Why Is It So Difficult to Stop Smoking?

Cigarettes contain nicotine, and nicotine is believed to be quite addictive, harmful and only has a very short duration of effect. So it’s well worth quitting, but for many it’s very hard.

Cigarettes contain nicotine, a substance found naturally in tobacco. It affects the brain quickly when inhaled and may seem to cause a sense of temporary relaxation or anxiety alleviation. Nicotine may also elevate your mood and your heart rate, but this feeling is only temporary. After your body rids itself of the drug, you start to crave another cigarette.

Shortly after you finish smoking a cigarette, your body begins to show signals of withdrawal. You begin to crave another cigarette to overwhelm these symptoms, beginning a vicious cycle of dependence. Most smokers experience the first signs of withdrawal within hours of their last cigarette

It might seem difficult to find new approaches to handle your stress. Do you catch a smoke when you’re feeling stressed or nervous? Strain, whether it’s from your work, relationships, caregiving burdens or simply plain fast paced living, can cause you to look for fast and easy alleviation. But in the long term, smoking will only enhance your stress. To successfully stop smoking, you might need to re think your stress management choices before you stop.

Consider these tips:

Stop and take a deep breath. Taking five to 10 deep breaths is a great beginning to pressure alleviation. In addition, you get the advantage of inhaling clean air into your lungs without those dangerous compounds!

Go for a walk. Physical activity can release a substance in your body that improves your mood and relieves tension. Walking for thirty minutes a day can be a healthy distraction, burn off extra calories and help your heart.

Try to relax. Pressure can make your muscles stressed. Relax them by stretching, deep breathing, doing yoga, obtaining a message or even closing your eyes and visualizing yourself in a peaceful area.

Call a buddy. Talking through your highs and lows with family, friends or maybe a support group may give you comfort and positive reinforcement.

Cut back on caffeine. Caffeine is a stimulant that may raise your heart rate along with your tension. When you’re attempting to manage your stress, caffeine can make you tense, keep you up at night and may even cause you to want to smoke.

Take care of your own body. Drink lots of water, eat healthy and get enough sleep. You’ll feel more energized and prepared to take care of pressure.

Below are some other questions to think about as you organize your smoke free life.

Does smoking:

Supply ways to meet people or hang out with a group?

Distract you when you’re feeling lonely?

Help you control your weight?

Boost your self-confidence?

Give you something to do with your hands or alternative physical habits?

Serve as a companion to coffee or booze or look like the thing to do after a meal?

Give you something to do while you’re driving?

Below are some great alternatives to deal with quitting smoking:

Rethink your social breaks. Should you smoke with friends to be social or with coworkers in your lunch break? It is essential to let them know that you’re attempting to stop and encourage them to join you. In case it becomes too difficult to spend time in these areas where you typically smoke, think about altering your schedule or taking your breaks with nonsmokers.

Keep yourself active. Go for walks, read a book or listen to music.

Keep your hands along with your mouth occupied. Chew gum, eat a wholesome snack, squeeze a stress ball or play with putty.

After a meal, get up immediately from the table and participate in a pleasurable activity.

If coffee is your cause, change something about the manner in which you drink it. Change the mug you drink from or when and where you indulge. Start a brand new habit!

Should you smoke in your own car, remove your ashtray and replace it with potpourri or notes to remind you why you wish to stop smoking.

At parties, attempt to stay away from smoking areas. Remain inside or distance yourself from folks who are smoking. This might be hard, but remain with it!

You might also need to cut back on booze. It’s hard to have will power and remain focused on your dedication when you’ve had too much to drink.

Knowing yourself and finding out why you smoke can help you make a plan to quit. Your heart will thank you for years to come!

An Analysis of the Story Editha

The story Editha implied quite a prevalent and antiquated standpoint about war and its acclaimed days. The story itself embodied the kind of glamour and prestige that World War 2 movies portrayed, or so they did. Certainly, this short story tried to emphasize war as being beautiful and necessary for communal living. In some ways I can attest to that statement, but such is an immediate conclusion. The author seemingly framed the story revolving around the life of a couple.

It almost seemed like it came out of an epic love novel. Her feelings and aspirations about the honor that war brings between lovers was compelling and riveting. To the author, war was all about bringing out the victors and almost weeded out the losers that war brings. Come to think about it, war that has occurred in the past brought only horror and destruction. I am a personal believer that war is never a necessary tool to bring forth a common goal.

Being a devout Christian, conflict and struggle are among the first and foremost matters that we want to abolish. It is a sad fact though, that war cannot be avoided. Over the course of our history, a major war occurs every 100years to try alter the system that the world runs on. As new superpowers arise, the balance will shift and countries will begin having conflicts. Sad as it is, war will happen. Movies, story books and other literary devices will continue to glorify its image because people need a way to escape reality, think action movies or cartoons. Humans cannot bear the agony that war brings. There will always be more creative springs for us to hide our emotions about war but like what I said, it is a sad fact of life.

Elegance Thy Name Is Wooden Railings

Why Wooden Railings Are Preferred

Since ages, humankind has working with wood and the best-known material for household goods is wood. It may take form of a table or a chair or the railing on the staircase or a balcony. The look it gives is that of elegance irrespective of the type of wood used. Wooden railings are preferred as the material for railing as the elegance from wood cannot be matched by anything else.

The advantage of a wood railing plan over other material is the elegance that it gives along with long life. The wooden railing in the sixteenth castles in England looks great even today. Imagine metal railings lasting five centuries!

DIY Wooden Railing

To be very frank with you, you cannot have a DIY wood railing particularly is it is winding and takes form of a three dimensioned curve. The work involved in making a winding railing, is normally out of working range of a DIY enthusiast. It is really a backbreaking job if you wish to do it all by yourself and not worth the effort. A DIY enthusiast should remain content with maintenance of the wooden railings, particularly the teak or mahogany wood. Heavy sections of wood are not the cup of DIY enthusiast.

What Is Possible for DIY Enthusiast

A DIY enthusiast can work on straight railings made of wood. The wood working tools are available with most DIY enthusiasts and the work is not too great for a single person.

DIY Tools For Wood Railings

Tools needed for the wooden railings are the same as needed for any other type of railings and some skill in wood working is necessary.

  • Circular saw
  • Wood worker’s Clamps
  • Hand saw
  • Rough files 12″ long
  • Power drill and drill bits of 1/8″ 3/16″ & ¼” diameter
  • 3/8″ Hex head driver
  • Edge sharpening tool pocket hole joining tool
  • Sanding tools
  • Level
  • Tape Measure
  • Pencil and long scale, T square and other drawing instruments
  • Hammer
  • Safety goggles Hand gloves and Mask.

Skill Levels from Fencing to Curved Wooden Railings

Wooden railings particularly straight railings are one of the easiest works that a DIY person can start with. He/she can start with the fencing and go on working inwards inside the house and at the end he/she can get enough skill to work on even the curved wooden railings. It is just a matter of practice and time available on hand with such person.

The wooden fence is one of the easiest things you can start with. What you need to know is the basic types of wood working methods and you can gain experience in as you go inwards.

Decreasing Use Of Wood In Railings

With advent of new materials, the use of wood in railings is decreasing. The main reason behind this decline is the maintenance cost of wood. The wood needs to be attended on a regular basis. The sanding of wood, polishing, and the other upkeep are just too much for any person who is not a DIY enthusiast. This is also the reason why DIY enthusiasts are still enthusiastic about wooden railings

Biscuit Joinery and Pocket-Hole Technology For Woodworking Enthusiasts

As craftsmen strive to create a perfect joint the question of wood joinery hangs over the heads of many professionals. To achieve these sought after smooth, strong, and durable joints there are many methods to choose from. Techniques like biscuit, or plate joinery, and pocket-hole joinery offer individual and effective ways to create a powerful and strong joint. Each method provides a different and efficient way to enhance the strength of your joints.

Biscuit or plate joinery involves the insertion of a biscuit into an oval, or crescent shaped slot that is cut into opposite edges of two pieces of wood. Biscuits are pre-cut, oval-shaped pieces of compressed wood that range in size from 1/2in to 2-1/4in in length. There are also biscuits available in plastic, aluminum, and steel for special applications, generally however, wood biscuits are the most prominently used. Biscuits (dabbed with glue) are inserted into specially cut slots in the wood that are shaped identically to the biscuit, the two pieces of wood are clamped together to set, and thus form a strong, durable joint. The biscuits also tend to soak up the glue applied to them before insertion which causes them to swell and make the joint tighter, and stronger. Porter Cable, DEWALT, and Makita each offer high quality plate joiners with unique, and individual features to help meet your needs, and build your joints better.

Porter Cable offers a Deluxe Plate Joiner Kit with a powerful 7.5 amps and 10,000 rpm. This joiner has many features that simplify the joining process, including: a precise micro height-adjustment knob to keep biscuits exactly centered, and a 1in O.D. (outer diameter) dust port that works with standard bags or can simply hook up to a vacuum. The 557 has a fence tilt of 0 to135 degrees with a positive adjustable stop at 90 degrees; additionally, the bale handle is attached to the fence (rather than the motor) for increased stability and control while cutting. The joiner also has a lock-on trigger for continual use and a supremely accurate (at any angle) height scale to precisely measure positions. Porter Cable’s plate joiner has seven-position rotating depth stop to accommodate a variety of biscuit sizes and depths, and a spindle lock mechanism for simple blade changes. For standard and face-frame biscuits, Porter Cable’s Deluxe Plate Joiner Kit includes both 2in and 4in diameter blades. The kit also includes a centering plate, dust bag, a chip deflector, Allen wrench, and a carrying case for portability and convenience.

DEWALT offers a similar Heavy-Duty Plate Joiner with 6.5 amps and no load speed of 10,000 rpm; tough enough to work through even the hardest wood. The DW682K offers a dual rack and pinion system that ensures the blade and fence are always parallel for the most accurate joints – every time. The one piece fence is also adjustable with a 0-90 degree tilt, and, at zero degrees, a flush cut can be made without removing the fence. Additionally, the fence has a locating notch at 45 degrees that allows indexing off the outside surface of a mitered joint: in other words, the fence has a positive lock at 45 degrees to keep your joints always accurate. With a no marring, heavy-duty aluminum shoe, the joiner can be clamped down for stationary work – and has retractable, anti-slip pins to help hold your work in place, and preset depth stops for all common biscuit sizes. DEWALT’s joiner kit comes with a carbide blade, dust bag, a vacuum adapter, Torx key, wrench, and a heavy-duty kit box for security. The DW682K comes with DEWALT’s one year free service contract, and a three year limited warranty.

Makita also provides an excellent option in biscuit joinery. Their 3901 plate joiner runs on 5.6 amps, and with a no load speed of 10,000 rpm. Although with slightly less amps, the tool is strong enough to make the tight, and lasting joints craftsmen expect from biscuit joinery. Makita’s joiner has a one-touch 6 depth setting that allows for immediate depth change when working, and accommodates most common biscuit sizes. Makita’s 3901 also features a shaft lock for fast, simple blade changes, and easy to operate cam locks for added security. With a cast aluminum pivot fence with positive stops at 0, 45, and 90 degrees the joiner is always accurate and precise, and is designed to quickly and simply make strong and durable plate joints. The tool has a maximum cut depth of 25/32in, a large top grip handle, no mar rubber strip insert, and is double insulated for additional security/safety on the job. Makita’s 3901 plate joiner includes a carbide tipped blade (4in in diameter), an angle guide, dust bag, lock nut wrench, set plate, inner flange, lock nut, and a plastic tool case for convenience and portability. The tool is just over a foot long and weighs 6.2 lbs.

Pocket-hole technology involves drilling an angled hole into one workpiece and joining it to another with a self-tapping screw. This process eliminates tedious drilling applications, and provides a fast, strong joint in which the screw acts as a permanent internal clamp pulling and holding two workpieces together. Kreg offers a Jig Master System specifically designed for pocket-hole joinery. The K3MS is effectively two tools in one having interchangeable drill guide blocks that can shift between bench-top and portable bases. The tool has an easy access, spring-loaded, front-side clamp that eliminates reaching around big panels to get to your toggle clamps; it keeps everything within arms reach so you can maintain speed and greater ease on the job.

Kreg offers a three-hole drill guide with a hardened steel core that helps you perfectly place pocket holes even in a variety of widths and thicknesses. This steel core also protects bits by keeping them completely covered, and supports work pieces throughout the entire drilling process. This technology reduces bit deflection and tear-out, and provides a clean, smooth, and plug-able pocket-hole. Kreg’s jig also has a material support stop that can be set at any distance from the jig enabling you to repeat the same pocket-hole numerous times. This stop can also swing or flip out of the way to act also as a height support for large panels. Additionally, Kreg utilizes an optimized drilling angle specifically configured to enhance driving efficiency and reduce the pocket-hole’s overall size to less than 1-1/2in. A wood-chip relief system -which consists of one wood-chip relief hole per every drill guide hole – keeps messy debris out of your drill bits and decreases drill torque output, thus increasing the life of your drill bits. This system allows the user to make smooth pocket-holes in only one plunge. Kreg jigs are built with an unique composite material that is flexible, resilient and also strong and durable; each jig is also built in-part with heavy-duty glass-reinforced nylon that maintains its strength and longevity.

Each of these joinery options is unique and provides professional results and professional strength to your joints. Both biscuit joinery, and pocket-hole joinery offer simple and strong solutions to achieving the perfect woodworking joint.

Cheapest Hotel Rates in Singapore

Singapore is a well known tourist spot. It has many wonderful locations. Moreover, it has many advantages. It has excellent infrastructure. It has connectivity from nook and corner of the world. Singapore has excellent flight services. Since it is a famous tourist spot, it has many resorts and hotels.

Hotels are comfortable, luxurious as well as affordable. The cheapest hotel rates in Singapore range from USD $39.00 to USD $191.00. USD $166.00, USD $69.00 and USD $57.00 are the other low hotel rates in Singapore. Many resorts are expensive. Still many of them provide discounts and charge less amount. Following is a list of hotels which charge fewer amounts. Important information about the place is also mentioned.

  • Amara Sanctuary – Sentosa Island, Singapore 099394. Amara Sanctuary is a stylish resort nested within 3.5 hectares of secluded tropical gardens on the hillside of Sentosa’s popular Palawan Beach.
  • Hotel 81 Orchid – Geylang, Singapore 399090. It is located in Geylang.
  • Hotel 81 Opera – Singapore 427495. It is located near the Malay heritage site of Geylang Serai. It is the gateway to the Malay culture.
  • Rasa Sentosa Resort – Sentosa Singapore. It is located on Sentosa Island. The award-winning Rasa Sentosa Resort is the perfect destination for a tropical getaway. The only beachfront resort in Singapore, Rasa Sentosa Resort is a perfect holiday resort.
  • Lion City Hotel – Tanjong Katong Road, Singapore. There is easy convenience of shopping, dining and entertainment. It is all within easy reach.

These hotels provide excellent facilities like AC, Television, Telephone, Private Bathroom, Mini Fridge, Internet Access and Safe Deposit Box at low rate.

Fall Leaf Catchers

Want to make an inexpensive, but enjoyable autumn craft? How about an interesting take on wind chimes! Using the same concept as a wind chime, craft a fall leaf catcher instead.

Begin by gathering a few supplies, all of which can be purchased quite cheaply at any craft supplies store. Supplies include a dowel rod (about three feet long and in any diameter that meets the size requirements you desire for the project), wood or hot glue, twine and faux autumn-colored fabric leaves.

Determine the size of the leaf catcher by examining the overall dimensions (width and height) of the area in which you'd like to display it.

Once you decide on the size of the leaf catcher, cut at least four lengths of the twine. Use your own creative touches. Consider equal or varying lengths for each of the four cuts. You may certainly choose to cut more than four lengths of the twine. The possibilities are many.

Then, cut two sections of dowel. Again, you are only limited by the dimensions of the display space and your imagination. Choose to cut the dowel in equal or varying lengths. You may also choose to paint the sections using a color that will further accent the autumn theme of the faux fabric leaves, or you may leave them in their natural, earthy form. If you choose to paint the wood dowels, remember to allow sufficient time for them to dry before proceeding.

Next, intersect the sections of dowel at their respective center points, and using the wood or hot glue, secure them together, one section on top of the other. The resulting appearance should closely resemble the blades of a ceiling fan or a cross if held upright. Allow time for the glue to dry.

Use additional twine to alternate a diagonal crisscross pattern over and under the intersection of the dowels.

The twine around Tie the outer Extremities of the wood Dowel , and the if Desired, : add a touch of hot glue for added security. This will likely prove beneficial during autumn's frequently high winds. Although it's not a necessary step, after securely tying the twine, consider removing any excess by cutting it.

Add dabs of hot glue to the underside of the leaves, and stick them to the twine. Mix colors, shapes and directional slants to achieve aesthetic appeal.

Use one final length of twine to glue to the underside of the twine previously crisscrossed over the center point of the intersecting hardwood dowel sections. In this case, each side should have equal amounts of twine, as this is how the autumn leaf catcher will be hung, and it should be hung evenly.

Finally, hang the finished project from a hook or nail in the desired location. Great places to consider are on a patio, from the bare limb of a tree that's already shed its autumn leaves or anywhere else the beautiful colors of your craft can easily catch the wind and be enjoyed.

The Air We Breathe

“Air is where anything else isn’t”-that’s a strange statement, isn’t it? It is the answer a boy gave when he was asked where air is found. He was about right, wasn’t he? But, of course, we could rightly say the same thing about any other form of matter. What the boy really meant was that air moves in where anything else moves out. That is not true of other matter.

If someone says, “That glass is empty,” he doesn’t really mean that it is empty, does he? He just means that it doesn’t contain anything we can see. He knows, if he thinks straight, that the glass contains air. We can’t see air, but we know it is all around us, because if it weren’t, we would die. Some of us may not be entirely sure how we use air, but all of us know that we can’t get along without it. Many people have turned to petition writing in an attempt to gather support in protecting our air supply.

The quality of the air surrounding our earth is rapidly deteriorating. Pollutants such as smog and aerosols are contaminating the atmosphere faster than they can dissipate, and certain chemicals like chlorine bind to the molecules of the Ozone layer and break apart our only protection from the sun’s harmful radiation.

The big corporations that are contributing the most to the destruction of our shield won’t listen to the pleas of the little people. The only thing we can do is make a citizen petition and hope that the government will take notice. If enough people participate, the government will have no choice but to force them to change their ways.

There is a deep ocean of air completely surrounding our earth. We spend our entire lives at the bottom of that ocean. How deep the air ocean is, nobody knows. Scientists think it may be between 100 and 200 miles deep or even deeper. One reason they think this is that they have observed that “shooting stars” begin to show at about that height above the earth.

These falling bodies do not begin to burn until they reach our atmosphere. Scientists believe that such “stars” fall so fast that friction with our air sets them on fire. These falling bodies are not really stars, but rather star dust. Many of the particles are no larger than grains of sand.

Scientists have also sent rockets far above the earth. One rocket, the Viking, soared 106 miles high. It radioed back to earth scientific information, including the condition of the air. Other rockets have gone even higher. In 1949, the WAC Corporal made a record by reaching 250 miles above the earth.

Whatever the facts, we know our air ocean is very deep. Even though most of our air is within 100 to 200 miles of the earth, it thins out with altitude very rapidly. This very thin air may reach to an altitude of 500 miles or more.

If we do not try to stop or even reverse the damage, all of our air will become very thick, but with very little of the gases that living organisms need to breathe, namely oxygen and nitrogen. Gathering petition signatures may be just the way to begin this process.

Air and water are partners in many ways in doing nature’s work. Both help to make soil, and both help to move it. They work together to keep things evenly balanced in nature, and nature works to keep them in balance.

We should not be surprised, then, to learn that water contains air. Air is dissolved in water; that is, the air is distributed evenly throughout the water. There are many examples to prove that there is air in water.

The enormous amounts of exhaust from huge smoke stacks used by factories are suffocating our air supply, but what about chemical runoff? This could be even more dangerous, because these extremely toxic substances are getting into our water supply.

Even if we take extra steps to filter the water, or get it from a pure source, what about the plants and animals that absorb this water in one way or another? What do we do then? Pregnant women, for example, are discouraged to eat seafood, because the mercury content has been linked to birth defects and even disorders such as autism. Petition letters have been written about this, in an attempt to raise awareness.

A Thorough Review on the Arc Trainer Cybex 750AT

Different individuals would need different ways of work out. For those that want more and need more, the Arc Trainer Cybex 750AT is the right selection. It’s an incredibly versatile machine which could be employed by both beginners and expert cross-trainers, so 1 equipment should be sufficient for the whole family.

Besides that, people will enjoy the many features offered by the Arc Trainer Cybex 750AT:

  1. Using the reputable reverse arc motion that moves the legs within a biomechanical path, is able to lessen the stress supposedly endured through the knees when the toes are placed behind it.
  2. Most elliptical machines have normal stride height positions. The Arc Trainer Cybex 750AT allows an individual to change the stride height so that you are more comfortable. It is the same as those elliptical machine but this time you can position yourself accurately at the equipment. During low levels, the routine is as if the gliding movements of skiing; at high levels the movement is sort of a walker or even hiker.
  3. Following the right action of both legs and arms, as you move your right leg, your right hand shifts to the front, also. The Arc Trainer Cybex 750AT helps an individual to keep the right stance throughout the exercise, thus removing stress on your back. Other cross-training equipments don’t give users the same comfort and ease of use. Arms and legs travel in opposite directions and hence it feels so uncomfortable.
  4. The digital monitor is designed in such a way to let users operate the device with ease. It is uncomplicated and it shows the distance, calories, calories per hour, watts, METs, strides per minute along with the heart rate. Also, the lower monitor displays the clock, resistance level and also the incline.
  5. It’s produced to provide a firm hold, and also the fit and finish of the whole machine is very smooth.
  6. It can be the BMW of elliptical equipment, the ride you have on the Arc Trainer Cybex 750AT is truly enjoyable.
  7. It is self-powered, thus you do not have to worry about cords being tangled or others tripping over them.
  8. The cup holder is spacious enough to accommodate even the wider forms of water container.

How to Make a Hair Bow in Few Simple Steps

Wearing a hair bow is a simple means of creating beauty to one’s own style of dressing their hair to make it look more pleasing to look at. There are varieties of ways on how to make a hair bow. The variation usually lies on the materials to be used that also depend on the choice of style of the hair bow one prefers to make.

How to make a hair bow is a common hobby among creative and artistic individuals. Basically one is free to create their own design to represent their own stylish way of making a hair bow. There are simple steps on how to make a hair bow. One needs to organize first the materials they will need.

Scissors, measuring tape or a ruler, ribbon, floral wire, metal clip, glue gun and fray check are the most basic materials to be needed on how to make a hair bow. For beginners, making a medium sized pinwheel bow is an excellent choice to begin with.

When deciding on the type of ribbon to use it is important to choose one that has a soft fabric that is easy to bend. One should then choose the type of clip to use. When making a small to medium hair bow for fine hair, alligator clips are good choice. French clips on the other hand work well for fuller hairs or for ponytails and when making larger bows.

Cut the ribbon ¾ – 1 1/2 inches in width and 24 inches in length. To assemble, the ribbon must be folded over 5 times of about 4 ½ in. in length. To even the length, adjust the ribbon. Then pinch the center of the loops and use a craft wire or wrap floral to tighten the center of the bow.

Using the floral wire for this purpose can be a good choice as it does not melt when glued. Don’t forget to trim the excess wire to ensure it will not poke out. Also trimming the ends of the bow will make both sides even. You can choose to kite tail or angle the edges for better touches.

You can trace a line and cut to create an angle on the bow’s edges. To create kite tail, you need to first fold the center of the edges and clip a shape of a triangle on the edge. It is best to first practice in a piece of paper before making the final cut on the bow.

To prevent from fraying, apply thin coat of nail polish or fray check on the bow’s edges. Slide the clip along the bow’s wire and use the glue to secure its place. Some uses additional wires to further secure the bow to the clip.

A smaller piece of ribbon is then knotted on the center on top of the exposed wire and wrapped around then glued to stay in place. For the final touches, adjust the hair bow to its fullness.

Learning how to make a hair bow can be fun, interesting and fulfilling especially when you wear a hair bow that is your own masterpiece.

7 Subtle Signs of a Drainage Problem

Today, thousands of home owners face drainage problems. Water-backup, drain clogging and basement flooding are the obvious signs of a faulty or a damaged drainage system. But, there are many other subtle indicators of a drainage problem which are listed below. If you address them today, you will be able to save money.

1. Overflowing Gutter

Gutter or eavestrough is used for carrying off rainwater. It protects the foundation by directing water away from the foundation. It is also useful in preventing leaks in basement. The most common cause of an overflowing gutter is accumulation of dirt or debris. But, overflowing of gutter can also be caused by improper installation. If you do not address the problem, you will end up with damaged siding, peeling paint and weak foundation of your home.

2. Downspout Dumping

Downspouts carry rain water from gutter and dispose it away from the foundation. If the downspout of your home is dumping water near the foundation, it will cause flooding in the basement. So, make sure that the downspout is at least five feet away from the foundation of your home.

3. Water Staining

Water stains are a good indicator of a drainage problem. If they are high on the foundation wall, they are caused by an overflowing gutter. If the stains are all over the basement wall, they can be a result of fluctuating water table. In such a situation, it is important to install a sump pump and a weeping tile to seep water out of your basement.

4. Foundation Cracks

Foundation cracks are often neglected because they are caused by a plethora of reasons such as faulty concrete mix, inaccurate foundation structure, general wear and tear, etc. But, if you find a crack that is constantly increasing, do not ignore it. It can be a sign of a drainage problem.

5. Deposits on Walls

If there is white or grey crust on the basement walls, it is a sign of a drainage problem. The crust is called efflorescence and it is a mineral deposit that is left behind by evaporating water.

6. Spalling

If the paint is peeling off in big patches, it is called spalling. Spalling occurs because the water is seeping in the masonry work of the walls. If you notice spalling, it is important to address the problem quickly.

7. Mildew Problem

Dampness can cause mildew in any part of your home. If you see mildew in basement or in attic, it indicates water leakage or moisture problem. So, search for any sign of mildew or mold development in your home.

Whenever you see subtle signs of a drainage problem in your home, do not hesitate to call a plumbing expert. He/she will ascertain the real problem and help you solve it.

Tips on How to Snake a Drain

A plumbing snake is a device that is used to unclog a drain. There are plumbing snakes specifically for drains and plumbing snakes specifically for the sewer line. The snake is composed of a long flexible cable that has an auger attached to one end and a handle on the other end. The head of the auger is fed through the drain line until it reaches the clog. The head of the auger is then rotated so that the corkscrew shape grasps and pulls at the clog. The idea is to pull the clog out of drain line in order to allow the system to start draining properly. A homeowner can unclog a drain line when they have the knowledge on how to properly snake a drain.

The following is a list of tips on how to manually snake a drain:

1. You can pick up a snake at any plumbing supply store or hardware store.

2. It is important to wear rubber gloves to protect the hands from any debris and lay newspapers or old towels on the floor to absorb any spillage.

3. The first thing you have to do is feed the cable with the head of the auger into the drain. As you push the cable into the drain, turn the auger's handle in a clockwise direction.

4. As you feed the snake into the drain, make sure that you are repositioning it as it works it way through the pipe. Make sure you keep it steady as you push it through to avoid scratching the pipe.

5. Once you feel the auger make contact with the blockage, stop and continue to turn the auger's head and pull it backward and forward to chew away at the clog so that it will dislodge.

6. Once you have pushed the auger head backward and forward to chew at the blockage, you will eventually be able to break it up and loosen it enough to push the auger directly through the clog.

7. If the blockage is quite large, grasp and hold it so that you can pull it out of the pipe. This is where it is important to be wearing gloves because it can be quite messy. As you are pulling the snake out of the drain, use an old towel to slide along the cable so that debris will be wiped off. It is important to have a bucket so that have a place to put the debris and any dirty rags. As well, sometimes there may be a rush of water containing material so you will need a bucket to collect the water.

When many people have a clogged drain, they are hesitant about using a chemical drain cleaning product because they do not want harsh chemicals going into their septic system. A good alternative to using chemical drain cleaners is the plumbing snake. It is safe to use and will not damage the septic system. A plumbing snake is also very effective at removing tough clogs.

Cordless Drill – Questions and Answers

The cordless drill is a wonderful tool and every tradesman will have at least one, but what if you have never owned one, how do you know what to buy? Hopefully these questions and answers will help you to decide.

What size cordless drill do I need? The answer is, what do you need it for? Hey that's a question, not an answer! The size of drill is dependent on how you are going to use it, for putting furniture or even kitchen units together a 12 volt cordless will be enough. If you plan to undertake construction work then a 36V one will be more appropriate.

What sizes do they come in? Cordless drills are available from 6 volts up to 36 volts. The lower end around the 6-12 volt range are really electric screwdrivers but at the other end of the spectrum 36 volt cordless drills are pretty much the same as a mains powered drill, without the trailing flex.

What is a hammer drill? A hammer drill is used for drilling into masonry such as brick, blocks or even concrete. It is called a hammer drill because the drill actually pounds the end of the drill bit as it is rotating to drill faster.

What is an SDS drill? An SDS drill is a machine with a special type of 'chuck,' It is actually a slot which accepts an SDS drill bit which has a specific shape to fit into the end of the drill. These types of drill are favored because there is no need to have a chuck key or indeed a chuck.

How powerful is a cordless drill? As I said before a 36 volt drill is just as powerful as a mains drill but the two measurements which are the most important after voltage are:

1: Beats per minute; This is the number of times the drill pounds the drill bit every minute. A higher number is better and a good starting point is around 4200 BPM

2: Impact Force: This is measured in Joules, an energy transference measurement and again the higher the number the better, look for something above 2.1.

How To Build A Greenhouse

The most successful modern greenhouses are built upon well-drained land near a good water supply. Some of the smaller structures are 12 to 15 feet wide, with a framework of wood. For commercial purposes, greenhouses about 40 feet in width, supported by semi-iron or pipe-post frames are found most practical.

The first and foremost consideration in picking a spot for your greenhouse is the position of the winter sun. Tall trees that block the rays of the sun should not surround the site.

Make the base using h4-sawn timber between 2.4 m and 3 m in length. Use galvanized nails and nail plates to join the timber strips to make an oblong. Do not forget to check if the base is level. Once this is done, reinforce the base with pegs around its perimeter. Construct the frame using h3-sawn timber. These timber strips shouldn? T be more than 4.8 m in length. Construct two sidewalls, make the diagonal measurements equal and if the walls are square, cut and fix the bracing timbers in place.

Cut the roof frame pieces using h-3 sawn timber. Then cut 5 rafters, each of 1.9 m, 5 rafters, each of 1.31m, 5 uprights 0.5m in length and 5 triangular gussets measuring 0.5mx 0.5mx 0.5m using 7 mm plywood.

Construct the five rood frames on the ground. Pick two points 2.4 m apart and nail the triangular gussets. Attach the 5 roof frames to the sidewalls. Reinforce with two vertical end roof frames plumb. Then nail the fascia board (150 mm x 50 mm, made out of h3-sawn timber) to the top of the roof frames. Fix the window support plate (75 mm x 50 mm) next and brace the roof on the side that has no windows. Next, work on the windows. Use 50 x 50 h3-sawn timber for the top and bottom frames and 75 x 50 h3-sawn timber for the side and middle. Bevel cut the bottom window frame 30 degrees, which is the same pitch as the roof. Add a latch. Make two such windows and fix them.

You'll need to build two doors using 50 x 50 h3-sawn timber for the frames. Cut the gussets from 7 mm plywood. Check if frames are square before nailing the gussets. Attach the doors using hinges. The cover should be made with ultra- violet resistant polythene using thin battens over the polythene to hold it.

Build a Dog Car Ramp

Is your dog struggling to get into your car or boat? You can build a dog car ramp to save your back and to continue to give your dog freedom and enjoyment. There are two types you can build out of wood or other materials: one that is a fixed length, and one that folds and is portable.

The dog car ramp instructions below are for a fixed ramp and meant for side entry onto the floor of a minivan or the super cab of a pickup with a height of up to 24 inches (610 mm). )See the links at bottom for directions on how to build the portable kind for cars and boats.)

Before you start, check to see if the place where you will store your homemade dog ramp in your vehicle can accommodate the 5-foot (1525 mm) length. The longer the ramp, the gentler the slope.

Note that for getting into the taller rear of an SUV or pickup truck bed, you will most likely need a folding dog ramp for your dog. A length of at least 70 inches (1780 mm) is necessary to create a reasonable slope.

MATERIALS

English (Imperial) Units:

  • 3/8 inch plywood, 12-18 inches wide and 4-5 feet long
  • Two pieces 2×2 inch (50×50 mm) lumber the same length as the plywood for rails
  • Two pieces 1×2 inch (25×50 mm) lumber the same width as the plywood for end supports
  • 30 Drywall screws, 1 ¼ to 1 ½ inches (32-38 mm) long
  • 10 Drywall screws, 1 inch (25 mm) long
  • Sandpaper: 1 sheet coarse, 1 sheet medium, 1 sheet fine grade
  • Rubber matting, carpet or good quality Astroturf to 3 inches less wide than the plywood

Metric Units:

  • 10 mm plywood, 305-460 mm wide and 1220-1525 mm long
  • 2 pieces 50×50 mm lumber the same length as the plywood for rails
  • 2 pieces 25×50 mm lumber the same width as the plywood for end supports
  • 30 Drywall screws, 32-38 mm long
  • 10 Drywall screws, 25 mm long
  • Various grits sandpaper per above
  • Rubber matting, carpet or Astroturf 75 mm less wide than the plywood
  • 5 mm less wide than the plywood

TOOLS

  • Power drill with bit diameter slightly narrower than screws
  • A saw to cut the pieces of wood (unless you can get the store guys to do it)
  • A power and/or hand screwdriver
  • Glue for wood and carpet

ADDING THE RAILS

  1. For each rail, screw and glue at 4-inch (100 mm) intervals as follows:
  2. Drill a hole through the plywood into the rail 4 inches from one end
  3. Put in a 1 ½ inch (38 mm) screw to hold the wood there
  4. Do the same from the other end and secure with a screw
  5. Drill holes in between the two ends at the specified intervals
  6. Put a dab of glue on each screw before driving it in

ADDING THE END SUPPORTS

  1. Turn the ramp over
  2. Put an end support underneath the plywood along one end
  3. Drill holes and secure with 1-inch (25 mm) screws
  4. Use at least one screw every 4 inches (100 mm)
  5. Do the same with the other end

FINISHING THE RAMP

  1. Use coarse sandpaper to round any sharp edges
  2. Follow up with medium then fine sandpaper
  3. If using carpet or Astroturf, sear the edges with a flame and pinch with a damp sponge to prevent unraveling
  4. Glue or staple carpet to the plywood
  5. Make sure there are no protruding sharp edges

Have your dog try the dog car ramp out, using treats for encouragement as needed. For some dogs it may work better to put the ramp at a low angle, like up on a curb, for an easier introduction.

Using Miniatures in Board Games

Many different board games use tokens to distinguish the players from one another. These tokens are often a certain color so that, when you look at the game board, you are easily able to identify who is who and where they stand in the context of the game. Some games, however, go beyond the use of simple colored tokens. These games actually craft tokens of little images to use while playing the board. The number of games which use these miniatures as well as the number of uses they have are many.

Games such as Dungeons and Dragons will use miniatures for use on their boards, being able to determine the relative locations of the different players on any certain quest. These miniatures often are painstakingly detailed and, depending on the edition that they belong to, can be considered to be quite valuable. Some of the miniatures are Collectors Edition Items and there are a number of fans of Dungeons and Dragons who make a large hobby out of simply collecting these miniatures. Board games themselves can make a great item for collectors but miniatures are nearly a market entirely on their own. Different artists can be contracted to design and sculpt a miniature and, depending on the prestige of that artist, the value of that miniature will rise.

Other games allow players to have more freedom with their miniatures. A number of kits are often made available, providing the miniature in a flat color, often gray. Paints are then able to be purchased, allowing the collector to paint the miniature themselves. This is often a very popular form of miniature collecting, because it allows the player to personalize the miniature that they are working with. It becomes more unique and allows the player a special feeling in regard to the piece. These are especially popular when it comes to role playing games, where players will often adopt a certain personality and develop that character for quite a long time. When the player has a character which they feel close to, making their own image of that character in a way that they feel represents themselves well is a great way to boost interest and even loyalty to the game itself.

Some miniatures are sold in separately marked packages and you end up buying them at random. These are marketed much like baseball cards, encouraging you to collect the entire set. These are often games which are built around enterprises where a number of characters are known and popular to fans before the game is developed. Comic book characters are the most frequent form of this type of miniature.

Different games can be played with these miniatures, with special editions having certain powers and benefits which might influence the game. These miniatures often have a large number of pieces, often coming close to 100 different pieces to collect. Just like collector cards, these pieces can be traded with other fans and building a complete collection can often be as rewarding as playing the game itself. These are just another way that miniatures can affect the world of gaming.