Quick Tips On How To Rent Scaffolding

There are two chief reasons why some people prefer to rent scaffolding as far as construction projects or home repairs are concerned. For one, they want a safe way to work at a certain height from the ground. Secondly, they want to finish their work fast. Ladders are unable to provide both of these. Scaffolds come sturdier than ladders and they have provision for a workstation. Therefore, they make better options than ladders.

Perhaps, this is your first time to rent scaffolds. The primary thing for you to keep in mind is that the style or design matters a lot. Yes, you understood that right. They come in varied designs and so their operations or uses differ as well. Choosing the right design for your project needs is key to scaffolding safety.

What are the tasks you need to complete off the ground? Use your answer to this question determining whether you need to rent a fixed, hanging or mobile scaffolding. Here is a quick overview on how each of these work. As its name suggests, the fixed type is immovable. It is fixed on one spot but it does need support from the building being worked on or from a putlog. The second type looks the same as the first, but the difference is it comes with hanging platforms. The height of which can be adjusted according to the level of the area to work on. Hanging types are great for activities like painting walls or washing windows. Lastly, the mobile type has wheels at its base for easy movement. They are sturdy and can stand independently. This is perfect for projects which involve a wide area and a change of location is needed.

As you decide to rent scaffolding, be ready with your budget. Do not scrimp on the quality of the materials. Substandard parts are usually cheaper in price and so the safety they provide is cheap as well. Cheap safety can claim the lives of the users. Make a Google search for manufacturers with in your locality. Look for websites with built-in estimator tools so you can have an idea how much money you have to prepare. In fact, certain websites allows users to input project plans so that they can come up with the perfect type of scaffolding for your construction or home repair needs. You might be tempted to do business with the first provider you would bump into online. Just remember to have at least three choices so that you can compare prices and services.

Apart from the common parts to note when you rent scaffolding, take a second look at the list of accessories you might need. Two of the ideal accessories which you should not do without are guard rails and toe boards. They are both meant for your safety and the safety of the people standing near or under the scaffolding. Guard rails keep users from falling off. Toe boards keep users from losing their footing while on top of the platform. They also keep tools and other materials from dropping off the platforms.

Answering Your Horse Tack Questions

You do not have to own horse tack to own a horse but if you are going to ride this animal then you will need some equipment to ride him as well as equipment to help take care of him properly. Tack needs to be properly taken care of but first you need to know the basics of what to get and what it is made of.

If you do not know all of the pieces that you need, along with how to use them then the pieces of horse tack are pretty much useless to you. In this article we will cover some of those basics so that you will be up and running with your pet, literally, before you know it.

You will know what horse tack is, what it is made of, how it affects your pet and much, much more. So sit right back partner and enjoy the ride of learning all the basics of horse tack.

What is horse tack?

Horse tack is the necessary equipment needed to own and ride this animal. It can be anything from the stirrups of a saddle on to the metal shoes on the horse’s feet. Tack is an important part of any cowgirl or cowboy’s riding apparel and must be treated well.

Poorly maintained one shows and is a mark of how well the person takes care of their animal. Each piece of tack has a specific purpose and needs to be in good condition if it is going to be used on the animal. Improperly cared for tack can cause injury to a horse.

Do bits hurt the horse?

If used properly a bit does not cause the animal any form of injury but if used by an inexperienced rider the bit can injure the pet from too much pressure and can cause sores to form in the mouth. It is important, especially if you are a new rider, to receive instruction on how to use a bit properly to ensure the safety of a horse. The potential for damage to a horse’s mouth is great if used improperly.

What is a cinch?

A cinch is the piece of leather that holds the saddle in place. It goes beneath the horse’s belly and connects to both sides of the saddle. It is tightened into place snuggly to ensure that the saddle remains in place while the rider is aboard the horse’s back. It can be compared to your belt holding your pants into place. Without the belt your pants would fall down. It does not harm the horse at all.

How much can I expect to pay for horse tack?

Horse tack can vary widely depending on where you make your purchase. There are saddles and bridles that can be purchased used for less than one hundred dollars. On the same note you can buy hand crafted tack for thousands depending on who is the artisan making the saddle and bridle. So you see that it all depends on where you are shopping and who is making the tack.

Glass Dining Table and Coffee Table – Style of Life

The term style of life is described as one of several constructs describing the dynamics of the personality. Have you ever thought of scaling a man’s style of life by his choice of dining table and coffee table. Wondering what I am asking? You may find it an awkward question, but its answer is indeed a yes. Don’t you remember the last time when you went to your colleagues’ house and left gaping after watching those eye-catchy dining table. Although you didn’t say it aloud, but you were all praise for his excellent choice.

A table is composed of mainly two parts- a flat surface and legs that give support to the flat surface. The flat surface is made up of various shapes and materials, which will be discussed later. As far as the legs are concerned, they are given eye-catchy designs. They are made in various shapes by the artisans like twirl, X-shape, V-shape etc

A table can perform various functions. It may be used to read or write. A table specifically designed for office work is a desk, which usually comes with attached drawers. Every morning you take your breakfast at a table, which is better known as dining table. At night, you wish to have various delicacies to be placed on that same dining table. Not just that, even when you are entertaining some guests, then also you need a table to put tea/coffee on it. This is referred to as coffee table.

Each and every house, irrespective of the social status of the owner, requires a table. Blue, red, black, white, off-white- all shades of tables are available in the market. In fact, so many people select the colour of the table according to the paint of their houses. The furniture shops abound with dining tables and coffee tables of different shapes, materials and colours. There are tables in round, square, oval, rectangular and also irregular shapes. As for material, you would find tables of glass, metal, wood, steel etc.

What kind of dining table and chairs you select for your home is just a matter of choice. But the elegance that glass table endows is enviable. Some people feel that glass dining tables and chairs require extra efforts to keep them away from stains and scratches. But that is just a misconception. Even wood table or for that matter any metal table would look old and dirty, if you don’t clean it daily. In fact, it takes a lot of time in wiping out a stain from a wood table. I have witnessed so many wooden tables with that year-long tea stains. On the other hand, a glass dining table or glass coffee table just needs a wet cloth to get that mirror-like reflection.

Comfort and durability should be the topmost priority while making a choice. One may also measure the dimensions of the area where the furniture would be placed. By doing so, one can select the dining table or coffee table according to the size of the area. It would give such an impression to guests that the place is especially designed for the furniture. Prices should be reasonable so it is always advisable that you should first go through the sites of the manufacturers.

Flat Sheet Dimensions

You need to be aware of the flat sheet dimensions before you can buy one. If you do not know the sites, you could end up with a covers that is too big or too small for your bed.

Sizes of Flat Sheets

The king / California king measures 274 x 259 cm or 108 x 102 inches. The queen sheets measure 228 x 259 cm or 90 x 102 inches. The full sheets measure 205 x 243 cm or 81 x 96 inches. The X-long twin measures 67 x 259 cm or 66 x 102 inches. The twin sheets measure 167 x 243 cm or 66 x 96 inches.

Fitted Sheet Sizes

The king fitted sheet measures 198 x 203 cm or 76 x 80 inches. The California king is 182 x 213 cm or 72 x 84 inches. The queen fitted sheet is 153 x 203 cm or 60 x 80 inches. The full fitted sheets 137 x 190 cm or 54 x 75 inches. The X-long twin measures 99 x 203 cm or 39 x 80 inches. The twin fitted sheet measures 99 x 190 cm or 39 x 75 inches.

As you can see, there are differences between fitted covers and flat covers.

Thread Count on Sheets

Besides the flat sheet dimensions, the thread count should be evaluated. The best choices are sheets with 300 to 400 thread counts. These covers, especially the 400 type, are very cozy. There are also covers with 80 to 190 thread counts.

These are among the lowest possible and can be quite uncomfortable. If you want the most comfortable flat sheets, those with 500 + covers are recommended.

Other Considerations

The materials employed for the covers can be as varied as the sizes. At the higher end are Egyptian cotton, silk and satin. Other materials are bamboo fiber, flannel and supima cotton. Polyester is often blended with cotton to produce soft covers.

Tips and Warnings

Never buy until you have gone through different stores. That pricey Egyptian flat sheet you see could be selling for a discount somewhere else. Reading reviews can provide insights on which manufacturers to look for. Using these reviews, you may discover a little known but reliable brand.

The flat sheet dimensions are always specified in the product so read the numbers. This is important because some companies may come up with varying measurements. For example, there could be sites that have brand specific sizes.

Are You Using Proper Forum Etiquette?

Internet forums are very popular today and many people like the anonymity they provide. Being able to express yourself in this type of environment is a great way for people to ask and answer questions they otherwise would not. It's also a great way to bring like-minded people together to discuss mutual interests. Of course, just as in everyday life, there are rules of etiquette one should follow in order to keep the peace. Here are a list of things you should remember if you are getting started with Internet forums:

Do not be a troll. A troll is someone that hits up forums looking for nothing other than making trouble. They have little or no interest in the topic of the forum, they just want to ruin everyone's good time. They are usually easy to spot, because their posts will be off topic, they will be repetitive, and they will abuse other members with obscene names or threats. They are usually banned quickly in moderated forums by the site administrators, but they can still cause some damage beforehand. If you are reading an article on forum etiquette, you probably are not looking to become a troll. Just be aware that they're out there, so do not be surprised if they try their shenanigans on you.

Do not post repetitive posts. When you post the same thing over and over again it is really unfair to the other members, who want to see unique, relevant content. It's also one of the signs of a troll so it's best to avoid this practice. Use the forum for what it is intended for. You can introduce topics, ask questions, pose ideas, or answer other people questions or respond to their posts.

Do not use ALL CAPS. This is the equivalent of yelling and it is really annoying to most forum users. You can use caps to emphasize a few words of a sentence, but putting your post title or your entire post in all capital letters is something you should avoid at all costs.

Do not flame. The last thing you should remember to do is not insult people personally in a forum. Even if someone comes at you offensively, you should not stoop to their level. The anonymity of a forum makes people braver than they would be in a real life situation and they are probably not worth the time if they are spending their time insulting strangers online for no apparent reason. Unless you've posted some controversial post that was geared towards getting a rise out of the members, there should not be any reason for another user to bash you. The most common flame online seems to be making fun of new members that ask what appear to be dumb questions. Just ignore those flames and take the advice from the other members that are willing to help.

Under-body Tool Boxes – How to Choose Under-body Tool Boxes For Your Cars

Under-body tool boxes are made from heavy-duty materials like aluminum and steel. They are usually used by big trucks, buses and other big vehicles to store gears and equipments like tools and spare tires. They can also be used to store other stuffs aside from the ones mentioned above. They are usually installed under the car’s body.

For truck owners, under-body tool boxes are very important to organize their things. However, there are variety of them for your vehicle and that choosing one can be a very cumbersome task but if you know what to look for, then finding the right one will be very easy.

Determine what kind of tool box you want

There are basically two types of under-body tool boxes depending on the type of materials that they are made from. They can either be made from Aluminum or stainless steel. Whatever the materials this toolboxes are made from, they take in the same style which is the barn-door style toolboxes. You usually open this like you would do on a normal cabinet.

Determine what kind of vehicle you will be attaching the tool box on

As mentioned earlier, under-body tool boxes are attached to the underside of a vehicle’s body. They go great for trailers, trucks and buses but never for small cars. Once you have determined which vehicle you will be installing the toolbox on, you can then decide on its size. For trailers, you can use smaller ones but truck tool boxes are comparatively bigger in size.

Determine your budget

You need to consider your budget. Ask yourself how much you are willing to spend for this particular toolbox. If you feel that you need to buy a big tool box to store a lot of things, then be prepared to spend more.

What Is Wrong With You?

My Dear Lover,

In most of the long distance relationships the time you are
apart is bigger than the time you are together, and probably
you will be between being together and being apart more than once
in your distance relationship.

And I can tell you, because I have been there more than once,
that the experience of being apart after being together, is one of the most difficult periods in a long distance relationship.
It make us feel so horrible, that sometimes we wonder
"What is wrong with me? Why do I feel like this?".

Each time we go apart again, mainly three emotional phases
happens (Protest, Depression and Detachment) .

While you were together, you were inseparable, took long walks
together and made all moments count, but now is arriving the time
your beloved as to go away.

It's like something triggers inside you, that say that your beloved is leaving, and you start the first phase, the Protest.

You fight against the separation in all the ways you can.

You feel terrible, you cry without control, some will be angry with "life", or even with their beloved, some will hold and kiss each other like you will never see each other again.

And even at the last moment, when you are at airport, you will
ignore the last calling of the departure, until you finally realize your beloved really have to leave. Did you ever did this? I did!

But no matter how much you protest to prevent the separation, you
are apart again.

Now comes the second emotional phase of separation , the Depression.

You can not stop crying, you miss your beloved like hell, you can not
sleep, can not eat, lose interest for things, you can not concentrate
in anything, and all you want is to be together with your beloved
all time. And that is natural reaction when you love somebody so

This phase of depression and loneliness can last only some minutes, but in most cases it will last for several days.

Finally comes the last phase, the Detachment .

You have to continue with your life, even being apart from your
beloved, and being depressed will not bring your beloved back.

And finally the day that you will be together again arrives, and
probably, you will have to go throughout the phases of separation
again and again!

So now that you understand "what's wrong with you?" each time you
have to go through the process of separation, does it means that
you can not do nothing about it?

No, no and no, keep reading and I will show you my advices.

But remember, it's a fact that no matter how many times you
go by the experience of separation again and again, nothing
eliminates this three phases. The only thing you can do is to
realize their existence, understand each phase, and take action
so you can make this experience more "soft".

But do you want to know something very interesting?

It is not only me and you and all the people that are living a
Long Distance Relationship, that goes by the Protest, Depression
and Detachment emotional phases, each time we go apart again.

Dr. Gregory Guldner, of the National Institute for Building Long
Distance Relationships, shows in his book
"Long Distance Relationships: The Complete Guide",
that puppies also "feel" the same as us.

According to Dr. Guldner, "Although it's difficult to
apply conclusions from research done on animals to the emotions
described in humans, I've found that the reactions of the pups
are strikingly similar to the reactions of many of those in LDRs. "

And he continues, "When the researchers removed the mother dog
from the kennel, the pups began to protest. They cried and ran
around the kennel sometimes for hours and even days. Eventually the
pups stopped protesting, but they began to behave as if they
He was depressed. They slept poorly, they lost their appetites, they stopped playing with toys in the kennel, they lost weight,
and they withdrew from other dogs. "

And more, "This pattern of protesting the separation, then
behaving depressed, then developing some emotional distance, seemed to represent the usual reaction of the pups to separation.
Because these reactions occur very early in the lives of the pups, there is good reason to believe that the sequence of emotions may even be programmed to help them survive. "

And he states that, "Researchers speculate that the sequence of
separation, protest, depression, and detachment may reflect an
almost automatic protective reflex in many mammals. How much of
this reflex remains in us humans we do not know, but I think it
unlikely that we have managed to escape it entirely. More likely, the emotional reactions remain, but we have learned to change the behavior they evoke. "
"But the emotional triggers that cause the pups to cry for days,
and us to feel saddened by our partner's departure, remain deeply
He ingrained. "

And as I told you before, it's a fact that no matter how many
times you go by the experience of separation again and again, nothing eliminates this three phases. The only thing you can do is to realize their existence, understand each phase, and take action so you can make this experience more "soft".

And the advice's I am going to give you, comes from my personal
experience, and from the help of 2 fantastic books, (you can find
their references, at the end of this post) that I did buy, read
and apply, that did in fact help me a lot living again and again
the experience of being apart again and again.

So my advice's to help you in the phase of Protest (when you fight against the separation in all the ways you can) are:

– Spend the morning or afternoon before your beloved leaves, with
friends. Do something active, to keep your minds "off" of that
moment, and avoid being alone, crying all the time.

– Do not focus on the pain of being apart again, focus on the
pleasure. How bliss you are for loving and be loved. And you will
not be apart forever.

– If it is too hard for you to take your beloved at the departure
place, like to the airport, and stay together as long as possible, then either say goodbye at your home and let your beloved take a taxi to the airport, or take your beloved at airport but say goodbye in the car.

My advice's to help you in the phase of Depression are:

– Let out the emotions, cry, scream. Give permission yourself to be "depressed" (but not for long time!), But please please please do not make yourself miserable.

– Surround yourself with friends and family that can give you all
the support you need, and do not be alone at your room crying all

– Go to work, go to gym, set goals like getting in shape, and stay active. Go to a comedy movie to make you laugh!

– Do not focus on how long your beloved will be away. Take comfort
in the fact that you are not really alone, only separated by space.

My advices to the phase of Detachment are :

– Detach yourself of the "pain" of being apart again, but please
do not detach from your beloved. Keep strong communication with your beloved. Nowadays we are so lucky to have all the technology to make staying in touch so easy, like phone, text messaging, email, faxes, web cams, etc.

– Do not make the separation between you and your beloved an
obstacle, see as an opportunity to grow.

My Dear Lover, face your feelings, understand them and learn to live with them.
I know it is easier to speak than do, because to me, one of the most difficult things in a Long Distance Relationship, is this emotional phases of separation.

But I am learning, and getting better each time, and very soon it
will arrive the time when there will be no more go away again.
And the same will happen to you.

Be strong, you are not ALONE !!!

Do not measure the distance, measure the Love, Maria Madeira.

Home Insulation Tips

Every home needs home insulation. However, there are several types from which to choose. We will go over a few of them in this article. Insulation is meant to reduce the flow of heat out of your home and into your home. Some of the particular types include fiberglass, rigid foam boards and liquid foam. 

It is important to decide which the best home insulation for your house is. One factor that will help make the decision is the particular climate you live in. An effectively insulated home is an energy efficient and much more comfortable home to live in. 

The best way to determine which home insulation is best for your climate is to contact your state or local energy conservation office. 

Fiberglass home insulation comes in rolls or batts. These are to be installed between floor joists or in wall cavities. There are safety hazards when working with this type of insulation. Make sure you wear a dust mask or a respirator so that you do not breathe in any of the particles. In addition, wear long sleeves and gloves to protect your skin. 

Rigid foam home insulation is also known as foam boards. They are more commonly used to insulate the foundation of a home because of their water resistance abilities. Another popular use of this type of insulation is for exterior insulation on walls or under siding. They must be fit tightly together to avoid any loss of energy. 

Rigid foam home insulation has a higher R-value than fiberglass, which is why many homeowners and builders prefer to use it. 

Liquid foam home insulation is sprayed in a thin layer onto a wall. It is then left alone to expand and fill the wall cavity before anything is added over top of the insulation. One of the main advantages of this type is that once it is applied you do not need to worry about it settling or moving. It provides an airtight seal. It is also quick to apply if you have the experience. 

Most home insulation can be installed by a good do it yourselfer. However, many contractors have a lot of experience if you are not comfortable with the job.

DIY Concrete Mixing – Advanced Mix Ingredients & Techniques

Once you have established a basic understanding of a simple concrete mix you can begin to learn more about new concrete technologies and the true limitations of this incredible building material – hint, there are not many!

By changing the volume and type of aggregates that you use in your cement mix you can create many different types of concrete suited to different applications. In general the goal of substituting aggregates is to have the concrete remain consistently strong as a finished product. Some examples of concrete advanced techniques are:

1) Color or dye in the concrete

2) Lightweight concrete

3) High strength concrete

4) Decorative concrete

Even all of these options are just the tip of the iceberg for what concrete is capable of. The extreme limitations of current concrete technology being researched and developed are transparent (translucent actually) concrete which will show a silhouette through concrete that is meters thick! Limitations of concrete strength is self supporting concrete which does not require the mechanical assistance of steel grid work. Concrete strength used to be measure is PSI however mPa or mega Pascals is the current unit of compressive concrete strength referring to the amount of force the concrete can ensure before failure.

Coloured Concrete

You can add powder or liquid pigments to your concrete to achieve interesting and dynamic colors. Common colors would be brown, red, dark grey, tan and other similar earth tones. To get more vibrant concrete colors you can use pure white Portland cement in place of regular cement, as well as pure white sand instead of regular sand. This white mortar mix will react well to more vibrant colors and pigments. The amount of pigment or dye that you use will depend entirely on the brand that you choose. The best method is to purchase from a specialty concrete supply store which will have a far better selection of quality concrete color additives than your local hardware supply store.

Lightweight Concrete

You can replace all or part of the sand in a 3:1 mortar mix with aggregate materials that are much lighter in nature than sand. The result will be a concrete that is much lighter, but also vastly weaker than a 3:1 sand mortar. There are many applications for lightweight concrete with many of them being decorative such as planter pots or garden statues. The most common lightweight aggregate material substitutions for making concrete are:

Vermiculite – which is a mineral and often sold as “pool base” in larger quantities from pool stores which will make a relatively strong, but compressible concrete. The insulation value of vermiculite is very high, more than ten times as high as sand, so vermiculite concrete mixes are often used for sound dampening and insulating.

Peat Moss – Using peat partially in place of sand will result in a concrete that is much weaker than traditional 3:1 mortar and even much weaker than vermiculite concrete. The texture of the concrete is somewhat earthy and finishing and detail work con be slightly difficult by comparison with other mixes.

Saw Dust – This is another readily available and cheap aggregate substitutions used to achieve a lightweight concrete. In addition to providing a rough and inconsistent texture to the concrete, the wood ingrained will often stain and discolour creating an interesting and unique pattern. Too much sawdust can make the concrete unacceptably weak very quickly – more so than vermiculite and peat moss.

Perlite – This is commonly used for gardening and is recognisable in that it is completely white and very similar in texture to styrofoam beads. The main advantage of this aggregate choice is the fact that it is white. It has a similar overall feel as vermiculite however the concrete produced with vermiculite is much easier to work and finish than concrete made with perlite.

Usually you can replace up to two of your three buckets of sand with an alternative aggregate. Vermiculite can be mixed with straight cement without sand and still remain strong enough to suit several tasks such as swimming pool floors. The other aggregates will yield a concrete that will break under its own weight.

High Strength Concrete

The current strength for concrete is measured in mPa with the average sidewalk concrete being 10-15 mPa where as foundations for homes usually start at 20-25 mPa. High rise commercial concrete is closer to 35 mPa as is swimming pool construction concrete.

The strengthening of concrete over and above what a 3:1 mortar mix will yield requires engineering and testing. If you order concrete from a ready mix or bath plant you can specify precisely how strong you want the concrete to be. If you are mixing it yourself and want to make the concrete as strong as reasonably possible there are a few things that you can do.

Glass Fibres – Glass fibres and fibreglass are two different additives which you can put into your concrete to help make it cohesively stronger as well as minimize hairline cracking in the concrete during the curing process.

Water Reducer – is a liquid that you can put into the concrete in place of water. The water reducer will increase the viscosity and workability of the cement dramatically without affecting the finished strength negatively. The more water that you put in concrete the weaker the finished product will be. In place of water reducer you can also use the absolute minimum water possible to get the concrete workable to make it as strong as possible.

Powder Additives – Combinations of highly dense powders such as silica fume and fly ash can potentially help to make concrete stronger by filling in some of the microscopic spaces left in regular concrete by the larger sized aggregates. These tiny aggregates are dangerous to work with because the airborne particles are small enough to damage your lungs should you breathe them. Most of these powder additives will be hard to locate for the average DIY enthusiast.

Decorative Concrete

In place of sand you can also add just about any other substance such as glass or coloured beads, pieces of plastic or metal, rubber or anything else you can think of. Most commonly you would use this concrete to create an exposed aggregate where loose aggregate is imbedded into the top of partially cured concrete. Exposed aggregate with small coloured stones is very common and you likely have seen this before. Exposed aggregate with marbles and microchips is less common to be sure – but not any less possible.

With some basic practice you can learn to create incredible things such as statues, pool decks, artificial rocks, ponds, waterfalls and decorative art.

BMW Cooling Systems Maintenance and Service

The cooling system on your BMW plays a critical role in the optimal operation of the vehicle. When operating as it should, it's your best friend, but cooling system repairs can be your worst enemy when a component in the system fails or if you do not know how the BMW cooling system operates. The primary role of the cooling system is, in short, to maintain the proper engine temperature by cycling coolant through the engine. The coolant draws heat away from the engine and is then passed through the radiator to cool it with air. A thermostat valve regulates coolant flow, and your engine may be equipped with a temperature sensor which regulates external air cooling fans.

Your BMW cooling system consists of three primary elements, outlined below.

– BMW Hoses, Valves, Heater Core , Radiator and Expansion Tank

These components work in tandem to facilitate the transit and regulation of the coolant flow throughout the engine. Because of the types of materials used and their constant contact with coolant, these parts are more greatly affected by exposure time rather than how much they are used. Prolonged exposure to engine coolant results in eventual deterioration, therefore regular coolant replacements and periodic examination of all hoses and piping is highly recommended. When the engine coolant is drained and replaced, any hoses showing signs of wear should be replaced. We recommend that all hoses be replaced every few years as a preventative measure.

The radiator, heater core, control valves or expansion tank are normally only replaced or repaired if there is evidence of leakage or a blockage of some kind. These components should be evaluated by a BMW certified technician to ensure optimum performance and operational safety.

– BMW Thermostat, Fans and Radiator / Expansion Tank Cap

Temperature control of your engine's cooling system consist of the radiator cap, expansion tank cap, thermostat, sensors, fans and fan clutch. While these parts mainly function independently of the engine, they do impact engine control through communication with your BMW's computer system.

Essentially, the thermostat is a spring-loaded valve. The temperature of the coolant flowing through it determines whether it opens or closes. The thermostats include an electronic switch which can activate the check engine light, warning you way before there is an actual failure. This switch monitors the position and rate of the thermostat and sends a report to the engine computer. This helps with emission warm-up time and also gives you the best possible fuel mileage. If your engine temperature gauge consistently registers low, or starts out high followed by a drop to normal operating temperature, this could signal the onset of a sticking thermostat. Consult with a BMW professional immediately if your vehicle is exhibiting these symptoms.

Another important part of the cooling system which is either misunderstood or overlooked is the expansion tank or radiator cap, which, similar to the thermostat, is a spring-loaded valve which reacts to variations in pressure. If these caps need replacing, it must be an exact match with the same pressure rating as specified by the manufacturer. A radiator or expansion tank cap not intended for your vehicle should only be used temporarily in an emergency situation.

A belt-driven fan blade for pulling air through the radiator is usually on the water pump pulley and should have a fan clutch to control it. The fan clutch allows the fan to turn with the belt at low engine speed and "free-wheel" at higher speeds. A malfunctioning fan clutch might result in disallowing the fan to run at slow speeds (overheating in traffic) or disallowing free-wheeling at higher speeds (potential overheating on highway or reduced gas mileage).

– BMW Water Pump

The engine's water pump is the force behind the entire cooling system, keeping your coolant flowing. The primary water pump is belt- or gear-driven, but in some cases a secondary electric water pump is utilized to improve flow. Driving the water pump is the drive belt which turns it, however on some older models the pump and belt are external, running off the crankshaft pulley with a separate belt. Pumping system maintenance is essentially scheduled coolant replacement, drive-belt replacement and tension adjustment (for the external pumps). Beyond 100,000 miles, we recommend a complete replacement of nearly the entire cooling system including radiator, expansion tank, thermostat, hoses, belts and pulleys as a preventative measure. BMWs are excellent vehicles, however their cooling systems are notoriously unreliable and require extra care.

Engine temperature regulation is vital, both to performance and emissions control. Proper maintenance of your BMW's cooling system not only saves money in the long run, but enhances overall driving performance and gas mileage. Please remember that BMW cooling systems are very sensitive, and should only be adjusted or repaired by a qualified technician using the proper diagnostic software and utilities.

Prefabricated Home Packages

This is by no means an exhaustive list of what's available in the area of ​​prefabricated homes and buildings. This article is to introduce you to the world prefab. If you're in the industry, you'll probably be cringing about now at the word "prefab". But, the word is one that has become synonymous with homes and buildings that have been partially or fully assembled in a factory setting.
I for one am excited to see the latest versions of modern prefabs emerging globally. They're well thought out, beautiful, and energy-efficient.

And to anyone who has any doubts about the quality of today's prefab homes, I'd ask, would you rather buy a house whose parts have all been crafted outdoors exposed to the elements – by hand. Or, would you rather buy a house built in a factory setting to tight specs exceeding that of site-built homes. I say exceeding, because a normal site-built home does not have to endure the rigors of transportation.

Your review For, here are On quick descriptions of 10 of the : many categories of prefab homes available for exploring at Http://PrefabExpo.com – in no Particular order:

1. Manufactured

Single-family residential dwellings consisting of one, two or more sectional units and constructed to Federal HUD code. Zoning regulations and ordinances of the local Municipality or County might not permit use of mobile and manufactured homes in all areas of their jurisdiction.

2. Modular

Modular refers to a method of building a home, rather than a type of home. A modular home can be built in a factory from a stock modular home plan or from a customized plan, to the state, local or regional codes of where the home will be set up. Modular homes have not typically experienced the zoning restrictions and discriminative ordinances applicable to manufactured and mobile homes.

3. Panelized

Panelized homes are factory-built homes in which panels – whole walls with windows, doors, wiring, and outside siding – are transported to the site and assembled. Panels are made from insulating foam sandwiched between two layers of structural material. The panels are lightweight and might already be filled with insulation when they arrive on the site. The homes must meet the state or local building codes of where they are sited.

4. Steel-frame

Steel framing is an equivalent to conventional stick frame or post & beam home design where the structural lumber is replaced by steel studs and trusses or steel posts and beams. Light-Gauge Framing System features screw-together, galvanized stud-and-truss, grid-type construction system built on 4-foot center.Red-Iron Metal Post & Beam Systems features bolt-together, pre-engineered post-and-beam -type framing system that uses the red-iron steel "C" beams on 8-foot center. The prefabricated home built with this method can be single-story, two-story, and even tri-level home.
Unlike conventional wood framed home that requires interior walls to support the roof, the higher strength-to-weight ratio of steel house allows to span greater distances with less material and fewer supports. The result is higher floor layout and interior design flexibility.

Unlike wood, steel will not shrink, rot, warp, buckle, split, or be attacked by insects. This results in greater durability, lower long-term maintenance, higher energy efficiency and overall greater quality of this prefabricated home.

5. Precut

This category includes wood-framed factory-built houses or cabins where building materials are factory-cut to design specifications and transported to the site to be assembled. PrefabExpo.com presents prefab building kits designed as wood-framed (also known as balloon-frame, 2 x 4, 2 x 6 or stick-built construction) as well as prefabricated home kit / cabin kit using post-frame method. The homes or cabins must meet local or state building codes of the area where they will be sited.

6. Cedar

According to Katahdin Cedar Log Homes, cedar is aromatic to people, and problematic to insects: The heartwood of northern white cedar produces organic compounds called thujaplicins – which create that fresh, pleasant cedar aroma. But to insect pests, such as moths and termites, cedar just plain stinks. They'll avoid cedar homes and instead search out inviting, tasty pine structures.

Cedar home kits include everything you need to build the home, itself. That is to say, the walls, the floor, the ceiling, the windows and doors. But your foundation, plumbing and electrical system are not usually included in a kit.

7. Timberframe

Timber framing is a specific type of post and beam construction in which a frame is created from solid wood timbers that are then connected by any one of the following wooden joints: mortise and tenon, dovetails, or scarfs secured with hardwood pegs. The frame is covered with any one of a number of enclosure systems. Normally the timbers remain exposed to the interior of the building.

Timber frame structures exhibit a strength and aesthetic quality not found in conventionally framed houses. The timbers are pre-cut, shaped, and finished at the factory, then sent to the construction site, where they can be quickly assembled by a crew, routinely using cranes to lift the bents and beams into place. The use of quality wood, enhanced by joinery that compares with fine cabinet making, maximizes the strength of the timberframe structure. Joinery is the heart of the entire structure.

8. Log

Log homes provide their owners with a comforting and relaxing sense of informality and simplicity. The mass of logs produces heating and cooling benefits, and reduces noise transmission into and throughout the home. These are very attractive characteristics, but there are also challenges in construction and limitations in decorating. These aspects require special design considerations and have unusual maintenance requirements.
Basic Kits Are …

WALLS ONLY: The walls-only log home package includes all the logs for the outside walls, including fasteners. Roof beams and staircases may be added.

STRUCTURAL SHELL: Shell This package includes everything that's in the walls-only package, plus all components necessary to keep the weather out, such as exterior doors, windows, and the roofing system.

THE COMPLETE PACKAGE: Complete packages also includes interior components required to finish log homes. Such items include interior walls, stairs, closets, interior doors and trim.

9. Circular

The circle is the strongest geometrical shape we recognize, and this factor likely influenced builders of circular homes for thousands of years. Prefabricated circular buildings have been built as cabins, studios, homes, offices or community halls and convention centers.
Most of today's prefabricated circular homes and cabins offered across the country use conventional wood-frame or post & beam construction method. These homes and cabins are ideally suited to take the full advantage of locations offering exciting panoramic views, and to incorporate factor of the surroundings into the home design.

10. Dome

Geodesic Dome is using triangular networks forming hexagons and pentagons and creating a free-span, spacious environment of spherically shaped structure requiring no internal supports. This results in large flexibility for utilizing interior space to implement floor designs not limited by structural restrictions. Because of the structural strength of the shape, the domes have a far better record of withstanding tornados, hurricanes and earthquakes than cube-shaped structures of conventional homes.
Advantages …

MATERIAL COSTS: Geodesic domes provide the greatest amount of floor area with the least amount of surface area, reducing the quantity of needed building material by as much as 30-50%.

ENERGY EFFICIENCY: As a result of the shape, the dome has approximately 30-50% less roof and wall area than cube-shaped home of equal floor space. This results in lesser area being exposed to the elements, resulting in reduction in heating and cooling costs of dome shaped structures. Also, the spherical shape of the dome facilitates natural air flow yielding more even temperatures maximizing overall interior temperature comfort.

Disadvantages …

As a result of complicated angles, the interior and exterior finishing of the dome (after speedy assembly of the prefabricated shell) is significantly more labor intensive than finishing the conventional house. Also, the finishing work requires highly skilled or specialized tradesmen which might not be available at every location. These factors might present welcoming challenge for skilled handyman – homebuilder, but would create substantial cost outlay if the hired labor is considered.

Cryoscopic Determination of Molecular Weight


Freezing point depression is a colligative property meaning that the amount of change in the freezing point depends only on the number of particles dissolved in the solution. The freezing point depression does not care what the particles are; it is only concerned with how many are there. Because of this, the measurement of the change in freezing point between a pure solvent, and a solvent with a known amount of substance in it gives an accurate, and absolute, value of the number of molecules dissolved in the solution. Knowing the mass of the solute and the freezing point of the pure solvent provides enough information to accurately calculate the Molecules per unit mass of the solute.


Each solvent has its own freezing point and with it, its own molal freezing – point constant. The molal freezing point constant is the depression in degrees Centigrade of the solvent when 1 mole of solute is dissolved in 1 kilogram of the solvent (Chemical Technician's Ready Reference Handbook, pg 435). Freezing point constants are published values ​​available for most pure solvents.

Many people, including me way back when, do freezing point the hard way. By this I mean that we fabricated our own apparatus with test tubes, glass thermometers, a piece of wire, and an acetone plus dry ice bath. We placed our sample into the tube, immersed the thermometer with the wire looped around it then sticking out as a handle, and then froze the solution in the dry ice acetone mixture. Once frozen, we removed our apparatus and painstakenly plotted the rise in temperature moving the wire up and down to keep the temperature constant. With this plot we estimated freezing point the best we could, cleaned our device, and went on to the next sample. The process was slow, kind of fun, but fairly inacurate and not very cost effective for a commercial lab.

Enter the cryoscope; an instrument that does all this, automatically and on small samples at that. With microliter size samples up to a milliliter or so, a cryoscope accurately measures freezing point depression to thousandths of a degree centigrade on a calibrated, basically push button instrument. A single value is returned from which molecular weight is easily calculated. Hazardous solvents, such as benzene, can readily be used with little risk of analyst exposure.

Famous Architects

Architects have been and will remain at the forefront of designing the built environment that surrounds us. As professional experts in the field of building, design and construction, architects use their creativity to simplify the complex process of designing and build socially and economically sustainable cities and communities. Following are some world famous architects known for their unique creative skills, vision and contributions.

Frank Lloyd Wright

Frank Lloyd Wright is one of America’s most famous architects. Although he had no formal education in architecture, he believed that his work as a farm hand in Wisconsin made him very perceptive and helped develop his spatial abilities. After studying engineering at the University of Wisconsin for a few semesters at the age of 15, he left to apprentice with J.L. Silsbee and Louis Sullivan. After working with them for six years, Wright opened his own practice. During his 70-year career, Wright designed 1,141 buildings, including homes, offices, churches, schools, libraries, bridges and museums. One of his most important contributions was the Prairie House style of architecture. He experimented with obtuse angles and circles, creating unusually shaped structures, an example of which is the spiral Guggenheim Museum (1943-49). He also developed a series of low-cost homes which he called Usonian. Although he earned recognition in the early 1900s as one of the popular modern architects he became the recipient of the American Institute of Architects only in 1949.

Some of his more famous projects were:

Frederick C. Robie House 1909

Unity Temple 1906

Fallingwater 1936

Johnson Wax Administration Building 1936

I.M. Pei

I. M. Pei one of the most famous modern architects was born in Canton, China in 1917. Pei grew up in Shanghai, but in 1935 he moved to the United States to study architecture and engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and later at Harvard University. He became the Director of Architecture at the real estate development firm, Webb & Knapp in 1948 and then founded his own firm in 1958.

Over the past fifty years, Ieoh Ming Pei has designed more than fifty buildings across the globe including industrial skyscrapers, museums and low income housing. Concerened more with function than theory, the defining feature of I. M. Pei’s style is the use of large, abstract forms and sharp, geometric designs. His glass clad structures are born from high tech modernist movement.

During his career, Pei and his firm have won numerous architecture awards. He won the prestigious Pritzker Prize in 1983.

Some of his more noteworthy buildings are:

The Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art at Cornell University

Bank of China Tower

John Hancock Tower

Louvre Pyramid

National Gallery

Le Corbusier

Le Corbusier, born in the late 19th century, was a pioneer of modern architecture. He founded what is popularly known as the International style or the Bauhaus. The essence of modern architecture as advocated by him was described in his 5-point theory that later became the guiding principle for many of his designs.

Freestanding support pillars

Open floor plan independent from the supports

Vertical facade that is free from the supports

Long horizontal sliding windows

Roof gardens

While the earlier buildings by Le Corbusier, called pure prisms were smooth, white concrete and glass structures elevated above the ground, his later designs used rough, heavy forms of stone, concrete, stucco and glass. He was a visionary who not only anticipated the role of the automobile but envisaged that cities would have big apartment buildings with park-like settings. Le Corbusier, as a famous architect was also known for his innovations in urban planning and his solutions for low income housing. Moreover, he believed that the stark buildings he designed would contribute to clean, bright, healthy cities. Le Corbusier’s dreams of such an urban haven were aptly realized in the Unité d’Habitation, or the “Radiant City,” in Marseilles, France which was built to incorporate shops, meeting rooms, and living quarters for 1,600 people in a 17-story structure. During his long life, Le Corbusier designed buildings in Europe, India, and Russia. Le Corbusier also designed one building in the United States and one in South America.

His most famous buildings are:

Palace for the League of Nations, Geneva 1927

Villa Savoye, Poissy, France 1929

Swiss Building, Cité Universitaire, Paris 1931

The Secretariat at the United Nations Headquarters, New York 1952

R. Buckminister Fuller

Born of poverty and bankruptcy, Buckheimer Fuller had contemplated suicide before his life changed courses and he became a famous architect known for his unique architectural styles dominating the 20th century. He believed that his life was an experiment and that it belonged to the universe. At the age of 32, he embarked on a journey to discover what a penniless and unknown individual might have to offer effectively to humanity. He searched for ways to do more with less so that all the people could be fed and have a shelter over their heads.

Although he never obtained a degree in architecture, he was a modern architect and engineer who designed revolutionary structures. His famous Dymaxion House was a pre-fabricated, pole-supported dwelling. His Dymaxion car was a streamlined, three-wheeled vehicle with the engine in the rear while his Dymaxion Air-Ocean Map projected a spherical world as a flat surface with no visible distortion. However, Fuller’s greatest contribution is perhaps the geodesic dome – a remarkable, sphere-like structure based on theories of “energetic-synergetic geometry” which he developed during WWII. Efficient and economical, the geodesic dome was widely hailed as a possible solution to world housing shortages.

Although his Dymaxion car did not achieve popularity and his design for geodesic domes is rarely used, Fuller made his mark in areas of architecture, mathematics, philosophy, religion, urban development and design.

His most important works included:

1932: The portable Dymaxion house manufactured

1934: The Dymaxion car

1938: Nine Chains to the Moon

1949: Developed the Geodesic Dome

1967: US Pavilion at Expo ’67, Montreal, Canada

1969: Operating Manual for Spaceship Earth

1970: Approaching the Benign Environment

Louis Sullivan

Louis Sullivan is known to be America’s first and original modern architect, as he believed in creating his own designs and forms rather than imitating older historic styles. The unique element in Sullivan’s design was that he was able to create aesthetic unity in buildings that were tall instead of the typical wide buildings of the older times. He often used masonry walls with terra cotta designs, with intertwining vines and leaves combined with crisp geometric shapes. Louis Sullivan believed that the exterior of an office building should reflect its interior structure and functions. Ornamentation should be as natural as possible and used only when needed. He rejected the classical references and the ubiquitous arches.

Some of his important buildings are

Wainwright Building

National Farmers’Bank (Sullivan’s “Arch”)

The Bradley House

Top Considerations On Securing A Scaffolding System

A scaffolding system is very important to any construction project. Securing a reliable one is never an easy task. It comes with many considerations which must not be neglected. The first of these is the identification of how many parts of its parts you will need. This depends on the extent of the project you are to work on. Your answer to this will lead you to the second consideration. This is the number of times you intend to use the entire system. The frequency of its set up and dismantling can affect the quality of its parts overtime and so its premium performance may be sacrificed.

When you buy scaffolding, it is crucial that you are knowledgeable of its composition. Standards, ledgers and transoms comprise the core of an entire system. The vertical pipes which determine the height of the equipment are the standards. The horizontal ones corresponding to its width are called the ledgers. The pipes that are perpendicular to the ledgers are known as transoms. Transoms support the placement of platforms.

In addition to the parts mentioned above, you will need couplers. Couplers are also known as fittings. They are responsible for connecting the pipes in place. Accessories like ladders, stairways, platforms, tool bins, and hoists also matter. Ladders are said to provide limited service and so they are replaced by staircases. There is a problem with staircases though – they take much space. Moving forward, the platforms which you ought to buy could be made of steel, wood or wood with steel edges.

Purchasing the components of an entire scaffolding system really requires a budget. Because of this, some resort to renting them. The costs of scaffold rental vary accordingly. The number of parts and the quality of these parts are major determinants of the rental fee. Never omit certain parts just to make the cost you ought to pay lower. Missing parts could mean grave accidents to all the workers who would be using the system.

Apart from preparing your budget in advance, it is important to make reservations in advance as well. You will never know if there is an available set on the date you need it unless you contact a prospective right away. This is especially true when construction companies are erecting buildings in your locality left and right. Once you have made reservations, schedule a visit to the store of the supplier whom you have contacted. You have to scrutinize the condition of each part before paying for them. In connection to this, cracks and rust are the two things to watch out for when checking their quality.

As you sign a contract for the scaffolding system of your choice, ask about the customer support that comes with the deal. It is important that there is available help for your workers any time mishaps occur. Ask about available replacements for faulty parts too. Finally, ask about the delivery of the parts you need. Would it be by batch? Is there a delivery fee?

Active Ankle T2 Brace Review

If your ankles are weak or unstable, you may be prone to injuries. Injuries can occur while playing sports or during simple, everyday activities. You could hurt your ankle while playing soccer, basketball, football, or volleyball. You could even hurt it while stepping from the sidewalk onto the street.

Injuries can cause the ankle to be weak, and weak ankles are more likely to be injured again. How do you prevent an injury? By using a brace. When you want to prevent an injury, you may want to use the Active Ankle T2 brace. This brace is designed to support your ankle and to prevent an injury.

The Active Ankle T2 brace has an adjustable strap system that is easy to use. It can be worn with both high-top shoes and low-top shoes. The T2 brace provides both ankle support and compression.

The brace can be used to prevent an injury or to protect an injured ankle. They can help with moderate sprains or strains. The brace can help relieve pain by taking some of the weight off the foot.

It helps transfer some of this weight to the lower leg, and this helps relieve the pain in your ankle. The Active Ankle T2 can also help improve how your ankle joint functions and can enhance your endurance.

It has very lightweight EVA padding which really helps the brace fit well. And makes it less bulky while offering good protection and performance while you are wearing it.

The Active Ankle T2 brace was designed to achieve the following goals: to prevent inversion and eversion which means spraining the ankle by twisting it inwards or outwards, decrease the need for anti-inflammatory medication, reduce the pain from symptoms, stabilize the ankle, improve the way the ankle joint functions and to enhance endurance.

A Drexel University study said “the brace reduced by about 8% the weight carried by the heel bone-equal to 12-pound unloading during ambulation in a 150-pound person”.

Active Ankle Systems, Inc. produces the T2 brace. The company is a well known manufacturer of quality orthopedic products. The brace has a patented design. This design helps to control motion in the heel bone.

With the T2 brace, the company tried to produce a brace that was less bulky but still offered maximum performance and protection. Besides the T2 brace, the company produces many other types of ankle brace. Some of these are: the CF Pro, Volt, Power Lacer, AS1, and the Dorsal Night Splint.