Renting Self Drive Access Equipment

Ever wondered how workers at construction sites reach those soaring heights when undertaking a construction project? Well, they use what is called access equipment. These are tools that aid people to reach very high sections and/or inner parts of a construction site. This is because a building under construction does not have entry points like the staircase and lifts, and even if they do, it is still not safe to use them since the building is still being constructed. It is therefore important for workers to access those high and inner areas using this very important equipment.

Mobile elevating work platforms

This is a very useful piece of equipment that enables the worker to perform his tasks at very high levels of the project. It is fitted with guard rails and toe boards to prevent the worker from falling to the ground. With this, the worker access his work area faster and easily, hence is able to complete the job in good time. Mobile elevating work platforms has scissor lifts, cherry pickers and vehicle-mounted booms.


These are the most common access equipment in construction sites. There are two main types of ladder, namely leaning ladders and step ladders. Most accidents in the sites are a result of falling from a ladder. As such, their use is constricted to when the task to be performed is considered low risk and the duration of that task is anything between 15 and 30 minutes.


This is a temporary structure that supports workers and material in construction sites. It is a rigging constructed from metal pipes and thick wooden planks which are securely fastened together in a way that should be strong enough to offer support to construction workers.

Renting self drive access equipment

Contractors prefer renting access equipment for their own operation so as to cut on costs. It is therefore imperative that they consider some very vital factors before renting the equipment. They need to check with their employer (the owner of the project) if there are any regulations to be adhered to at the site once they bring the access equipment on site. They should also consider if they will need the hiring company to transport the materials to the site or if they will arrange for the transportation themselves. The working environment of the rented equipment should be looked into as well. There should not be any obstructions that will affect the operations of the machine. If it is to be used indoors, then adequate lighting and ventilation should be in place.

Once they feel they have met all requirements to allow them rent the equipment, then they can proceed and place an order. They should fill in all the necessary documents and retain their own copies for reference. Since this is a self drive, they should ensure that they have enough time on the day of the hire to collect the equipment and drive it to the site. The weather should also be very favorable since adverse weather conditions can affect the state of the equipment to the detriment of the hirer.

Operators both from the construction company and the renting company must assess the machine as soon as it arrives at the site and endorse on the forms that it is in good working condition before any operations can begin. As soon as the work is completed, the machine should be returned to the owner promptly and if there are any damages, they should be settled soonest possible as per their agreement.


Here I have given some brief information on the various types of access platforms available for use on a construction site. I have given specific mention to renting self self drive access equipment because I believe it to be one of the most powerful and effective type of access platform currently available.

Concrete vs Abstract

Words can be classified into two categories: concrete and abstract. All writers use both type of words and both are appropriate depending on the writer's purpose.

Concrete words are specific words that refer to definite persons, places, or things. The word 'church' refers to a general type of building, but 'St. James Catholic Church 'indicates a certain edifice and thus it brings to mind a church that one can see.

Abstract words, on the other hand, are used to discuss general ideas as in the above example. The word 'church' does not bring to mind a specific building nor does it create an image in one's mind. It is a common word but does not picture a particular image in the readers mind. Other abstract words generate an idea, an impression, or a concept that has no specific or tangible existence, so some words are more intangible than others.

Of course, all words have their use. The job of the writer is to use the words appropriate to the message to be sent. If a writer wants to engage the senses, then the choice is concrete words; if the author wants to deal with broad ideas, then abstract words are more suitable.

In today's writing, fiction or non-fiction, the use of concrete words rather than abstract words is preferred, especially in literature or articles. Since concrete words deal with the senses, they are more fitting for fiction.

Strunk and White in The Elements of Style state "Use definite, specific, and concrete language." because these words call up pictures that use the senses.

Ancient Home Heating Systems

Those of us who do not reside in tropical climates depend heavily on our central heating systems once the cold months head our way. Once upon a time, most people depended on wood burning to heat their homes. Luckily, we have much safer means of keeping ourselves warm today.

But where did home heating get its start? Here’s a brief overview of some ancient heating technologies:

Angier March Perkins was a 19th century engineer who spent most of his career in the UK. He was instrumental in developing the technologies of central heating. His first steam heating system was installed in 1832 in the home of John Horley Palmer, Governor of the Bank of England so he could grow grapes in the cold climate.

Then came one of the most important inventions in home heating history – the radiator. Franz SanGalli, a German born in Italy who lived in Russia, invented the radiator in 1855. Being the first person to produce a central heating system, he patented the device in Germany and in America. It wasn’t too long before radiators became standard in new home construction.

But you can go back a couple thousand years to find pretty advanced forms of home heating. The ancient Romans had a heating system called a hypocaust. The word “hypocaust” translates to “heat from below,” which is what the system did. Hypocausts were used to heat public baths and private houses. They were able to do so because the buildings were raised on pillars which allowed heat to pass underneath the floors.

There were also spaces in the walls so hot air and smoke from the furnace could pass through the enclosed areas and out of flues (ducts) in the roof. This helped to prevent dangerous pollution inside buildings.

After the fall of the Roman Empire, the use of hypocausts disappeared, but central home heating systems began to sprout up in the Middle Ages.

Ancient Korea also had a system similar to the Roman’s central heating system, known as the ondol. Also called a gudeul, the ancient Korean underfloor heating dates back to 1000 BC, according to archaeological findings.

Ondols used direct heat transfer from wood smoke to the underside of a thick masonry floor. Here are the main components of the traditional ondol:

  • A firebox or stove (agungi), which was accessible from an adjoining room, typically the kitchen or master bedroom
  • A raised masonry floor with horizontal smoke passages
  • A vertical, freestanding chimney on the opposite exterior which proves a draft. The heated floor is supported by stone piers or baffles to distribute the smoke. They are covered by stone slabs, clay and an impervious layer, like oiled paper.

Different Kinds Of Steel Buildings

There are many different ways to construct a building, all dependent upon your design, budget, and purpose. Structures can be made of metal, wood, plastic, or many other things. The article below will discuss steel buildings and how they vary by type, giving the advantages, disadvantages, and basic structure of each type.

Quonset Hut

This is the simplest kind of all steel structures. The design is self supporting, with no interior posts or beams. The entire building will be in an arched shape. Older style models look like one complete arch, like a cylinder cut in half, whereas newer models have straight walls and an arched ceiling, similar to a mailbox. These kinds of buildings are generally used in warehouse settings where no insulation or interior decoration is needed. It is by far the cheapest type of structure, and is quite durable, both against weather and human interference. No heavy equipment is required to erect it, and it is easy to move if you only want a temporary building. Of course, it has its disadvantages in that it tends to be very limited in terms of size, as it gets very difficult to install if it gets too big. Also, since it looks rather unattractive, and does not fit into a residential area, zoning restrictions may be a problem.

I-Beam Buildings

This is the most common type that is made. They basically consist of steel beams placed vertically as trusses, with more steel pieces shaped like either the letter "c" or "z" places horizontally between them for added support. This whole thing is then insulated, covered in sheeting, and given doors and windows. This is a common industrial building due to being simple, it can be virtually any size, and it usually requires no interior posts to hold it up. It also does not require cement to be laid over the whole floor for a foundation, making it ideal for a structure such as a horse riding arena. It can come in different colors and be decorated to a degree. However, it is very limited in terms of shape. You are stuck with either a basic square or rectangle, and a very shallow roof slope. Because of these cosmetic limitations there are often zoning problems in residential neighborhoods. It also requires a lot of heavy equipment to erect.

Hybrid Buildings

These structures use both metal and wood to complete. They are by far the most versatile when it comes to shape and decoration. These buildings still have steel trusses, but the horizontal support pieces are made of wood. The sheeting on the outside can also be much more versatile, as it can be made of steel, vinyl, brick or many other materials. This is an excellent building choice when it comes to uses such as residences, businesses, or even churches. However, it is the most expensive. Also, if looks are not important it can be inefficient, as the metal is often slightly thinner and less durable, and the steeper ceiling slopes are less energy efficient.

As you can see, all these types have their advantages and disadvantages. You are On looking the if at repute steel buildings , be sure to evaluate the what you want it for, how much you are On willing to spend, and where to want it to decide what is best for you.

Safety Tips for Working on Old Roofs!

Working on roofs is a dangerous job since it involves a significant risk of falling. With old roofs, the risk is several times more serious. The ridge and trusses may have already aged to a point where they are too weak to bear any kind of load, making it a very dangerous place to work. Keep in mind that it is still best to place these kinds of jobs in the hands of a professional roofer. If a repair is really necessary and professional help is not available, the following are some important safety tips to follow.

  • Proper Attire – Proper attire is important when working on an old roof. A hard hat to protect a worker’s head from falling debris and rubber-soled shoes to prevent sipping when walking on steep slopes should be worn. Gloves should also be worn for handling broken shingles.
  • Equip Lightly – A worker should be as light weight as possible so as not to put too much strain on weakened support structures. Working with too much weight could potentially cause the roof to collapse. Only the tools that are necessary for the job should be carried and a worker’s body weight should be considered as well before beginning the job. A worker should never be heavier than what the structure is capable of supporting.
  • Reliable Equipment – Safety greatly depends on the equipment that is being used and any such as ladders, safety lines, or scaffolding should be inspected and tested. Lightweight aluminum equipment should be used to reduce the weight applied to the roof’s support structure. When using apparatus such as ladders and scaffolding, be sure to wear rubber-soled shoes to avoid slipping when at a steep angle. Determine the weight and reach capacity of the equipment before using to ensure that it is appropriate for the job.
  • Support Structures – Before climbing onto the structure, the most important step is to assess the condition of the support structures such as the rafters and the trusses. Old buildings will likely have weak supports that may no longer be able to carry a worker’s weight. In such cases, some type of reinforcement should be installed first before making the climb. If the damage is too extensive and the supports are no longer safe to handle weight, then the job should definitely be left to a professional roofer as the savings from the repair would offset the cost of any medical bills if an accident were to occur.
  • Planks – When climbing, always use a plank or plywood as a platform to equally distribute the weight on the shingles. This will prevent weight from being concentrated in one small spot and reduce the risk of falling in case the roof has already become very weak. This will also prevent further damage to the structure itself.
  • Safety Harness – A very important type of safety equipment that will protect a worker is a safety harness. This harness should be attached to the worker at all times while on the roof performing the repair. The safety harness will stop a fall and prevent serious injury.

Whenever possible, climbing onto an older housetop to make any kind of repairs should be left to professionals, as they are well-equipped and trained for this type of job. These safety tips for working on old roofs should only be used if professional help is not immediately available and immediate action is required. Be careful!

Excellent Christmas Table Decorations Ideas

Christmas decorations include outdoor decorations, indoor decorations, Christmas table decorations and other such similar decorations to create the feel of the festive season. Christmas table decorations have always been close to heart; especially to female members of the family who love to decorate the table where everyone would dine. The decoration of the table needs to be something eye-catching and something different from regular table decorations.

The following few tips of table decorations can help you decorate the table for Christmas according to your wish:

First decide the theme of the decoration and the colors that you would consider decorating the Christmas table / s. People usually use the old Christmas colors like red, white, green, silver, and gold. You can think of adding one or two colors extra to these lots or use a mix of the any two of these colors to get another new color.

Laying a Christmas wreath at the center of the table can be the beginning of a perfect table decoration. This can be then ornamented with other objects that one would like to use a theme of the decoration. If there is no time to think about the theme; the bows, ribbons, flowers always come to your rescue. You can place several tapers and large candle inside the wreath. Such a decoration makes a table lively and having dinner in such a table can be really vivacious.

Instead of using traditional centerpiece one can use Hurricane Lanterns in a row. If you do not use hurricane lanterns row, use one hurricane and stemware filled with glass marbles, berries, nuts and beads or any such kind of festive objects that will do the need of Christmas table decorations. You can use long strands of ribbons tied with small bells to flow around the decoration to make it more mesmerizing.

Thus, this is how you can create indigenous ideas for table decorations during Christmas.

Concrete Staining – The Most Frequent Problem "Do-It-Yourselfers" Run Into

The most frequent phone call I receive out of the phone book usually goes something like this, “Hi, I have a back patio that I wanted to stain and I went up to __________(fill in the blank with one of your local chain home improvement stores) to pick up some “concrete stain” and now it’s flaking off. Is there something I can do to stop the flaking?”

Some customers have even gone to the extent of contacting the company to complain about the product and most of the companies will send a “stripper” and more product to re apply. I am not here to trash those companies, but to explain the very important difference between an ACID stain and a concrete stain. An acid Stain is a chemical reaction. Any other generic stain (that I’ve seen) from your home improvement chains are coatings.

So, I’ll usually take a drive out to the home of the disgruntled caller. I’ll measure up the patio and give a quote on how much it will cost to grind the coating completely off and acid stain the new canvas. That’s usually the last time I talk to them, because what started as a project that would have cost no more than a few hundred dollars and a weekend, turns into a labor intensive, relatively costly, fix. However; the result from staining a freshly ground surface, is beautiful. The aggregate in the concrete becomes slightly exposed, leaving a terrazzo like finish.

In any case, if you are going to stain your concrete, get out a phone book or get online and look up local concrete supply stores. Make sure that the stain you buy is an acid stain. Once you’ve done that, you have to carefully execute the steps in the right order. The most common problems I hear about with actual acid stain results are as follows; white foggy areas in the sealer, wrong color, areas where the stain did not react, and the acid stain not even taking at all.

White Foggy areas in the stain are caused from a few different things that I know of. The most common cause is that the person who applied the stain either neglected to neutralize the acid, or did not neutralize the acid at all. To neutralize the acid, you can go get some ammonia and cut it with water, then mop it all over the concrete or put it in a sprayer and coat the concrete. Then hose it off, or if you’re inside, mop it up. You should be able to rub a cloth across the slab afterward and pick up hardly any residue. Next, let it dry completely. That can be another reason for flaking cloudy sealer… If you are trying to fix sealer that is already ruined, go get some cheap bedsheets and some xylene. Lay the bedsheets flat across the concrete and soak them in xylene. Let them dry and crust up and then dispose of them. If you need to, do it again. Then neutralize and seal. Make sure you get a sealer from the concrete supply store that has a high solids content. If the foggy marks return in the sealer you are probably facing a more serious problem. Sometimes concrete slabs are poured over ground that retains too much moisture and if there is no moisture barrier the moisture can actually be drawn up through the surface of the concrete and weaken the sealer. At that point, I would go with tile.

WRONG COLOR… Acid Stain is a chemical reaction with the cement in the concrete. The actual color is based on many variables. Some of them are controlled variables and others are not. This is important to understand. You can only apply acid stain so many different ways. The concrete has more control over the color than the person executing the application. If you are going to get on the ground with a color chart and compare, you are not going to be happy. Start light with diluted acid stain and get darker from there. The stage immediately after staining was designated the “freak-out” stage by my old boss. When the concrete stain has dried and the sealer has not been applied, it often looks like rust. Don’t worry about it. To see something close to the color that will be achieved through sealer, just get an area wet again.

STAIN DID NOT REACT. Since Acid Staining is a chemical reaction, anything in the pores of the concrete or on the surface will either block the stain from reacting completely, or change the reaction. Often people pull up there carpet, do a little floor sanding, and stain. This is fine if you like the result, but some people hate it. Paint,carpet glue, chemical spills, and other things on the concrete, never completely go away unless you grind them down…or you can overlay, and that is another article at another time. I would give the same advice for finding an overlay as I would an acid stain. Stay away from generic resurface products.

If the stain did not take at all anywhere, there is probably a cure and seal product on the concrete. You’ll have to strip it or grind it or overlay… If it is an outside slab, chances are it has just been suspect to the elements for too long. Often the pores are clogged with dirt and the cream has worn off the top leaving small aggregate and sand exposed. Sand will not stain. The result achieved through staining a slab in this condition would be the same result as if you hosed it down. Same advice here, grind down or, if it’s not cracked and shifting, find a good over-lay. Then start over.

How Water to Gas Technology Works

CarsOnWater, Water4Gas, YourCarRunsOnWater, FuelFreeTrips, DriveOnWater, MagicPotionNo9. Does that sound familiar? These very well could be a few of the site names offering technologies that run cars on Hydrogen (HHO, Brown’s Gas or Hydroxy), a gas derived from water. Such are the principal water to gas participants in today’s market.

So EXACTLY how does this technology work?

If you decide to convert your vehicle to such a system and decide to call one or more of these companies, fear not. They will never expect you to fill your gas tank with tap water. Nor will they expect you to invest in a brand-new car featuring a water to gas engine. Why? Actually the answer is quite simple.

You do not have to alter your engine or you car’s electronic computer to garner results.

Each water to gas conversion kit consists of the various necessary parts, all of which can be easily assembled at home during a weekend. The only requirements are a few basic tools. The conversion kit itself consists of the following:

Electrolyzer (or “Hydrogen Generator”): these are the quart-sized containers made to hold approximately 950cc of everyday tap water or distilled water (based on the conversion kit manufacturers requirements). These containers can be glass, metal or plastic.

MAP Sensor Enhancer: this electronic device cuts back fuel consumption with no engine or computer modifications.

Vaporizer: supplies water vapor to cool the engine while improving combustion and fuel economy.

Fuel Heater: pre-heats gasoline for improved fuel economy, using only the radiator’s energy that would otherwise be wasted. This device requires no radiator or radiator hose modifications.

PCV Enhancer: another great companion to your hydrogen system designed to improve PCV (positive crankcase ventilation) function, protect your engine and, yes, save gas.

Fuse holder and wiring: connect to the 12 volts.

Vacuum T-connector: connects to the vacuum line for feeding the hydrogen and oxygen into the engine.

Catalyst: common bicarbonate of soda.

Pure hydrogen is dangerous, especially when stored in containers in large compressed amounts. The result could be an explosion. However, we all know that water can not explode. This is the reason water to gas conversion kits do not utilize pure hydrogen. Because hydrogen is already in a compressed state or present in water, it is safely and readily released and utilized. So when HHO is produced, its by-product is water. No harmful chemicals will be emitted from such a system. The only space requirements is enough room under the vehicle’s hood to secure a quart sized container to hold water and catalyst. The catalyst is the substance used to help the electricity separate break down the water into usable HHO. Nothing happens without the catalyst. The preferred catalyst? Ordinary baking soda. Pick-up a box at your local grocery store or out of your kitchen cabinet.

Water is converted to HHO gas using the car battery’s electricity. The quart-sized jar containing water with a little bit of baking soda is secured under the hood and then wired to the car’s battery. The necessary vacuum action and electricity is drawn from the engine, the combination of various elements produces the subsequent HHO gas, which is then fed to the carburaetor. The device connects to the battery via the ignition switch, thus preventing hydrogen production when the engine is off and minimizing draw on your vehicle’s battery.

Recognizing how safe and easy water to gas conversion kits are to assemble provides one view of an alternative way to save at the gas pump. That said, it’s critically important that we adhere to the provided instructions to achieve optimum results while acting in a safe and responsible manner.

Fractional CO2 Laser

Fractional CO2 laser resurfacing is one of the hottest cosmetic trends in the nation. In a time when skin rejuvenation and youthfulness is of the utmost importance, Fractional CO2 lasers can give people the skin they want and do much good without the need for surgical procedures. Other forms of treatment like Smartxide DOT CO2 treatments are also beneficial, but there are drawbacks to both types.


The process of fractional CO2 laser resurfacing is simple on the surface but slightly more complicated underneath. The fractional CO2 laser used breaks up a beam into several smaller beams with space in the middle. The space has a function as well as the beams themselves. The beams cause skin damage to an extent that the skin "orders" the production of more collagen and consequently leads to facial rejuvenation. The spaces between the beams promote the healing process because if the entire area is damaged by the beams proper healing will be slower and more frustratingly painful.

Smartxide Dot CO2

DOT therapy, or Dermal Optical Thermolysis, is a form of skin treatment that is said to be outshining fractional CO2 lasers in effectiveness. The downtime and recovery / healing time of fractional CO2 laser resurfacing is much more than one could get from a Smartxide DOT CO2 treatment. The process is basically the same, only a pre-set laser setting decides where to perform it and does it. DOT may be a fit name, because Smartxide DOT CO2 treatments create thousands of tiny microscopic holes in the skin, immediately urging the skin to tighten up and produce collagen, leaving the skin looking firmer and more beautiful than ever.

Fraxel Repair

Fraxel repair is a form of fractional CO2 laser resurfacing in which the dermatologist and patient together decide on a portion of the skin to be damaged by the fractional CO2 laser. During the process, the laser damages the determined portion of skin and leaves a good area of ​​skin around each part to help healing come more quickly and with less pain. Fraxel repair is relatively new (first debuted in 2008) and it is still being determined how effective and safe it is, but it is estimated that women from their 30s to their 50s with mild to moderate lines and wrinkles, as well as acne scars and unwanted discolorations can have these problems solved with Fraxel repair without having to have surgical facial procedures like face lifting.


There are a couple of concerns with these types of facial rejuvenation, however. The long recovery or downtime that is required after a procedure like this is often slightly painful and unseemly. For up to three weeks after the procedure is done it is likely that the patient will not be fully healed. On top of that, it is possible for extreme redness to last for up to three months afterward, and the threat of infection from a procedure like this is not small and should be taken very seriously when considering this type of procedure.

Seven Common Questions About Outdoor Metal Sculpture Restoration

1. What are common things that have to be restored?

The most common outdoor pieces that need to get restored are bronze and zinc sculptures, historical markers and plaques and monuments. Granite, marble, sandstone and limestone mounts and bases of the outdoor pieces sometimes need some restoration, especially if installed poorly. Architectural features on buildings made from bronze, zinc and steel, limestone, sandstone, marble and granite often require restoration.

2. What causes the problems (vandalism, environmental degradation, erosion, age, etc.)? Or what is the most common problem? Can you give examples?

All the things you mention cause problems. The most common of these is most likely from continuous exposure to the environment – water freezing and thawing causing expansion and contraction, airborne grit and grime, freezing rain, direct sun/heat, acid rain (sulfides) all cause potential problems.

Vandalism to historical monuments and architecture is a problem in cities. Graffiti is a big issue in some areas – some of the mediums used are abrasive and acidic. If these problems are not treated carefully damage can occur. Others suffer from theft for the value of the metal or for collectable value. Other times vandals are just destructive for no apparent reason.

A not so obvious cause for problems are deficiencies in design and/or execution in the finishing process of the castings at the foundry. Small cracks on the surface could indicate crystaline separation in the cooling process due to uneven cooling of the molten bronze. Abrupt transition in thickness can cause this separation along with the moisture-retaining porosity under the surface.

Heat tears and porous metal under the surface due to molten metal not cooling properly can cause problems from the inside out and repairs must be done properly. Sometimes foundries have left the internal investment material inside the extremities as well as torsos. With the presence of moisture the investment will, over time, leach out of cracks and porous areas in a calcified form laden with sulfides. Weep holes are extremely important in strategic places to allow moisture to drain thus not allowing any standing water to freeze and crack the surrounding area. The weep holes which are about 1/8″ in diameter help ventilate and dry the inside of the sculpture.

3. Are there any organizations against the restoration of sculptures? Why?

Usually opposition is due to budgetary concerns. Unfortunately the most resistance comes from not providing funding for proper maintenance in the first place which could prevent major deterioration and expenses in the long run.

Items of antiquity are another topic. In these cases special consideration should be taken. Only conservation work should be done and it should be done sparingly. A lot of this work today is done using optics. These pieces should not be displayed outside but rather protected from the elements and extreme temperature fluctuations.

4. What is the average cost of a restoration?

Cost can range from several hundreds of dollars to thousands. Some factors are:

SCAFFOLDING. Will scaffolding be required? Some monument restorations require elaborate scaffolding and there are companies that have the right equipment and professionals to safely erect the scaffolding. These companies are fully insured and the restorer/conservator should be as well. I consider qualified individuals with the training, experience, expertise and successfully executed portfolio of work to be conservators and restorers in objects of art.

METALOLOGICAL ANALYSIS. Metallurgical analysis can be done on corrosion specimens or on any other factor that concerns the project. The Conservators/Restorers can confer with each other for the best and safest direction for the project.

WHO WILL DO THE JOB. Will a certified conservator be required or will an accomplished craftsmen be allowed to bid?

I would consider choosing the person most experienced and knowledgeable for the task. They should be thoroughly versed in the lost-wax casting techniques and the entire finishing and patination procedures. So, the most qualified person would be a conservator/restorer who is articulate, thorough, mindful of the pitfalls, and capable of performing every aspect of the project to its end.

It takes literally years of experience to learn to successfully make the necessary repairs flawlessly. When older sculptures and monuments were made, the artisians doing the final work were truly masters of their craft. They may have started when they were only 14 years old and by the time they were in their 30’s they were truly masters. The old way is beautiful and should be respected and vigorously protected.

LOCATION. Is the piece easily accessible or hard to get to? Both situations are quite frequent.

INSURANCE. Is there an issue with insurance liability on the particular property?

SCOPE. How much damage or repair is required?

5. What goes into restoring a sculpture? How long does it take? What resources does it consume? How is it done?

An evaluation is done to determine the extent of damage including STRUCTURAL as well as SURFACE damage. A preliminary inspection is done on the entire surface and structurally if necessary. If a chemical or metallurgical analysis is required this process could take a month or more.

Finishing mistakes are usually not repaired, however bends are certainly something to be addressed. Pieces missing or broken off and beyond repair are a major concern. In these cases the fabrication of new ones will be necessary. Those will have to be sculpted on the piece. The sculpted part would be taken to a studio where an RTV rubber mold or other type would be made.

A wax would be made from this mold. The thickness, if possible would be about a ¼” thickness or slightly less. This will help ensure a good casting. The replacement parts would be cast in the lost wax process by a qualified art foundry. The rough castings would be taken back to the studio for the final finishing process.

When a part has to be reattached there are several steps including fitting, welding and proper finishing. Each step should be done carefully so the final surface will look seamless. After the attachment is complete and patination performed, the sealing process would be next. When all work is complete there should be no evidence whatsoever of the restoration. Sometimes a particular finishing chisel will have to be forged and cut to duplicate a particular surface treatment or modeling.

In addition to parts being broken off and missing, other structural damage can include bends, dents, cracks.

Surface damage is usually corrosion. In this case will the entire piece need to be repatinated or just a portion. If just a portion, then extra time and effort is involved in matching it to the rest of the piece. This is where it is important that an experienced, knowledgeable craftsman is on the job.

Supplies include but are not limited to solvents, mineral spirits, xylene, waxes, incralac*, walnut media, chemicals for coloring. *Incralac is a product I like to use. It is an acrylic lacquer for sealing copper bearing alloys and has corrosion inhibitors. It also provides excellent UV protection.

Tools include a regular toolbox (screwdrivers, pliers, nuts and bolts etc) but also drills, welders, scaffolding, air compressors…

6. Does it cost more to just resculpt the object? Would it be more time and cost effective to start from scratch?

YES it costs more to resculpt the object.

7. What is the value of restoring old bronze sculptures?

Esthetics, beauty, sentiment. Historical value. Human traffic to the site, tourism. People will not be include to go out of their way to visit an unsightly piece of artwork anymore than they would go to a park where the grass is overgrown and full of weeds!

Coffee Table Decor

Nothing in decorating is as overlooked as the potential for coffee table décor. These small pieces of furniture are often the last thing thought of when looking for a way to freshen a room. Often it is not necessary to buy all new furniture to make a major change. You can change the coffee tables themselves, change their arrangement or use them as a canvas to create a piece of art!

Coffee Tables

When it comes to choices in coffee tables, there really is no end to the possibilities. You can use them to accent the current furnishings, or choose a set that stands out. Whether they blend or pop will be entirely up to you and your style.


Bold coffee tables are those that are unique and catch your eye when you walk in the room. Take for instance a rolling glass coffee, this contemporary piece is oval shaped with smart polished tubular legs. The glass on the table waterfalls down in a tiered fashion, this table is one of the most unique pieces you will ever see!

Similar bold statements can be made with a coffee table called Vanessa, this is a solid ½-inch glass coffee table fashioned in a U shape. The legs are small casters for maneuvering ease. You can be sure that people will comment on either of these wonderful tables.


Perhaps you fancy more sedate look for your home that does not mean it cannot be spectacular. Consider a Spanish Mission Style cocktail table. A dark wood and glass combination that sets upon scrolled ironwork is not only tasteful and elegant it is dramatic. Beautiful woodworking and rounded corners make this piece gorgeous and family safe!


Are you country at heart and long for the days of saloons and gingham? There is a style of coffee table décor for you as well.

The round Desperado Coffee table will compliment the most rustic of styles. Constructed of reclaimed teak wood these tables are decay resistant and sturdy. The top is a full 41 inches around and sits atop a solid teak base that stands 20 inches high, there is even a drawer in the bottom to hide your pistol!

Artistic Decorating

If you were not in the market for new table’s maybe, you would like to use what you already have to change the ambiance. A well-placed lamp along with a lacy doily can effect a softening of the room.

Use tables as a place to display your favorite holiday pieces as well. Santa on his sleigh with a bit of cottony “snow’ for accent will put everyone in the holiday spirit.


Whatever your pleasure be it old or new do not overlook you the small pieces in decorating. Coffee table décor is a fun way to achieve a whole new look without breaking the bank!

The Advantages of Using Concrete and Jersey Barriers

It is often necessary to use barricades and barriers in different situations. They can be used to prevent access to restricted areas or to ensure that vehicular and pedestrian traffic moves in specific directions.

Often we see barricades being used to cordon off construction sites. In such cases crowd concrete barriers are used to promote safety and to ensure that visitors do not inadvertently move into risky areas. Also, when a special event takes place – say for a public meeting or sports meet – it becomes necessary to use barriers to ensure that the traffic moves in the right direction. In the absence of such barricades, an ugly traffic jam could result very quickly.

We have seen some examples of barriers being used as temporary measures. Similarly, on highways, there is often construction work going on, and it becomes necessary to cordon off a part of the highway to direct or restrict traffic. In such cases, highway concrete barriers are used for great effect. These measures can be temporary and the barricades can be removed as soon as the event is over, or the construction work is complete. Even on a regular or ongoing basis, people often use barriers to block access to certain areas. Barricades are also used to great effect as road dividers, and this can be for a long term.

There are several other uses to which concrete barriers have been put. For example, they can be used to block or stop out of control vehicles, or vehicles which are being chased. A barrier strategically placed in the path of the vehicle can bring the vehicle to a stop. These barriers can also be used to shore up sand piles or piles of debris.

Jersey barriers, as they are commonly called have also been used to great effect as noise control agents, particularly in construction sites. In a construction site, noise is a part of the scheme of things. If these barriers are placed strategically around the noise pollution area, they tend to absorb much of the noise and thus act as sound control agents.

These barriers have their origin in the construction industry and are produced in many different designs to suit specific requirements. However, their use has spread out much wider than just the construction industry, into many different areas of life. Construction barriers are indeed a great boon to many industries and businesses.

Car Heater Not Working – Blowing Cold Air!

There are several reasons why your car’s heater may be blowing cold air, instead of heat. It is important to understand how the heater works in your car before you can begin to try to diagnose why it is not working. First, there is NOT an electric heater element in the heater system in automobiles, like in portable heaters used in the home. The part that transfers heat into the passenger compartment is called a heater core. A heater core can be thought of as a miniature radiator. The car engine’s coolant flows through the heater core while the fan (also called a blower), blows air through the heater core fins. When air blows through the heater core fins, it is warmed, therefore warming the passenger compartment.

Start by checking the coolant. As we already said coolant is what warms the heater core. So if the coolant is low, there may not be a sufficient amount of warmth to transfer heat to the air in the passenger compartment. Since it ‘s cold outside, low coolant may not effect the operating temperature of the engine significantly, so you won’t be alerted to a coolant problem by the temperature gage on the instrument panel. Once the coolant is full, feel the heater hoses that go through the firewall. With the engine at normal operating temperature, BOTH of the heater hoses should be hot to the touch. If only one is hot, this indicates there is is a blockage in the heater core or there is air trapped in the heater core. Using a Lisle coolant funnel is helpful in purging the air from the cooling system. If the coolant is really brown, has been neglected, or if “stop leak” has been used at some point, the heater core could be stopped up. The blockage can sometimes be unstopped by removing the heater hoses and using a garden hose with a sprayer to flush the heater core out. If neither of the hoses are hot to the touch, there could also be a malfunctioning heater control valve, if used on the model you’re working on. Check for presence of a heater control valve by following the heater hoses back to the engine. Sometimes, a vacuum line could have a break causing there to be no vacuum to operate the valve. Also it should be noted that if this is your first winter with this car (and you’re unfamiliar with the car’s repair history), the previous owner could have by-passed the heater core because of a leak. When a heater core leaks, usually they wet the passenger side floorboard. The labor cost to change heater cores is usually expensive, so sometimes people will loop the heater hoses and by-pass a leaking heater core instead of repairing it properly.

Next check for proper airflow. After you’re sure the heater core is getting hot water flow, read the following information. Doors within the heater case are either controlled by electric actuators, cables or vacuum motors. Adjust the heat control to both extremes while listening for movement of the blend door. With a cable operated heater door it’s easiest to hear the door thump when it closes. If the door is not operating, find the door that controls the airflow across the heater core. If there is an electric motor that controls the door, tapping on it can sometimes make it work temporarily for testing purposes. A vacuum operated motor needs vacuum to work, so using a handheld vacuum pump for testing is usually recommended. If the vacuum motor does not hold vacuum, the diaphragm is leaking requiring replacement. To go deeper into diagnoses of the control head’s function and diagnosis, specific vehicle repair manual information is needed. But hopefully the basics laid out in this article has helped to get you started on the right track. 

Gymnastics Warm-Ups for Gymnast Safety

The primary reason to warm-up that everyone agrees upon is to warm-up your body and muscles, ie to raise your body temperature.

Warm-up All Major Joints

You will want to do a complete warm-up. The first step is to warm up the muscles with some type of moderate aerobic exercise such as jogging for a few minutes until your body temperature rises. Then you want to stretch and warm-up all of your body's major joints – Ankles, Knees, Hips (Splits), Back, Shoulders, Wrists, and Neck.

NOTE: You do not want to stretch your knees or elbows past a straight line position because excess flexibility can contribute to problems.

Pre-Stretch Your Body and Muscles

Warm-ups can pre-stretch the muscles to prepare them for any potential purposeful or accidental stretching of the muscles during the workout. Depending on the workout, structuring warm-up can allow gymnasts to spend a period of time working before practice on increasing flexibility.

Build Up to the Intensity Level of Your Upcoming Workout

Warm-ups can be a method to build up to the level of intensity that your workout will be. Warm-ups can also be a time to spend time learning some new skills and drills. We frequently use warm-up time to develop skills for FX and beam.

Transition to Tumbling

Warm-ups also provide an excellent transition into line tumbling, beam line tumbling and tumbling practice.

Vary the Warm-Up

For variety, sometimes it can be fun to wear weight vest and ankle weights during some warm-ups, warmup on the tumble tramp or even on the beam.

Take the Time to Prepare for Practice

Take the time to carefully prepare your body for the stress of practice and anything that might happen during practice.

Train to Compete

Warm-ups are also an excellent time when the team is all together to increase competition experience with contests, like handstand contests. This can also serve to build team spirit with this type of intra-squad team competitions.

Cleaning Composite Decks

Today’s consumers are realizing that no wood or wood product exposed to weather is going to be completely maintenance-free. Even exotic woods like Ipe require periodic cleaning and sealing as the natural oils within the wood dry out. All exterior lumber used in deck construction should be maintained every year to protect it from the elements and ground in dirt.

Composite lumber varies from manufacturer to manufacturer, but it appears that all of the popular ones contain wood particles (these ground particles are called “wood flour” by the industry). That means that any of these particles on or near the surface of the board, no matter what they are mixed with, will react to Mother Nature the same way all wood does. Graying and staining are common problems – and the stuff of nightmares for deck owners. Manufacturers are getting calls every day from end users about these issues, and deck restoration contractors are stepping in with the fix.

Cleaning composite decks is important to keep the material looking its best. Properly cleaning composite decks should be done with a composite wood cleaner that is designed specifically for these unique materials. Some manufacturers have suggested using bleach or oxygenated bleach to clean the wood, but the results have been varied. Most pressure washing contractors who do deck renewal are finding success through products made especially for this problem, such as Flood’s Composite Wood Cleaner. The key to this particular product is in the surfactants and cleaning chemicals in its formula.

This guide will give you the basic steps that should be used to get the best results when cleaning composite deck materials.

Preparing the composite deck: Sweep debris like leaves, twigs and dirt off the deck first. Then rinse off the composite lumber to cool it off and remove heavy built up deposits of dirt and mud. Rinsing off the composite deck first will cool the surface and prevent the possibility of flash drying the composite cleaner when it’s applied. Also wet down plants and grass around the deck and if necessary, Cover plants, grass, concrete and any other areas you don’t want the composite cleaner getting on.

Remove any stains on composite decks first! Use oxalic, citric or phosphoric acid-based cleaners to remove rust stains from metal furniture. These will also help remove leaf stains.

Use commercial degreasers containing propylene glycol, sodium hydroxide, and various detergents for removing grease and oil stains.

Spot removers or mineral spirits may be used carefully on stubborn grease or oil stains but should be washed off quickly with water, as it can damage the grain pattern. Spot removers normally include petroleum distillates, xylene, methanol, acetone, or other organic solvents. Use caution if the composite lumber has embedded color, as some solvents may affect the appearance. As always, test your cleaner on an inconspicuous spot.

To remove light mildew wash your composite deck periodically with a cleaner that contains or is mixed with Sodium Hypochlorite.

The cleaning process:

Apply your composite deck cleaner on the railings and floor in manageable sections. Cleaning too large of an area at a time may allow the composite cleaner to dry on the surface which can cause discoloration in some materials. Once the composite cleaner has sat on the surface according to the directions, carefully power wash the surface in the direction of the grain, using less than 800 PSI. Use the pressure washer to “rinse” the surface. Avoid holding the nozzle too close to the composite surface or holding it in any one spot too long. Hold the pressure wand about 8″ away from the surface and “sweep” it off in a rinsing motion. Use a “golf swing” motion, and avoid washing each square inch of the surface. Keep the wand moving smoothly over the surface to avoid leaving marks. Proper technique determines the results, so take some time to practice when you are able to. Once you have completed that section, treat the next area and continue until the job is completed.

For regular maintenance, rinse off your composite deck periodically with a hose. Even if your deck appears clean, it is important to prevent build-up of pollen and other debris. Mildew stains may occur where moisture, pollens, and/or dirt are present. Mildew needs a food source to grow, which can be grass, pollens, dirt, debris, wood and wood resins.

To repair scratches, nicks, cuts and grooves in most composite decking materials you can try using a brass wire brush. Brushing will need to be consistent with the grain of the composite material and the brushed area will weather back in approximately 8-10 weeks. Make sure you try this in a hidden area first! Some materials could become discolored or damaged from wire brushing.

High-pressure washing of composite decks is not necessary or advisable. Instead, hire a properly trained pressure washing company to do it correctly and safely. Or if you must do it yourself, use the proper-strength composite lumber cleaners to do all the work for you. Then you simply RINSE using your pressure-washer. Doing it the right way means using your pressure washer to agitate slightly with MODERATE pressure and HIGH water volume. Use the pressure washer responsibly. Too much pressure on the surface of composite lumber can cause damages.