How to Make Men Wonder? 7 Keys Which Will Make Him Think a Lot About You All of a Sudden

Have you ever wondered how some women have an enticing effect on men and these men seem to wonder about these women all the time? If you want to have such a hypnotic effect on men then read on and find out how to make men wonder.

Be very appealing to a man – that’s the first stimulation that they need

To make a man wonder about you, you have to first appeal to his visual senses. When a man sees something that he likes its only then he is able to generate an interest. SO make sure that you are well turned out and look attractive for him.

Having an air of confidence attracts men to you

Having a pretty face is good by not good enough. Men are drawn to and wonder only about those women who are confident about themselves. Don’t have the air of arrogance but surround yourself with confidence and vulnerability at the same time and he will wonder about you.

Play on his intrigue when you want to make a man wonder

You have to make a man feel intrigued by you when you want to make him wonder about you. You can do this by being a little mysterious and evasive. The more he digs the lesser he should find.

This is not the time to write your memoires

While you have to open up a little to the guy you are with else he will think that you are not interested, you don’t need to tell him stuff that you would put in your memoires. You need to let him feel a little left out so that he yearns to know more.

Be straightforward and communicate clearly but be intelligent

Men often wonder why women are clueless about communication. Change the way he thinks by exercising your intelligence, wit and humor and communicate with him clearly and in a straightforward manner. Call a spade a spade and he will be left wondering if you actually meant what you said or not.

Be very willing to give him his space

Men are all about space and women steal that from them. If you want to make a man wonder, be all about giving space and needing some. He knows he wants space but will wonder why you are so willing to give it.

Mixing things up at times works wonders

Talk about new things, plan new activities and don’t let a moment spent with you be boring or dull. Be unpredictable and let him keep wondering about what your next move is going to be.

A Closer Look Into Florida’s Phosphate Mining Industry

A Short History

Phosphate is a natural, non-renewable resource that is obtained by mining phosphate-containing minerals. Florida’s phosphate rock deposits are believed to have originated when conditions in the seawater caused dissolved phosphorus to solidify and form the sediment that is mined today (1). Sea life also played a big part in forming the sediment deposits.

An Army Corps of Engineers’ (5) captain first discovered River Pebble Phosphate along the Peace River, Florida in the late nineteenth century. Mining the phosphate began soon after. The Florida miners had no mechanized excavation equipment. That means early mining was by hand using wheelbarrows, wagons, picks and shovels. The chore of mining was slow and labor intensive, but the phosphate pebble did show promise. Interest in this pebble increases and the phosphate industry was born. The early twentieth century brought mechanized excavation equipment like steam shovels to the Florida phosphate mines, but steam shovels didn’t last long.

Draglines were first introduced in the 1920s and increased in usage since. Dragline technology continued to advance, leading miners to move from the river-pebble to the land-pebble and hard-rock phosphates, and then to mining the finer-grained “phosphate matrix”.

Phosphate matrix deposits (4) occur over a wide area of west-central Florida known as the “Bone Valley”. In 1900 it took 3 to 4 years to mine 15 acres with picks and shovels. In the early days of the small draglines, about 5 acres were mined in a year. As draglines grew in size, they were able to mine 500 to 600 acres a year. Conservatively, today’s draglines are able to completely destroy 50 acres a month.

Phosphate Mining Process Florida’s phosphate ore (matrix) is found some 40 feet below the earth’s surface. The matrix lies intertwined with one of Florida’s real treasures, aquifer systems. Phosphate rock is mined and then manufactured through the fertilizer manufacturing process. A typical Florida phosphate mine gets about 9,000 tons of phosphate rock per acre of land. Huge draglines are brought in and can remove the Florida earth from the surface down 100 feet in order to remove the entire matrix “field”.

The phosphate industry refers the removed earth as “overburden”. The rest of us call it orange groves, cattle pastures, the old swimming hole, watersheds, aquifer systems, rivers, natural springs, etc.

Once the overburden is removed, the draglines can then “strip” out the matrix, which consists of equal parts of phosphate rock, clay and sand. The matrix (2) is then dumped in huge slurry pits where literally untold volumes of fresh clean aquifer water are used.

The water comes from the newly crushed aquifers under the mighty dragline. Billions of gallons of Florida’s fresh water are released and used in high-pressure water cannons to create a slurry that can then be pumped to the beneficiation plant, which can be up to 10 miles away.

At the beneficiation plant the phosphate is separated from the sand and clay. Then the toxic sludge is stored in huge clay settling ponds until untold amounts of aquifer water evaporate.

One by-product, called phosphogypsum, is slightly radioactive so it cannot be easily disposed. The only thing the miners can do with it is stack it in mountainous piles next to the processing plants. Florida is such a flat state that the 150-foot-tall “gyp stacks” are usually the highest point in the landscape for miles around. They contain large pools that can be as large as one square mile of highly acidic wastewater.

Not surprising, mining and mineral processing facilities generate more toxic and hazardous waste than any other industrial sector. (4) Reducing environmental impacts from large fertilizer manufacturers operations is a national priority for EPA.

The United States produces the most phosphate (2) in the world, while Morocco and China rank second and third, respectively. Phosphate reserves are found in Central Florida, North Carolina, Utah, and Idaho. Florida is presently providing approximately 75 percent of the nation’s supply of phosphate fertilizer and about 25 percent of the world supply. Follow the Money Florida’s phosphate deposits today are the basis of an $85 billion industry supplying the lion’s share of the phosphate consumed in the United States. Out of the $85 billion value of the industry, only a few million dollars is spent on the local communities where the mines are located. Some have called this a boon for the local communities. However, the phosphate industry seems to be a bad neighbor. This is because they are “allowed” to leave their environmental catastrophes behind for those local citizens to pay for. Interestingly, the Central Florida phosphate mines are now referred to as “Bone Valley”.

This $85 billion phosphate production area is located in the middle of one of Florida’s greatest natural treasures called aquifer systems or “water tables”. These aquifer systems can be compared to bee hives, where the aquifer system is the hive and the water replaces the honey.

Aquifer systems are considered a basis for Florida’s entire clean fresh water source. Today, this Central Florida Phosphate Region (3) consists of Hillsborough, Polk, Hardee, DeSoto, and Manatee Counties. These same counties also contain huge watersheds including the Alafia River Watershed, the Peace River Watershed, the Manatee River Watershed, the Little Manatee River Watershed and the Myakka River Watershed.

As of this article, the phosphate industry continues to purchase more land earmarked to strip mine the valuable phosphate in the watersheds mentioned above. The Florida phosphate dilemma continues to escalate, causing more extensive irreparable environmental damage daily.

Resource Information

1. Florida Institute of Phosphate Research (FIPR)

2. Florida DEP Mining and Minerals Regulation

3. Watershed Data

4. Peace River Cumulative Impact Study

5. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers – Jacksonville District

Exercise to Make My Butt Bigger – 3 Secrets to Lift and Expand the Butt

Ladies often ask me “How can I exercise to make my butt bigger?” They have noticed that their butt is almost similar to their hair. They just can’t seem to get it to do what they want! To make the butt bigger through exercise you have to realize that it needs the right tools and focus. Unfortunately many women don’t realize how involved butt exercises are and they are never committed to targeting their butt the right way.

Below is a list of tips that make up all the difference if you’ve ever asked yourself, “how do I exercise to make my butt bigger?” Doing the right things the right way will ensure you get the right results. The butt is becoming the most desired transformation in gyms everywhere for women. If you are among this group you may want to keep reading.

1 You Must Target All Of The Butt Muscles Through Exercise To Make It Bigger

There are four major muscles in the Butt. These are the gluteus maximus, the gluteus medius, and the gluteus minimus. All of these muscles need to be targeted properly to make your butt tighten together, lift and grow in size. You’ll notice how important it is when working the bicep to also target the bicep. Also when you are exercising the thigh, you are sure to exercise the hamstring. Likewise it is important to target all aspects of the butt to make it bigger

2 You Must Perform Butt Targeted Exercise To Make It Bigger and Not Just Exercises Where it’s Involved.

Women often make the mistake of only doing exercises such as the squat to make their butt bigger. The might even through in a couple lunges and call it good. You should remember that these routines will not make my butt bigger because the butt muscle is not highly targeted. When individuals want to grow their biceps, they target the muscle directly. The butt muscle is no different in this regard.

3 You Must Exercise According To Your Own Body Type and Goals. The Butt Reacts Differently

The same exercise program for 35 different women with 35 different types of bodies and 35 different desires for their butt and body will just not do! This is what you’ll find in most fitness classes however. With women, nothing varies in shape and size more than the butt. For a women with a larger butt to do the same exercises as a women with a very small flat butt is just ridiculous. The key to any good program is to tailor your butt exercise to make it bigger based on what you want and where you are coming from.

Why There Are No Skyscrapers in Washington DC?

If you have ever visited our nation’s capital you certainly noticed aside from the Washington Monument (555-feet tallest in the city) and a few other landmarks including the US Capitol (289-feet ranked 5th tallest) there are no real tall high-rise or skyscraper buildings. Look across the Potomac River to Crystal City and Rosslyn and you’ll see them. Journey into the more distant suburbs of Maryland and Virginia and you’ll see them. So why are there no skyscrapers in Washington DC? Quite simply it is because there is a law restricting building height.

In 1894, the 12-story, 160-foot Cairo later Cairo Hotel opened at 1615 “Q” Street NW near Dupont Circle. An uproar from area citizens followed as many feared large monolithic buildings would dwarf the monuments and other buildings. The uproar leads the D.C. Commissioners to issue regulations limiting height to 90 feet for residential and 110 feet for business, or to the width of the street in front, whatever was smaller. Further lobbying caused the US Congress to pass the Heights of Buildings Act in 1899. This removed the front street restriction, but reaffirmed height limits to 90 feet on residential streets and 110 feet on business streets. It made an exception for buildings on business streets 160 feet wide along which buildings were permitted to be up to 130 feet tall.

In 1910 the act was amended restricting the height of any building to the width of the adjacent street plus 20 feet. Therefore a building facing a 130-foot-wide street could now be 150 feet tall. Other stipulations allowed for under certain conditions unoccupied spires, domes, towers, minarets, pinnacles, ventilation shafts, chimneys, smokestacks, penthouses over elevator shafts and fire sprinkler tanks be erected to a greater height if approved by the Mayor and of fireproof construction.

While Washington’s skyline rarely tops the 12th floor there a few tall exceptions listed in order of height. The Basilica of the National Shrine of the Immaculate Conception (329-feet) ranks behind the Washington Monument. The Old Post Office Building (315-feet) with clock tower is next then the Washington National Cathedral (301-feet). The tallest commercial building is One Franklin Square (210-feet) ranked the 6th tallest after the US Capitol. While some contend this lack of vertical growth has contributed to greater sprawl, it is certain the many monuments of Washington DC are not overshadowed.

Types of Glass Aquariums: How Should You Pick One?

Most people settle down for glass aquariums because it is stronger than acrylic. It is also cheaper and does not easily get scratches. You can get a clear view of the fishes inside and any dirt build up will be visible. But there are actually two types of glass aquariums – tempered and plate. Both have its pros and cons so you should know it well before purchasing. Another type that is becoming popular is the laminated types. Know each type and find out which will be better for you.


A tempered glass is also known as toughened glass. It is the most popularly used glass for aquariums because it is very strong and lightweight. It is called toughened glass because it undergo extreme heating process then it is quickly cooled to strengthen it.

You cannot drill a tempered glass. And in case it breaks, it shatters into real small pieces. You will not see cracks or leaks, but it will break into tiny million rounded pieces, thus it is not so dangerous. It will not cause injuries or cuts since there will be no sharp edges. That is why it is also known as safe glass.

Plate Glass

Plate glass is also popularly known as annealed glass and sheet glass. It is a relatively heavy glass that is also resistant to scratch. It will not have any ugly discolorations unlike other glass. However, this type of glass breaks into large, sharp pieces. You may notice cracks, holes, and leaks when a plate glass is damaged. So, you can save your fish first if you see that it is about to break. But in case it breaks, you have to be careful since the broken pieces of plate glass can cut you off.


This is a newer type of glass. Though it was only used before in windshields and doors, it is also used now for aquariums. Laminated glass is made by putting together annealed glasses with the same thickness.

It is laminated using a strong plastic interlayer that makes this glass more durable and resistant from strong impacts. So if it breaks, the glass usually remains in the frame. It is also safe to use since there will be fewer sharp edges scattering around.

Which One Should I Pick?

Well, that really depends on your needs and preferences. Each one has its advantages and disadvantages and it is up to you to weigh those. For instance, annealed glass is cheaper than tempered glass. If you are after low-cost glass aquarium, you can buy this one. However, if you think more about the safety and strength of the glass, you can buy tempered glass, especially if you will be building a large aquarium.

Do not use annealed glass for large aquariums because it is heavy so you will surely find it difficult to clean. If it slips or you are not able to balance it, it might end up in an accident.

And as you buy, look for the stickers on the aquarium itself to know if it is tempered, plate, or laminated. You can also ask for assistance from the store helper to be sure.

Understanding the Pros and Cons of a Kerosene Pressure Stove and Other Liquid Fuel Stoves

There are no real differences between the kerosene pressure stove, single-fuel stove and the multi-fuel stove except the fuel and the fuel orifice that is used to deliver the fuel to the burner. The designs maybe different, but we are still talking about a liquid fuel stove.

Most of the time, the fuel tank needs to be under pressure. So there is the initial pumping of the tank and then several times during cooking.

Details to look for in a Kerosene Pressure Stove and other Liquid Fuel Stoves:

1. The style or design varies between the kerosene pressure stove and the single or multi-fuel stove.

2. The style and design also varies within each of the three categories.

  1. There are two basic designs for #1 and #2:
    1. Burner and fuel tank are attached
    2. Burner and fuel tank are separate and connected by a hose.

3. Reparability: Can the stove be easily repaired in the field?

  1. Any tools required?
  2. Any spare parts required?
    1. How easy is it to get spare parts before going on a trip?
    2. Are spare parts affordable?

4. How easy is the fuel tank to pressure up?

  1. Are the parts made of good quality or cheap plastic? Don’t forget that plastic is not always bad. It is light and can be very durable.
  2. Do your fingers fit the pump or get pinched or pushed out of the way?
  3. Does it take a long time to pressure up? This varies according to the amount of fuel in the tank.

5. How easy is it to refill the fuel tank?

For stoves that have the fuel tank and burner connected, you have to carry a spare fuel bottle to pour into the tank. This can cause fuel spillage; both on you and the ground.

For stoves that have separate burners and fuel tanks, the spare fuel bottle becomes the new fuel tank. All you do is remove the tops and swap out the bottles.

  1. This means that there is no pouring of fuel.
  2. No spillage of fuel
  3. Much neater and less handling of fuel.

6. A real pet peeve of mine is a short fuel adjustment knob. On some stoves you nearly burn your fingers off when adjusting the fuel supply. Look at this feature and make sure that you can adjust the fuel supply without sacrificing any digits.

  1. Check out the base of the stove:
    1. It should be broad with extendable 3 or 4 point feet.
    2. The base should be stable and easily adjustable to get the stove level. This is usually done with a rock or piece of wood. Some stoves may have adjustable legs.

7. Look at the cooking surface:

  1. How large of a pot will it hold and still be stable?
  2. This also goes for the weight of the pot when full.

8. Don’t forget the carrying case.

  1. It should be light weight, hold everything including spare parts and flexible. It packs better with a flexible case.

9. Finally, does it come with a wind break/heat reflector?

  1. It doesn’t really matter if it does or not, but you will still need one.

Kerosene Pressure Stove


  1. Will not explode, flammable, and therefore safer than other liquid fuels, inflammable.
  2. Available throughout the world and inexpensive
  3. High heat to weight ratio
  4. Best stove to use in extreme cold weather
  5. Will not explode (flammable)


  1. Can be very messy
  2. Can make smoke if not adjusted correctly
  3. Smell
  4. Does not simmer well unless you elevate the pot above the stove
  5. Maintenance can be a concern
  6. Fuel storage

Single and Multi-Fuel Stove


Uses different types of fuel:

* Naptha type fuels – Coleman Fuel, MSR fuel, White Gas, Shellite, Fuelite, Zippo Fuel, Ronsonol Fuel, Heptane, Blazo, Cigarette Lighter Fluid and some Charcoal Lighter Fluid

* Unleaded gas – HIGHLY NOT recommended; Emits Very Toxic Fumes

* White gas – This is gasoline in its purest form, no additives at all

1. Easier to find the fuel you need.

2. High heat to weight ratio.

3. Best stove to use in extreme cold weather.


Multi-Fuel Stoves are more expensive that the Single-Fuel models

  1. Less messy and evaporates much quicker than kerosene or diesel
  2. Can make smoke if not adjusted correctly
  3. Does not simmer well unless you elevate the pot above the stove
  4. Maintenance can be a concern
  5. Fuel storage
  6. Will explode (inflammable), except for kerosene and diesel

Kerosene and Diesel can also be used in Multi-Fuel Stoves. The same pros and cons still apply.

How to Buy an Oven or Cooker

Are you shopping for an oven cooker? If so it would be worth reading on to gather all the information before you buy online! Millimart has done the research to present the most important features that you should bare in mind when shopping for an oven.

Self cleaning ovens

At last we have the ovens and cookers with the capability to clean themselves, allowing us to relax after our meal! There are two main types of self cleaning ovens, pyrolytic and catalytic lined ovens. Both of these oven types burn off the dirt left inside the oven, however, catalytic lining does this at almost have the heat and can leave the presence of dirt inside the oven so choose carefully if you have decided to pay more for this feature.

Oven recipe function

The recipe function helps you choose the best time and heat setting to cook your food. This is very helpful when cooking meats like chicken when it is important that the meat is cooked properly and to the right oven temperature. Using a recipe function does not necessarily make for a better tasting meal of course, but it helps to ensure that all food is properly cooked through, which is a good start!

Meat probe

If an oven has a meat probe you will be able to judge the temperature of the meat to make sure it is optimally cooked. You insert the probe into the meat so that the oven can alert you when it is cooked to your chosen temperature. This is a great feature when you are cooking a large joint for a special occasion and need some intelligent assistance!

Oven turnspit

The turnspit is exactly as it sounds, cooking your food like a rotisserie. Turnspits do not offer any assistance as to how the food is cooked such as the meat probe, however, if you are a fan of rotisserie dishes then it is an added bonus.

Pizza function

The relevance of the pizza function obviously depends on the amount of pizza you eat! Generally ovens with pizza modes offer only slightly better results than using the standard fan function.

Find more information on how to buy an oven or cooker [].

Cherry Wood Desks Versus Cherry Finish Desks

There is a huge difference between a desk that is fully made from a wood, and one that simply has a very specific “wood finish.” One of the most common examples of this is a difference between a cherry wood writing desk and a cherry finish writing desk. While these sound similar, and to some extent are similar, they also have some very important differences. Before making a decision on purchasing any piece of “cherry” furniture, you will want to make sure you know what these differences are.

Many, if not most, of the office desks that you’ll find in stores like Office Max will be wood panel desks or wood finish. This means that a cherry desk from this store will most likely not be made completely out of cherry wood, but be made out of a lot of plastic, rubber, plywood, or other cheaper materials that are made with a finish that is designed to look like cherry wood. In this way, the old fashioned model of desks that were completely made out of wood are harder and harder to find.

A true cherry wood desk is going to be more solid and designed to last. It’s also likely to be much heavier since it will be made entirely out of wood as opposed to plastic, rubber, or other lighter materials. A true wood desk is probably going to cost more, as well, because of the work and craftsmanship that goes into it.

This is the big difference you’re going to see between a wood desk and a wood finish or wood panel desk. Before making a purchase, be sure to know which you’re getting.

Shaolin Kung Fu: "Bullet Fist!"


The Shaolin Temple’s 72 Consummate and Secret Arts fall into two categories: Yin/Rou Soft Internal Energy Training and Yang/Gang Hard External Power Training, respectively. Bullet Fist falls into the second (Hard) category and is a specific exercise of the fists.

Technical Analysis

Bullet Fist (Danzi Quan) aka ‘Pellet Fist’ or ‘Spring Fist Exercise’ has Training Methods that are very similar to those of Saddle Arts. However, whilst the latter emphasises fore-fist strength, Bullet Fist develops the force of the second or central finger joints (the Leopard Fist of 5 Animals Kung Fu).

To produce this hand-form the fist is half clenched, palm flat with the middle joints of the fingers exposed. These protruding finger joints (supported by the thumb covering the first joints of the first two fingers) are used for striking. Concentrating striking force Into the narrow area of the middle knuckles in this fashion considerably Increases the penetrating power of blows.


Stage 1

Embed a springy plank in the ground and strike this with the middle finger joints repeatedly. Strikes are generated from the elbow rather than the shoulder as these knuckles are only covered by a thin muscle sheath which is easily damaged. Learners should aim to avoid damage, particularly in early, Training Stages through excessive contact with the hard wooden board. Some authorities recommend treating the hands with Chinese Medicinal Wine (Dit Da Jeow) before and after practice.

Continued practice brings about gradual progress, the number of times the board is struck and the intensity of striking should be increased over a number of training sessions. When the knuckles produce a depression when striking the board the initial stage of training is complete.

Stage 2

A slab of crumbly Sandstone (or some friable equivalent) replaces the plank at the start of this stage. This has no ‘give’ and is struck until either a hole is made in it or the stone breaks. A sheet of Iron is then embedded in the ground similarly and this is beaten with the Bullet Fist as before.

When this can be accomplished readily the student perseveres until a concave indentation can be beaten into the iron plate. Once this is achieved the final Training Stage requirements of Danzi Quan have been satisfied and the ‘Kung’ has been mastered. Between four to five years are normally required for the completion of this process.


This is essentially a purely attacking technique and usually a fatal, lethal one. Consequently, Danzi Quan/Bullet Fist was not usually employed unless the intention was to kill. For this reason, Shaolin students of old, if right-handed trained their left-hands to become their Bullet Fist in order to avoid killing people accidentally (and their right hand if it were the other way around).

Warning! Do Not Buy a Medigap Plan F

If you think my headline is a little dramatic, I promise it’s not. The following information is critical to anyone considering a Plan F Medicare Supplement. Plan F has long been the most popular of the standardized plans, and it does have a purpose. However, you should explore all of your options and make yourself aware of the potential pitfalls before owning one.

I’d also like to preface the following information with a little background on myself. I have worked in the senior market for 27 years. For much of that time, I worked in Medigap Plan design and pricing. I am considered an expert in the industry.

New agents and lazy agents sell Plan F Medicare Supplements. It’s true. Insurance agents love selling a Plan F. It pays a higher commission and most shoppers have usually heard about it from a friend. Because it is so popular, it is a much easier presentation.

Be wary of agents who immediately push you towards a Plan F. To make a blanket statement that Plan F is the best is wrong and irresponsible. If they say it’s the “Cadillac Plan” because it covers everything, hang up the phone. Having the “Cadillac Plan” sounds great, but it comes at a cost.

Insurance companies love Plan F too. It has benefits you’ll probably never use, and others that are very profitable to the company. That’s why they always advertise the Plan F.

If the only difference between a Plan F and a Plan G is the Part B Deductible, why is the price difference so much higher? The Medicare Part B Deductible is currently $166 a year. However, when you are comparing plans, it is not uncommon to find Plan F rates between $300 – $600 higher than a Plan G. Insurance companies call this difference a “convenience charge.” Why not keep the “convenience charge” in your wallet and pay the deductible yourself?

Excess charges are not that big of a deal. The reality is most doctors accept Medicare Assignment and it’s easy to confirm if your doctor does or doesn’t. Why would you pay for this benefit if you don’t need it?

Even worse, in some states, it’s illegal for doctors to charge above the Medicare Allowable, yet many agents continue to sell their clients a Plan F.

Historically Plan F has larger rate increases. That’s a fact, just think about it, it’s easy to understand why. Because a Plan F has first-dollar-coverage, it tends to be over utilized. Meaning, people will see the doctor more often when it costs them nothing out-of-pocket. More claims equal larger rate increases.

Also, unhealthy people who know they are going to have sizable medical bills are more likely to buy a Plan F because of its full coverage. Again, more claims equal larger rate increases.

On average, Plan F rate increases are 3 times higher when compared to a Plan G.

Do not get trapped in a Medigap Plan F! By far, this is the most compelling reason not to own a Plan F. Plan F is going to be phased out in 2020. Anyone who owns one prior will be able to keep their plan. Do not keep that plan! New sales will stop, there won’t be any younger and healthier individuals entering the plan and offsetting the cost of the older insureds. Rates will have to increase. As rates increase, anyone who is healthy enough to pass underwriting requirements will move to a new plan. This will make the situation even worse.

If you are stuck in a Plan F after 2020, you could see ridiculous double-digit rate increases year after year. A similar situation happened with Plan J after it was removed from the market in 2010.

In summary, buying a Plan F could be a huge mistake. Consider all your options. Speak with an agent who is familiar with all the plans, and be sure to ask about the points mentioned in this post.

How to Build a Small Flat Wooden Bridge for Your Stream

Building a flat wooden bridge can really be great fun and involve the entire family as a project. We have a small stream running to our lake that in most areas is about ten feet wide. The embankments are about three feet high on each side so we chose one of those areas for our bridge. I decided to make three large beams as supports for the walkway. I chose six, two inch by twelve inch, by fourteen foot, pressure treated planks for the support beam materials. Each of these planks are quite heavy for one person to handle so I moved them one by one to the place where they would ultimately end up at the stream. Next, I dug two trenches, one on each side of the stream, to construct footings to support the three wooden beams. Using the largest, flattest, stones I could find, I created a flat rock ledge in each trench. The rocks being an average of three inches thick would support the beams with no problem. As each end of the bridge needed to be buried for a smooth transition to the ground on each side of the stream, the pressure treated lumber would allow me to just bury the rock footing and the end of the beams with earth holding it in place. Dragging the 2 x 12 planks across the water was no fun as the September weather had already cooled our mountain stream but I got it done.

Once all six planks were placed spanning across the stream, I was able to start to assemble them using both construction adhesive and galvanized three inch deck screws. If you are going to just use the bridge for foot traffic, two beams would be more than enough on a twelve foot span. I wanted to be able to take my lawn tractor and trailer across the bridge to the lake. With the additional center beam, the bridge easily handles the tractor, myself, the trailer loaded with camping or fishing supplies, chain saws and whatever else we needed that day. My bridge is six foot wide clear inside so there is plenty of room for all to cross.

Next, I added a 2 x 12 plank vertically at each end of the beams to connect them all together and also hold them apart in the six-foot, four inch width that I needed. Hand rail posts made of four by fours will reduce the width to an even six foot wide when installed. Before you start installing any decking, install two pieces of lumber, one by three inches wide or larger in an X pattern under the bottom of the beams. Crisscross them in the center by nailing the ends and the center point to the underside of the beams. These pieces will prevent the beams from “rolling over” as time passes and will hold them nice and straight vertically. These pieces must be pressure treated.

Next, apply your decking pieces. I recommend using two by six inch, PT lumber material as it’s added strength will make your bridge last a good many years.

Again, I used three inch galvanized deck screws to fasten the decking boards to the beams. Leave a very small gap between the boards of about 1/4 inch or the thickness of a twelve penny nail shank. These gaps will allow water to quickly pass through the bridge and gives melting snow a place to drip as well.

This bridge is flat so water runoff has to be considered to avoid premature decay.

You may want to install one set of cross blocking at center line of the bridge before installing that last piece of decking for added protection against any bouncing of the bridge deck. Mine did not need it at all.

Handrails come next in the assembly. Although the bridge is short it does add added support for the older folks crossing over on the way to the lake. On the fourteen foot span I installed three vertical posts on each side of the bridge by notching the post bottoms a full twelve and one half inches high to allow the posts to half sit on the full 2 x 12. You will need to install some small blocking around the posts to support the decking pieces. Next I added another four by four for the handrail on each side all in one piece. A little pricey but after twenty plus years of use it is still in perfect condition. After fastening the handrails in place, I added one piece of cross bridging created out of 1 x 3 PT material and I inverted them into a V shape from post to post.

Mostly decorative but but it does say “Whoa”, there is a three foot fall here.

Since I have a battery operated sander and five inch skill saw, I took the time to cut a slight bevel on the top of the handrail and then ran some sandpaper over it. This helps water shedding and makes the rail a little more comfortable to hold or lean on and stare at the steam below.

Before cleaning up, I applied a treatment to the ends of all my saw cuts to protect against the weather. Also try doing all your lumber cutting away from the water to avoid getting the PT sawdust chemicals in the water.

My bridge is now over twenty years old and other than some occasional up-keep at the bridge ends after the spring snow melt and heavy water runoff takes place to replace washed out stones or earth, this bridge will last forever.


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Advantages Of Wood Deck Railings

Wooden railing is the first choice for any owner or the builder as the elegance and the style that you get from wooden railings is nothing compared to other materials. Some time the light reflection from all sources disturbs you. Wood does not reflect light as much as steel does, a kind of sereneness, and tranquility that you get from use of wood, you cannot get from any other material.

Advantages Of Wood Railings

There are many advantages of wooden railings particularly indoor railings.

1. The elegance of wood is unmatched by anything else.

2. Contrary to popular belief, wood railings are maintenance free, particularly those used indoors. A nice polishing, a coat of lacquer while installing, is all that is required, and no further maintenance is required.

3. Another advantage of wood is that it massive in construction and will last for several decades if not centuries.

4. With its wide top, children (and some times grown ups too!) enjoy the wood railing sliding down the railing for coming down instead of coming down by steps. Oh what fun!

Choice Of Wood For Railings

Wooden stock rails, balusters and newel can be made in Burma teak, Cherry, Maple, Red Oak, White Oak, Walnut, Mahogany, Poplar, Beech, Yellow Pine, Ash or Cedar. Many manufacturers can give you the top rail design that you desire or dream. Manufacturers use CAD systems, CNC machinery, and hand artistry, to give you any rail profile, baluster turnings or newel post.

Care Of Wood In General, Railing In Particular

Wood when properly treated and cared for requires no maintenance. The major enemy of wood is the life forms capable of living and thriving on wood. The microscopic life starts first and then it is like a jungle, where the food chain starts. Therefore if you treat wood with chemicals to stop the growth of micro-organisms and keep water away from it, the possibility of wood rot gets much less. Regular cleaning, annual polishing, waxing when the wood railing looks dull is all that is required for caring the wood articles and railing in general. Out-door railings may require painting to keep them looking new.

The Advantages of a Glass Washer Over a Dishwasher

Initially at least, glass washers and dishwashers appear to pretty much the same thing. They both clean whatever is placed inside them, and while a glass washer is designed for the specific purpose of cleaning glasses, it also does a good job of washing cutlery and plates too. So you might ask yourself why you would need both, or why you should investing in a washer. Especially when a dishwasher can be utilized for all your plates and utensils.

You would be fully correct, of course, that a washer can only clean glasses. But there are many other advantages that they can offer, not just to commercial users, but also to home users with large families:

Faster washes – Even medium size washers can handle 15-20 racks per hour, which equates to over 200 glasses being washed with each cycle. In contrast, a dishwasher has to take its time to ensure that all items are fully cleaned, which means it can only go as fast as it takes to wash the largest item.

Cheaper –

Better on your glassware: A dishwasher is overkill for cleaning glasses. With their requirement to wash large pots and pans as well as smaller kitchen items, glasses will often be overexposed to the high temperatures, resulting in the glass wearing away over time. A glass washer, on the other hand, uses weaker detergent and the wash cycle is relatively short resulting in little to no damage to your glassware.

Better results: A dishwasher will frequently leave white streak marks on glass. These marks are the result of the strong detergent used – not a good way to impress customers! A glass washer will leave no marks at all, giving all glassware a fantastic sparkle.

Fast: Some industrial washers can clean up to 400 glasses in one hour, saving lots of time for your staff to tend to other things.

Less expensive: An industrial washer will cost a lot less to buy than other cleaning appliances. If you have enough space for one, it will pay for itself in the amount of time saved too.

Many restaurateurs are unaware of the potential advantages of investing in a glass washer, often overlooking them in favour of dishwashers, thinking that they are saving money. In fact, the opposite is quite true, with a commercial glass washer saving both time and money!

Growing Up Ukrainian In Toronto

I was born in Toronto in 1936. I lived above a hairdressing and barber shop run by my mother and father, an aunt and two uncles, at Queen and Seaton streets, in Toronto. The smell of fingerwave solution and the unique odour of a permanent wave still trigger an eruption of memories of playing in the shop. I spoke no English until I went to Duke of York public school, nor did I need to. Playing on Seaton St., I wasn’t aware that English existed. There were enough Ukrainian families on the street that it was like a tribal village or circle of tents in the desert, so oblivious were we to the surrounding population.

Our Ukrainian community was so safe that I could play on Seaton St. all day while my parents worked. If I didn’t come home for lunch it hardly mattered. I simply ate with all the other kids at the home were we happened to be playing. Warm, wizened old babas shrouded in black seemed to be everywhere.

On Sundays and feast days, the Ukrainian tribe trudged to the Holy Eucharist Ukrainian Catholic Church on King St., near the Don River. Today, forty-five years later, when I exit the Don Valley parkway from the Richmond St. Ramp and pass over the former site of the church, I’m flooded with memories of weddings, plays, christenings and religious celebrations. I swear the smells of incense, wax and the stale odour of the basement hall are still there twenty years after the church was demolished. I sometimes still hear the priest’s deep booming voice chanting Hos podi pomelui as he swings the cadillo of smoking frankincense on a golden chain.

At eight, I survived the terrors of Saturday Ukrainian school where I was threatened with life in eternal hell if I didn’t agree to become an alter boy. I remained steadfastly opposed under relentless pressure from two large nuns. My parents were never able to get me to return to Ukrainian school after the nuns forced me to try on the alter boy robes to show me how beautiful I looked in them. They promised me a life in heaven where, as one nun said, “You can have an apply any time you want one.” I can still see her bulbous, scrubbed face framed by her white habit as she leaned close to mine and whispered this holy secret.

When I was five, I was hospitalized with a serious case of strep throat. No one understood me as I whined and complained in Ukrainian and my condition deteriorated. Frustrated, my parents whisked me out of the hospital, vowing they would never speak Ukrainian at home again. They never did, except when Ukrainian visitors came by from the old neighbourhood. I slowly became aware that not all Canadians spoke Ukrainian.

I never realized what a poor student I was until just recently. After my dad’s death, I came upon some of my old report cards from grades four and five among his documents. Report cards then contained only rank in class, one subject after another; no grades, no marks, just rank in class, and a section at the bottom to indicate the number of students in the class. I noted that there were 44 students in the class and my rank for the academic subjects read 44, 43, 38, 41. While I was never required to repeat a grade, my parents were upset when the school wanted to put me into a special program for slow learners. But it was wartime and the placement never materialized.I’ve learned since it takes a second-language student seven to ten years to approach the level of his peers in the ability to use English. My poor reports in grade four represented my functional level after five years of learning English. By the end of grade eight, after nine years of English, my grades were sufficient to gain admission to, and eventually graduate from, Upper Canada College. Later, I completed B.A. and M.Ed. degrees from the University of Toronto.

I am amazed at how long it takes to learn and understand a lanaguage well enough to compete with one’s peers, even when one is born in Canada. The streaming of children of newly arrived immigrant groups into terminal programs or vocatinal programs repeats itself over and over again.

Neither my mother nor my father ever learned to read or write English. There were no newspapers or magazines in our home. I never had a story read to me nor do I recall being told any stories. Goldilocks, Winnie the Pooh and Hansel and Gretel became known to me only as an adult, and there are innumerable references to children’s literary characters that crop up in daily conversation that pass right over me. I remember two books that came into the house. One was a tattered old book of poems by the Ukrainian patriot Taras Shevchenko. The other was a second-hand book on the diseases of the eye – a medical book my father bought for my older brother Walter. He was told to read it because he was going to be a doctor, just as I understood that I was expected to be a lawyer. I never saw anyone pick up either book. But my father constantly proclaimed the importance of education. He never went to school in the Ukraine but he was determined that his sons would make up for his lack of schooling.

My father and eleven silent partners bought a beer parlour, the Riviera Hotel on King St. near Sherbourne. Our family moved in upstairs, and my mother and father ran the hotel singlehandedly. Frankly, it was a whorehouse and a hangout for the legendary Mickey McDonald gang. My father was granted a temporary three-month licence on the condition that if he could clean up the prostitution and get rid of the gang, he would get a permanent licence. I watched many a fight through the banister posts, and I’ll always remember the night my father locked the Mickey McDonald gang inside the hotel until the police arrived. He stood defiantly at the door, bloodied, shouting in his thick accent, “You wouldn’t leave when I asked you; now you stay till I let you leave!” He got his permanent licence.

Life started to settle down a bit. Like clockwork, my father opened the hotel doors every day at noon. The workers from the Christie Biscuit factory across the street poured in for lunchtime brews. One gentleman stood out. He wore a black homburg hat, a black overcoat, a black suit and black tie. Every day he ordered a draft, opened up his newspaper and read for about twenty minutes, finished his beer and left. One day my father, in his broken English, said, “Sir, you look like smart man. My son is in grade eight. I want to send him to good school. The best in Canada. Can you tell me good school?”

The man didn’t like being disturbed. Abruptly, he replied, “One of the best schools in Canada is right here in Toronto. It’s called Upper Canada College.” The newspaper snapped open between them.”Where is this school, sir?”

“On Londsale Road,” came a curt reply from behind the newspaper. My father arranged to make an application for my brother Walter to attend the school. In time, my father received a letter that Walter was not accepted.

Towards the end of June, as my father delivered the ritual draft beer, the man in the black homburg lowered his paper and said, “By the way, did you ever apply to have your son attend Upper Canada College?”

“Yes,” my father said, “but they say no.”

This piqued the gentleman’s interest and he questioned my father further. At his request, my father rummaged around in his cubbyhole of an office and produced the letter. One sentence said: “We do not feel your son would fit in well here.” The man asked my father if he would still like to send his son to Upper Canada.”Sure, if you think it’s good school, I send!” my father replied.

He asked my father if he could keep the letter for a few days, and then he left. About an hour later, the headmaster from Upper Canada College arrived in the men’s parlour of the Riviera Hotel to inform my father that an opening had just come up and the college would be delighted if Walter would accept the vacancy. The man in the black homburg turned out to be a governor of Upper Canada College, who took time out from his law practice to enjoy a beer and a quiet read at lunch. Though my father could ill afford it, we three Diakiw boys began fifteen years of roaming the hallowed halls of Upper Canada College. What a strange quirk of fate! What a bizarre shift in cultures! My five years at the college were a combination of joy, pleasure, boredom, humiliation and anger. I reveled in the sports and other extra-curricular opportunities available there. Despite the strong loyalty I still have for the College, the appalling boredom and monotony of my classes hardly justified its first-rate reputation. Parents paid exorbitantly for the reputation, and students didn’t dare question the teaching staff. Yet in many ways, away from the school, I acquired status. When adults learned about the school I attended, they gave me an unwarranted elevated social status, not unlike the deference they might have shown to an Oxford or Harvard graduate.

Until I entered Upper Canada College, I never realized how Ukrainian or, rather, how non-Canadian I was. Attending the college exposed the socio-cultural hierarchies to which I had been oblivious. For me, this privilege was not without its price. In 1957, two years after graduating from Upper Canada College, I served in the Royal Canadian navy’s summer training program (UNTD) for officer cadets. I arrived at the Officers’ Mess in Montreal, shouldered my duffle bag to my assigned quarters and introduced myself to my roommate, Milton Zysman, who was stretched out on his bed reading. “What kind of name is Diakiw?” he asked.”Ukrainian,” I said.”Ah! Another Black man,” he boomed. I looked at him – stunned – as lights flashed in my mind and memories tumbled and unfolded like a kaleidoscope. I had never thought of it that way, yet he had exposed a central truth about the way I felt and the experiences I had had. What did a Ukrainian and a Jew have in common with a Black man? Why did I find it so easy to identify with that statement? While the differences in experiences were vast, we had all known intolerance, prejudice and second-class status. For Milton and me, this status was confirmed by law. Our parents had immigrated to Canada at a time when the rulings under the Immigration Act of 1923 classified European immigrants as preferred (northwestern Europe), non-preferred (eastern Europe, including the Ukraine) and Special Permits Class (southern Europe and all Jews except British subjects, regardless of their nationality). The day that I arrived at the naval base in Montreal, I no longer spoke or understood Ukrainian. I was born in Canada and I had never visited the Ukraine. I had had no association with the Ukrainian church since the age of ten. I belonged to no Ukrainian club or organization, celebrated no Ukrainian holiday or festival. I was almost not a Ukrainian at all, except that my identity was defined and affirmed for me by English Canadians. They defined the group to which they had determined I belonged, and that group was somehow inherently inferior.

I was not aware of this inferior status until I went to Upper Canada College, where I was confronted with the impenetrable wall of white Anglo-Saxon Protestantism. I don’t recall being insulted personally, apart from one French teacher. He regularly kicked and pushed me out of my seat and onto the floor while shouting how I was born out of my mother’s deep black Ukrainian swamp.

Otherwise, I was treated as an equal and fully accepted into school life. No door or opportunity was closed to me. I was accepted by my classmates as one of them. And yet I felt like an alien. The culture of the college was English public school. This tradition was so highly guarded that the school always imported an English headmaster to guarantee that these central values were maintained. (A few years after I graduated, the school appointed its first Canadian headmaster.) In being accepted, I came to learn how my culture, my parents, my lifestyle, my past were not acceptable. I believe that I hid this knowledge well from my classmates – they just never knew. As such, they revealed their feelings and attitudes. Even today I can’t share with my close friends from those years the subtle and unconscious distinctions they communicated to me. They wouldn’t remember, or would suggest that I was overly sensitive – I’m sure they just wouldn’t understand. The distinctions were relentless: ethnic jokes, the derision about the way ethnics talked or dressed, their language about immigrants – “those bloody Dps are ruining this country” – the belittling of other cultures – “the only cultural achievement of the Ukrainians is the decorated Easter egg.” A remark about an Italian , a jew or Hungarian painted me with the same brush. They accepted me as one of them, but when they joked about ethnics, they defined me and it belittled me.

At the college, we were trained to emulate proper Englishmen. We were taught Latin and the classics. We committed to memory, during daily Church of England prayers in the chapel, such patriotic English hymns as “Jerusalem” – “Nor shall my sword sleep in my hand, Till we have built Jerusalem in England’s green and pleasant land.” I learned about Empire and about all the “pink bits” on the map. Through the Upper Canada College Cadet Battalion’s affiliation with the Queen’s Own Rifles, I learned of that regiment’s gallant history in creating, defending and protecting the Empire. Prince Philip, our royal patron, made periodic visits to the school to affirm our connection right to the top. My classmates and I learned about power, and that power was in the hands of English Canadians; we were trained to be proper English Canadians. Many of those same classmates dominate in every corridor of power today.

This was not an environment in which I was able to talk proudly about my heritage. I retreated and assimilated as fast as I could. I was very ashamed of my background. I was particularly embarrassed about my parents. Compared with my friend’s parents, mine seemed ignorant and crude. Not one classmate ever met my parents or visited my home during the five years I attended the college. I visited in their homes but not until the end of grade thirteen did I invite any friends to mine. Only then did I begin to realize that despite the differences in culture and wealth, my parents were among the best.

To me, my mother and father were largely without prejudice. (My wife maintains that I delude myself.) But the one ethnic group that bore the brunt of slurs and castigation by my parents was that of English Canadians with English accents. My mother always felt embarrassed and humiliated in their presence. When one of us put on “airs”, acted overbearing, pompous, opinionated or domineering, they would say “Don’t act like a ‘Bronco.'” A “Bronco” was an English person, and in our house it was the most scathing insult you could make. As a youngster I never understood this hostility. But at Upper Canada College and in the years that followed, I began to understand the impertinence of “the dominant culture.” I came to understand and sympathize with angry Jews who stereotype gentiles, with Blacks who lash out against whites, with radical feminists who demolish men. Reverse discrimination, the slow-brewing reaction to inequality, is often accompanied by anger and hostility. I remember when my older brother Walter was dating an English girl my mother warned me not to marry a “Bronco” because “whenever you have a fight she’ll throw it in your face that are not a real Canadian.” (All three of us married “Broncos.”) How many times will I hear “Why don’t they just become Canadians?” uttered in dismay and frustration by a WASP who understands what a Canadian is. They want us to be like them.

Even a friend, who lives in Metropolitan Toronto where the majority of residents are from a non-English-speaking background, when discussing a draft of this memoir asked me, “Do you feel more Ukrainian or more Canadian?” The depth of misunderstanding revealed by this question staggers me, yet it typifies the suspicion and misunderstanding that English Canadians have of immigrants. Even my father, a Ukrainian patriot, born and raised in the Ukraine, a man who loved his heritage passionately, loved Canada foremost. He considered it an honour and privilege to be a Canadian. He would not have understood my neighbour’s question. It’s like asking someone if they are more white or more Canadian.

I still struggle to control and understand my own prejudices. Though I have few remaining traits normally associated with belonging to a cultural group, such as language, religion or customs, my pride in my Ukrainian roots runs strong and deep. I somehow feel connected to the men and women in sheepskin coats who settled the west in endless waves. I still somehow feel that a Ukrainian Cossack dance is my kind of dance.

AMGeneX DNA (Dynamic Nutrition Advantage) From Amega Global – Surprising Cellular Nutrition

AMGeneX DNA is a new superfood product manufactured by Amega Global.

It comes in sachets and you mix it in with a drink, eg water or juice. The product is infused with Amega’s proprietary Amized Fusion Technology which charges it with zero point energy, thus enabling your body to be infused with high levels of life force energy.

The product is said to be the world’s first Epigenetic product. This fairly new term in nutritional-based science is to do with the interaction of food compounds with the DNA inside the body’s cells. It seems that what was once believed to be the case – that our DNA was hard wired and couldn’t be changed – is not actually true. It appears that our DNS can be re-shaped, given the right foods.

It is now believed that if we consume foods which influence our genes and are rich sources of phytochemicals that tell our DNA to switch on our cellular defence mechanisms, we are more likely to help stay on a path of wellness.

The way that Amega Global have been able to enable the AmGenex sachets to do this switching on of our protective genes is through adding sulforaphane (sul-FOR-a-fane) via CellActiv. CellActiv is a very concentrated form of sulforophane. Sulforophane is said to be nothing short of remarkable in its diverse benefits including cellular defence. Surprisingly, it comes from the broccoli family of vegetables, which although do not have particularly high ORAC values (antioxidant value), they do contribute far greater to cellular health than possibly any other known plant food.

Sulforaphane is said to be very significantly more powerful and potent than Vitamin C. Sulphoraphane is “potentially the most versatile, multifunctional and fundamentally essential of all plant bioactives.” – (source: Fahey JW Kensler, TW Role of Dietary Supplements/ Nutraceuticals in Chemoprevention through Induction of Cytoprotective Enzymes).

The sulforaphane in the Amega DNA switches on around 200 plus various genes inside the cell. These are needed so the cell can protect itself. Sulphoraphane is the most powerful known substance that has this particular effect on the body’s cells become so much more effective in doing its own anti-oxidant work.

Some of the super fruits contained in the AmGeneX sachets include:

ACAI – Exceptional Antioxidant & ORAC

AMLA – Supports a healthy heart, promotes good blood circulation, aids cell regeneration & digestion; improves mental functions

CAMU CAMU – Highest vitamin C content of all fruits in the world

GOJI (Wolfberry) – Complete spectrum of antioxidant carotenoids and zeaxanthin

LO HAN GUO – Natural sweetener, contains no calories, safe for diabetics and hypoglycaemics

MANGOSTEEN – High in Xanthones and Antioxidants

NONI – The queen of health plants with many different benefits

POMEGRANATE – Outstanding antioxidant properties

All ingredients are active. Unlike many of the other products in the beverage industry, AMGeneX has NOT gone through the process of ‘Hot Fill Pasteurization’ (between 161° and 280°F). AMGeneX has NOT gone through the process of Aseptic Processing (between 195° and 295°F). This is important because pasteurization kills friendly bacteria and enzymes as well as greatly reduces nutritional value.

Thus, Amega Global, have produced a first class nutritional food, that, taken, once a day (you can take more), helps your own cells to rebuild their protective genes and maintain optimum wellness.