A Dummy's Guide to Apartment Security

So, you think your apartment is safe. Do you feel secure when you are at home? Most single women will admit their apprehension about living alone in an apartment complex. But if you follow some common sense practices, you can make your apartment home a safe and secure refuge to come home to after a busy day. These are some tips to increase your safety and help improve your comfort level.

You might think this is rather silly, but LOCK YOUR DOOR! Most burglars are looking for the easiest opportunity to invade someone's home, and apartment dwellers are the worst offenders when it comes to leaving their doors unlocked. Just think about how many times have you left your apartment door unlocked because you were just going out to your car for a moment, or to visit a neighbor? It only takes a second for someone to sneak into your apartment while you are preoccupied, especially if your apartment entrance is not visible from outside. And remember, it is better to have to carry your keys with you than to re-enter your apartment while an intruder is there.

When you leave for an extended period of time, leave a light on. Even though it may be daylight when you leave, chances are likely it will be dark when you arrive home. Burglars do not like lighted areas. A 60 watt light bulb uses only cents per day. If this still seems a bit much, invest in a compact fluorescent bulb. They use only about 1/6 the electricity of a standard incandescent bulb. The really good thing about leaving a light on is that it will be a lot more welcoming when you walk into your apartment.

One of the best security devices you can get for your apartment while you are away is a friendly, observant neighbor. Burglars do not take afternoons off. Get to know your neighbors, and when you find one with whom you feel a good degree of trust, let them know your activity schedule. They can keep an "eye" on things while you are at work, on vacation, or just out "playing". Try to play the "I'll watch your back and you watch my back" game. That way you both will feel more secure.

Most apartment entrances are not very well lit and the entrance doors usually do not have windows. How do you know who is outside your door when the bell rings? Peepholes are usually provided in entry doors for the protection of the tenant. USE THEM! Have you ever just popped open the door without even asking "Who's there?". That is not very smart from a security standpoint. An even better solution to peepholes is a surveillance camera with inside monitor. These devices have become relatively inexpensive lately and can offer a wide area view of your entryway. This makes it more difficult for someone to "hide" from the view of your peephole.

Do you like pets? If your apartment complex allows them, dogs make especially good security devices. Burglars just love having their presence announced by a barking dog. Any animal, even some birds, that make a lot of noise when disturbed, will usually alert you to the presence of a stranger. Even if the noise is not such that it scares them off, at least you will be prepared for their arrival.

Being away on vacation presents a few additional problems when it comes to securing your home. Since your apartment will be left empty for an extended period of time, it becomes more vulnerable. Tell tale signs will alert prospective thieves that your castle in undefended. I have listed here some of the most important steps to take prior to leaving your home unguarded:

  • The best protection for your apartment during your absence is to have a house sitter. A friend you trust staying at your house can take care of your pets and / or plants in addition to making sure the house is inhabited.
  • If you do not have a house sitter, have a neighbor watch your apartment while you're away. Give them a key so the can make sure things are secure inside also. If you have a security alarm, make sure they know your alarm code and how to use it.
  • Have your mail and newspaper deliveries stopped until your return. Nothing announces an empty apartment better than a stack of newspapers or an overflowing mailbox. If this is not possible, have a neighbor collect any newspapers, mail, or packages that might accumulate.
  • If you have a garden or plants on your balcony, make sure someone is watering the plants regularly or put the plants where they can not be seen. Plants slowly dying due to lack of water could indicate no one is home to take care of them.
  • Check your lease. Many landlords require that you notify them if your apartment is going to be left empty for any period of time so they can enter your apartment in case of emergency.
  • Darkened windows advertise your absence to a potential burglar. Only partially close window shades. Close them fully only if it is possible to see directly into your apartment from outside. It is better to use a programmable timer for turning lights on and off at varying times. This will give your apartment a "lived in" appearance. You do not want to appear as though you're hiding something, like your absence.

Finally, there are many devices available to assist you in achieving a greater degree of security in your home. These include wireless security systems, motion detectors, door alarms, glass breakage alarms, "Barking Dog" alarms, and surveillance devices. In addition, personal defense products such as personal alarms, pepper spray, and stun guns are also available to suit almost anyone's comfort level. All of these products are designed for ease of use and to provide you with an advantage against criminals.

The Hai Flat Iron Makes Hairstyling Affordable

The Hai flat iron is one of the most popular, professional and affordable hairstyling tools on the market. These tools are built to last and will give you the results that you have been searching for. The Hai flat irons will leave your hair feeling healthier, softer and sexier than ever before.

Women all over the world have been flat ironing their hair for the better part of a century, but only in the past few years has the technology transformed so much that it is actually safe and beneficial for your hair. The HAI flat iron, which comes in lots of sizes and configurations is the industry standard, and the choice of women nearly everywhere who want safe and efficient hair straightening with long-lasting results.

I have been in the hair styling business for thirty years now, running my own salon where I rent out chairs to diverse excellent hairdressers. At one point, I was forced to change my ten locks styling irons, frustrated because the hair straighteners were just not doing the job that they once did. I had to keep our reputation and picked up my own set of Hai products with great enthusiasm.

So, how did the Hai Flat Iron improve my curly hair? Well, I admit that I was impressed by the fact that I could save time and currency without getting a professional involved every time. I found many benefits to having one at dwelling, something that has allowed me the freedom to not be tied down to hair salons and having to avoid going out at all.

I really liked the option of having varied plate sizes. Not all of my locks are the same length, though you would hardly know it from looking at it when it is enormously curly. I actually bought two of the iron types by Hai as I figured that my bangs were in desperate need of straightening as I am sick of looking so goofy with a wisp of a curl going whichever way it wants.

Perhaps the greatest benefit of any flat iron is the ability for it to be there, every day, when you need it. With a one-year warranty, you know that a HAI flat iron is built to last and many customers say that they have used theirs for years and years without any degradation in quality. They're able to straighten their hair as quickly and beautifully years after purchasing it as they did the incredibly initial time they used it.

Half Helmet Or Full Face Helmet

Half helmet or full face helmet – which one is best? The truth is that each helmet has has positives and negatives, and no matter which one you ultimately decide upon purchasing, just making sure that you strap on a helmet every time you’re riding your scooter, motorcycle or ATV is the single best decision you can make.


Comfort really depends upon the personality of the rider. If you do a lot of high-speed, long distance travel, then getting a full face helmet would be my recommendation. When I was riding, I had a Bell Star that provided a quiet and comfortable ride on the highway. And, having a rather loud motorcycle, I appreciated the quietness. But, for shorter, around-town rides, I would have liked to have had a half helmet, because my helmet could be kind of heavy and constraining.

Plus, on hot days, even though I could flip up the visor, the smaller, cooler helmet would have been great to have. While riding on cool days, or in the rain, I was always glad to have the full face helmet, because my head was always warm and dry. For comfort, the decision really depends on your personal choice.


What kind of bike do you ride? If you have a chopper or a bobber, wouldn’t you look kind of silly wearing a full face helmet? Purely from a styling perspective, the half helmets really look good on the custom, lowered and chopped bikes. On the other hand, if you ride a crotch rocket, then a full face helmet is practically mandatory. I just couldn’t imagine any other helmet being used with a race bike. If you ride a scooter, then who cares? I think this is a matter of personal tastes, although I’ve seen a lot of scooter riders wearing half helmets as they putt around town.


I don’t think this one requires much imagination – a full face helmet, that envelopes your head, face and chin is definitely the way to go if you want the ultimate in protection. For example, these types of helmets are used in practically any type of racing – street, motorcross or road racing. In these circumstances, I would definitely want everything I owned protected in a crash at 120 miles per hour.

Which helmet is best? Only you can answer this question – half helmet or full face helmet.

Concrete Garages Accommodating Your 4WD Vehicle

Coupled with the increasing popularity of the 4WD leisure vehicle comes a demand for increased size and height of replacement concrete sectional garages.

Typically a prefabricated building is 6ft6in (1.98m) to eaves which provides actual under-door clearances in the region of 6ft1in (1.8m). For example this height is equal to that of a Land Rover Discover and a Classic Range Rover and that's before your consider the roof rack and aerial!

Most manufacturers of concrete sectional buildings offer an increased eaves and door clearance; some can achieve greater clearance simply by exchanging the main door for vertical-lift 'shutter' type operation. There is a common misconception that roof style will affect actual internal clearance, this simply is not true.

We recommend an eaves height no less that 7ft6in (2.29m) as other factors such as the slope towards your garage may reduce your actual clearance as well as a weather-bar situated behind the door. Only a few manufacturers can offer 7ft6in panel height as the technology behind fabricating such a tall panel escapes some brands.

For commercial applications such as required for minibuses, lorries and forklift truck comes a completely different breed of industrial and commercial prefabricated building which uses the same concrete panels to eaves but achieves greated height through steel cladding to the desired height.

It is worthwhile to note that even at 2.29m to eaves this building is still below one of the planning thresholds which places a restriction at 3.0m to eaves and 4.0m to ridge height.

How to Find the Right Power Tool For You

Choosing a power tool that best suits your specific needs can be a rough process, but it’s one that certainly deserves your time and attention. Using the wrong power tool can be a completely deflating, disappointing experience – save yourself a world heartache by simply remembering these steps to find the right tool for you:

The first, and perhaps most important step begins with determining your degree and type of use. Simple household maintenance requires an entirely different set of tools than do industrial projects. Of course, you may use industrial grade tools to tighten your cupboards and door jambs but this isn’t always realistic – nor is it ever a good idea to use sub-par power equipment on a professional project. You want to make sure you invest in the best power tools for the applications they’ll be used for – for example, you wouldn’t use a steak knife to spread butter on bread just as you wouldn’t use a butter knife to tear into a top sirloin. – If you go to your circular saw, power drill, or another power tool. only a few times each year, it’s certainly not necessary to buy the most powerful tools on the market, however, if you use your tools often and heavily, you’ll definitely want to throw down a few more dollars for a higher-quality tool.

You may also consider manufacturer. Some craftsmen are loyal to one brand or another and some brands are certainly better than others (this difference usually reflects in pricing). Favoring one manufacture(s) over another can more precisely define and simplify your search. Additionally, just as all craftsmen have a specialty, so do manufacturers. Certain brands build the very best of a certain tool – for example, Milwaukee in known for producing some of the absolute best reciprocating saws, and Bosch for the best jigsaws. The master behind each type of power tool can usually be found with just a bit of research.

Do some research and set a budget. Spending too much and spending too little are common missteps in finding the best power tool, and its definitely an easy mistake to make; if you have a limit already in mind, you’re much more likely to stick to it. It is important to remember though, that cheap and expensive power tools are cheap and expensive for a reason. The expression “you get what you pay for,” is perhaps at its most true in the tool industry.

Determine whether you are in the market for a tool kit or if you need only one single tool. Often you may find kits available that include the most frequently used power tools like a drill, impact driver, and reciprocating saw. This is obviously a more expensive investment that buying a drill alone, but if you need these other power tools, its certainly more economical to buy them in a kit than to buy them all separately. This is also helpful if you prefer cordless tools – buying multiple cordless tools from the same manufacturer means you can usually swap a battery between different and multiple tools.

Determine your preference between cordless and corded power. It’s best to understand the limitations and benefits of both types before making this distinction – corded power ensures a constant power source and eliminates hassling with chargers and batteries, it also tends to be more powerful and lightweight. They are, however, tethered to a wall which means limited mobility, use, and strained power with the use of extension cords. Cordless tools, on the other hand, can go anywhere you can go, and with always improving battery technology, they are a powerful, reliable source of portable power with no hassle of a dangling cord.

Tool warranties are often an underrated asset. Having a good warranty with your tool usually means you’re buying from a company that entirely trusts their product will satisfy you – this is a good feeling to carry with you on the job. Most industrial manufacturers include a one year warranty on corded power tools, batteries and chargers, and a three year warranty on cordless tools. Of course, this is only standard – some manufactures offer less and some much more. Hitachi includes a ten year warranty on most of their cordless lithium-ion line.

Lastly, if you can, it’s good to hold the tool before you buy it. Simply being able to feel the tool in your hands to ensure comfort and functionality can be a big indicator of whether the tool is a good fit. Some manufacturers also offer a (around 30 day) Satisfaction Guarantee – this allows you to use the tool once or twice before determining if you’re entirely happy with the investment.

Ultimately, finding the best power tool is only these few steps away. In the meantime, good luck and happy crafting.

Discover the Top Engineering Careers

Being an engineer is one of the most lucrative careers today. In fact, the engineering profession is in the top five professions in the world today. With the progress in science and technology, there are several engineer careers that are quite financially and professionally lucrative. Here is a brief breakup of the various engineer careers and their descriptions.

Computer Hardware Engineers

This stream is one of the most recent streams of engineer careers, and also one of the most lucrative. A computer engineer is basically the heart and soul of the building of a computer. The computer hardware engineer comes into play in almost every aspect of the building cycle of a computer, be it the computer chip, the circuit boards and the entire computer system.

The hardware engineer researches and gives his or her valuable suggestions regarding the designs of the computer chips. The hardware engineer also comes into the picture when it comes to develop, test and look into the manufacturing and installation of the entire computer system. To pursue a computer hardware engineering degree, one would have to be at least a graduate.

Electrical Engineers

Electrical engineering is another rewarding type of engineering that is available for individuals today. Just like computer hardware engineering, an electrical engineer is instrumental in every aspect of building any electrical product. The electrical engineer is closely related to every part of the building cycle of any electric product.

The electrical engineer is also instrumental in building, installing, repairing and servicing any of the electrical instruments. Therefore, it can be said that the electrical engineer is the backbone of any electrical engineering product.

Mechanical Engineers

A mechanical engineer is useful for designing several machinery and automobiles that are useful in the fields such as transport, defense and commodities, etc. They are highly universal engineers because their role is required in almost every field of science and technology and even beyond.

This is one of the best-paid engineer careers today and there is a high amount of competitiveness in the profession. Students are considering getting into mechanical engineering, the rules of which are becoming increasingly tougher each year.

However, the profession is valued for the creativity it involves. Visualizing a machine or contraption and then bringing it to a real shape is a very satisfying thing to do. Whether it is a rocket or a simple lunch box, it is a mechanical engineer who has brought it to shape. It is this creativity along with the lucre that is attracting people to this profession.

Environmental Engineers

Engineering is used in various aspects for the betterment and progress of humankind in present times. Environmental engineering is one such aspect, in which engineering and scientific principles are used and implemented into the environment for the betterment of the environment.

The key responsibility area of ​​an environmental engineer is to decrease the pollution in the environment and to improve the quality of the air, water and land resources that are used by humankind. Therefore, it is the environmental engineer's responsibility to provide non polluted healthy water, air and land that is fit for inhabitation.

Some other major types of engineer careers are: –
– Industrial Engineering
– Materials Engineering
– Petroleum Engineering
– Nuclear Engineering.

What Activities Cause Eye Floaters

Those of you who have done some reading on what causes eye floaters would have gotten familiar with terms like posterior vitreous detachment and retinal detachment. But are you aware that some activities performed under certain conditions may also cause floaters to appear? What do these activities – weight lifting, blowing musical instruments, aerobic exercise, bungee jumping, end-stage labor, coughing, vomiting, and sexual activity have in common that could cause a sudden appearance of eye floaters?

At first glance, the idea that these activities could in any way cause eye floaters seems remote. However, studies revealed that there is a possible correlation between these activities, and the sudden appearance of floaters. In many of these activities, the person involved performs what is called the Valsalva Maneuver. This is the act of holding the breath and attempting to blow out with the nose and mouth closed. In some cases, such as weight lifting, this is done consciously, while in others, such as constipation, it is done sub-consciously. This is also the same act that is performed when attempting to ‘de-pressurize’ the ears during air travel.


During the Valsalva Maneuver, the body experiences a rapid increase in blood pressure. This in turn causes a rise in the intraocular venous pressure, which may cause a sudden rupture to some of the retinal capillaries. This is referred to as a pre-retinal hemorrhage, and it is a condition known as Valsalva Retinopathy. The bleeding appears to the patient in the form of floaters.


Persons engaging in the Valsalva Maneuver are more likely to suffer from Valsalva Retinopathy if they suffer from one or more of the following conditions[1,2];

  • retinal vein occlusion (an obstruction in the veins carrying blood away from the retina)
  • idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (a condition that results from a low platelet count)
  • anemia (a condition that results from a low concentration of red blood cells)
  • sickle cell disease
  • hypertension
  • diabetes


Generally any activities involving the Valsalva Maneuver can lead to Valsalva Retinopathy. Such activities include[3] weight lifting, aerobic exercise, blowing musical instruments, bungee jumping, constipation, end-stage labor, forceful coughing, vomiting and sexual activity.


If your doctor confirms that your floaters are caused by Valsalva Retinopathy, then the good news is that they usually disappear by themselves and do not require any treatment. Doctors would generally advise such patients to refrain from strenuous physical activities until the retina has fully recovered.

If, on the other hand, your doctor confirms your floaters are not a result of any serious eye disorders, then don’t despair. There are solutions out there – both surgical and non-surgical.


1. Mansour AM, Salti HI, Han DP, et al. Ocular findings in aplastic anemia. Ophthalmologica. 2000;214(6):399-402.

2. Karagiannis D, Gregor Z. Valsalva retinopathy associated with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and positive antiphospholipid antibodies.

3. Robert S Duszak, OD, FAAO Attending, Philadelphia Veterans Affairs Medical Center; Consulting Staff, Nemours Health Clinic, Mayfair Eye Associates; Adjunct Clinical Faculty, Eye Institute of the Pennsylvania College of Optometry

Home Insulation – Is It Cold Outside?

Insulation at home helps in saving energy and reducing utility bills. It makes the house more comfortable. Insulation at home not only helps in keeping the house cool in summer and warm in winter but it also prevents damage from leaking water and provides a good thermal resistance. Insulation is very useful to keep the temperature of the house as outdoor temperature.

By using insulation, the cost spent in cooling and heating the home can be reduced to a great extent. There should always be sufficient insulation at home to protect the house from air leakage, water leakage etc. R value, also known as thermal resistance is used to compute the insulation resistance. It shall be installed between the heated and unheated space.

There are many types of home insulation available. All insulation has pros and cons. They are mainly differentiated based on the material used for the insulation. They can be distinguished into Plastic foam, rigid board, reflective, loose fill, batts and blankets and blown in insulation etc. Batts and blankets insulation can be performed by the homeowner himself. No professional is required for this type of insulation. They are easily affordable and the material like blankets and batt strips are easily available in the market. Batts and Blankets insulation can be performed with the help of materials like Fiberglass, Mineral wool, plastic, concrete block, polystyrene fiber etc.

Fiberglass insulation may cause allergies to the skin if not used properly. Therefore, proper care must be taken while installing this type of insulation. Mineral wool insulation uses natural minerals for insulation. It helps in fire protection and sound reduction but it may result in respiratory problems. Plastic fiber glass insulation is performed with recycled plastic bottles. Loose fill insulations are blown in types of insulation that are mainly made with glass, fibers, vermiculite or perlite. They are mainly used in attics and walls. Cellulosic insulation is made with wood fibers and recycled newspapers. It is insect repellent and provides great resistance to fire due to the chemicals added into it. It does not provide good resistance to moisture.

Reflective insulations are made from aluminium foil and plastic films, cardboard etc. It is very useful in filtering the heat out from the home in summer. But they are a good conductor of electricity so no electric equipment or fixture should be installed near to the insulation. Foam Board insulations use polystyrene material and reduce air, heat and water leaks. They provide good resistance to moisture and can be used on ceilings, floors and walls. They provide strength to the home and provide thermal resistance.

Insulation can be performed at home in attics, on ceilings, exterior walls and garages and storage areas for proper ventilation and thermal resistance. Insulation must be performed either by professionals or proper care must be taken while installing them. Air and water leaks must be thoroughly checked before installing the insulation as moisture can dampen the efficiency of insulation or insulation may mask them. It must be checked that electrical equipment and fixtures are not getting touched by the insulation. Also some insulation can cause allergies to the skin and may cause respiratory problems so proper care must be taken while installing them.

Cleaning the Steam Table

One way of making sure that the foods being served are kept warm is to make use of a kitchen steam table. The dishes are placed on the steam table pans, and these pans are then placed over the steam table. The steam generated by the equipment keeps the food warm and ready to be served. It also keeps the food fresh and safe to eat. Because it holds food, the steam table needs to be cleaned regularly by the kitchen steward, and the usual schedule for cleaning the steam table is after serving period is over.

Here are the proper steps on how to clean the steam table

As soon as the serving period is over, the kitchen steward has to transfer the leftover foods from the steam table pans to their respective food containers and then into the refrigerator. This way, the leftover foods will not get contaminated by dirty water or detergent.

After this step, the kitchen steward could then switch off the steam table machine. This is done so as to avoid any mishaps or accidents from happening, one of which is electrocution. Once the machine is switched off, he could then drain the water from the steam wells prior to cleaning the machine. This will make cleaning the machine safer and easier to clean.

With a hand brush dipped in hot water, pour a small amount of detergent unto the brush. Do not use too much detergent though as it will make rinsing much more difficult. Plus, money will only be wasted. The kitchen steward then has to brush all the sides as well as all the surfaces of the steam table, making sure that he reaches the corners as well. He should thoroughly scrub and wash the top of the table as well as its backboard and front. The hood and the sides need to be scrubbed and washed as well.

If there are stubborn food particles clinging on the steam table, the kitchen steward can make use of a scraper to scrape off the leftover foodstuff. After this, he could then rinse it with hot water. He has to make sure that he has removed any traces of dirty liquid, especially detergent, before wiping it dry. He should also make sure that it does not smell of detergent.

For steam tables with lime scales, the kitchen steward then has to de-lime it. The first step to de-liming it is to fill the steam wells up with water before adding in a cleaning agent that can take away the lime scale. After this, he could then switch the machine on to heat up the water and cleaning agent. He should leave the machine on until the lime scale is totally eliminated before switching the machine off and then rinsing it off.

For hard to remove lime scale buildup, the kitchen steward can lightly scrub over the area with a scrubbing pad. He has to make sure that he has removed all traces of the lime scale buildup. Once done, he can then switch the steam off before draining the water and cleaning agent. After this step, the kitchen steward then has to rinse it off with hot water, making sure that any traces of dirty liquid and cleaning agent are eliminated. Once traces of both dirty liquid and detergent are totally eliminated, the kitchen steward can then wipe the machine off with a soft and clean cloth until dry.

Lastly, he has to ensure that there are no traces of cleaning agent odors left on the steam table.

Bullion Bars


Buying bullion bars is a simple way of investing into precious metals. They are refined and produced by companies like Credit Suisse, Johnson Matthey and Englerhard.

The manufacturers stamp their name, weight and purity of the precious metal onto the bar.

Cast gold bars

Pouring molten metal into an ingot mould with specific dimensions produces cast gold bars.

After it is cooled, the melted metal forms a hard block of solid metal bars. The manufacturers marking are applied after the molten metal has been cooled.

Minted bars

Minted bars are produced from big cast bars that are then cut into smaller pieces to meet the required dimensions of the minted bar. Name of manufactured, weight and purity of the metal is then applied onto the minted bars using a minting press.

Weight and size

Gold bars come in many different size and weight, ranging from as little as 1 gram to 1000 troy ounces (31.10 kg) bars.

A bar that weighs smaller than 1kg is considered to be a small bar whereas one that weighs more than 1kg is a large bar.

The most common units used for indicating the weight of the bar are grams, troy ounces and kilograms. A troy ounce is equal to 31.10grams whereas one avoirdupois ounce (the common one) is 28.24 grams.

1000oz (31.10kg) bars

These are huge bars only used for silver. These bars are hand poured into ingots and the weight varies from 800 oz to 1100oz.

400oz (12.5kg) Gold bars

These bars weigh between 350 to 430oz, with a minimum strict purity of 99.5%. There are 55 active manufacturers in the world that produce these kinds of bars.

100oz (3.11kg) bars

Most of the manufacturers that produce these kinds of bars now produce it by using machinery. Very few companies such as Johnson Matthey are still making hand poured 100oz bars.

31.15oz (1 Kilogram)

These bars are popular among manufacturers. Most of 1kg bars that are produced today have a flat long shape while the old one are more like a brick. Most of them are poured using machinery but like the 100oz bars, they are still hand poured by a few manufacturers.

Tael bars

A tael is a Chinese unit of weight; It is equal to 1.2oz or 37.4 grams.

Tael bars are widely traded in Chinese speaking countries.

Small bars.

They all have the same flat profile shape and come in many different sizes to meet everyone's investing needs.

10oz (311grams) 5oz 2oz 1oz (31,10grams, the industry standard for investing)

20grams 1 / 2oz 10grams 1 / 4oz 7grams

5 grams 1 / 10th 2 ½ grams 2grams 1gram


Since pure gold is extremely soft and can be easily damaged, gold is mixed with other metals to form an allow, increasing it's hardness.

Gold bars are usually manufactured with a minimum of 99.5% of purity but most of gold bars have 99.9% purity.


They are sold with a very small premium on top of spot prices, which makes them a very good choice for investing; if you buy them under physical form, you have to store them for example in a safety deposit box.

Animal Cruelty Info Revived!

Animal Cruelty is quite a sensitive topic. The topic was not given that importance before, but now days many stern steps have been taken so as to lower down the intensity of animal cruelty. Animal cruelty is defined as "Any activity which harm animals either directly or indirectly". But harm done to animals in order to protect your own life is not considered as Animal Cruelty unless it is done in humane way which will minimize the pain to animal. Harming or killing animals for am economic gain is included under animal cruelty and is considered as a serious crime.

Psychological studies have shown that people who inflict harm to animals just for pleasure are more likely to do so to humans too. In circuses many animals are treated very badly. No animal wants or likes to ride cycle, stand upright on their head, jump through fire rings or balance on balls etc. But animals in circuses have no choice other than doing so. Else they are tortured by the trainer. Trainers use hunter, whips or even electric pods to torture them in order to train the animals. This is a serious type of Animal Cruelty.

Central government has banned dancing bears. Bears are being protected under wildlife protection act 1972. Dancing bears are also very cruelly tortured by Qualandars or madaris to teach them dance. The physical injuries are also done to them. Animals used in film making or cinematography are often treated badly. With no food given to eat they are exploited horribly for work. In action scenes, animals are treated horribly, they often met with serious injuries which are also not treated. Many times animals die in these action scenes. Although there are laws to protect usage of animals in film making, but they are hardly enforced and followed by film makers.

Birds are kept in cages. Not only this, the cages are small, not well ventilated, and horribly unhygienic conditions. There are races and fights which are arranged for the entertainment of people. Example of this is cockfight, elephants fight, bull's race etc. In cock fight the roosters are given alcohol to make them feisty. These cock fights are banned under the "prevention of cruelty to animals act 1960". But then also many roosters are forced to fight till their death in almost all parts of the country. The winners of one fight are again forced to fight in the next round. This is a serious type Animal Cruelty where animals are forced to their death in a very inhumane manner.

Zoos are built to help animals and to give information to common people about the behavior of these animals. It is shocking to know that in zoos also animals are tortured very badly. These animals are often kept in small cages. These cages are hardly been cleaned. They are full of animal excreta. There are very less medical facilities available in the zoos.

We have to take strict steps towards stopping Animal Cruelty.

What we can do is make a commitment not to encourage any sort of Animal Cruelty. Also, immediately launch a complaint against a person who is doing so to the nearest police station. Our sincere efforts are very much needed to stop this.

Care & Maintenance of Stone Sinks

Most stone will stain because it is porous. This allows fluids to enter and become embedded below the surface. The longer a stain remains, the deeper it penetrates and becomes more permanent; therefore, it is important to remove a stain as soon as it occurs. This applies to any stone used in the construction of your sink.

Granite is a very durable, resilient stone. For regular cleaning, use a soapy nylon brush in a circular motion and rinse thoroughly. Cleaning on a regular basis will help prevent the development of hard water deposits. If you develop persistent stains, try a non-abrasive cleaner such as dishwasher soap, a bleach solution, or Soft Scrub®. Be sure to avoid strong alkalis such as ammonia and drain unblocking chemicals that involve filling the sink with water. If you encounter a rust stain, usually caused by iron particles from water, cookware, etc., use a cleaner containing oxalic acid. Do not use bleach directly on granite!

Marble has a shiny, elegant finish. Maintaining this look can be difficult due to the porosity of the stone. Sealing helps keep the stone from absorbing fluids, but acidic liquids, such as orange juice, lemons, soft drinks, various foods, and common household cleaners, will cause a dull etched spot. . For this reason, do not use acidic cleaners on your marble. Wet glasses containing slightly acidic liquids can cause hard water spots. To avoid water spots, rinse and dry your sink after each use. The only way to remove etching and water spots is by refinishing and re-polishing by a professional. For regular care, use a soft, liquid cleanser with bleach or a common household detergent.

Limestone is known for the seashells and fossils embedded into it. Some Limestone is “soft”, so you should be careful about scratching or nicking the surface when using sharp objects. Limestone should be periodically treated with a penetrating sealant to protect against staining, especially when working with acidic materials. Possible sealants include Safecoat MexeSeal®, Seal & Go “S”®, and Seal & Go “Enhancer”®.

Soapstone has a smooth, silky finish. It is extremely dense so it repels stains well. This stone is the least porous of the stones used in kitchen or bathroom sinks and vessels. To clean, use a damp cloth or sponge with a mild cleanser. Your soapstone sink should be treated monthly with mineral oil.

Stain Removal

For removing difficult stains on all stone types try the following steps before consulting an expert.

1) Clean the area using a stone cleaner with a neutral pH. If this does not help, try a more aggressive cleaner. Keep in mind what types of stones are sensitive to certain chemicals, as stated above.

2) Wet your surface with distilled water. This will keep the chemical from drying too fast, allowing it to stay in contact with the stain longer.

3) Prepare a poultice. This will be used to absorb the stain out of the stone. An easy poultice to create at home requires mixing one cup of flour and a few tablespoons of liquid dish detergent. Mix the two together until you have the consistency of peanut butter. You can purchase chemical poultices if you prefer.

*For stains with red wine, replace the detergent with hydrogen peroxide.

4) Thickly cover the stain in the poultice you have created and cover with saran wrap and tape the edges down with masking tape (won’t create a permanent residue), then let sit overnight.

5) After 24 hours, remove the plastic. Let sit uncovered until poultice is dry. This step is important because the drying is what pulls the stain out of the stone. You can then remove the poultice by scraping it off with a razor blade or putty knife. Clean off the residue with water and a neutral cleaner.

*Granite is more porous than other stones so it will retain moisture longer. If the stain appears to be gone, but the stone is a slightly darker color, give it a week or more to dry before reattempting the poultice method.

For more information on stone sinks – whether for the kitchen, bath or bar, please visit Sinks Gallery where you will find the largest variety of artisan and hand crafted sinks available anywhere. There are several more articles online in the “tips” section.

How Did Rock Music Change America

Precisely how rock ‘n’ roll got its name probably never will be definitively answered, but there can be no doubt that it entered popular usage thanks to a disc jockey named Alan Freed, a “wild, greedy and dangerous man” who was, in the mid 1950s, “the dominant nighttime personality on radio in New York City.” Almost exactly half a century ago he changed the name of his show to “Rock ‘n’ Roll Dance Party” and began to plug the music of black rhythm-and-blues performers as well as the young whites who began to copy and reinterpret their work.

The rest is history, not a blip on the pop-cultural radar screen but a development of major importance in 20th-century American, and eventually world, history. Thus we now have, in Oxford University Press’ ongoing series called “Pivotal Moments in American History,” Glenn C. Altschuler’s account of rock ‘n’ roll’s formative years, the decade immediately following the Second World War. Its three predecessors in the series cover the Supreme Court’s Brown v. Board of Education, the stock market crash of 1929 and the battle of Antietam, which is to say the editors, the distinguished historians David Hackett Fischer and James M. McPherson, put rock ‘n’ roll in rarefied company.

They are right to do so. “How Rock ‘n’ Roll Changed America,” as Altschuler’s subtitle puts it, really should be phrased as a question rather than a declarative statement because the exact nature of its influence is not easily pinned down, but it surely ranks with the movies and television among the most important developments in 20th-century America. Inasmuch as that was the century in which pop culture shoved high culture aside and became (to borrow a pop-cultural slogan) the heartbeat of America, it must be viewed in a far larger context than historians traditionally have been willing to accord such matters.

If a strong case can be made (and it can) that the most important American of the 20th century was Walter Elias Disney, then by the same token the Founding Fathers (along with a few Mothers) of rock ‘n’ roll must also be given their place on history’s stage.

This is what Altschuler attempts to do in “All Shook Up.” He is a something less than riveting prose stylist, and it’s not likely that many readers familiar with the music and literature of rock ‘n’ roll will find much here they don’t already know, but the books in this series apparently are intended to be syntheses of primary and secondary sources rather than ground-breakers. This Altschuler accomplishes capably. He also gives overdue recognition to a number of people, some of whom made absolutely wonderful music that deserves rediscovery not only because of its undeniable influence upon the Beatles, the Rolling Stones and others, but also for its intrinsic merit.

These men and women created and performed within the genre of rhythm and blues as well as its several sub genres. R&B came into being soon after the war as “a distinctive musical genre, drawing on the rich musical traditions of African-Americans, including the blues’ narratives of turbulent emotions, and the jubilation, steady beat, hand clapping and call and response of gospel.” It “tended to be ‘good time music,’ with an emphatic dance rhythm.” Its most famous performers were and still are Chuck Berry and Fats Domino, but there were innumerable others.

R&B is the essential link between the blues, jazz and swing and all the forms of rock that developed in the 1950s and thereafter as whites began to “cover” to borrow, copy and often homogenize black music. Elvis Presley, Jerry Lee Lewis, Buddy Holly and other, far tamer white musicians Bill Haley, Pat Boone, Ricky Nelson couldn’t have done what they did without the black foundation to build on.

In sex as in other matters, “the influence of rock ‘n’ roll was not always pivotal.” Altschuler correctly notes that though it did affect attitudes toward race, “the civil rights movement would have unfolded much as it did without rock ‘n’ roll.” But in other aspects of 1950s America, its influence was important:

“To a significant extent, a distinct teenage culture, with its own mores and institutions, did develop during the decade. A catchy and insistent rock ‘n’ roll led the way by encouraging boys and girls to resist the authority of parents, be more sexually adventurous, and learn from their peers about what to wear, watch, and listen to, when to study, and where to go on Saturday night. With the development of a separate market for teenagers, differentiation based on age became more pervasive and permanent in American culture and society. The values of young men and women were by no means fully formed, nor were they necessarily all that different from those of their parents. But in increasing numbers these young people were unwilling to be policed or patronized. As the ’50s ended, the vast majority of baby boomers had not yet become teenagers: rock ‘n’ roll and the youth of America had history (and demography) on their side.”

What all of this means is still being debated, not least because it is still very much a work in progress. It is useful, though, to be reminded that this work didn’t begin when Elvis slipped into his blue suede shoes or when the Beatles landed in New York. Like just about everything else in American popular culture, its roots are deep, old and sometimes very, very hard to trace.

Fall Wall or Door Hangings

Fall is just around the corner. The thrill of cooler temperatures and beautiful foliage abounds. Bring the beauty of the foliage to your home by inexpensively crafting a colorful fall collage hanging for your wall or, as an alternative to a wreath, your front door.

Start by determining the fall theme you'd like to display, as well as the size of the hanging. These may include pumpkins, turkeys, acorns, deer, leaves, pilgrims and / or Indians and cornucopias, just to name a few.

Based on the desired overall size of the hanging, purchase an appropriately-sized piece of canvas and wooden dowel from a hobby or craft store.

Determine if you want the hanging to extend vertically or horizontally. If so desired, use a lightly-warmed iron to remove any wrinkles, then turn the canvas over, apply no-sew glue to each edge and fold neatly over to make crisp, straight seams on all sides.

Collect pictures from recycled magazines, newspapers or other media that contain sections of basic fall colors. Keep a keen eye out for orange, red, yellow, gold, brown and even deep, rich hues of purple. You may need to search for other sources if typical media are scarce or if you desire a noticeable, eye-catching mixture of textures. Other possible sources of color and texture include tissue paper, wallpaper, scrap material or party napkins.

Cut abstract shapes from these sources containing the colors you'd like displayed on the hanging.

To fashion the collage, many of the items you need may already be on hand. For instance, a pie plate may be used to fashion a pumpkin. Print off traceable fall leaves or other patterns and trace to cardboard, poster board or another sturdy surface to guide you in shaping the collage. For the more artistically inclined, this may be entirely accomplished free-handedly.

Once you have enough colorful clippings for the project you have in mind, fashion the collage. Use hot glue to intertwine the colorful scraps of paper or material into an overall image. Once completed, allow time for the glue to dry.

When the glue has dried, apply a light coat of varnish to make the craft durable, especially if it will hang from a door and be exposed to the elements. Allow the varnish time to dry as well.

The varnish is Once dry the , use a wood Dowel for hanging the project.

If the project is meant to hang vertically, wrap the top part of the canvas around a dowel that is slightly longer than the crosswise top of the canvas and secure with hot glue. Tie a fair amount of twine to either end for hanging. For vertical hangings, you may choose to apply dowel to the crosswise bottom section or not. It's merely a matter of preference.

If the project is meant to hang horizontally, then at least two pieces of dowel are required. Encircle evenly cut pieces of hardwood dowel on either end of the hanging, and hot glue securely. Depending on the width of the horizontal hanging, you might consider using a third dowel with a smaller circumference that extends across the back of the hanging. This provides support by keeping the horizontal hanging straight and preventing billowing. Incrementally hot gluing it in spots should suffice for keeping it in place.

If you desire to use the twine to provide a rustic, woodsy fall element to the hanging, use a lengthy piece so that the twine is exposed upon hanging. If you'd rather the twine not be exposed, however, hot glue a shorter, more taut piece to the dowel on the back of the hanging.

How to Stack a Washer Dryer

In ancient times people used various sources of water like ponds, rivers and lakes to wash their clothes. After washing the clothes, they had to dry the clothes. The clothes were dried under the influence of hot sun. The growth in industry, invention with the help of new technologies and change in the lifestyle of humans led to inventions that help automate the washing and drying process.

The device that was invented for washing purpose was named washer and the device invented for drying purpose were named dryer. Both had to be bought as separate appliances to carry out respective activities. The main disadvantages were the size and cost. Both had to be bought separate which were costlier as a whole and they occupied considerable portion in the house hold.

In order to overcome this problem a device named washing machine was invented that combined the functionality of both the washer and the dryer. Washing machine had both washer and dryer combined as a single unit. They were also named combo washer dryer. This combination reduced the overall cost and also the size that was occupied by washer and dryer when used as individual appliances. It came in various designs and was a hit among urban people. The limit of invention is only sky high. In order to mitigate size even more and the cost compact device name stackable washer dryer came into the market.

A stackable washer dryer is a combination two appliances namely washer and dryer. The dryer appliance is stacked over the washer. Today Stackable washer dryer has become a common used in every house hold. This device has been mainly designed to save the space in the house hold though the height of this appliance is higher when compared to the washer dryer combo. Stackable washer dryer posses the same features that of the washer dryer combo and can handle the same load that a traditional washing machine can handle. Stackable washer dryers can be stacked in various designs depending upon various factors.

A washer can be either front loaded one or a top loaded one. If the washer is a top loaded one, the dryer is placed at the back which has an angled opening that can be used to collect the washed and dried clothes. A magnet is present at the bottom of the dryer to hold the washer tightly so that the clothes get properly transferred from washer to dryer. If the washer is a front loaded one, the dried can be easily stacked at the top of the washer and this design is the best opted one in the market.

The products usually come in this design. In the front loaded design, the clothes are put into the washer for the washing purpose. After washing the clothes they are put into the dryer that is stacked onto the washer for drying the clothes. Some modifications have to be made in the electrical supply of the house hold when you need to install a stackable washer dryer.

Stackable washer dryer provide one of the most space and energy efficiencies. This appliance is the most suited one for people living in small house hold. In the front loaded design, the washers use gravity to wash the clothes. Generally front loaded washers use gravity to produce less wear and tear effect on clothes. The washer present in the stackable washer dryer is common among the manufacturers that design the appliance under different brand name.

The main difference relies on the type of the dryer that is used. Traditional dryers used hot air that was passed to dry the wet clothes. However, better designs and inventions have led to the design of air less dryer. For instance, condenser dryer is same as the traditional one but condense the vapor produced from the evaporated clothes and the content exited is in the form of water. Spin dryer consists of a drum that is rotated at a greater speed which extracts the water from the clothes which are exited through the exhaust vent. The spin dryers save lot of energy when compared to other dryers.

Another type of dryer is heat pump dryers which use a device called heat exchangers to recycle the vapor from the clothes and loop it back again to dry the clothes. In the stackable washer dryer it is always recommended to have moisture sensor in the dryer that detects the content of the moisture and functions accordingly. Stackable washer dryer come in different configurations based on the following factors:

Size: The most common units have width of either 27 inches or 24 inches. Larger the width results in handling large load whereas small size are meant for convenience and saving the space.

Voltage: The most vital factor that one can not compromise and must be met is the voltage. Stackable washer dryers use 220-volt.Some changes has to be made in the electrical lines of the house hold before you install it.

Energy Rating: This rating is given by Department Of Energy depending on the efficiency of the appliance. If the number is lower, it means the efficiency of the machine is higher.
The main disadvantage of this appliance lies in the difference in the quality of the dryer and the washer. One might be superior or inferior to another. They are sold as a pair, if one fails to function it can not be replaced. Another one has to be bought to compensate it.