures and make them have the same color temperature is important in getting the perfect lighting setup for film.

Using colored gels in front of the different light sources is how this balance is achieved. Depending on the light source, you will need to use different gels to achieve this goal.

Three-Point Lighting

Whatever light source you are dealing with when working with television lighting, your best approach will be to use three-point lighting. This is the same technique that is used for photo shoots in a professional studio, but the concepts transfer to any environment.

The effect of shadows to create strong contrast between light and dark surfaces will create a stronger impression of three dimensions for the television audience. While film is still, for the most part, two dimensional, when a three-point lighting technique is used properly, your audience will be given the impression of three dimensional scenes and characters (the emotional dimensions of your characters are a different issue altogether).

Television lighting will pose many challenges and rarely will two be exactly the same. While there are many solutions to lighting dilemmas, being armed with color correction gels and light diffusion materials will go a long way to solving problems. Your television lighting skills will also drastically improve when you use three-point lighting for these tough situations.

Snowboarding Sub-Cultures and the Barriers For Success

The snowboarders rebel against the sophisticated means of skiing and skiers were not able to accept the new culture on the slopes. The two cultures were against each other in various ways like the manner in speaking, the way in acting and the style of clothing.

Snowboarders were the first to embrace the punk and later on they got into the hip-hop attire. They also introduced the words like “dude”, Shred the Gnar” and “gnarly” to be used in snowboarding culture.

Snowboarding subculture had become an interconnection between the city and uptown styles in the snow, caused the easy change from skateboarding and surfing culture over to the culture of snowboarding. The early labels of snowboarding were known as “lazy, punk, grungy, stoners, troublemakers”, and many others which are connected with surfing and skateboarding. However, these labels can be considered out of style.

Snowboarding became a sport which included a varied crowd based worldwide and fan base, in as much that a large community is hard to stereotype. Reasons regarding these stereotypes that are dying include mainstream and that the sport has become famous.

Snowboarders and skiers became close and used to one another and respect was shown to each other on the slopes. The classic stereotype of the game is changing as demographics change.

Here are 7 barriers to think about as you work out your own private plan for success:

• Overcome fear of failure – for someone, failure means humiliation and loss of self-respect. However, when the objective is to execute your most excellent capability, you will feel good regarding yourself even if you do not become the first placer.

• Overcome fear of success – trusting that you can perform completely sometimes places you in the manner of reaching your aim.

• Overcome fear of competition – performance nervousness is an ordinary and common phobia. Rapid skater Apolo Ohno was not a stranger to contest, having dominated by his own worries and become a champion, on both short-tracks and dance floor

• Overcome fear of risks – to become victorious as Olympiads, athletes must conquer their fears of anything and goes for the gold.

• Overcome fear of pain – you might be having your own pains neither – physical nor emotional – to work throughout your pursuance of goals. Bear in mind that determination is what you need in succeeding your struggles to prevail.

• Overcome fear of change – because of the poor weather circumstances in Vancouver, various events are postponed, tossing off schedules. The athletes have to adjust psychologically to the changes and would be prepared to compete.

• Overcome fear of pleasure – even when you are in the center of the competition, do not forget to take pleasure during the course and enjoy.

What Are The Benefits Of Choosing Cable Trays Over The Conduit Wire System?

Cable trays are used to manage and organize the cable wire system for better working and get rid of the messy web of wires. While comparing the system to the other wire management systems you will find the cable trays much more efficient and productive. You can have several benefits of choosing the system over the other wire managing systems. An evaluation of cost and savings is necessary before investing in a system. While selecting the system perfect for your industrial need you are required to note the following points and compare them with the other solutions for a precise guidance.

The Excel Benefits Of Choosing Cable Trays Over The Other Wiring Systems:-

  • Efficient Working: The device is mainly used for its excellent performance and you can completely rely on the device for the security of your cable wires. It is better in working efficiently resulting in the less maintenance and downtime of the device. The rigid structure provides great strength to the material. Since, it is not a closed system and you can see through it when you want to see the space availability.
  • Savings: The saving is the most important characteristic which is considered while choosing the better system for the efficient management of the wires. You can save the expenses incurred on the professionals for the entire setup as it doesn’t require any skilled person for the installation of the system and the process of installation is also simple. Conduits are hard to install and they need professional for the entire setup.
  • Maintenance: The maintenance of the cable trays is also easy and time-saving. The conduits require time to time maintenance and there are more chances of damage. You cannot look for the empty space availability inside. The trays are also free from the danger of fire loss while conduits are at the higher risk.
  • Safety: The wire system is safe in the cable trays. There is no chance of corrosion, explosion, or emission of harmful gases like in the conduit wire system. The system is also moisture free and there is less chances of damage with the less maintenance. However, this is totally opposite in conduits as they are closed structure.
  • Cost: You can save huge cost on the installation, maintenance, safety, repairs, etc. in the trays which is little hard in case of the conduits. There is less downtime and handling of the cables is easy in the tray systems. There is hardly any environmental problem with such system.

Kill Roaches Without Killing Your Family!

1. Cockroaches are vile, disgusting creatures that are nearly impossible to kick out of your house or apartment. Cockroaches live all over the world, but they like to live in homes with people where they can snack on your food, damage wallpaper and books, and spread germs to you and your family.

2. If you HAVE cockroaches, follow them and find out where they go. This is easier said than done, however, so you might need to do a little sleuthing. Check all around the house for cracks and holes through which roaches may enter. Roaches may enter through drains or vents. If they do, fill the sink with a bit of water at night. Use caulking to seal cracks and joints around pipes and around cabinetry.

3. Cockroaches will eat almost anything!!!. BE AWARE that tiny particles of food that you may leave on your counter tops will become a banquet for cockroaches and their rapidly multiplying families.

4. Pull the stove and the fridge away from the walls and clean under them regularly.

5. Keep all of your food in sealed containers. Use glass or plastic containers for cereals, sugar, flour and other foods. Put all food away. Keep food containers sealed, and don’t leave food out for extended periods — don’t even leave dirty dishes overnight.

6 Keep the kitchen clean. Clean up crumbs and spills promptly, and generally keep the area clean. Clean your range top carefully as cockroaches love grease.

7. Empty trash regularly, and keep trash away from the house.

8. Fix dripping faucets or leaks as cockroaches are attracted to water

9 Prevent bugs from coming up the drain. If you believe that the cockroaches are coming up your drains, pour regular, cheap bleach down the drains before leaving the house in the morning. For a stronger solution, mix 1 part Borax with 3 parts bleach.

10. A simple and effective homemade way to lure and trap roaches is with a jar placed next to a wall, allowing the roaches to get in, but not escape. Any bait can be placed in the jar, including coffee grounds and water, but it also works with just plain water in dryer climates.

11. Move logs, garbage cans, and other debris away from your house. Cockroaches love wood piles and other hiding places. During cold weather they will come inside.

12. Seal any cracks in exterior walls as well as cracks everywhere you can inside your house. This will takes time, but it is worth it because you eliminate most of their favorite hiding/breeding places. You’ll need a lot of low toxicity caulking, so use the big tubes with a caulking gun. Fill every crack inside every cabinet; fill the cracks on both sides of floor, door, and window moldings; fill all openings around pipes in bathrooms and kitchens. This makes a big difference and makes the whole house feel cleaner. THIS WILL ALSO HELP SAVE ENERGY!


13. Hydramethylnon and many other commercial chemicals used to kill cockroaches and other insects are toxic, potentially carcinogenic, persistent in your home environment and JUST SIMPLY MAKE ME NERVOUS TO HAVE AROUND!! THEY ARE VERY TOXIC. These chemicals have so many potential size effects that I believe their risks outweigh their benefits.

14. I believe that Borax is the best solution for controlling insects inside my home when it is a problem. Borax is a POISON!!! USE IT CAREFULLY; KEEP IT AWAY FROM KIDS AND PETS. If you have crawling babies, do not use bromide or borax along baseboards, dust inside the walls.

15. Borax, although a poison, is a component of many detergents, cosmetics, and enamel glazes. Borax, sodium tetraborate decahydrate, is not acutely toxic. This does not mean that it is safe!! It means that a significant dose is needed to cause severe symptoms or death. Simple exposure can cause respiratory and skin irritation. Ingestion may cause gastrointestinal distress including nausea, persistent vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. Effects on the vascular system and brain include headaches and lethargy, but are less frequent. “In severe poisonings, a beefy red skin rash affecting palms, soles, buttocks and scrotum has been described. With severe poisoning, erythematous and exfoliative rash, unconsciousness, respiratory depression, and renal failure.”

16. A reassessment of boric acid/borax by the United States Environmental Protection Agency Office of Pesticide Programs found potential developmental toxicity (especially effects on the testes).


17.. Borax does not evaporate like many commercial insecticides and pesticides which makes it a better choice to kill cockroaches, ants and fleas than other more volatile materials which will expose all of the members of your household to their chemical vapors.

18. I take a small disposable plastic food container (like Tupperware) and I drill some one quarter inch diameter holes in it. I put about 20g of a mixture of 5g borax, 10g Flour and 5 g cocoa into the Tupperware and I hot glue it closed in case the kids or animals do get at it. I put this “cockroach bait” into cupboards and drawers where there is evidence of cockroaches after I attach child proof locks. This provides an extra precaution I think makes sense.

Importance of Using Rubber Mats at Industrial Floors

Safety and security are two important factors in the workplace. Most of the business owners always try to keep their employees safe. Everyone can witness liquid, grease and chemicals on industrial floors. Accidents are quite common due to the slippery nature of cement floors. Falling or tripping can cause huge problems. They can indirectly affect production in the business, spending money due to medical issues and loss of reputation. Slippery surfaces can also lead to machine destruction as well. To keep all the situations under control, business sectors are using rubber mats.

What Make Rubber Flooring Surface Popular-

There are various reasons behind using rubber matting solutions. In the earlier times, people use rubber flooring only at home. However, nowadays, they are getting a better place at the workplaces. Here are some of the advantages of using these underfoot surfaces-

1. Available in Various Colors-

One of the greatest advantages of using mats made with rubber is that they are available in various color and texture. The commercial clients can choose any variety depending upon their requirements. They are custom-made depending on utilities. The dark-colored mats are in great demand among the commercial clients.

2. Anti-slip in Nature-

The rubber flooring accessories are anti-slip in nature. They offer better grip to the feet. They reduce accidents. Employees can work safely on the cement floor without worrying about falling down and breaking legs.

3. Easy to Install and Clean-

Rubber flooring items are easy to install and maintain. Grease, chemicals, and acids cannot affect rubber underfoot surfaces. They take very less time for installation. Business owners install them at walking pavements, working areas, store rooms and even over the stairs.

4. Low in Price-

This is one of the biggest advantages of using rubber mats on the floors. These products are affordable. Even you can also get them at discounts from reliable sources.

These above points show some of the features that generally motivate customers to use rubber matting products. Individuals use them for multiple uses. The electrical mats are very popular in these days as they are shock resistant and long-lasting. Hospitality and catering mats are also gaining importance in the market since, they are resistant to chemicals and oil. When you are buying these products, make sure that they are from the reputed companies. You can search online to find the most reliable company that manufacture and supply these underfoot accessories.

The Infusion Pump Is Easily Taken for Granted

Let’s take a moment to sing the praises of the infusion pump. Yes, yes, it does seem like a rather mundane topic to get excited about. But consider our ability to feed, hydrate, and deliver medicines and solutions to the human body intravenously. Ponder for a second how great a step forward it was for mankind to develop the means to inject life-giving, life-preserving fluids into the blood stream.

A Brief History

The use of a syringe was first recorded during the time of the Romans by a gentleman named Celsus. Celsus wrote on many different subjects, but one of his works was a medical manual in which he tells of the use of a “piston” syringe to treat medical “complications.”

In 1650, French physicist Blaise Pascal invented the first “modern” syringe. He had been studying the principles surrounding the transmission of fluids using pressure, and from this came the syringe and a host of other inventions including hydraulics.

Intravenous (IV) infusion was first recorded as being attempted in the late 1400’s. But it wasn’t until the 1650’s where physicist Robert Boyle and architect Christopher Wren first started giving intravenous injections to animals. They had been experimenting with transfusions and IV infusion along with several other prominent physicians for a few years. One of those physicians was Richard Lower, who is said to have performed the first successful blood transfusion in around 1667. But Christopher Wren gets the historical credit for creating the first working IV infusion device in the late 1650’s.

Over the next 150 years-or-so, the process of IV infusion was slowly refined. Soon after the first transfusions were performed, they were banned in England, France, and Italy due to a number of deaths that resulted from them.

There were many failures with this early medical equipment, yet many discoveries and inventions were born out of those failures; the science of bacteriology, for instance. Better sterilization techniques and smaller, more effective needles were also generated during this period.

In the early 1830’s, Dr. Thomas Latta administered saline solution intravenously to Cholera patients on a large scale. He is said to have, for the most part, pioneered the process. Things only progressed from there, especially during the World War years which, out of necessity, spurred many advances in the delivery of blood and medicine through intravenous infusion. Needles and tubing were modified, and in the 1950’s, bottles were replaced with plastic bags.

The Infusion Pump

Another development in IV infusion technology was beginning to bubble up in the 1950’s. Interest was growing in the development of an “automated” bedside IV infusion system, mainly for use in operating rooms and intensive care units. The goal was to produce a machine or “pump” system that would automatically regulate the timing, volume, and dosage of medicines, fluids, and blood products administered to a patient.

A system like this would be much more efficient. It would save countless man-hours where nurses and doctors would not have to continuously give shots, personally administer IV’s, or do as much monitoring, and it would also allow great flexibility in the amount or volume of substance being delivered. These were just a few of the many advantages that the infusion pump offered.

The first infusion pump was developed and built by SigmaMotor, Inc., and the pumps started shipping in 1961. Due to a few early snags, the pumps were redesigned several times. But SigmaMotor (later just Sigma) built and sold thousands of units in the early-to-mid ’60’s, and a giant leap in medical technology and overall healthcare had begun to take hold.

The infusion pump has positively affected humanity in immeasurable ways. Countless medical supply companies, such as Alaris (Medsystem III), Baxter, Curlin, Hospira, and Smiths Medical, just to name a handful, carry IV supplies and a wide variety of infusion pumps, both new and refurbished.

Today, this mechanical “medical miracle” is a standard piece of equipment. Of course there have been many “offshoots” and variations to the infusion pump; the latest being portable and disposable devices… and the evolution continues.

Eating Out at Restaurants on the Medifast Diet

I recently received an email from a potential dieter who told me that although she was intrigued with the medifast diet and knew some people who had good results on it, she was reluctant to try it because, as an account executive, she was required to have corporate lunches at restaurants and she obviously could not bring along her medifast meals at these outings. So, she feared that this diet was not going to work for her because she had to go to restaurants a lot for her job. Well, you can eat out on medifast. People do it all the time. You just need to switch around the timing of your lean and green meals and make decent choices. I will discuss this more in the following article.

Lean And Green Meals And When You Can Have Them: When you are on medifast, they want for you to eat six small meals. Five of these will be the diet meals that the company ships to you. These don’t require hardly any work or preparation. But, it probably wouldn’t be a good idea to exclusively eat prepackaged meals all of the time so they ask that you prepare a “lean and green meal” composed of fresh proteins and vegetables once per day.

Many people assume that you have this lean and green meal at dinner time, and this practice is the most common. But, nothing says that you can’t take this main meal at lunch time and in a restaurant. As long as you make smart choices, this is going to work out just fine and should not effect your results.

Choosing Your Lean And Green Meal When Eating Out In A Restaurant: The requirements for this meal are actually pretty simple. If you’re having beef, pork or lamb, you can consume five ounces of it. If you’ve having chicken, turkey or fish, you can have up to seven ounces. The rule of thumb here is the well known serving size that is about the size of a deck of cards.

In addition to your protein, you’re allowed three servings of vegetables. Most people will add a salad and a low glycemic vegetable like green beans, but there are pretty clear instructions that come with your foods. Basically, you’re not going to want to eat junk food when you eat out, but if you chose the healthy options that most restaurants offer, you should be OK.

Just try to avoid heavy sauces and have your salad dressing on the side. You can even do fast food if you’re smart about it. Grilled chicken with green beans and a side salad is available at most fast food places. A salad with chicken and low calorie dressing is a sound choice here also as is a lean stir fry.

Now, there are sometimes going to be occasions where you may have to cheat a little bit. This is OK. Because by and large and overall, you are going to be taking in much fewer calories and carbs than what is normal for you when you average everything out. Everyone cheats sometimes. The key is just to get back on track as soon as you can and to move on. A few lunches out is not going to throw everything off track, especially if you are compliant for the rest of the day.

Peterbilt Trucks – From Chain Drive to the Peterbilt 379

Peterbilt trucks are made by the Peterbilt Motors Company, which has its headquarters in Denton, Texas. The American truck manufacture was started in 1939 by then lumber entrepreneur and plywood maker, T.A. Peterman.

Peterbilt Trucks – The Early Years

Peterman was a man with a dream to get the truck business going stronger so he could get his logs to market easier and faster. At the time, Peterman was actually working towards that dream by rebuilding army trucks he bought at surplus, thus learning how to improve them. In 1938 he bought Fageol Motors in Oakland, California in order to use it to start making his custom made chain-driven trucks. The following year he started selling them to the public, which was the real beginning of Peterbilt Trucks.

During the 30s long haul trucking was becoming very popular. It was the Depression and many companies that built commercial trucks were losing ground and going out of business. That is how Peterman was able to get the Fageol Motors Company. Prior to his purchase of them, the company had been making heavy weight trucks and buses for 17 years.

Peterman built 14 trucks in 1939, but that number leapt to 82 the following year, demonstrating to Peterman that the trucking industry was definitely interested in the quality made trucks of Peterbilt. Peterman was famous for knowing exactly what the trucker wanted and needed because he sent his own engineers out to talk to truckers. They were required to know what the men in the field liked and disliked before designing a single new truck. Peterman also got the military contract during World War II to make heavy duty trucks. This helped him to get ready to re-enter the civilian market as well after the war.

After World War II, Peterbilt Trucks Marches Forward

Even death didn’t stop Peterbilt trucks. Peterman died in 1945. After his death, the company was inherited by Peterman’s widow, Ida. His wife promptly sold the company’s assets, but didn’t sell the property, to seven of the company’s managers with the thought of maintaining and building up the company. However, since she didn’t sell them the property, the new owners had to scramble for a new location several years later in 1958 when Ida said she was going to sell the land to build a shopping mall.

Due to this, the company changed hands and Peterbilt was bought by Paul Pigott, owner of the Pacific Car and Foundry. He built a brand new facility for the company in Newark, California, and in 1960 Peterbilt trucks were again being manufactured. Pigott kept the name even though he also owned Kenworth trucks and ran both companies. The ironic thing is that Peterbilt was his stiffest competitor, even though he actually owned both companies.

Peterbilt continues to grow strong

In 1960 Peterbilt put out 800 trucks and sales kept on increasing as more and more people began to trust and love the quality made trucks. The company was soon unable to make as many as the customers desired, so Peterbilt expanded to two manufacturing plants and built one in Madison, Tenn in 1969.

By 1973 Peterbilt was delivering more than 8,000 of its trucks and by 1975, it had opened up a version of Peterbilt in Canada. By 1980 it had another plant in Denton, Texas and by 1993 their headquarters was in California where it still is to this day. Denton become the sole manufacturing plant to build Peterbilt’s 362 COE model truck.

Peterbilt’s Truck Lines

Peterbilt lines originally had model numbers that started with a number 2, which stood for single axle models and a number 3 for those with a dual drive. However, by the late 1970s, they stopped doing this sort of distinction. Some of the more distinctive or well known models were:

– 200/265: This was a smaller truck that had a cab based on a Volkswagen MAN G90 and it is still being made in Brazil.

– 260/360: This is the actual first model of Peterbilt trucks.

– 280/350: This model was built between 1949 and 1957 and was known for its unique cycle style fenders in the front and having a long style grill that had vertical shutters on it.

-281/351: This version of the Peterbilt model of truck was made from 1954 to 1976. One of its main claims to fame is that a model 281 appeared in the Steven Spielberg 1971 movie, Duel, where an evil truck was trying to kill people. It was a 1950 year version of that model of the 281 Peterbilt truck.

– 282/352: This version of the Peterbilt trucks had a tilt-cab cab-over-engine and was the model that came out after the 351, which was a non-tilting cab-over style. It was called the Pacemaker after someone won a contest to name it and got a color television as a prize. The Pacemaker also was developed as a 352 model and won fame when it appeared on the Knight Rider TV show as the evil super truck named Goliath, as well as being the model that was being sung about in the truck song, Convoy.

– 358: This model was the company’s very first tilt hood style truck. It was sold until 1976.

– 359: This model of Petebilt truck was sold from 1967 to 1987. The 1100 series of these had a bulkhead style of door that is still in used today.

– 346: This is a very rare version of the Peterbilt brand and a mere 10 of these trucks were built from 1972 to 1975. It was meant to be used to mix concrete, or as a dump truck or snow plow type truck.

– 348: The model 348 was sold between 1970 and 1986 and had a sloped fiberglass hood for better visibility. It was the first fiberglass hood Peterbilt made.

– 353: The 353 replaced flat fender models and instead had pit style fenders. It was used in construction.

– 387: The 387 Peterbilt trucks were also made in 1976 to 1987. It had a heavy weight frame, flat fenders, undercab steps, big bumper and was used to carry coal.

– 362: The 362 became the Peterbilt flagship truck in 1981. It had two kinds of windshield wipers, one was a one-piece center style and the other had either three or two wipers. It also introduced a front axle that was set back and had longer springs in the front. The last one was made in 2005.

– 372: This Peterbilt model is considered the one that is the most aerodynamic, the cab nose piece can be flipped forward so that it is easy to do maintenance on it. It was made from 1988 to 1993. It’s said that it has a sort of Darth Vader like look because it looks somewhat like a helmet shape.

– 377: This model incorporated some headlights into the fenders and was also considered aerodynamic. It was made with a front axle that was set forward, as well as one that was set back. It was made from 1987 to 2000.

– 378: This Peterbilt truck had a steep fiberglass design on its hood and came as a front axle that was set back in its design. It was popular for over the road, as well as local trucking.

– 357: The 357 was similar in style to the 378, but was more of a heavy weight than it was. This is because it was designed for construction. It also came with flat fenders, a new style of hood and grill that it had put on in 2004.This vocational style hood was created for clients who wanted front engine power. It was very popular in the heavy haul trucking industry.

– 385: The 385 model was made between 1996 and 2007. It was meant to be a competitor to a truck put out by the Freightliner brand, the FLD.

– 379: Between 1987 and 2007 this was Peterbilt’s main flagship truck. A claim to fame is that Autobot leader Optimus Prime was shown as a 1997 Peterbilt Model-379 Extended Hood truck in the Transformer’s movie.

– 389: this model ushered in some of the changes in Peterbilt models to make them compliant to 2007 EPA standards.

Many more styles and models of Peterbilt trucks have come out since this time and the company is still going strong with many truckers desiring to drive and or own a model of the legendary Peterbilt Trucks.

Riedell Makes Roller Skates for Everyone!

Whether you are looking for the flashiest pair of skates or the most comfortable boot for your oddly shaped foot, Riedell is where you want to start your search. Riedell has been making skate boots for over 60 years now, and today they are still the leader in customized quad skates.

Types of Riedell Roller Skates

Riedell offers customized Jam, Rhythm, Derby, Speed, Artistic, and Outdoor roller skates. While there aren’t huge differences between the, Riedell customizes each type to maximize your performance for the activity you are going to play. The major difference you will notice between all of the types is the boot height, brake, and wheels. Artistic skates have tall boots much like a figure skate to give you maximum ankle support, while Jam, Derby, and Speed skates have low cut boots to allow as much ankle articulation as possible for agility. Outdoor skates have hard wheels so they do not get chewed up on the pavement. Jam skates do not have a brake, instead there is a dance plug put in place of the brake stopper so the big traditional brake doesn’t get in the way of your dance moves.


You can purchase Riedell Roller Skates already set up with a boot, wheels, trucks, and brakes as a set that Riedell has picked, or you can customize the skates and pick all of the components yourself. In addition to picking out your very own components, many Riedell quad skates have heat moldable skate boots. A heat moldable boot means a customized fit to your foot. Heat molding is pretty easy, is all it takes is either a heat gun or a hair dryer.

Ladies… be aware that when you are shopping for your very own pair of Riedell roller skates that all of Riedell’s are in in men’s sizes (except for the artistic skates); this means that you are going to need to buy a men’s size boot that is 1-1.5 sizes smaller than your actual women’s shoe size.

The Perfect Roller Skates For You

So whether you are looking to Speed, Dance, Jam, Derby, or skate around with the kids outside, Riedell has the perfect pair of roller skates for you. Happy Skating!

How to Play Fill-In With the Guitar

This information is for playing good country music.

I’ve been teaching country guitar lessons for several years now and one of the most asked questions is,” how do you play behind a singer?”

If you are the lead guitar player you only want to put your runs and fill-ins where there are spaces between the lyrics. You can play chords while the singer is singing, but not loud enough to cover the singer up.

Now the next question is “what do I play in those spaces?” Very important question. One way is, use your imagination and create some notes that create the feeling’ of the mood of the song. You may try bending the strings for effects. Another way is, play little runs that create the mood. (Like Grady Martin did on El Paso). Most people don’t know how to do this. They just play notes all the time while the singer is singing. This is wrong!!!!

You never cover up a singer or for that matter other instruments. Usually each player knows when he is supposed to play. You switch off on verses or the bridge of a song. This is where practice comes in. You work out the details with the other players. Like guitar take the first verse, steel take the second, fiddle take the bridge. You can make this for every song in the set or change it up. Sometimes the steel will sound better on the bridge.

Most important don’t cover the singer up if you want to keep a job.

Can you imagine having a jam session with 4 lead players all trying to play at the same time? That is not music, that just making noise. It just does not work.

Listen to the country recordings and pay attention to the fill-ins.

While the guitar is playing you don’t hear the steel. While the steel is playing you don’t hear the lead guitar.

I hope this information helps in your playing.

Woody Bridges

Total Sleeping Comfort in a Semi Sleeper World

When it comes to long haul trucking, one of the most important accessories of the tractor unit is the sleeper. Sleeper units come in many different shapes and sizes, and can be built as part of the cab or an add-on unit that sits directly behind the cab. The sleeper is, in a sense, the drivers’ home away from home. Depending on the need and design of the sleeper, some units offer just enough room to accommodate a bed and a few modest necessities, while others provide all the comforts and accommodations one would find in a modern RV!

Although the sleeper has been around for many years in one form or another, there was a time when a trucker did not have even the simplest sleeping space available to them in their semi tractor. For decades the cab-over was the design of choice because of regulatory rules that restricted the combined length of the tractor/trailer assembly. To pull a longer trailer required a shorter tractor, and a shorter tractor left little, if any room for a sleeper. If a trucker needed to stop and sleep they had a choice – either stop at a motel, or pull over at a truck stop or wayside rest and sleep sitting-up in the drivers’ seat.

As years passed there was development of cab-over units that integrated a small sleeping area behind the seating, and in most cases, small was the operative word! More like a tiny bunk than a bed, it allowed drivers to “comfortably” get some sleep. Curtains that separated the driving area from the sleeping compartment blocked light and afforded some privacy. Drawbacks to this design included the need for the driver to climb over the “doghouse” (area of the cab that covered the engine) to get into the bunk, and the inherent design of the cab-over configuration. When maintenance was required on the engine the entire cab unit tipped forward to allow access to the engine. That meant everything in the cab not secured or stored correctly would fall towards the windshield area. Although this sleeper design helped truckers get some required restful sleep, design improvements were obvious and changes had to be made to provide more room, comfort, and safety.

The Federal Surface Transportation Assistance Act of 1982 modified previous limits to tractor/trailer combinations. The length of the tractor and trailer were now measured separately instead of as one unit. Two big changes happened at this point; Conventional tractors (driver sits behind the engine compartment) became the norm, and longer semi tractors allowed for longer, bigger sleeper units. As materials and technology advanced, larger yet lighter and more powerful tractor designs hit the market. Following close behind were changes to sleeper units. Utilizing the same lightweight materials and design technologies, sleepers slowly evolved from a cramped bunk to living spaces that can easily be described as rolling motel rooms.

Conventional semi tractors can be manufactured with the sleeper unit as a seamless part of the cab, or ordered from the factory without a sleeper unit. There are several after-market sleeper manufacturers that can design, build and install a sleeper unit on a tractor frame assembly. The size of the sleeper is dependent on the length of the frame to provide adequate spacing from behind the cab unit to the fifth wheel. The advantage to an add-on after-market sleeper is that it can be removed from the tractor assembly and transferred to a new tractor when the old tractor is traded-in or re-purposed.

Modern sleepers provide more space and greater comfort than those of the past. Sleepers can be easily entered from the cab through an ample access way, and some have enough height for a person to stand and move around with ease. Furniture such as tables and seating can be easily maneuvered to provide a comfortable work environment for two people. These interstate “home away from home” sleeper units provide the ultimate in luxury and efficiency for team drivers, especially husband and wife teams who professionally ply their driving expertise for weeks or months at a time.

The cab-over-semi tractor of decades ago, designed and built strictly for sheer brute strength and pulling power with little (if any) thought to driver comfort, has faded into the past. Total sleeping comfort in a semi sleeper world is now commonplace when it comes to long-haul trucking. Almost every tractor unit on the highway today is of conventional design, and most sport some type of factory or after-market sleeper unit that provides amenities and comfort for drivers who need quality and restful sleep. From simple sleeper units that provide a comfortable bed and needed storage space to behemoth custom built assemblies that proved every comfort of home including a shower and toilet, almost anything a person can imagine can now be custom built and incorporated into a modern, sleek and aerodynamic sleeper unit!

3 Major Benefits of Using a Truck Mounted Crane

If you are stuck decided whether to choose a traditional carrier crane or a truck mounted crane, you will have a number of considerations to think about. What is the crane going to be used for, how much time do you have, and how much of a budget do you have for the particular job you are doing will all have to be thought about before making a decision on what kind of crane to use.

Each type will have their own benefits over each other, but this article is going to look at the benefits that a truck mounted crane will have when and if you decide to use one.

Saves on Cost and Time

Easily one of the most well known advantages to using a crane is that of the savings that can be made with both time and costs. A traditional crane will have to be built from the ground up which will cost money for labor and will take a lot of time. A truck mounted crane is ready to go and requires little to no setting up before it can be used.

Save on Weight

We all know that being light, strong, and fast is what most industries aim for their products to be and this is no different to that of the truck mounted crane industry. Companies are always spending money and resources in order to find ways to be able to offer the very best products available.

This is an advantage over standard cranes as there is simply no other way that they can feasibly reduce the weight of their cranes whereas truck mounted cranes are constantly finding ways to be lighter, faster, and stronger.

Can be Upgraded Easily

Another great benefit to using a crane is that if there is ever a problem with the truck, the crane can be transferred to another truck extremely easily. As long as the new truck has been confirmed to have the right weight distribution and stability by a qualified engineer, the crane and all of its components can be moved onto it.


Of course, in many instances a more traditional crane will be required but in the main, truck mounted cranes have a lot of benefits over its larger cousin. They are more mobile, cheaper, easier to set up, and will require less labor as well as being easily upgraded if required. The best news is that manufacturers are bringing out better and more efficient truck mounted cranes all of the time.