Adequate Techniques to Ensure Lung Efficiency

The respiratory system consists of air tubes and two lungs, each of which is enclosed in an airtight space called pleural cavity. The main air tube, the trachea, extends from the larynx and divides into two main tubes (the bronchi), each of which enters a lung where they branch into multitude of smaller tubes called bronchioles. Respiratory diseases are becoming more common all over the world, particularly highly industrialized countries.

It is very good to know lung condition every day so that when there is a little change you will easily detect and report to your doctor fast before any complications. The following tests are an adequate step to take for lung efficiency.

Expiration test: a stopwatch is used for this test. Take a deep breath; then, with mouth wide open, blow out as fast and as hard as possible. Normal time required is three (3) to four (4) seconds (slightly less time for a young person, slightly more for an older person). Six seconds or longer indicates some obstruction of the lungs which could mean chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and other pulmonary ailments.

Chest expansion test: Measure the chest with a tape measure after normal exhalation (breath out). In measuring male run the tape measure across the nipples; for females, just under the breasts. Measure again at the fullest point of expansion and at the peak of inhalation (breath in). Minimum expansion is from one and half (1) to two inches. If it is less, the lungs have lost elasticity. In this case you to go and check in the hospital by physician.

The lungs are very important to our health and so a continuous check of its efficiency will help. You have to you see a medical doctor if you did not get normal value for expiration and chest expansion after the above test to avoid complication which may result in death.

Art Deco Table Lamps

In the last article I discussed the core basics of Art Deco lamps. In this one I’ll dive into some specifics on one particular type of lamp: the Art Deco Table lamp. Table lamps lend themselves particularly well to Art Deco form as they provide both function and decoration in one neat elegant package which really allows the lamp’s details to be viewed close up.

Lamp Style

All too often I see buyers purchase a lamp without properly considering what it will be used for. They come across an attractive piece and whisk it home with no idea where it will go. A great deal on a lamp that really suits your taste is hard to pass up – an I’m not suggesting you should. But before you go out looking you might want to pin down some basic idea of what you home needs for lighting. Make a note of what spaces you have and how the light could be improved. Ask yourself a few things:

What is the Function of the Lighting?

There are three general lighting functions: task, accent, and general.

  • Task lighting is for a specific task like or working on a project or reading. It is usually focused on a specific area and bright.
  • Accent lighting is mostly decorative and is made to accent a specific object or place in your house. The most obvious example would be a light directed at a sculpture. Accent lights are usually less ostentatious themselves as they’re not supposed to be the center of attention.
  • General lighting is the basic illumination (often called ambient light) for any room. It is commonly diffused with lamp shades.

Most table lamps are designed for ambient lighting. If you want yours to function in another capacity or have dual functions (say general lighting and a reading lamp) they be aware of this so you can be sure to buy one that will fit your needs.

Where Does it Need to Throw Light?

Even if you decide you just need a general lighting lamp you’ll still have to consider where that lamp is going to shine light. Torchiere lamps will cast it on the celling. Lamps with dark shades will cast the light down and sometimes also up. Lamps with diffuse shades will cast it everywhere. Think about how that’s going to affect your room. A lamp with a diffuse shade sitting right next to your television is going to cast an annoying glare on the screen. It’s details like this that you’ll need to consider.

Exotic Lamp Options

If you want to really have a nice conversation piece you might investigate a lamp that incorporates a clock or a radio. Lamps with these features were not common but enough were made that you can often find one to fit your space. In both cases the clocks and certainly radios will prove charmingly quirky. The clocks were often wind up but some were electric. The radio elements will be AM only and will rely on fragile vacuum tubes so don’t leave the radio on when you’re not using it (the tubes will burn out). Also, be aware that vintage radios do not just switch on like modern ones. They take a minute or to to warm up before they will make any sound. Have a bit of patience when testing one.

The Wiring Notice

Just as in my first article, I must advise you to have all vintage electrical gear inspected by a professional before you use them. Vintage design is fantastic. Vintage wiring? Well, it might be passable but I personally won’t trust it. Better to have it checked out.

Fundamentals Of Sheet Metal Fabrication Business Requirements

The sheet metal fabrication industry is growing leaps and bounds these days. Wherever there is a construction happening, there would be a need for metal fabricators. Metal fabricators shops are generally small businesses that operate locally. Depending on the projects, the fabricators need to equip themselves with the latest tools and technologies. Experienced ones are not only experts in the fabrication, but they are experts in all kinds of metal fabrication works.

Prerequisites For Starting A Sheet Metal Fabrication Business

If you are planning to start up a small shop, you will need to familiarize yourself with these working tools,working machinery, shop safety, materials used in the trade, sheet metal types, and fasteners for them. In addition, you will need to have in-depth knowledge about processes such as punching, drilling, riveting, folding edges, making seams, turning, burring, raising, forming, crimping, beading, grooving, and soldering. When you are starting up a shop, you will need to purchase or rent a shop. The location of the shop needs to be strategic.

These business can be very lucrative if you have the right costing and you know how to maximize profits. There is tough competition in the fabrication business, so you will have to ensure that you prices are competitive. The industry is highly diversified industry and produces more products than most people realize. Right from air-conditioning ductwork to railroad box cars are all made of sheet metals. Due to this diversity, the sheet metal fabricating industry can withstand the ups and downs of the global economy. When you are about to start the sheet metal or metal fabricating business, you must know where to begin from.

There are several entrepreneurs who have the money to start the business, but they don’t know where to put the money and how to start the business. As an entrepreneur, you have two choices in the business. First, you can either start the business for a specific product such as ductwork. Second, you can start off as a generic service provider.

As a metal fabricator, you need to be very flexible and proactive to customer demands or requirements. Customers can either provide the designs or they may expect you to come up with the designs. In both situations, you will have to ensure that you give perfect service to the customer. Even though the business is a small business, you will still need to register your business. Before registering your business, you will have to keep a suitable name for the business.

Selection of a strategic office space and a spacious workshop for the sheet metal or fabricating business is also very important. You will need skilled manpower and latest equipments to counter any customer challenge. Most of these businesses have faced hardships in the initial years, but after few years, things begin to fall in place.

Concrete Decisions Are Not Always Easy to Make

When it comes time to upgrade your driveway or modify your patio, concrete is often the route to take. The question is, though, what options are there to choose from for your space? It may be a bigger decision to make than you realize, though. New products, various design options, and even colors are all things you can consider. Today’s homeowner or commercial building owner has plenty of things to think about before making a buying decision. That is a good thing especially for those people who want something that will stand out.

Are You Eco Friendly?

A good place to start is with the environmentally friendly products on the market. Yes, that includes concrete. Some newer materials on the market provide for a more green solution. These products are more sustainable, which means you will not have to replace them too soon and they do not come from limited access resources. In fact, some green solutions save as much as 75 percent on carbon dioxide emissions during the creation and implementation. That means you are using green materials and reducing their impact on the environment.

What About Strength?

Think about the heaviest thing that will sit on the driveway. New products are more durable. That means they are less likely to damage and will last longer. In the long term, this saves you money and keeps your space looking great for a longer period of time. Before you buy, ask your supplier what the lifetime is on the material you are getting. If you find that it does not seem to be the best, it may be due to an inferior product being used. That means it could be costing you money.

Design and Style

Now more than ever you do not have to have that flat, boring concrete driveway that was once the normal option. You can have the professionals use texture as a way to add dimension and style to the space. You can also use color as a way to add something unique to it. Because new products are easily adaptable to nearly any need, you can have the driveway that looks the best for you. Basic cement mixtures work well for even the most ornate of backyard patios, for example, with some coloring, texturing, or stamping added to them.

Concrete is not boring and it definitely fills the need many people have. Give yourself some time to find the right product for your specific need. With so many options, you are sure to find something that is going to appeal to your needs for your space.

How to Replace the Water Pump on a Jeep Cherokee

A leaking water pump can quickly damage the otherwise very reliable Jeep Cherokee Engine. The water pump can be changed by a home mechanic with some patience and ordinary hand tools.

When the Jeep Cherokee water pump seal fails, it will leak from the weep hole in the bottom of the pump. Since this hole is behind the pulley, it is often hard to see where the fluid is coming from. Often a water pump leak will be misdiagnosed as a leaking hose as the fluid runs down and drips off the bottom of the hose.

Begin by letting the Jeep cool. Remove the radiator cap and make sure there is no pressure in the system.

Remove the electric fan. It unbolts from the header at the top and the bottom sits in two tabs at the bottom of the radiator.

Place a pan under the Jeep to catch the anti freeze and remove the lower radiator hose. Let the system drain. Next, remove the heater hose from the tube attached to the water pump. Be careful with the tube as you will have to reuse it.

Break loose the four bolts that hold the pulley to the water pump but do not remove them. If the tension on the belt does not hold the pulley from turning, use a square section screwdriver between two bolts to hold it while breaking loose each bolt.

Remove the tension of the belt at the power steering pump. On the earlier versions, the whole power steering pump moves. On later ones, there is a separate adjuster pulley. Move the belt out of the way.

Finish removing the bolts and remove the pulley. Now you can access the four pump mounting bolts. These have half inch heads, not 13mm and one bolt is longer than the others.

Remove the two bolts that hold the power steering pump bracket. These are 15mm on some and 9/16 on others.

Now pry the pump away from the block. If this is an original water pump, there will be a pry tab on the top of the pump by the metal pipe. Many aftermarket pumps do not have this pry tab.

Twist the pump out from under the power steering pump bracket and carefully remove it from the Jeep. Place the pump in a vise and remove the metal pipe noting its orientation.

Put some thread sealer on the threads and install the pipe in the new water pump. Turn it until it is aligned the same as the old one was. It should stick straight back from the impeller.

Use some sticky gasket sealer like permatex to hold the gasket on the water pump. Clean the front surface of the block down to bare metal. This is probably the most time consuming part of the whole job. Use a scraper and some chemical gasket remover if needed. The block is cast iron, so you can be aggressive when scraping.

Twist the new pump into place under the power steering pump bracket and seat it into place. Install the four mounting bolts that secure it to the block. Tighten them evenly.

Install the two bolts that hold the pump to the power steering bracket. Install the pulley using a screwdriver to hold the bolts while you tighten them. Make sure the pulley seats squarely on the flange and does not wobble when you spin it round.

Install the belt and set it to the proper tension. Reinstall the lower radiator hose and tighten the clamp. Leave the upper hose off for the moment.

Fill the system with a mixture of antifreeze and water appropriate for your climate. I use 50/50. Fill until the fluid comes out the heater hose or the metal line. Reinstall the hose and continue to fill the system. Most Jeeps hold about two gallons when the water pump is removed.

Check for leaks and then install the electric fan. Tilt it into place and engage the lower tabs. Then install the two bots at the top. Connect the control wire.

Start the engine and check the belt tension and check for leaks. Recheck the coolant level after the engine has been heat cycled.

How to Build a Deck Step by Step

If you’re wanting a new deck and would like to do it yourself, then you need some good instruction on how to build a deck step by step. Building a simple deck is not that difficult and can be done by almost any novice woodworker. You just need a good plan and some detailed tutoring. This article will give you those step by step instructions.

Before I begin to tell you how to build a deck step by step, you need to decide on a design. You need to answer a few questions like:

  • What size of deck you want?
  • What will be the shape of your deck. Will it be square, rectangular, or L-shaped?
  • Where will the stairs be located and how many do you want?
  • What type of decking will you use and how will you fasten it?
  • Is railing required? If so, what style do you want?
  • Do you want to incorporate any built-in benches or planters?

Sometimes this pre-construction process can take a good bit of time. And it should. Building a deck can be quite expensive, and the last thing you want is to do it wrong.

To get deck ideas, drive around your town and see what types of decks other people have built or look in home magazines. You can even surf the web for design ideas.

Once you have answers to all these questions, you’re ready to build a deck.

The first lesson in how to build a deck step by step, is to set your concrete pier pads. Make sure the piers are exactly where your plans show them. Also you need to make sure they are level and are solidly setting on the soil. You don’t want any “rocking”. What I do is smooth out and level the ground with a shovel.

Once the pier pads are set correctly, it’s time to measure and cut the posts. These are the posts which will hold up the support beams. Sometimes this task is easier if you fasten the ledger to the wall first. The ledger should be at least the thickness of the decking below the door going on to the deck.

Using a long, straight board with a level on top, place one end on the ledger and hover the other end over the pier pad you’re measuring for. Have a helper hold the board and level perfectly level while you measure the distance to the pier pad. Subtract the thickness of your floor joists and the support beam, and you’ll have the length of the post.

After you’ve repeated the above steps for each post, you can set the support beams. Toe-nail the beams to the posts. If you have multiple beams in the same row, toe-nail them together, too.

The next task when learning how to build a deck step by step, is to install the floor joists.These are usually 2×6, 2×8, or 2×10 boards. The ledger you fastened to the wall earlier should be the same size as the floor joists. It’s best if your nail the joist hangers the ledger before you lay the joists. Having a joist hanger to rest one end of the joist in makes it easier. Also make sure you start at the same end when you layout the ledger and the support beam. It’s also important to install a rim joist on the ends of the floor joists. To get that straight, snap a line 1/2″ in or so, and trim the joists.

Now it’s time to lay the decking. Here’s a little trick I use to make my decks look nicer. I start laying my deck boards from the outer edge and work my way toward the house. This way if you end up with a skinny ripped board, it’s kind of hidden up next to the house. Another thing you want to do is space the boards slightly. This allows for expansion and contraction of the decking, and allows rain water to drain well.

Your deck boards can be fastened with either nails or screws. Make sure the nails are hot-dipped galvanized. Screws should be actual deck screws, not drywall screws.

The last steps in learning how to build a deck step by step are railing, if it’s needed, and stairs to the ground. If your deck is more than 30″ above the ground, railing is required. I usually fasten 2×2 cedar balusters vertically, with a 2×6 rail at the top. Make sure you have 4″ or less between the balusters and the top rail is at least 36″ above the decking.

Building stairs is a little tricky, and it will require another article to cover that topic properly.

So this concludes my little tutorial on how to build a deck step by step. I hope it was helpful.

Draeger Gas Detector Tube Technical Information

There are certain rules and guidelines to be followed to ensure proper usage and correct results when using Draeger Gas Detector Tubes, including the tubes found in the Simultaneous Test Sets provided with the Draeger CDS Kit.

Draeger Gas Detector Tube Storage

To guarantee the accuracy of the tube indication throughout the shelf life, Draeger-Tubes should be stored in the original package at room temperature (approximately 20 C). A note on the package indicates a maximum storage temperature of 25 C (i.e. 77 F). Avoid excessively low (less than 35 F) or higher (greater than 77 F) temperatures during storage and do not subject the tubes to light for prolonged periods.

Draeger Gas Detector Tube Use in Cold Temperatures

Since some of the reagents can freeze below 0 C it is almost impossible to give correction factors for the use of detector tubes in cold temperature. However, there is a simple answer to the problem, namely to ensure that the temperature in the tube remains within the operating range (see operating instructions) during the measurement. The easiest way to do this is to keep the tube warm by holding it closely in the hand. This technique is useful down to -20 C (i.e. -4 F). Sports mittens with a slit in the palm work well at the lower temperatures.

Draeger Gas Detector Tube Disposal

Do not dispose of used or expired Draeger-Tubes in domestic waste. Draeger-Tubes must be disposed of properly, since the reagent system of the tube contains chemicals, even though the chemicals are present in extremely small amounts.

The storage or disposal of chemicals must be conducted according to local, state and federal regulations. Draeger Safety can provide the tube user a letter with general comments on disposal requirements as well as an attachment listing the pre-use contents of each of 15 defined groups of tubes (based on chemical reactants).

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maintains a toll-free telephone service called the RCRA Hotline, which provides guidance on regulatory issues. The number for the RCRA Hotline is 800-424-9346.

Draeger Supplemental Short Term Detector Tubes

The tubes in the Simultaneous Test Sets of the CDS Kit are characterized as “semi-quantitative”, providing rough estimations on the concentrations of 8 chemical agents. Draeger has nearly 200 short-term tube options capable of detecting over 1,000 different chemicals.

There is space in the CDS Kit for 6 additional boxes of individual detector tubes, which are also used with the accuro sampling pump provided. Selection of these tubes is an individual choice and is influenced by what chemicals might be expected to be present in a certain area. For example, if there is a nearby industrial facility that has certain chemicals in use for their processes, tubes for those specific chemicals would be a likely choice.

There are certain common chemical or chemical families for which individual tubes most often may be selectively added to the CDS Kit. An overview of some of these, and relevant tubes to respond, is presented here. More detailed information is always available from Draeger Safety or our Authorized Distributors.


Ammonia is the 3rd largest volume chemical produced in the United States and is used in a large variety of applications. Draeger manufactures 5 different short-term ammonia tubes able to detect from 0.25 to 100,000 ppm. The tube with the most utility within the TLV and IDLH ranges is the Ammonia 5/a (P/N CH20501), which can measure between 5-700 ppm. The tube can also detect other basic gases such as organic amines.


Chlorine is the 9th highest volume chemical produced in the United States, still most commonly used in water purification. Draeger manufactures 3 different short-term tubes able to detect from 0.02 to 500 ppm. The recommended tube would be the Chlorine 0.2/a (P/N CH24301) capable of measuring between 0.02-30 ppm. This tube is also capable of estimating levels of chlorine dioxide if present. Additionally, it has sensitivity to bromine and nitrogen dioxide.

Carbon Monoxide

May be present in toxic concentrations at the site of a fire. Draeger provides 5 different short-term tubes for the detection of CO, including the Carbon Monoxide 10/b (P/N CH20601). This tube is capable of measuring from 10 to 3000 ppm CO. As the tube has sensitivity to a number of hydrocarbons a carbon pre-tube can be provided to remove interfering substances.

Hydrogen Sulfide

Draeger provides 10 different tubes for the measurement of hydrogen sulfide, which is highly flammable and toxic by inhalation. TLV is 10 ppm in air. The Hydrogen Sulfide 5/b tube (P/N CH29801) has a detection range of 5-600 ppm.

Petroleum Hydrocarbons

The Draeger Petroleum Hydrocarbons 10/a tube (P/N 8101691) has specific sensitivities to hexane, heptane, octane and other hydrocarbons. The standard calibration is for n-octane at 10 to 300 ppm. This tube is therefore capable of general measurement of a number of common substances such as gasoline, kerosene/aviation fuel, diesel fuel and various solvents/spirits.

Chlorinated Hydrocarbons

Different chlorinated hydrocarbons still have a number of applications including dry cleaning (perchloroethylene), solvents (trichloroethane), degreasing (trichloroethylene) and adhesive production (vinyl chloride). Draeger manufactures tubes for all these specific compounds. The two most commonly used in HazMat Response have been the Perchloroethylene 2/a (P/N 8101501), range of 2-300 ppm, and the Trichloroethylene 10/a (P/N CH24401), which can measure 50-2000 ppm of TCE.

BTEX Compounds

The aromatic compounds benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylene have a large presence in the chemical/petrochemical markets in a wide variety of uses. The tube with the most utility in quantifying all BTEX compounds except benzene is the Toluene 5/b tube (P/N 8101661). Of the 5 different tubes offered for benzene measurement (collective range of 0.5 to 420 ppm), the most benzene specific is the Benzene 0.5/c (P/N 8101841), which can measure from 0.5 to 200 ppm.

Hydrochloric Acid

Hydrochloric acid is the 25th highest volume chemical produced in the United States and commonly is used in food processing, steel pickling, metal cleaning and various acidizing applications. Measurement of the gaseous hydrogen chloride fraction is done with either of two hydrochloric acid tubes. The lower range Hydrochloric Acid 1/a (P/N CH29501) covers the range of 0.1 to 100 ppm.

Other chemical specific tubes that are available to complement the semi-quantitative tubes found in the Civil Defense Simultest Kit and help pinpoint levels of potential toxic substances include the following:


  • Nitrous Fumes 2/a (NO + NO2) CH31001 2-150 ppm
  • Nitrogen Dioxide 2/c 6719101 2-100 ppm
  • Nitric Acid 1/a 6728311 1-50 ppm
  • Hydrocyanic Acid 2/a CH25701 2-150 ppm
  • Sulfur Dioxide 0.5/a CH31701 0.5-25 ppm
  • Carbon Dioxide 0.1%/a CH23501 1000-60,000 ppm
  • Phosgene 0.25/c CH28301 0.25-25 ppm
  • Acetone 100/b (Ketones) CH22901 100-12,000 ppm
  • Alcohol 25/a 8101631 25-5000 ppm
  • Petroleum Hydrocarbons 100/a 6730201 100-2,500 (n-Octane)

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For more information, please call 866-905-9793.

Company Profile is an eCommerce Business Unit of Cross Instrumentation. We´re based East of Atlanta, GA in Conyers. Our focus is Industrial Sales of Process Measurement and Control equipment. We are specialists in hard to solve flow, level, analytical and safety applications. Our office phone number is 770-929-8441.

Architecture and Global Warming

Global warming and energy consumption and are closely connected because most of the energy consumed is fossil fuel. Because of the way statistics are gathered, the end users are usually statistically broken down into four categories – industry, transportation, residential, and commercial – each using, in that order, roughly from a little over one third to a little under one-quarter of the energy pie.

Santa Fe architect Ed Mazria, who wrote the famous Passive Solar Energy Book in the late 1970s, recently took a fresh look at the energy-consumption pie chart and came up with a truly astounding conclusion, and a new suggestion about who holds the key to the “global thermostat.”

Mazria redrew the chart with architecture as one of the categories. He included the portion of the industry sector that is the construction and operation of buildings, plants, and other facilities. This reveals a sector that uses a staggering near one half of the energy consumed in the U.S. each year. This sector is architecture: the buildings we live, work, and play. There are trillions of square feet of buildings in use and billions of square feet built every year. And they are on all the time. 24/7. Every day they are being heated and cooled and lit. Many of them needlessly consume massive quantities of energy.

NASA climate expert James E. Hansen recently told 11,000 earth-systems scientists attending an American Geophysical Union conference that mankind has at most 10 years to curb emissions or else global warming would take the Earth into climate patterns it has not experienced in the last 1,000,000 years. And there is a report in the national news this week – “Rapid melt shrinks Greenland’s ice cap” – that presents data showing the ice cap has suddenly accelerated to melting at more than double its rate of a decade ago.

The massive energy consumption of our buildings is needless because of the many ways to use natural lighting and passive heating and cooling in the original design process, by using engineering processes to make the electrical and mechanical systems more efficient and by specifying products which improve building performance or embody less energy in their production.

There is no doubt that “rethinking” architecture could literally transform the energy equation. In fact, the American Institute of Architects (AIA) voted recently to adopt a policy to promote reducing the fossil-fuels consumption of buildings by 50 percent in the next four years, with additional reductions of 2 percent per year after that. Simply put, building design and construction could have the greatest and quickest impact on global warming of any industry sector.

What is needed next is a change from our current paradigm of what architecture relates to the environment. Mazria has suggested a few things to help move things in that direction:

  • Incorporate information about embodied energy in building materials;
  • Require all new public building-construction projects to meet the 50 percent reduction in energy use for that type of building;
  • Require that architect education includes design principles necessary to reduce building energy consumption; and
  • Improve building-simulation software programs so they are user-friendly and integrate well with the CAD programs used by architects.

Scaffolding – A People-Oriented Project

Though the word scaffold represents a platform for executions, that is, a platform raised, on which somebody is executed by hanging or beheading as a form of punishment, but it is employed here in this article for its other meaning that reminds us of a framework to support workers.

Originally, scaffold is a known word in building technology, which stands as a temporary framework of poles and planks that is used to support workers and materials during the erection, repair, or decoration of a building. In other words, it is called a support or a supporting framework. In the traditional society, we have relied on such indices as financial stability, a good marriage, home ownership, and healthy families to indicate our support as a means of growth, but still we recognize that there are many other divergent paths through which we can lend support for a progressive change and growth. It is a fact that people flourish when their lives have meaning and purpose, when they routinely experience optimism, hope, and gratitude, and when they make a positive impact on others through their work and legacy.

The question that stares us in the face today is where will people find meaning to their lives? Meaningful life can come through the awareness that the individual life is part of a larger story. At some point we begin to realize that we are connected to humanity and creation in fundamental ways that allows us to transcend the limited single self. Since meaning is the framework in which we understand existence and creation, purpose is what defines our specific role in that larger story of humanity. We progress and flourish whenever we find something to do with our life that is consistent with our beliefs about the meaning of life.

A people-oriented project is what the world needs today. Many years ago, so many people experienced what I can call a "simpler life". This is because if a man was a carpenter, his son was likely to be the same. That is because the shop was at home and the boy worked with his father. The son watched carefully as his father cut the wood, planned and smoothen it, then get it fastened together to build a table or a bench. It was apprenticeship by example. The story is quite different today. Most young people do not learn their trades like that anymore. They would rather leave home and pay huge sums elsewhere to learn what could have been taught to them freely. Had it been that they learned properly, there would not have been a problem. This has made vocations today far too complex and training way too demanding.

One aspect of life, however, is the same as it was years ago. Though so many parents do not have apprentices watching how they put their beliefs into practices, some other parents do. Their children not only learned how to do things from them, they also learn about life. They saw their parent's values ​​and ethics in action every day in their homes. This goes a little further to explain to us why there so many people today who still find their purpose in their vocations, and families. As our topic suggests, the most important thing to note here is that purpose in life is shaped by the ethics of our life – the character and the moral stance that we take in the world. Considering the impact of global economic recession, so many people inevitably have been forced to experience an alarming increase in unemployment. And the higher the percentage of people out of work, the more problems our social agencies have to deal with. Alcohol and drug abuse increases. Domestic violence rises. Crime rates go up. Some people just can not seem to stay out of trouble when they have idle time on their hands. Apprenticeship by example, especially in the home front, becomes of immense importance.

When evil men threw the apostle Paul into prison, hoping to put an end to his ministry, their plan backfired because Paul found hope and encouragement from the brethren – the home front. He did not know why God allowed his imprisonment, but he saw how God used it for good, telling us that giving support to other people will eventually help them to find gain in their losses. Let us remember that the greatness of the power and effectiveness of our service for Christ is in exact proportion to the measure of our surrender to Him, suggesting that as God's loving and giving are inseparable, so too is our giving, an expression of our love for others. This goes much deeper than just confessing our love to people; true love is expressed in supporting one another and giving ourselves to the Lord on daily basis.

How To Ride A Horse – Horseback Riding Lessons For Beginners

There are some things that just come natural to some. Some people are almost born knowing how to stay on a skateboard. Me personally, I fall flat just about every time that the board moves. That's something that just was not born in there. One thing that was born into my system was how to ride a horse. It seemed I knew how to ride a horse from birth but did not start riding alone till I was three. That was mainly in part to my beloved quarter horse Harlan who knew that I was a beginner. So, would you like for me to give you some tips on how to ride a horse?

When learning how to ride a horse one of the best things I can tell you is to always keep your cool. If you lose control of yourself, I have no doubt that you will lose control of the horse. You know how people say that a dog can sense if you're scared? Well so can a horse. Some will bank on that fear as an easy way out of work. Even if you think that the horse is some big animal and you have no idea how you'll ever stay on you can not think that around the horse. You need to stay calm and relaxed. If you get a little scared take a few deep breaths so that you can slow your heartbeat and relax yourself. Odds are, if you think you're in control, so will the horse.

Now that you have calmed your nerves and told yourself that you are boss, let's talk about how to ride a horse. There are two styles of riding you can think about when you learn how to ride a horse, English and western. If you have not ridden much I suggest a western saddle mainly because of the fact that is holds you in place better and has a horn for you to hang onto if you feel the need. An English saddle is lighter in weight, has thinner stirrups and no horn to hang onto. Some people swear by them for a beginner to build up balance and all but I just feel safer in a western saddle. I figure that if a cowboy thinks that they're the best to hold you in I'll have to agree with them. You can work on balance once you learn how to ride a horse a little better.

With the saddle in place, you can hop on and go for a ride. When you first learn how to ride a horse you can not just hop on, dig in your heels and think that the horse will just mosey off. To make a horse go forward you generally will just have to squeeze a bit with your thighs. Might need to move your butt forward towards the horn a little to let them know you're serious but being a beginner you should already be on a well broke horse. A green horse and a green rider are never a good combination when you first learn how to ride a horse. Green by the way means that you're just learning. Do not go out looking for a horse that will blend in with the grass. But once you're up in the saddle and walking, you can guide your horse in one of two ways. If you know that your horse neck reins, you simply lay the reins across the left side of the neck to go to the right and across the right side of the neck to go left. If you were told that the horse plow reins, take one rein in each hand and pull on the side that you want to go. If you want to go right, gently tug on the right rein and vise versa with the left.

These are a few simple things for those who are just learning how to ride a horse. For those with experience in horseback riding you might have your own ideas but these are the basics that I teach my kids. And so far I feel that they know how to ride a horse quite well for their ages and practice safety procedures without risk or injury.

How to Correctly Lay a Dining Table

As a member of private household staff, it’s important that you are seen as not only educated to a certain level but also knowledgeable of standards which should always be maintained. Although it may not seem particularly important, understanding how to correctly lay a table will certainly impress your employer and show them that you are intelligent in your role. Laying a table properly is also important because it helps the diners have the easiest experience while eating, and therefore it’s important to get right. As a helping hand, here’s our guide on just how this simple art is achieved.

Working from the outside in

To start with you need to work out how many courses diners will be enjoying at the table, picking up a fork and knife or spoon for each. The forks should always go on the left hand side of the place setting with the knives and spoons on the right hand side. They should be placed in the order of usage, with the cutlery for the first course being on the outside and working in until the last course. Also, forks should always be placed with the prongs sticking up and the knives should lay with the blade facing inwards.

The only difference to the rule are dessert forks and spoons. If required, these are placed above the place setting with the fork pointing to the right and the spoon facing in the other direction.

In the case of a buffet rather than a formal meal, both knives and forks should be wrapped in a napkin and placed near the plates so guests can take them before moving on to food

China and Glasses

As the plates will sit in between the cutlery, the last aspect to consider is the china, wine glasses and napkins. Here’s exactly how you do it.


– You should always lay side plates to the left of the place setting.

– If food is to be eaten with fingers, you should provide finger bowls of warm water with a slice of lemon.


– If the napkin is a simple half fold it should be placed either on the side plate on the left or to one side of the glasses to the right.

– If the napkin has a complicated fold then it should be placed in the middle.


– The wine glass should be placed just above the meat knife.

If you are providing more than one wine, use a corresponding number of glasses.

Free Sheet Music – Earn Money Online by Composing Sheet Music Scores

Is there a way to earn money by composing music scores? Yes, you can set up your own website and offer your free sheet music to the world! Here you have some tips on how to start!

How can I produce the sheet music?

There are many ways to compose sheet music or convert already existing compositions by yourself or others into a digital format that is easily accessible online. If you are a composer of your own music you can find free music notation software online or use a scanner to convert your manuscript paper. You can also use public domain sheets already composed in various ways. Here are some tips to get you started!

Using manuscript paper to produce free music scores

Actually you can produce your sheet music by hand using traditional manuscript paper and then use a scanner to convert the sheets to a digital format. If you are able to write nice music notes by hand you can use this gift to produce very personal music sheets. To make them readable you will have to be careful and use black ink in the final stage. Maybe the first step will be to write the notes with a pencil making it possible to change wrong notes and so on. You will need to have access to a scanner to convert this physical format to a digital form like a PDF file or Gif file that can be uploaded on your website and then be opened and printed by the visitors.

To scan existing books and sheet music

Some publishers use a scanner to convert already existing music scores from books to PDF for upload to their website. I guess this is a bit on the wrong side of the line as arrangements in books are copyright protected even if the melody is public domain.

Notation software

You can also use more or less sophisticated and subsequently more or less expensive music notation software for the purpose of producing professionally looking music notes. You can find free online music notation software that you do not need to download and you will find software to install that are free but still functional if you are not creating too complicated scores. Search for “free music notation software” and you will find various types of software to download or use online. Among the most widespread music notation software are Sibelius and Finale that have both more expensive and cheaper solutions.

To earn money from your free sheet music

The most uncomplicated way to earn money from your website using free music scores is to put Google ads on your pages. In order to learn more about this service you can search for “AdSense” and you will come to a Google page that will explain the whole concept to you. You can also become an affiliate to companies that sell products in line with your website theme like guitar sheet music, piano notes or musical equipment and so on. To find companies with an affiliate service suiting your website you can search for “affiliate sheet music” and you will find these services and also learn how the affiliate programs works.

Finding visitors

In order for your free sheet music website to be found by visitors you have to use the keywords on your website that your visitors use as they search for music scores. To make it possible for the search engines to determine what your website is about you have to use these keywords on the right places like your page titles and in the visible text on your pages. To learn more about optimizing your pages you can search for “search engine optimization” or the abbreviated form “seo” and you will find many tips on this.

Technical College – Gain Experience As You Learn

In today’s fast paced world traditional four-year colleges are facing a lot of scrutiny. Some question if they provide the same return on your investment as they once did. Trade schools are often discussed as a way to get a high-caliber education mixed with on-the-job training that prepares you for a high paying career. For some careers this makes sense, but for others a traditional college will offer you better results. Let’s look at some of the fields where a technical school will benefit you more.

Information Technology – Things change so fast in the online world that by the time you finish a four-year degree in IT your skills and education are nearly obsolete. You have to think on your feet and be able to apply what you learn as you learn it. This makes you battle-tested and job market ready so that there isn’t any lag between what you’ve learned, what’s new and emerging, and what you’re able to do in the real world.

Health Care – The health care field moves at nearly the speed of the IT field. There are always new medications, new techniques, and new procedures to learn. Of course, if you want to be a doctor you must got to medical school and follow the pre-established curriculum. But if you want to help people without investing 8 or more years to your education and training, there are hundreds of other roles you can perform that are health related. Any of the allied health professions would make a great fit, and all of these can be done in a fraction of the time it takes to be an MD. You’ll be able to help people right away, as you’re learning your craft. Plus, the cost of your education is far less than a medical school degree, and you’ll be able to supplement it as you study because you’ll be training in the field.

Paralegal – Similar to those wanting to be involved in health care without being a doctor, you can be involved in the legal field without being a lawyer. Studying to become a paralegal is something that doesn’t require a four-year degree. You can learn what you need to in a short amount of time, without having to spend four years as an undergrad and another 2-3 years at law school. You can experience the same thrill as a lawyer because you’ll be involved in the same cases. You won’t make as much as a lawyer of course, but you also won’t be burdened by all of the debt a law student racks up.

This is just three of the many different fields that make sense to study at a technical college. There are plenty of other programs that offer similar bangs for the buck, just be sure to do your homework and run the numbers before going all in.

The Multi-Tool is a Very Nice Tool to Have

The Multi tool is a very nice tool to have. It fits in your pocket and can help with a lot of different things. From knives, to pliers, and even screw drivers. It is very handy to have around and there are many different makers of these multi-tools. Swiss army knives are considered multi tools, as well as the leatherman, and Gerber tools. The tools in these pocket knives can very from a nail file to a can opener.

Leatherman is one of the most known maker of these multi-tools but there are many more manufacturers of these tools that are not known for them. Like Coleman, Gerber Legendary Blades, Schrade SOG knife, the makers of the Swiss army knives, and Kershaw knives. Buck knives also makes a knife that is some what similar to the Swiss army knife and if of very good quality. These tools can fit in your pocket, or you can wear them on a belt if they come with a little pouch.

Tools that might be included in any of these multi-tool are well the obvious knives, tweezers, toothpick, nail file, or any other sort of file, scissors, cork screw, Magnifying glass, pliers, and wire cutter. Some also might come with tools for specific activities like hunting, fishing, or golf and others. The daddy of the multi-tool is Leatherman. Its name has become the trademark for the tool.

In the future we are seeing many other pocket knives manufactures get into the game. Manufactures such as Spyderco and (CRKT) or other wise known as Columbia River Knife and Tool. These tools will not look like any of the multi-tools we have seen in the past. They will look completely different but are sure to come in handy. Wenger is also trying to combine the Swiss army knife and the Leatherman multi-tool in to one. By taking the best of both I am sure it will be a great end result.

Concrete Cutting Safety

Nearly every construction project involves some form of cutting concrete or core boring. While cutting concrete may seem fairly simple and straightforward, in actual practice there are several considerations to keep in mind to have a safe and successful concrete cutting or boring project.

Fist, you must know that concrete dust is potentially damaging to the lung sinuses and eyes. Concrete dust also becomes corrosive and abrasive and may damage surrounding finish.

Dust control becomes an important consideration when cutting concrete either with a saw or a drill or core boring bit. The two most common dust control methods are wet cutting where the dust is collected in the cooling water and pneumatic devices that pull the dust away in an air stream.

When using a diamond cutting blade or other abrasive disk cutting device such as concrete saw, the water also serves to lubricate and cool the cutting tools. Consideration must me made to handle the spillage of cooling water on to the surface being cut. Drainage must be provided or a vacuum system like a wet vac can be used to control the spread of the cooling water.

When using electric powered tools, adequate grounding, insulation and appropriate ground fault protection must be provided. Standing in a puddle of water while operating and electric tool can be fatal if proper protections are not in place.

An extra precaution must be added when using core drilling machine. Many of these machines rely on suction to keep the bas in place during the drilling operation. The friction of the base suctioned against the floor provides the resistance to rotation while drilling.

Two competing factors come in to play during the lock down operation. The slicker the floor, the better the suction seal will be. However, there will be less resistance to rotation due to friction from the slick floor. Especially if the concrete is wet. Also, while a rough floor may provide more friction, the roughness will not allow a strong vacuum seal against the floor.

In either case the vacuum seal is not completely reliable and may fail during the drilling operation. The operator must be keenly aware of the possibility that the machine base my rotate violently without warning. The operator must keep his body out of the possible rotation path of the machine bas at all times during a core drilling operation.

A more reliable method of securing the machine is to set a simple concrete anchor through the base in addition to the vacuum seal. Most machines have a provision for such an anchor and the small hole required for the anchor is easily repaired in the concrete floor.

When making any kind of cut in concrete be it a straight line cut with a concrete saw or making a round hole with a core drill, you must also consider what is hidden in the concrete.

Not only will the concrete contain re bar and rocks that can snag the cutting tool, but often plumbing lines and electrical conduit are often buried in the concrete. And they will likely not be exactly where the drawings show them to be.

Before any concrete cutting operation take care to locate as precisely as possible any pipes or conduit that may be buried in the concrete.

A cutting blade will slice through a conduit with ease often shorting the wires together on the blade. However, care must be taken that the operator does not become the ground path instead of the conduit or other wires. If possible, de energize any power lines that may be in the vicinity of the cutting or drilling operation.

Concrete cutting requires sharp tools, quality equipment in good repair, a good supply of cooling water and a skilled operator. Operating concrete cutting equipment can be simple and safe, but the operator must be familiar with the potential hazards and know all the functions of the equipment he is operating.

Help choosing the For right cutting tools and equipment for concrete cutting you next project, see Industrial the Products and Equipment .