Interesting Facts About The Outboard Motor

One of the most common propulsion system designed for smaller watercraft is the outboard motor. Probably the most remarkable thing concerning this propulsion device is that it doesn’t simply just supply the power that makes a watercraft go forward but it likewise acts as the steering device. You can easily say that an outboard is a fine combination of the engine, gearbox and the propeller every one properly rolled into one system.

When the motor is not operating, the skeg acts as a rudder to direct the boat. Another thing I really like about outboard motors is actually that they can quite easily be repaired or perhaps stored due to their portability. Another cool ability of the outboard engine is actually that it can tilt up while running through shallow waters letting you to evade rocks or the build up of seaweeds. Being able to tilt up the outboard motor is also helpful whenever relocating a boat using a trailer.

What Kind Of Outboard Motor Should You Be Using?

There are several kinds of outboard motors for different types of applications. You should suit the outboard’s power with the weight of the boat and the load it carries. For example, Big Outboards can generate up to 350 hp – enough power to propel an 18 feet boat or possibly more.

The small portable outboards just make about 15 hp and can easily be attached to boats using clamps. If you include the petrol tank, the smallest outboards will still just weigh approximately 12 kilos. But do not belittle this tiny outboard. You may go around eight knots or fifteen km/hour in case you’re riding a small boat and a little portable outboard motor.

Figuring out the power of an outboard motor necessary begins with figuring out what amount of load will be powered.

The Birth Of Outboard Motors

Cameron Waterman was still a young student at Yale Engineering when he started work on the outboard motor. His hard work paid off as his four-stroke outboard motor turned out to be the first commercially viable, gas-fueled outboard engine. The time period between 1903 and when his patent was released in 1905 that Cameron Waterman probably created the outboard engine.

In 1907, the full-blast production of Cameron Waterman’s machines began building only twenty-four machines that year and in due course manufacturing thousands of machines within 5 years. Time passed and Kiekhaefer decided to buy Waterman’s shares in the company that first manufactured outboard motors.

Although Mr. Waterman’s earliest outboard was a four-stroke engine, two-stroke outboards turned out to be much more well-liked mainly because they were uncomplicated in design, more dependable, cheaper to make and light in weight. The two-stroke outboard machines, popular as they were, made a good deal of noise and air pollution mainly because of the unburnt gas. The United States and some European authorities in time made some actions that resulted in more four-stroke outboards getting produced.

What You Most Likely Didn’t Know

Ole Evinrude, a Norwegian-American inventor, is frequently mistakenly acknowledged as the designer of the earliest working and saleable outboards. He did build and was able to sell thousands of outboard engines but it was in the year 1909 that he began manufacturing outboard engines – two years later than Waterman did.

For more than a century now, the four-stroke outboards have been available in the market.

Fuel economy is enormously enhanced by direct injection on both four-stroke and two-stroke outboards. The petrol saved simply by using direct injection could be around eighty percent and 10% being on the low end.

Things to Consider Before Adding a Deck

The construction of an outdoor deck is usually a very good suggestion if you are considering doing some form of home improvement. It is well known that this type of improvement not only creates a very nice ambiance in the home but is proven to increase the value of the property at the same time.

Here are a few things to consider before adding a deck to improve the value of your home.

Need of the homeowners for privacy from neighbors and the main street

If your deck is in plain view of neighbors or a main road and you feel the need for a degree of privacy, you may want to consider the option of constructing walls or some other form of barrier to create a certain amount of privacy. Try to keep these to a minimum so as not to make the deck come across as a caged in area.

Placement of the grill

Always put a bit of thought into the placement of your grill should you want to have one on the deck. Try to keep it as close to the location of your kitchen as possible but avoid having it directly against the house. If you are planning on having a gas grill you will want to consider the location of your gas tank, having this off of the deck with a permanent gas line laying underneath the deck might be a good way to go. Be sure to leave enough space for food preparation at the grill as well.

Need for shade

A custom-made sunshade can be installed over the deck to provide shade; unfortunately these can be very expensive and may not suite your budget. Should this be the case you might consider an arbor or gazebo. For total coverage you may consider a building a permanent roof over the deck, or having screens installed.

Allocating a specific dining area

It is often a good idea to construct a slightly higher area on the deck which will be space allocated for the placement of your table and chairs for dining purposes

Preference for railroads

Once again, always be aware of the safety regulations of the area you are in. Any lifted structure carries with it the chance of injury being sustained from a fall or the like. Not only should you consider some form of railing so as to comply with regulations of your area but also, and almost more importantly for the safety of your loved ones and friends which will be using the deck.

You may also consider built in seating on the deck as this helps to reduce splintering of the decks surface through the constant moving of loose furniture. Any homeowner tries to aim towards a picture-perfect home which is safe and comfortable for their families.

Constructing a deck is a simple way to bring out a whole new beauty in your home and at the same time will greatly increase the value of your home.

Porch Motorhome Awnings

Porch motorhome awnings offer an alternative to the more bulky full size awnings, and give you more protection than the simple retractable kinds. As such they are a compromise between the two, both in terms of cost and in ease of use. A porch awning is primarily designed to give you a bit more living space, or storage space, depending on your needs.

They are designed to fit all types of motorhome, and are attached with support arms and ground fittings. Many people use them to put their dirty clothes and shoes in, which stops any unpleasing smells entering your home. There is also the option to extend and customize the size of the porch by adding side panels and windows. Windows will offer more ventilation and allow a cool breeze to flow through the entire motorhome on very hot days, while keeping the actual awning space cooler as well.

Full size annexes can also be added with the necessary attachments and poles. This may be an option if you have bought a porch size awning but want to upgrade without having to pay for the more expensive annex sizes. On cold days there is the option of buying a heater to keep things warmer. A ground sheet is a useful addition, and most of these are made from anti rot materials and are easily cleaned off after use.

Storage is a consideration when you are traveling, and the smaller size of porch awnings gives them an advantage over larger, more bulky designs. If you have a retractable design then you can always attach the porch to that for extra support. You can also buy stand alone, or driveaway porches, and these give you more freedom while on your travels because you can just drive away and leave them standing.

Make sure you take your measurements down first. Also ensure that the porch will not encroach over any windows or side doors of your motorhome apart from the one's you actually want to cover. This is a common mistake made by many owners who find the size is too big to fit just right. Read up on the dimensions first, this is the golden rule. Check the height as well, so that it matches the height of your motorhome.

Porch awnings offer a perfect compromise between the larger annexes and the retractable models. The prices reflect this as well. A well looked after porch will offer comfort and protection for years to come, and make a useful addition to any motorhome.

Specialized Fixtures for Aircraft Design and Manufacturing

The aerospace manufacturing industry is becoming increasingly competitive every day. There is a huge demand for creating safer and more efficient airliners. The design and manufacturing of aircraft are vital phases to reach the ultimate goal of an acceptable and superior product.

When manufacturing and assembling an aircraft, there are certain aspects that must be met:

  • Structural integrity
  • Operational efficiency
  • Maintainability
  • Tooling
  • Market viability
  • Further development capability

Designing the Aircraft Structure

It is imperative to design the aircraft structure with precision and care. Many factors including metal fatigue, environmental stresses, and corrosion have to be taken into account. To help reduce these factors, aluminum is used as the choice metal for producing the skins of the aircraft.

The aluminum is riveted and bolted together, as these fastening joints provide structural dampening, which reduces oscillations and vibrations. Each bolt and rivet is precisely compressed to accomplish the stress carry capability. Specialized aircraft tooling is used during this phase and the rest of the manufacturing process. One of the most well-known tools is aircraft assembly fixtures.

Aircraft Assembly Fixtures

Fixtures are specialized tools that are used to hold components in position while the required fasteners are bolted and welding is done. Also known as tack fasteners or tack welds, fixtures are installed onto the aircraft by drilling through precisely located drill bushings. Fixtures are required to be extremely rigid and accurate for construction.

Fixture Construction

There are a variety of metals that can be used to design and construct aircraft tooling fixtures. Depending on the section of the aircraft, and layers of sheet metal for that section, fixtures can be constructed using materials such as magnesium, resin, plastics, as well as composite materials. For thicker and boarder aircraft sections, cast iron and stainless steel plates are used for fixture construction. Machined fixtures can either be welded or bolted together. As a supporting tool, the main objectives of fixtures are to provide accuracy when assembling individual components, interchangeability, and reduce the overall construction costs.

The accuracy of fixtures always has to be higher that the accuracy of the machined part. The tolerances of fixture dimensions have to be higher as this will ensure interchangeability of components. There is no set standard for fixture dimensions. A number of examples have been recommended by engineering experts, any one of which can be used. That is why engineers use analysis, calculations, as well as logic and practical judgment to create the right kind of tolerance dimensions.

Advantages of Fixtures

  • Accuracy and Interchangeability: By locating the work and accurately supporting the component, one fixture can be used for producing different parts within the same specified limits.
  • Reduces Human Error: As fixtures are manufactured under precise tolerances and dimensions, there is very little chance of human error taking place.
  • Simplifies Operations: Fixtures can be used to simplify otherwise complicated operations. This gives aircraft manufacturers the opportunity to hire medium skilled laborers to work on the product, and thus finish the work quickly.
  • Faster Repetitive Production: Clients often ask manufacturers for multiple products, creating a large product order. This can be a painful task for the engineers and workers. With fixtures, engineers can simply reuse the specified dimensions and tolerances from the previous manufacturing process, saving costs, design and assembly time.

There are many benefits that come with using fixtures in aircraft manufacturing. They can provide accuracy in construction, reduce the work pressure on employees, save time and costs, add to the overall process improvement of aircraft assembly.

Tips on Mounting Your Flat Screen With TV Wall Mounting Brackets

Installing a TV wall mounting bracket is a great idea to open up the space in your living room. Most modern homes have their TV mounted to the wall, so even if your home is older, this can be a simple way to bring it up to date. In addition to optimizing the space in your rooms.

Correct installation is the most important part of installing a TV wall mounting bracket. The last thing that you want to do is install your bracket incorrectly and have your TV fall off of the wall and break.

Once you have decided on and purchased the correct TV wall mounting bracket for your TV, you will need to install it. Here are some tips for installation:

· Determine the best location for your TV. You can do this by using a piece of cardboard that is the same size as your TV and taping it to various walls to determine the final location.

· Measure at least 40 inches, but no higher than 45 inches from the floor and make a small mark on the wall with a pencil.

· Using a laser level, draw a line across the top of your pencil mark.

· Take a stud sensor and locate the nearest stud to your marking, then locate the one next to that. Mark them with an "X" in pencil.

· Place the bracket against the wall and drill holes where the screws will be located. Next, add the screws and drill them into place, ensuring that they are being drilled into the studies.

· It is a good idea to run all of your cables through the wall. You can use either wire or a coat hanger to pull them up and out a predrilled hole near your bracket. If you need to, you can get an electrician to install a plug near the location of your wall mount. Wiring looks unsightly, so if it is all tucked behind the TV, you will not see it. You may consider running extra cables for future hookups, including a DVD player or surround sound unit.

· Lastly, lift your TV into position – you may need someone to assist you. There should be some rubber mounts on the back of your TV that slip into your TV wall mounting bracket. Before you both let go, wiggle the TV a bit to ensure that it is securely in place.

· Connect your wiring to the back of your TV and enjoy.

Top Professional Tips For Amateur Oil Painters

Oil Painting Overview

1. Make sketches to see visualize the overall composition
2. Use charcoal or pencils to block out the tonal range ie dark to light
3. Make a few oil sketches to experiment with color mixing
4. Prepare your canvas with Gesso or white acrylic paint, then set out your brushes and colors.
5. Use your discoveries from steps 2 and 3 and get to work!
6. Varnish, frame and Hang your painting

Because of the versatility of oil paints, you can explore a variety of ways to use them. You can layer thinly in glazes, or "direct paint" thickly in an impasto style. The most important thing is to "play" and experiment with what works best for your taste and style. But to enhance your playtime, here are some tips you may find helpful. Enjoy!

Oil Painting Tips

1. Learn to place your colors in the same position on your palette so that you will soon be able to "lose yourself" in the process, with out looking too much at the palette
2. "Fat Over Lean" This means that each layer of paint should be increased with each layer. This is because the lower layers absorb oil from the top layers. If the upper layers dry faster than the lower, the paint may crack.
3. Do not use Black as an under-layer as it drys slower than all other colors.
4. Pigments containing lead, cobalt, and manganese speed up drying. Great for mixing with other colors to speed up drying time and perfect for under-layers.
5. Linseed oil is your best option for an under-painting, or primary layers, as it ensures speedy and thorough dyeing.
6. Try not to use Linseed oil as a medium for whites and blues as it tends to yellow. Use Poppy oil instead, although it will dry slower.
7. Dry your paintings in the light. Drying them in the dark causes a thin film to arise on the surface.
8. If wrinkles happen on the canvas, it is a sure sign that you have used too much medium.
9. To avoid harsh chemical exposure opt for more natural solvents such as "Turpenoid"
10. To keep your hands clean without destroying them, use a hand cream that is applied before you start to paint. It forms a protective layer that is easily removed with water at the end of a work session, taking any oil stains with it.

Alternately there are non-toxic solvents such as "disolv" Just ask your art store assistant.

Hope this was helpful. Now get painting!

Chandelier Lamp Shades

There are robust-looking chandeliers in wrought iron, crystal chandeliers that are simply drop-dead gorgeous, and candle chandeliers that ooze romance. And lampshade chandeliers are dainty, pretty things. The chandelier frame is a pretty massive, with lampshades that are attached to the top. So it is obvious that this type of chandelier is meant for a large room.

The advantage of a lampshade chandelier is that a dazzling array of moods and designs may be created just by changing the shades. There is no need to dismantle the entire chandelier frame and revamp it. Also, a lampshade chandelier can be readily assembled at home.

In case of such chandeliers, the frame is usually a simple one, mostly made of wood or iron, since it is of no use to have an ornate frame that is going to be hidden by the overhanging shades. It is the type of lampshade being used that determines the look of the chandelier. The shade can be in the shape of the regular cone, a bell or circular like the Chinese-styled lampshades; it can be made of virtually anything ranging from handmade paper, silk, beads or a simple printed fabric. The lampshade may be in some sort of color, so that instead of a clear light you can have a light that diffuses a tinted glow. This can be your choice if you want mood lighting rather than incandescence.

The lampshade can be made to match the furnishings of the room so that in addition to a chandelier that is attuned to the mood of the room, you also have one that is color coordinated with the rest of the room. In fact, this is the only type of chandelier where you can coordinate so easily. When it comes to versatility, the lampshade chandelier is much more successful than other types of chandeliers.

Prison Tattoos and Their Meaning

Prison tattooing is the practice of creating and displaying tattoos in a prison environment. They are often used to portray gang membership, prison status, family bonds, spiritual beliefs and are often used as a form of code and have hidden meanings. Tattooing is forbidden in most prisons and therefore is done in secret, with makeshift tattoo equipment. Within the expanding prison system, tattoos are taken seriously by the inmates and their guards alike. Tattoos obtained while locked up in prison have special significance both to the prisoners themselves as well as back on the streets.

Methods of Tattooing in Prison

There are two standard type of prison tattoo pistols, the spinner and the relay. The relay pistol is much better than the spinner rig-up and is now more widely used. An inmate breaks down his most prized possession, a radio, and removes the transistor. The thin copper wire is then removed which is wrapped around a screw which provides an automatic relay when powered up. The inmate must then somehow acquire bristles from a wire brush from maintenance, and sharpen them to provide the needle. The cylinder is made from a quality mechanical pencil and the armature bar is made with a piece of flexible pallet band and dime size magnet. The tattoo gun is then powered by the transistor of another radio. So owning one of these tattoo “pistols” is quite costly and in prison, “money” can be hard to come by.

Obviously without this equipment, the ole pick and poke method with some type of pin works too.

Prison tattoo ink recipe

Get a metal container, a cut in half soda can is best, and put baby oil and cotton into the can. You then will need a flat piece of metal that can be put over the opening of the can, without covering it. Burn the baby oil and cotton allowing the smoke to hit the metal sheet and blacken it as darkly as possible. You will then scrape all of the black powder off, and repeat. You want to use a credit card or something similar to do this, as razors and other metal scrapers might leave shards in the powder. Put your tattoo powder in a small container, a toothpaste cap is what I recommend, and fill the cap about halfway. Then add a couple drops of clear, scentless, shampoo. Stir thoroughly. Your completed ink should have a pen’s inks consistency, or maybe slightly thicker. To thin your ink, add shampoo, and to thicken it up, add more powder.

Some inmates will simply use the ink out of a pen. There are various methods of concocting an ink recipe and they have all probably been used at one time or another.

Due to the lack of proper equipment and sterile environments in prison, the tattooing in prison poses health risks, such as HIV/AIDS and Hepatitis. However, prisoners are ominously aware of this and take as many precautions as are possible given the conditions under which they are operating.

Many inmates in prison who do tattooing are very talented artists. Having quality tattooing skills is prison is a very lucrative skill to possess. Seasoned tattoo artists in prison stand a far better chance of making “money” than say the inmate who is trying to sling drugs behind the scenes. They also gain the admirable respect of other prisoners as well as the correctional officers themselves. Unlike other mind bending activities such as gossip or gang related stimuli the tattoo artist occupies his mind with skin and art.

Some Prison Tattoo Meanings in North America

Three dots arranged as a triangle – this design is most commonly found between the prisoner’s forefinger and thumb. The design stands for “mi vida loca,” which means “my crazy life.”

Teardrop tattoo – this design is worn by the eye. It indicates the wearer has killed someone or that the person had a friend killed in prison.

Shamrock – this design is worn anywhere on the body and is often found on those belonging to the Aryan Brotherhood. In this case, the shamrock often also includes the number 12, with the 1 standing for “A” and the 2 standing for “B.”

Ace of spades – Worn anywhere on the body, this design is mostly worn by those belonging to either the Aco Town or Asian Boyz gang. The A, which is often placed in the middle of the spade, is meant to symbolize Asian while the spade symbolizes thievery.

The number 13 – this tattoo indicates membership with the Mara Salvatrucha 13 gang.

The number 14 – this tattoo indicates membership with the Nuestra Familia, which is a prison gang. This gang is affiliated with the Nortenos, a street gang.

Area codes – many gang members use the area code to their neighborhood as a tattoo, though this can become outdated as area codes are changed.

Clock with no hands – most commonly placed on the upper arm, this tattoo symbolizes “doing time.”

Spider web – generally found on the elbow, this tattoo is used by white supremacists to demonstrate that they have severely injured or killed one of their “opponents.” The design is also commonly found on people that have been in prison.

Clock faces without hands – doing time

Tombstones with numbers – the years they were inside

Tombstones with numbers and RIP – mourning the death of a friend

Face of female crying – has someone on the outside waiting

SWP – supreme white power

100 % pure – pure white or anglo

Cell window with sun or bird showing – waiting to get out

Other countries such as Russia, Australia, France, UK, China and others all have prisons with inmates who bear tattoos with significant meanings. As a matter of fact, Russia and it’s former republics have a very elaborate array of tattoo meanings.

One very major point inmates consider while getting tattooed is getting caught. If an inmate gets caught getting a tattoo they are subject to a penalty of 15 days of solitary confinement. Being suspected of getting a tattoo as perhaps is indicated by the reddening of the skin where a fresh tattoo has been inked can still bring repercussions, such as being charged. But hey, if your doing life without the possibility of parole does this really concern you a whole lot?

The concept of prison tattoos is hardly a modern one. There is evidence to suggest that prisoners were tattooed as early as Egyptian times. As with many of the tattoos worn by prisoners today, these tattoos also had significant meaning. For example king or pyramid tattoos were worn by those that were very dangerous, such as assassins, head bosses, and masterminds.

Ventrac Tractor and Snow Blower Make Snow Removal Easier

In Deep Snow? Looking for your driveway? We all know that living in an area that is hit heavy with snow can get rough. Winter can throw us the toughest weather and we must find the best way to tackle it. Trying to plow, shovel and push through the snow without a good machine to help can feel like a monumental task, even if it is simply removing snow from the sidewalks. It’s a physically demanding job to do by hand and a powerful tractor can help make winter snow clearing a whole lot easier.

There are a multitude of tractors and snow blowers on the market to help clear snow. And deciding on the one for you can be a daunting task. A tractor that really stands out in my mind as the ultimate snow tackling machine is the Ventrac compact tractor with a V-blade and snow blower attachment. Built with commercial grade components, these tractors and attachments are designed to be tough. And tough is what you need when winter comes along. You need a tractor and snow blower that will hold up to the rigors and challenges of winter weather. And I feel that Ventrac is just that tractor.

Several things make this tractor work well for clearing snow. The compact design makes the tractor small enough to fit nicely on sidewalks. No more clearing sidewalks with a shovel! The strong engine power of the Ventrac, as well as the all wheel drive traction, will help you push through mounds of snow you never thought possible. Attach a V-blade and the tractor will quickly clear your sidewalks of snow, saving you many hours of manual labor!

When your driveway is buried in snow, the snow blower attachment mounts on the front of the tractor so you can clearly see where you are going. This snow blower is a two stage system featuring a 220 degree rotational discharge chute designed to easily throw snow up to 40 feet in distance. Hydraulically controlled, it is extremely easy to operate and can be operated from the seat of the tractor for driver comfort. The tractor also has an optional cab for ultimate driver comfort in the nastiest weather…keeping you warm and dry!

I feel Ventrac is a fantastic machine that can make winter life more bearable and easier to handle. With power enough to take on tough work, yet compactly designed to fit tight spaces, it really is a dream to operate. No longer do you need to dread winter snow and wonder how to deal with tough weather conditions. One tractor will get more done and take less of your time doing it.

Some People Really Do Have a Fear of Elevators

Fear of elevators is actually not just the fear of elevators alone. This is also a fear of small and or enclosed spaces. For some people this can be a fear of being bound or losing control.

Some movie portraits including elevators have worsened this fear for many. Everything from elevators becoming stuck, causing babies to be born inside, to gruesome scenes of plummeting elevators that can be seen in television and the movies.

Frequently people who have a fear of elevators will search frantically for stairs in order to walk instead of using the elevator. At times this can be a good thing. When a person walks instead of taking the elevator, they are getting exercise and improving their health. However, this is not always practical. Think about it, what if you must take the elevator to get to work, and your office is on the twenty first floor? What if you must leave the office and return several times each day? This is simply not feasible.

Certainly, one could manage to avoid using the elevator for the most part. However they would also be creating limitations in their life. One would have to live and work in places where it is reasonable to walk to their destination. They would also have to insure on using lower floors when visiting a hotel.

One way to deal with the fear of elevators is to make "small trips". Try using the elevator to go up just one floor. Then just step out and relax. Do this as frequently as possible. Once one flight has been mastered, and the individual feels less fearful, they should try two floors. This pattern should be continued until they have reached the top floor. The fear of elevators should be at least reduced, if not eliminated.

The fear of elevators is very real, but can be overcome.

The Importance of Using CSS For Effective Website Design

In website design it is important to utilize all tools at your disposal effectively. One of the most useful parts of web design is the design of a good css page. Cascading style sheets are a critical part of any good web design and can provide the backbone for a great website. There are a variety of ways in which they can be utilized to assist in good web design.

The beauty of css is in its simplicity. It provides the platform to really tidy up your website with minimum effort. Furthermore it is extremely easy to learn.

Basic Visual Aspects

Without it the process of organizing and designing the layout of multiple pages would be a slow and arduous process. It allows the developer to apply a set of standards to a set of web pages simply by linking to the css file in the head of each HTML page. This can be applied to the body, background, font, paragraph elements, etc. Through this, the developer can make changes to the sites theme and appearance simply by making changes once in the style sheet page.

Easy Maintenance

Another obvious benefit is that well constructed css makes for easy website maintenance. Unt an issue is restricted to only one page then it can probably be deal with via the css. As a result there is far less time scrawling through multiple pages for a problem. Rathermore if someone other than the author is altering the site then it is far easier to get to grips with the site design through this.

Inline and External CSS

CSS is also not limited simply to a single externally linked page. In most websites this page controls the priority page formatting, but there are options to apply it differently. It is sometimes the case that one particular page may require a different set of standards from the others. Use css can be applied 'inline'. That is to say that it can be set up only to apply one page, a section of a page or even just a single page element. It's that versatile.

Advanced CSS

Clearly css will remain critical to website design and is a big part of promoting a website within SEO UK. In the not too distant future it looks very much like css will see further improvements.

Some developers are looking into object orientated css while browsers are quickly trying to adapt to new functionality which will be available in css3 such as transform and animation properties.

Can I Get Scabies From Infected Toilets?

Short answer: Yes, you can get scabies from an infected toilet seat! Scabies is highly contagious and if the person that used the toilet before you had a bad case of it, they might be lingering on the seat itself, just waiting for you to park your butt down. This is the main reason why you’ll want to do your best to disinfect public toilets before you use them, and why you should keep your bathroom clean at home. While scabies is not common enough to walk around being paranoid all the time, you’ll want to be aware that it does exist and just stay cautious.

If you are experiencing intense itching, you may have contracted a case of the scabies. They are also referred to as the seven year itch. It will develop into a rash and cause an infection if left untreated. The scabies mite itself gets under your skin and burrows it’s way along, all the while cause an severe itching sensation.

You can get scabies anywhere on the body, but their favorite places are in cracks and crevices. Look for them in places like between your toes and fingers, around your waist, in the genital region, the underarms, and for women under the breasts. If you scratch too much you might get a secondary infection like strep or impetigo.

If you are older, or malnourished, or if you have a poor immune system you might get a worse case of scabies, where they can crust over and get really bad. You definitely don’t want to get Norwegian scabies. Do a Google image search for it if you want to be grossed out.

Since there is no vaccine for scabies you just have to use precaution and hope you don’t get it. If you do, your doctor can provide medications that will help calm the itch and kill the scabies mites. Prevention is the best cure, so you should thoroughly clean your home to prevent its spread. Here are some things you can do to make sure you don’t get it, or if you already did get it, to not get it again:

Be sure to treat all furniture and bedding. This makes a lot of sense because it’s where we spend the most time, and provides a nice warm place for scabies bugs to linger. Also you’ll want to vacuum up all floors, carpeting, and any rugs you might have. Use disinfectant like Lysol in the bathroom with a mop on the floor and other smooth surfaces. Be sure to scrub down the shower and tub each time you use it. And lastly, every day you’ll want to wash the clothes you’ve worn that day using hot water, and drying them on the hot setting and them using a steam iron on them.

Show no mercy when it comes to scabies!

How To Install Carpet On Stairs

There are basically two methods of installing carpet on stairs. One is the waterfall method where one piece of carpet covers each riser and tread. The other is the cap and band installation. In this case the cap is a piece of carpet installed over the treads and the band is the piece that will cover the risers. In this article I will show you how to install carpet using the waterfall method. These instructions are for basic stairs and not for spiral stairs which would require additional procedures.

Tools Needed:

Tack strips

Staples or upholstery nails

Measuring Tape

Knee Pads

Knee kicker (check your rental store)

Stair Tool (check your rental store)

Utility knife


Safety glasses

Obviously you’ll need to remove all the old carpet. Get rid of the tack strips and don’t try to use the old padding. Make sure any nails and staples are removed and sweep down the area to be carpeted.

Before you get started you’re going to have to figure out how much carpet you’ll need. To calculate the width simply measure across the tread. If your stairs are open on one or both ends make sure to measure under the nosing to where it meets the riser and add it to the total width. Figure the total length of your flight of stairs by measuring the tread and riser. Assuming your going to use carpet pad make sure to add at least 3 inches per stair. If your steps have nosing add one foot to the total flight measurement.

Okay, let’s get started. Apply the tack strip to the stair crotch location. Next you’ll need to tighten the carpet by tucking in the crotch. You can do this by using a knee kicker. It is a tool used to install carpet in small areas and stairs. It consists of a piece of metal tubing with a pin plate attached to it. On the other end it has a padded cushion where you can position your knee to apply pressure to the carpet. You should be able to find one at your local rental store. Simply place the padded end several inches above your knee and add pressure.

This is where you will use the knee kicker:

To attach to the tack strip you need to use the knee kicker to stretch the carpet straight from the center of the tread and hook it to the tack strip located at the crotch. Once the carpet has been hooked to the tack strip you need to firmly attach it by sliding your carpet tool back and forth to compress the pins. Using your utility knife or carpet knife trim as needed. A carpet knife is better as it has two sides and is sharper than a utility knife. Repeat this process on each side of the tread. Before going to the next tread make sure the carpet is smoothed out on the riser and then staple to the stair lip. I would recommend you staple about every 2 inches. Don’t forget to also staple along the edge of the riser.

Make sure to step back and take a look at your work before going on to the next tread. Is the carpet smooth? Did you kick it in evenly? It is also a good time to give your knees and back a rest. If everything looks good the continue onto the next tread. If not you’ll have to pull the carpet off and install it again. Repeat this process until you are finished.

Once finished stand back and admire your work and give yourself a pat on the back. You now have a beautiful looking staircase.

Dangers Using Wood Stair Cleats – New Stair Construction

I would imagine most people don’t even know what it wood stair cleat is, in construction we have so many words that describe the same thing. A stair cleat is another word for a thread bracket. In other words it’s the part of the stairway that connects the stair stringer to the stair step. These have been used for years and over time, most of them will develop the same problem.

Most wood stair cleats loosened up and create a safety hazard. If the stairs are located outside in extreme weather conditions, for example, if it rains or snows a lot, extremely humid humid weather, or extremely hot and dry temperatures, your staircase might not last that long, if it is or isn’t maintained properly. It’s not a bad idea to use steel or concrete for stairways in these climates.

If you’re ever walking up a set of stairs with wood cleats and the stair steps feel a little loose or wiggly, make sure you examined the stair cleats for safety. It’s not uncommon for someone to be walking up or down a set of wood stairs and having the stair step or tread giveaway because the wood cleats has loosened.

If the wood stair cleats are nailed to the stair stringer, the nails can loosen up, causing it to become loose, as you walk up and down the stairs applying pressure to the stair cleat, this will create movement in between the stair step and the stair stringer. This could cause the cleat to crack, break and separate the connection between the stair step in the stair stringer.

I would suggest using metal brackets instead of wood cleats. The metal brackets will not crack or disintegrate like some wood cleats. Stair building brackets of course can loosen up and should be maintained regularly.

If you decide to use wood stair cleats, I would suggest using screws instead of nails and drilling holes in the wood stair cleats, most of the time this will prevent cracking the cleat. Try to use a thicker material for the stair cleat, for example using a 2 x 4 with lag screws and washers would be better than using a 1 x 4 with nails.

If you’re walking up a set of stairs and a stair step feels loose, contact the owner of the property and let them know, they have a problem with their staircase.

Information on Scaffolding – Temporary Framework

Scaffolding is a temporary framework used in the construction or repair of high rise buildings and other large structures. Usually scaffoldings are made using metal pipes or bamboos. Metal pipes are the preferred material, if the construction site is very high. In Britain, the metal used for scaffolding purpose are called tubes. Bamboos are still popular in Asian countries due to its easy availability and cost effectiveness. The main purpose of scaffolding structure is to provide a safe working place for workers who are involved in working in high rise structures.

Other types of scaffolds are: –

– The birdcage

– Independent scaffold

Single pole scaffold

– Swingstage

– Suspended scaffold

– Hanging bracket scaffold

– Cantilever scaffold

Scaffolding works are abidance to certain safety obligations and the minimum requirements are set out by the authorities. The key elements of a basic scaffolds are: – Ledgers, Standards and Transoms.

Standards are vertical tubes which are used to transfer the entire weight of the structure to the floor where the scaffold rests. These are also called uprights. Ledgers are horizontal poles used to connect between standards. Transoms are always kept in the way which make the right angle with the ledgers. It is a common practice to place main transoms next to the standards to hold the standards in place and to provide extra support to the boards. Main transoms will be connected by intermediate transoms to provide extra support to the boards as well as the scaffoldings.

In order to become a scaffolding success, good foundations are absolutely essential. Even though scaffoldings can be used without foundations, in some conditions such as concrete or similar hard surfaces, it is highly recommended to use base place irrespective of the condition of the floor. The working platform should also meet the safety requirements. These platforms must be close boarded, have enough space and have double guard rails. Since almost all the scaffoldings are dependent structures, the different frameworks used should be tied and fixed to provide stability and security to the scaffoldings.

Different types of ties such as through tie, box ties, lip tie and anchor tie are used in the scaffold construction in accordance with the nature of the structure. While constructing a scaffold, the supported scaffoldings materials such as platforms, legs, poles, frames, brackets, posts and other rigid supports also comes into the scenario. The most common and easy to use scaffolding is the all purpose scaffolding unit. It consist of one horizontal and two vertical cross bars, sockets couplings and ledger pipes. To ensure security, a scaffold should be incorporated in accordance with the scaffold plan and installation. When selecting scaffolding, many things such as the shape, design and location of the building should also be considered.