Garage Roofing Part 3 – Building the Roof

In the previous two installments of our garage roofing series, we have looked at how to plan the work, whether repairing an existing roof or building a new one. We have also looked at the process of choosing garage roofing materials depending on your needs and budget. In this last part, we will finally get to the building itself. You will get tips on how to approach the work, along with some do's and don'ts. Let us begin.

If you are building a garage from scratch, you may already have started on the roof at this point. Some people like to construct the roof trusses as part of the wall structure – where each truss stands on two vertical pillars, and each of these sets of trusses and pillars make up one cross-section of the whole building structure. This can be a bit cumbersome to work with in some cases, so to do it in a way that is a bit more manageable, I would erect the wall structure first, stabilize it, and then put up the trusses. When you are ready to begin work above head-height, you should strongly consider putting up scaffolding to stand on. It is not only safer to work from than a ladder, but also easier, as you have both hands free to work.

Erecting the trusses
This is a job for two to three people. First thing to do, is mark the position of each truss on the top of the walls, where the trusses will eventually be fastened. The distance between trusses is dictated by the needs of your chose roofing material. Heavy materials need a lot of support, meaning less distance between trusses. The first truss is then lifted onto the top of the walls, so that it straddles what will become the floor of the garage. The truss is then erected by tying a long rafter to the very top of the truss with a bit of line – and then pushing it to an upright position. Two people are ready to position the lower chord of the truss on its precise locations on both walls, while a third person stands on the ground between the walls and pushes the truss upwards with the rafter. The truss is then secured diagonally at first – a rafter can be nailed to the truss and the wall, holding it in its upright position.

Now you can anchor it to the wall. When the next truss is erected, it can then be temporarily anchored to the first one, stabilizing them both. Keep going this way until all of the trusses are up. Once all the trusses are in the right place, with the right distance between them and centered over the walls, it is time to do a little extra stabilization – especially if the roof is a pitched roof. First, you want to secure the roof against wind forces hitting the gables. Think of it like this: What you want to do, is prevent the trusses from keeling over like a house of cards. What you do, is install some form of bracing running diagonally across each side of the roof. These could be rafters, but even better is to use steel straps specially made for this. You should also anchor each side of each truss to some point at least half-way down the walls – preferably as far down as the foundation. This helps protect against wind-forces that might otherwise rip the entire roof off completely.

Adding rafters or decking
Before laying the your chosen garage roofing material, you need to put up rafters or decking, depending on the material. Plywood decking is pretty much only used with asphalt roof products such as roofing felt or asphalt shingles. Most other products use rafters. To figure out the dimensions and density of the rafters you should consult the documentation supplied with the roofing material – or better yet, talk to an engineer. The easiest way to attach rafters and decking is to use a pneumatic nail-gun. They can be quite expensive, but are often available to rent. It takes a lot of nails to build a roof, so going at it with a hammer is really a lot of work – probably too much. If you decide you need to add extra rain water protection, you could add a plastic barrier right between the trusses and the rafters. It will then be nailed down along with the rafters. Just be careful not to tear it anywhere, as that any holes will defeat its purpose.

Laying the roof
Now it is time to finish your garage roof. If you have chose roofing shingles of the sort that must be laid on rafters, it is a good idea to start out by making a number of small stacks of shingles evenly on the rafters. That will allow you to do the actual laying out in a much more even flow, than if you had to climb down to the scaffold to get each shingle. Whatever the material, be careful if you have to walk on it. Some types, such as slate roofing and clay tile will not like it if you walk straight on them, so try to avoid that. If you are laying asphalt shingles, they will also need to be nailed down, in this case to a plywood deck. Again – we're talking a lot of nails here, so that nail-gun is pretty much a necessity.

This was the final chapter of our little garage roofing series, so I hope you can take away some useful information to use in your next roofing project. Do not forget safety comes first!

Rubber Playground Material – What Is Poured In Place Surfacing

Poured in place safety surfacing has become the surface of choice for public and private schools, parks, and daycare centers. Companies install this 2-layer system consisting of a base material made of 100% post-consumer recycled rubber and polyurethane nationwide. These materials are mixed and applied on site. The thickness of this surface can be modified to meet critical fall height requirements, providing maximum safety for commercial or residential playgrounds.

Why poured-in-place safety surfacing ? Traditional playground surfaces such as wood chips or sand have 2 similar problems that put them at a huge disadvantage to rubber surfacing. First, these types of safety surfaces can never remain consistently level, potentially creating dangerous trip hazards. Secondly, using mulch or sand also requires regular replenishing leading to long-term financial burdens. That's not to mention the mess that can be created from rain or snow. Poured in place surfacing is permeable to water and provides a smooth, trip-free surface allowing for possible play time even during rainy weather! Also, it is a perfect solution for playgrounds that need to accommodate those with special needs.

Design Possibilities When it comes to design, the possibilities are endless.Rubber playground surfacing is available in a variety of colors and designs can be customized. School logos, baseball and football field lines, or any other theme can be created. No matter which design or colors you choose, in the end the result is one truly unique, smooth and seamless surface. Most importantly, you will have the safest play surface on the market!

Choosing a Surfacing Contractor Poured in place surfacing comes with strict safety requirements that must meet ASTM standards. It is important to know that only highly trained individuals can perform this extremely technical and laborious process. This means you must hire a certified installer. There are companies out there who specialize in this rubber surfacing and have the capabilities for nationwide installation. A good contractor has the specialized equipment used to perform Head Impact Safety Analysis tests. When it comes to safety, take it serious and make sure you hire a reputable contractor for the installation of this unique and innovative surface.

It is no secret that poured in place surfacing has become the choice daycare providers when it comes to safety at their establishment. If offers a safer playing area then conventional surfaces with unlimited design possibilities. The price to have this unique rubber surfacing is tad more then other options, but then you really can not put a price on safety.

Free Printable Face Painting Pictures

Children love having their faces painted! Whether it’s at a carnival, fair, or community fun day or at home just for the fun of it, it’s a definite favorite. There are many different things you can do with face painting. There are unlimited ideas when it comes to what types of designs you can paint. Here are a few tips when it comes to face painting designs, and a few things to remember.

There is no need to run out and purchase face painting designs with the amount of information available to you today on the internet. You can find free printable face painting pictures on some really great sites. From simple designs such as flowers and cherries, to elaborate and beautiful fairy, princess and superhero designs, children love each design.

When using paints and other decorative things on the face, you want to make sure that it’s all safe. You don’t want to use regular acrylic paints like some do, because they can actually irritate a child’s sensitive skin. Instead, go for a paint that is made specifically to go on the skin. This will keep the child a happy camper.

When using glitter to add to the effect of face paints, make sure you never use aluminum glitter. This can be extremely unsafe for the child’s skin and eyes, and it’s rather easy for a child to rub some of the aluminum glitter into his or her eye. Avoid this by using glitters that are safe for the skin, such as body glitter. There are many free printable face painting pictures that you can add glitter to and it will make the design stand out and be much prettier. The same thing goes for stick on jewels. Make sure that there is nothing in the glue or jewel that could irritant the skin.

A great idea is to learn how to face paint for your child’s birthday party. Professionals will charge up to $150 an hour to do this for you. You truly can save a ton of money by doing it yourself. If you don’t know what to paint look for free printable face painting pictures. Face painting really makes a birthday party special, and the designs that you paint will be priceless to the child. The children will really love having the designs on their faces.

Face painting is great fun for the child being painted and the one doing the painting. It can be an inexpensive, artistic and fun way to celebrate sports teams, school spirit, birthdays, and even holidays!

Cold Weather Horse Care Tips

You may be surprised at how well horses can adapt to colder weather. In the wild, horses can withstand temperatures at well below zero. However, there are a number of things that you can do to maximize your horse's health and condition during the colder months. Here are a few tips that will help to keep your equine friend happy and healthy during winter months.

One important thing to remember is that although horses do well in colder temperatures, they can be affected by cold winds which not only make them extremely uncomfortable but also have a tendency to spook the horse. You can keep your horse happier by providing some type of wind break such as a run-in shed in the pasture. If your horse does not have access to a run-in shed, a line of trees may be adequate to block some of the wind, but it is advisable that they at least have some sort of shelter from potential wind, snow, and freezing rain .

In addition to a nice shelter for your horse, you should increase your horse's hay intake during the winter months. Hay digestion creates increased heat production which helps your horse stay warmer in the winter months. Be sure that you are not increasing the grain intake, as increased grain intake will not provided the desired results of helping your horse to stay warmer. In fact, excess grain has been linked to foundering and potentially colic.

If your hay is not of the best quality, you should take your hay to be tested so that the hay is providing all of the nutritional benefits to your horse. Beet Pulp has been used by many horsemen as an additional feed source to supplement hay. The qualities of beet pulp allow it to be an easily digested feed with similar nutritional benefits as hay. Be sure that your horse is receiving enough feed through high quality forages to help him or her sustain a healthy body weight throughout the winter.

In addition to providing extra hay, you should also always provide fresh water for your horse. Although the weather is colder, horses still need enough water intake to keep their digestive tracts in line. Water prevents dehydration and is a vital part of keeping your horse healthy. Not only should you provide fresh water, but check the water regularly for ice. You may need to either install an electric heater in the water trough or keep a rubber mallet nearby to break ice which accumulates in buckets.

Another tip to keep in mind is to cool down your horse after exercise. Although this is equally important in the summer time, horses can easily chill after a rigorous work out if they are not provided with a cooler blanket to keep their body temperatures from losing heat too quickly and to keep them from becoming chilled while wet with sweat. Remember to walk your horse after a work-out so that they can cool down slowly.

Winter months can be refreshing and exhilarating for horses as long as they are kept healthy and happy!

6 Star Mud Brick House Study

A study was conducted earlier this year to help determine the viability and potential costs involved in building a 6 Star mud brick home.

The study, funded by Sustainability Victoria, involved thermal energy assessments of four typical mud brick house designs using the FirstRate 5 house energy rating software. An objective was to determine simple and cost effective ways to take each design up to 6 Stars while maintaining each building’s unique character.

All four designs successfully achieved the 6 Star target, however, some proved more difficult than others. In most cases, double glazing was required to the living areas of each home as a minimum, and higher levels of insulation was needed in the ceiling/roof. The more difficult cases benefited greatly from an insulated slab-on-ground or ‘waffle pod’ slab, and higher performance double glazing incorporating low-e coating and argon gas filled cavities.

One design was able to score an extra 1.2 stars by reducing the length of the northern eave to allow greater solar access in winter. This house was the only one in the study to achieve the 6 Star target without using any double glazing.

The orientation of the house also proved to have a great effect on the energy rating. One of the designs was assessed multiple times, each time facing in a different direction – north, south, east and west. It was found that when oriented in an optimal direction, the house was able to achieve the 6 Star target with no double glazing. When this same house was oriented in a less optimal position, double glazing was needed throughout the whole house in order to reach the target.

Findings also proved that with good orientation, generally the additional cost of building a 6 Star mud brick house was not unreasonable. Just as importantly, this goal could be achieved without compromising on the design features which make mud brick homes so unique.

The study was seen to be a success, as it found that a typical mud brick house could in fact achieve a 6 Star energy rating by employing a range of techniques, despite earlier misconceptions. The Nillumbik Mudbrick Association (NMA) are intending to publish a hand book which will use the findings of this study to assist mud brick house designers, builders and home owners meet the mandatory 6 Star rating. The hand book is expected to be made available to NMA members later this year.

Buying Apartment Buildings – Good Move?

Buying apartment buildings used to be what people thought of when they were thinking about investing in real estate. However, thanks to the whole flipping phenomenon the popular notion of investing in real estate has become something more akin to fixing up junker houses.

Not that there's anything wrong with fixing up junkers, you make good money. But when you are trying to figure out what is the best return on your time, fixing a junker just does not compare to buying an apartment building.

Let's consider the two, just for a bit of perspective.

1. When you buy an apartment building you have much less competition; you are one of only a few investors in your market going after deals. Chasing flippers you're one of hundreds. Post why? Houses are easy for people to get their heads around, so everyone and their cousin does it. Apartment buildings are more challenging, because of the high dollar figures involved and more details to master, so fewer people take them on.

2. Buying apartment buildings makes you "much" more money. When you fix up a house you get one check one time; when you sell. You might have 100 hours into a rehab deal, and when you sell you net $ 30,000. Nice! However, take those same 100 hours and put them into buying a 50 unit apartment building. Now, not only do you get paid more, your apartment building pays you multiple times. When you close you get cash back from pro-rated rents, you pay yourself a management fee for raising private money for the deal. Each month you receive positive cashflow from the property. Then, 18 months or so after closing, after renovating the units, raising the rents and filling vacancies, you refinance and pull out a six figure, possibly a seven figure check. These are loan proceeds and tax-free.

3. If your goal is to become wealthy, building a multi-million dollar net worth, buying apartment buildings with get you there quicker. You need fewer deals to reach the one million dollar mark (a single deal can do it for you) making it much more achievable.

4. Even though most real estate investors are afraid of apartments because of the big numbers, buying apartment buildings is in fact less risky than buying houses. If any single tenant stops paying rent you still have cashflow coming in from all the other paying tenants in the property to cover your expenses. When a tenant in a single family home stops paying, that's it! You're 100% vacant and personally on the hook for the mortgage, taxes and insurance.

5. Buying apartment buildings allows you to achieve economies of scale, making your per unit expenses lower and cashflow margins higher. Because you can generate more useable income with apartment buildings, it is financially feasible to hire a professional management company, freeing you from day to day management of the property.

6. Buying apartment buildings and managing them effectively provides you and your family with a lifetime of residual income.

As you can see buying apartment buildings provides you with everything you wanted when you first thought of getting into real estate; large lump sums of cash, monthly cashflow that grows over time, the time freedom to really enjoy your life.

Funnily enough, houses can provide few of these benefits, yet 'flipping gurus' tout them as the investment vehicle for your financial freedom.

Do not be fooled. Educate yourself, take action to buy your first apartment building and enjoy the income for the rest of your life.

Flat Stomach in 2 Weeks – Can You Get Flat Abs in 2 Weeks?

If you ever saw an ad or an infomercial for any product that promises you that you can get flat abs in 2 weeks, don’t believe it and don’t buy it.

Making such a claim is totally dishonorable and false. After all, the amount of time it will take one person to get a great looking belly is totally different from the time it will take another.

For instance, if you’re currently 30 pounds overweight, there is no way that you will have a flat stomach in 2 weeks. It can’t be done. There is simply too much weight to lose. If you have 5 extra pounds that’s another matter, of course.

My point is that you need to avoid falling for empty promises and setting yourself impossible time frames. This is just a way to disappointment and lack of motivation, not true and lasting success.

Focus on the long term

Instead of looking for quick fixes, which is just what many unscrupulos marketers do, you need to focus on the bigger picture and what it takes to achieve long term success. The way to do that is to begin doing what you need to burn belly fat and strengthen your abs and continue doing it as a routine, and not think about it in terms of something that you need to do just until you get flat abs.

The way to get a flat belly has 3 pillars:

1. The right kind of nutrition which involves fresh food, natural as much as possible, low on trans fat, high on vitamins, anti-oxidants, complex carbs, and lean protein.

2. The right kind of cardio – Intensive, hard, focused on fat burning and not on the amount of time you do it for.

3. Strength training – doing total body workouts which are focused on building muscle tissue anywhere on your body to burn off more calories and fat and not on trying to tone a specific body part.

If you do all these 3 things you will probably not get a flat belly in 2 weeks, but you will eventually. It doesn’t need to take years if you do things right. Just start doing them as soon as possible.

The Helmet Camera Story So Far

23 years ago an individual called Mark Schulze decided to put together the world's first "helmet camera" to make an action video. His subject was mountain biking.

As the chip camera had just come out, he obtained one and proceeded to affix it to a motorcycle helmet. What he did then was to attach a cable to both the camera and the VCR which he placed in the biker's backpack. The biker, of course, found this whole apparatus both unwieldy and heavy! Modern sophisticated cameras might not exist were it not for this pioneering experiment. I do not know how much everything weighed but compare this with the contour HD 1080p which weighs just 4.3 ounces!

Lots more mountain biking videos followed plus BMX videos as well and hot on the heels of these followed action films by skiers, skydivers and surfers. Coaches in professional football also tried to fix helmet cameras on their players' headgear for training purposes.

As the digital revolution gathered pace, so helmet cameras got ever smaller. So much so that they are very often referred to as 'bullet' or 'lipstick' cameras. Additionally, these days, they can be mounted on to just about any body part, even feet, enabling the enthusiast to obtain those coveted and out-of-the-ordinary shots that you see on TV. An example of how diminutive these cameras are can be seen by looking at the contour HD helmet camera.

The armed forces of a lot of countries have taken to using helmet cams in situations from combat to surveillance. Air forces in many countries put them on to fighter pilots' helmets. These recordings have proved to be of great value in various ways, from improving techniques to performance.

Fire fighting services the world over placed these cameras on to fire fighters' helmets to record action inside buildings. The best helmet cameras are water-resistant, dirt and dust resistant and shock-proof. It is worth noting that just one gulp of thick smoke can disorient a person with the result that he or she simply will not get to the outside. The videos that are made by the fire services are used not just to train their own men but also to educate the wider public.

Construction staff now use helmet cameras to video work as it progresses, helping problems to be diagnosed and shots of both good work and poor work to be used for later training.

All over the world, police forces now use helmet cameras. Helmet cameras have been crucial in helping the police to successfully prosecute violent criminals, record anti-social behavior, control crowds and violence in the streets. Only the other day there was a program on TV showing police wearing helmet cameras during a raid on a suspected drug pusher's house. Before police started to use helmet cameras they were very often in danger of the occupants filming them on cell-phones and the footage later selectively used to compromise them. With the helmet cameras, the police can negate any such use and also use their recordings for training.

Everything that I have written above should, I hope, be useful to you if you are thinking about investing in your first helmet camera with which to re-live your action experiences. The above explanation of the birth and current uses of the bullet camera will hopefully encourage you to invest in one and increase your enjoyment of whatever activity or sport is close to your heart. Quite simply, if the military, the police and the fire service have invested millions of dollars in this technology, then there's a considerable probability that you, too, will benefit when investing your hard-gained dollars in one.

Here the Click to the find out more on the Contour Cameras.

Getting a Grasp on the Anatomy of a Roof

Your roofing contractor is a great source of help when installing a new roof, however do you find you're not speaking with the same vocabulary? A good basic roof vocabulary makes the process of reroofing much less confusing.

All About Your Roof

• Shingles: One of the most basic pieces of a roof are shingles. They are the top visible layer. Shingles are frequently made of asphalt, but you may also have cedar shingles, clay tiles, or another composite material.

• Dormer: The small framed projection, likely holding a window, on the slope of your roof is a dormer. Many times dormers offer natural light into upper floor bedrooms.

• Gable: A gable is on the end wall of your house. It is the triangle shaped portion under your roofline.

• Gable Vents: As the name implies this is a vent located near the very top of your gable. You can see this vent from the outside. Vents bring fresh air into your attic. This fresh air is important to keeping your attic from overheating. Vents prevent the damage that could result from the excess heat or buildup of gasses inside your attic.

This would be a good time to have your roofing contractor check your ventilation system to make sure everything is still working properly. Even if your ventilation system was properly installed at the time you built your roof, it may not be working correctly any longer. Like all aspects of your roof regular maintenance is important.

• Eaves: Eaves are the portion of the roof that overhangs your exterior wall.

• Soffit: The soffit is the underside of the eaves. What you see as you stand underneath the eaves and look up. Soffits are another area that contains many of the vents bringing fresh air into your attic space.

The anatomy of a roof includes three main areas where the roof intersects itself. These three edges all have different names. From the top of your roof down they are:

• Ridge: This is the highest point of your sloped roof. It is the edge that runs the length of your roof. You may also find vents along this ridge.

• Hip: The hip is an external angle that is formed by two slopes of your roof meeting.

• Valley: Just the opposite from a hip, the valley is the internal angle formed by two slopes of your roof meeting.

Your roofing contractor can also update your gutters. Gutters not working properly can dump water on to your home and into your foundation and basement.

• Gutters: Gutters are a channel attached to the lower edge of your roof line. They move water to your downspouts or leader pipes. Gutters range from seamless custom copper or other metal choices to less expensive vinyl gutters.

• Downspout, or leader pipe: This is the pipe that will take water from your gutters down to the ground and away from your home.

There are a number of protrusions out of many roofs. You roof is installed around these things and they often come into play when doing repairs.

• Chimney: A chimney exhausts smoke and other fumes from your home for this reason it is usually made of brick or stone. Chimneys typically are located in one of two places. They either run up next to your roof or protrude out of the slope of your roof.

• Chimney Cap: A chimney cap is placed on top of your chimney to avoid snow and rain coming down your chimney.

Use this vocabulary to get on the same page with your roofing contractor. And always ask questions when you are unsure about work being done on your home.

Home Tool Kits: Tips for Organizing Home Tool Kits

Contractors, laborers, companies and handy men and women are always trying to find the best ways to organize their home tool kits. This seems like a problem that can easily be remedied with the purchase of hardware equipment, but the reality is far from the case. Rolling toolboxes have been known to raise efficiency in transporting equipment and getting the job done for many, and allows a traveling worker to keep his hardware organized.

Rolling tool kits are an option to the traditional home tool kit that merely sits upon any flat working surface. Rolling sets are manufactured with wheels that offer the contractor or tool owner an improved sense of mobility when traveling with their tools. Additionally, these tool kits have provisions in place to keep tool equipment organized while they’re being moved from work site to work site.

There are two main benefits to using a rolling cart or car as opposed to more stationary designs. First, the ability of the tool owner to organize and keep all of their equipment in one stationary area is, understandably, obvious. There is nothing that wastes time and creates frustration for a tool owner or a mechanic than being unable to locate his equipment in the same general area as the rest of his equipment.

This also allows you to develop a more defined organizational system for your personal tool equipment that can allow you to really become efficient and organized whether you’re using your tools at home or in a professional setting. This cuts labor costs on idle time spent by the customer as well as makes you look even more professional.

Second, a rolling organizer provides for greater mobility. Whether you’re working at home, or at a contract site, your rolling tool kit can be a mainstay that provides a convenient way to transport work materials from one setting to another. If you ask someone to pass you an item, but they’re unsure of what it is or what it looks like, you can easily have them roll the tool cart over as a whole.

Rolling tool carts also ease stress and fatigue. If someone is carrying a large, heavy tool kit or case, then they’re going to get tired of lugging that big, heavy thing around. Their arms might get tired and they’ll get lazy and might not take all the tools they need. All of the stress on the body from the crazy heavy tool kit that you’re carrying will be erased when you switch over to a rolling tool cart.

Another factor of rolling tool carts is that they come with small brakes that can be flipped down to keep the kit in place as necessary, therefore there’s limited risk of someone being unable to keep a rolling cart from standing still when necessary. Rolling tool kits can be found at Walmart or Target if not at your favorite local hardware store.

Petroleum Engineer Salary

Petroleum is used everywhere form cars, to cooking, plastics, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, beauty products etc. Petroleum engineering is an important field of engineering and it basically deals with extraction of oil and natural gas from the surface of the earth for the benefit of the human civilization. Today oil and natural gas determines the world economy.

A petroleum engineer's salary is governed by various factors like experience, designation, specialisation field and the company which has hired him / her. Generally your starting salary begins from $ 83,000 per annum and the upper limit can be anything depending on your ability and experience. If you are in industry mostly doing office work then your salary can be anything around $ 82,000 to $ 1, 30,000 but the ones doing on-site jobs and involved in extraction process can have salaries up to $ 1, 50,000 per annum. The degree that you have earned and the years of experience that you have also determine your salary.

An engineer with master's degree in petroleum can earn a salary from 76,000 to 144,000 USD. A bachelor's degree in petroleum engineering can get you a salary between 50,000 to 130,000 USD. Well work experience is very important in any trade so even as petroleum engineer your salary amount also depends on your work experience and history. A fresher might have to settle for 64,000 USD whereas people with 1-4 year of work experience as a petroleum engineer can earn anything around 72,000- 94,000 USD. The ones with 5- 9 years of experience can get anything around 80,000 to 124,000 USD. Engineers with ten to 20 years of experience can get a salary from 100,000 to 185,000 USD.

Due to the excessive use of petroleum and considering that petroleum is an exhaustible energy source. Petroleum engineers are looking at alternative and renewable sources of energy and at the same time looking for new oil field and using them in the best optimum way. Engineers who work at refineries or on-site jobs might have to stay away from their family at remote refineries which can also be in the middle of the ocean. Some might have to stay away from their family and this is paid to them in the form of some remuneration and perks. Basically the salary can vary on the basis of your geographical location as well as the company you are employed in.

After acquiring education at the college the next job is to undergo training and attain complete knowledge and experience for optimum fuel extraction. After acquiring experience an engineer can start a private consultancy and offer their service. Some engineers join institutes as faculty members but this profession is not as lucrative as joining a corporate company or some oil and natural gas company, or some government based research company.Petroleum engineering is a growing field and there is a great demand for engineers. The engineers who are flexible about their work location can surely find more opportunities overseas. An engineer can find better opportunities in the near future.

I See a Fruit Fly in My Eye!

Is that normal??

That’s a very common complaint when patients call the office. They are usually puzzled, often scared, and always eager to find out why they are seeing weird dots, floaters or webs inside their eye.

The only way to really assess this problem is with a complete, dilated eye exam. Even though the eyedrops are a hassle, they allow the ophthalmologist to look at the entire retina, including the optic nerve, blood vessels (veins and arteries), the macula and fovea, as well as the peripheral retina. The vitreous gel is usually optically clear, but sometimes floaters or strands can be seen within it.

When a patient calls the office with these complaints, it is important that their complaint be treated in an urgent or emergent fashion. This means that an examination must be carried out within twenty four to forty eight hours of the call to the office. This is the safest way to examine and treat promptly to prevent further complications.

First the visual acuity is checked in each eye with glasses. The pressure check is not essential for this type of emergency visit. Dilation with eyedrops is carried out, usually just to the eye that is affected. A very careful examination of the retina is performed, usually using special tools such as 4-mirror contact lens apparatus, or indirect ophthalmoscope with depression for a good view of the peripheral retina. This is the area where most tears or detachments are found.

If a tear is found, immediate treatment with an Argon laser can be carried out in the office setting. The goal with this type of laser is to ‘wall off’ the tear, so that it cannot extend. It is usual to perform a few hundred spots, and to completely surround the tear. Commonly, 3 rows of laser are performed around the tear, and then the treatment is extended to the edge of the retina, an area known as the Ora Serrata.

If the hole or tear does extend, fluid can get under the retina and cause a full detachment. If a detachment occurs, sugical treatment is usually necessary. Obviously, it is better to get to this problem BEFORE the retina begins to detach. Sometimes detachments can be treated with more extensive laser. Other times, cryotherapy is needed. Sometimes a gas bubble (such as perflourate), or silicone oil is needed. In addition, some patients will need an encircling band placed around their eye. This is known as a scleral buckle, and is very successful in re-attaching the retina. Unfortunately, it requires a trip to an operating room, and can result in high degrees of near-sightedness. This is, of course, better than having a complete detachment!!

In a very few cases, the detachment progresses, and a surgery on the inside of the eye (known as vitrectomy) needs to be performed. If none of these treatments work, the patient may go blind from this problem.

If you, or anyone you know, has floating dots, webs, or flashing lights in their vision, tell them not to wait!! Get it checked out, even if the symptoms seem to be getting better.

The Importance of Good Home Insulation

There are several areas of your home that may drastically cut down your energy consumption and cost if they are well insulated. There are also many options to choose from when it comes to finding an insulation solution that is best for you.

There are several environmental advantages to having a well insulated home. By reducing the amount of energy you spend on heating, you can greatly reduce the amount of CO2 emissions released into the atmosphere. In fact properly insulating your home can reduce the amount of energy you use by 45% to 55% – an incredible amount.

Proper insulation can also cut the amount of energy you use in half. This is good news for the planet and for your purse or wallet as halfing your energy consumption should also mean that your heating and cooling costs will be reduced by half. The long term gain is that insulating your home typically pays for itself within four or five years. By investing in proper home insulation, you can greatly reduce the amount of money you spend on heating or cooling your home each month – in the UK the heating is more the reality I think! Good insulation also virtually eliminates any condensation that may occur on the walls and ceilings in your home, so it's good for keeping the damp at bay and for your internal furnishings. And let's face it, getting damp inside your own house or having condensation inside is not something that appeals to most – I remember being a student and sitting in the downstairs of an old town house, and because heating costs effected the food and drink kitty, we all ended up with damp jeans within 2 hrs of getting up! Not the way to live …

The two most important areas of your home to keep well insulated are of course your windows and your loft – our protection from the great outdoors! Big picture windows with large surface areas have the most potential to lose heat, so you need to think carefully how to approach it. Double glazing your windows is generally the best solution to this problem (not to mention good for security), and any new homes use double glazed windows as a standard. For older homes, there are several specialists who can help to find the right double glazed window to replace an older one or who can draught proof single glazed windows for those of you who have old sash windows.

Your loft is also very important to keep well insulated. Heat naturally rises, so much of the energy used to heat your home may escape through your loft. In fact, heat that escapes through lofts can account for about a third of all wasted energy in the home. Loft insulation behaves like a blanket, keeping warm air inside and cold air out, yep it's the house duvet! Also. by properly insulating your loft, you will find that your home will more easily maintain a constant temperature which again means less work on your boiler to keep topping up the heat. Loft insulation is the easiest and most affordable way to cut down your energy bills and increase energy efficiency in contolling the temperature of your home.

There are many different insulation materials available to for your home. Natural materials such as wool insulation and recycled insulation provide effective insulation and are environmentally friendly. Color : as color : such materials Synthetic fiberglass Also Provide premium home & loft insulation and are On Often less expensive to use.

Keeping your home properly insulated is an important thing to do for the environment and your wallet. By investing in good insulation, you will save money, reduce the amount of CO2 released into the atmosphere and increase the energy efficiency of your home.

7 Simple Home Remedies For Treating Dandruff

Having dandruff can be embarrassing and irritating at the same time. An excessive oily scalp with oil accumulation, exposure to extreme temperatures and consequent dryness of scalp, hormone irregularities, stress, lack of sleep, usage of harsh chemical based hair styling products, unhealthy diet, deficiency of vitamins and minerals and fungal infection are some of the primary causes of dandruff.

With so many varied reasons due to which dandruff can occur, the treatment must also be varied. In ordinary cases, the large number of medicated shampoos available in the market containing formulations like zinc pyrithione, selenium sulphide and ketoconazole, should do the trick. But if you do not want to give your hair chemical treatments and have sensitive skin, there are a number of simple and effective home remedies and natural cures for your problem. Take a look at some of these remedies that can prove effective for curing dandruff:

• Tea tree oil is a proven element that has effective anti fungal and antiseptic properties. You can apply a mix of tea tree oil and aloe vera oil, and leave it on your scalp for 15 minutes before rinsing.

• Application of cider vinegar is another effective solution to treat dandruff. It controls the itching and also cleans out accumulation of flakes. Massage a pack of it before shampooing, leave it on for fifteen minutes to half an hour, and wash your hair with a mild shampoo. Again, mix the apple cider vinegar in equal proportions with water and use it as a final rinse off. It will not only remove the dandruff but also add shine to your hair.

• You can apply a pack of lime juice, amla juice and curd and leave it on overnight. It checks dandruff as well as hair fall.

• An age old remedy is the hot oil treatment that can work wonders for your dandruff affected hair. Massage on a mix of hot sesame and olive oil before going to bed. The next day, one hour before taking your bath, apply a mix of vinegar and lime juice. Wash your hair thoroughly and use lime juice mixed in warm water during your final rinse off. Continue the process for 3 months applying the mixture two times every week and you will surely notice the difference.

• Another solution is to soak fenugreek seeds overnight. Make a paste of them the next morning and apply an hour before bath. Wash it off with ritha and shikakai.

• For dandruff free hair, you can make a mix of jojoba, clove, rosemary and lavender oil and apply it on the scalp every week.

• Soak lime peels in coconut oil and expose it to sunshine for about a week before applying the mixture. Being a highly enriched formulation, it is sure to reduce your dandruff considerably.

Apart from trying out various home remedies, you should also pay attention to your diet. Avoid deep fried and calorie rich foods. Instead, switch to fresh fruits and vegetables and drink lots of water if you want to flaunt dandruff free hair.

Different Home Bar Ideas

Having a bar in your home is a beer enthusiast’s dream. I remember when I bought my first home. While I was walking through it, my wife was looking at all the possibilities while I was wondering where the best place for my bar would be.

We all have dreams and a beer enthusiast’s dream is having a bar in the home. The only real problem that arises is where to actually put it. The design and the money for the supplies are only obstacles that are easily overcome once we put our mind to it. But, where to put the bar itself is a major issue.

Of course, it’s easily beaten when we decide to put a bar in every room. But, let’s be realistic for a minute. I’m not going to waste perfectly good home bar supplies building a bar in my daughter’s room. She doesn’t need one as bad as I do.

The traditional living room bar or even the bar in the den are perfectly good solutions. A simple bar on the side of the room with a beer sign behind it and its own kegerator is pretty much the staple of home bars across America. You can pick those bars up at a local hardware store or you can build one of your own with a little wood and a roll of leather.

Build yourself a shelf for the beer glasses and then start adding your personality. Posters with beautiful women holding beer bottles are always a winner. Of course, table top beer taps are the easiest solution ever. Just fill with beer and sit anywhere. You can have a home bar anywhere in the world that you feel like touting the table top beer tap.

Basement bars are pretty common across America too. The first one I ever saw had a black and white checkered floor. The bar wrapped around the room and there were about seven beer taps with different beer flowing through each one. I’m pretty sure I walked into that bar and I didn’t leave for a couple of days. My wife went home and sent me a covered dish the next day. But then, I was on my own.

Patio bars are not common at all. But, they would make beautiful additions to the patio. A brick structure with wood shelves and a place for the kegerator will just pack the crowds in when you have a party. If you do it right, build yourself a grill and you have the perfect party convention.

Moving to the bedroom and then the bathroom, there are just some places a bar should not be. But, a bedroom and a bathroom bar are fine. Who wants to walk all the way down to the basement to get a drink after taking a shower? On top of that, who wants to make the same trip when you and your significant other are about to have some intimate time in the bedroom. If you can’t make a drink right there at those moments, then you are just missing out on the home bar revolution.

If you can change a tire on a car and screw in a light bulb, you can build yourself a bar in your home. Using brick or wood or going for the faux designs with some cool looking veneer, they’ve got everything you need at the local hardware store. And if you save your lunch money, you can own your own home bar in just a few short months. Get a few things at a time and it starts to add up after awhile. Of course, you could be like me and just go hog wild right from the gate.