Alarm Home Security System

With crime constantly on the rise, people are taking each precaution to protect themselves and their possessions. The variety of house invasions annually is always increasing. Sometimes, the headlines will show that these house invasions end in murder. Folks go into panic. Alarm corporations get a flooding of cellphone calls from folks wanting quotes and immediate installation of alarm systems. Even households that do not have alarms programs find methods to get the little stickers that claim there may be an alarm in the house and plaster their home windows with them. Floodlights are installed at porches and the darkest corners of yards.

Alarm home security system is usually a great asset to your home. Not only can they guarantee your family's safety, however you could discover the value of your private home will increase and you get some discounts on your insurance coverage as well. Plus, the feeling of safety for your loved ones – that is priceless. Numerous camera surveillance systems these days are not just targeted on burglary. You may also be notified of a hearth or carbon monoxide. At the similar time that your loved ones is made aware of the scenario, the alarm company is getting the message as well and ensuring that each effort is put into holding your loved ones safe. A big turn-off for many people is the monthly price that the alarm home security system bring to the mailbox. Depending on what sort of security you need, the costs could also be greater than what you might be snug paying. Nevertheless, it might be greater than worthwhile to discover a way to pay that extra expense every month for that gigantic peace of mind.

Unfortunately, alarm systems on automobiles are not always worthwhile. Give it some thought – all of us hear automotive alarms going off each day. Most often, it is the owner who by accident set them off or someone walks too close to the automobile and units it off. Usually, a car thief will not target a automobile that has an alarm system. Or, if they do – they "re smart sufficient to know the best way to deactivate the alarm system earlier than they even try to get into the vehicle.

The most effective cameras video surveillance are put into homes. Autos will be changed – lives and the invasion of your privacy can not be replaced. There are lots of different safety precautions which you can implement into your life-style as well. Trimming the shrubbery round your home windows and doorways can take away hiding places from those who might need to find a way into your house. Ensuring that deadbolts are on each door – and getting used is an effective way to keep individuals out. Having a peephole in your main doors allows you to look exterior and see if anyone is in your porch. Preserving a porch light on throughout the night is usually a big deterrent. The best thing that you can do, is to walk around your house. Imagine you are locked out and must find a manner inside. Take into consideration the entire things that you would do to get inside and methods that you would be able to maintain individuals on the outside. Being aware of your environment and being smart about your own home will be simply as efficient as an alarm system. With regards to your family, you just can not be too careful.

Know Your Roofing Contractor

One thing which is not often considered when hiring a roofing contractor is what supplier the contractor uses for the roofing material, this could be slate, metal, concrete/clay tile, shingles etc.

Most contractors will have suppliers they regularly use and in hiring that contractor you are essentially also using their chosen suppliers. This has good and bad implications, on the good side the contractor will have probably decided on this supplier because their products give them the quality and price that they consider best reflects their ethos and you will have no doubt decided on this contractor because you have also done your homework and decided on what you want from the contractor. But on the bad side you could also be committing to a product that although your contractor considers being right it may also bring with it many issues you should also consider.

Here are some questions you should consider asking or looking into:-

1. Is this a new product and the contractor has been offered a good rate to use it and your home is now effectively an active trial and with any new product it could quite easily fail and the supplier with it.

2. Is there a possibility there may be further additions in future years and then a need for more of this product? This may not be a bad thing but does your contractor hold exclusive rights to supply of this product and leaving you really with only them as an option because sometimes you may wish to change to a different contractor for various reasons (this is a whole other area of discussion which I will deal with at a later date).

3. Could there be future supply issues? Even consider over-ordering the quantities required as although many contractors will leave extra material behind if future repairs are required some will not so you then have to contact them and again you may not wish to! Obviously this is not really relevant to metal sheets as they will rust if not stored correctly.

4. To further expand on the previous point if the products imported then you should really consider ordering extra as supply does become an issue if you have to import from another country.

In summary when you choose your roofing contractor you will decide what you want from them be it quality, price or speed. Hopefully you can get all three but whoever you hire remember to do your homework on the product they will use and its supply.

Balance Sheet Example

The balance sheet shows the financial situation of a company at a point in time (the balance sheet date). Balance sheet shows the economic resources controlled by the company, existing obligations and the net assets of the required right of the owners, reflecting the economic resources controlled by the company and the assets for redeem the debt in the future.

It must always satisfy the basic equation: Assets = Proprietor's capital + Liabilities

An asset is a resource controlled by the enterprise as a result of past events and form which future economic benefits are expected to flow to the enterprise. It has the following features:

controlled by the enterprise

past events

future economic benefits.

Liabilities are an entity's obligations to transfer economic benefits as a result of past transactions or events.

It has the following features:


transfer economic benefits

past transactions or events

complementary nature of assets and liabilities.

Proprietor's capital is the residual amount found by deducting all liabilities of the entity from all of the entity's assets.

The equation underlies the balance sheet in that every transaction of the enterprise affects the balance sheet twice. For the balance sheet accounts, at the left side of the equation (assets), "Dr" insteads increasing, "Cr" insteads decreasing; at the right side of the equation (proprietor's capital and liabilities), "Cr" insteads increasing, "Dr" insteads decreasing.

Each and every transaction that the business makes or enters into has two aspects to it and has a double effect on the business and the accounting equation. This is known as the dual aspect of transactions. So if a business buys some goods for cash, the two aspects of the transactions are that it now has some goods but it has less cash. Equally, if it sells some goods for cash, the effect is that cash has increased and a sale has been made on which there may have been a profit made.

How to Tweet Through Facebook

Keeping track of all of the different social networking sites can be tricky. One way to lighten the load is to have your Facebook account automatically send your status updates to your Twitter account. For awhile it required a few different steps but now there's a Facebook app that makes it all very easy. Once you have it set up it will simply take your updates and beam them to Twitter instantly. They'll show up on your Twitter page and be tagged as "from Facebook" underneath it. What's more, any links that are included will use the URL shortener, so you'll be able to fit more into each tweet.

Here's how to get it set up:

Log into your Facebook account and search for Twitter in the search box. The first result will be the application. You'll know you've got the right one because it has an icon of a little blue bird and says "Application 'underneath the word Twitter. Hit return and you'll be taken right to it, because Facebook automatically takes you to the first search result.

Once you make it to the page you'll see a Twitter-ish logo and the Facebook logo with two arrows showing a connection between the two. It says you can connect your two accounts so that you can post tweets to your Facebook account, and also display your Twitter account on your Facebook profile so your friends can find it. It also works the other way so that your updates get transferred as tweets. If you do not have a Twitter account they provide a link right in the application sign up page so that you can sign up for one. If you have one, you're all set to go and you can put in your login credentials and link your accounts right away. The two API's are linked so your information is secure.

You can then decide to use your Facebook photo as your Twitter photo and can swap it out with the press of a button. Then you should choose where you want your tweets to show up. If you have additional pages on Facebook you can also have them show up there as well.

Facebook and Twitter have a strange relationship, with Mark Zuckerberg wanting to buy Twitter and the deal not coming to fruition. Instead FB simply copied the Twitter update box that became the main feature when using Facebook. It makes sense that the two would cooperate with each other, since they both seem to cater to different needs and they each have their own unique business models. Many people have accounts with both services, so it only makes sense to support easy and open connectivity.

Home Decorating Tips: Fun with Flooring Ideas

The wide range of flooring options available today probably makes your head buzz every time you contemplate getting a new floor. At the same time, it also means you can find the perfect flooring idea for your home or office/place of work. Thus you can take your pick of wood or wood laminates, ceramic tiles, slate/stone, vinyl flooring, carpets, stone and marble, etc.

And then there are the sub-sections: if you choose wood, what is it to be, maple, oak, pine or teak? Do you like black, white, Connemara, rough finish, or polished marble? Of course, a lot depends on your budget and individual taste, but here’s a ready guide to the broad categories of flooring available on the market:

  • Laminate: Provided you cannot install a solid wood floor, wood laminates are a great substitute. They are available in as many colors and species as wood, and in as many styles, but the way they are constructed makes them last longer and withstand moisture and traffic better than wood. That makes it an excellent flooring idea for the bathroom
  • Linoleum: Linoleum, the flooring of choice for the disco era, is well on its way back. An all-natural flooring material made from linseed oil, cork, stone and natural resins, linoleum is available in a wide range of colors and patterns, and it is as durable as they come. What’s more, exposure to sunlight, which fades most other flooring materials, actually makes the colors in a linoleum floor richer. So you have a flooring option that is easy to care for, wears extremely well and lasts forever
  • Vinyl Tiles: Perfect flooring idea for kitchens, bathrooms and family rooms. Inexpensive, easy to install, and available in a vast range of colors and patterns, vinyl tiles also wear well, and are easy to maintain
  • Ceramic Tiles: No longer confined to bathrooms, ceramic tiles today come in rich tones, and include a range of patterns that is hard to incorporate on any other material. They can still provide excellent flooring ideas for the bathroom, but are not at all out of place in the kitchen, the patio or by the poolside
  • Slate Tiles: Slate looks like stone – well, it is stone – but has a number of advantages over stone floors. For one thing, its smooth surface holds a glossy finish well and is comfortable underfoot. Besides, it is available in its natural colors and is a great natural flooring idea
  • Wooden Flooring: Time-tested, beautiful and stylish, wood floors suit any decor. What’s more, with proper care, a wood floor lasts a lifetime, and gives you numerous flooring ideas courtesy its variety of patterns
  • Parquet Flooring: This is a particularly elegant and stylish flooring idea. Different colors, types or species of wood are cut and stained and fitted to create a pattern. The pattern may be overall, or it may be used to accent a border, corner or center of the floor
  • Stone Floors: Marble, slate, limestone and travertine are flooring ideas that are growing in popularity. Marble is, of course, particularly popular in public buildings
  • Carpets: Wall to wall carpets will always be in fashion. Modern choices include natural wool or cotton, acrylic, olefin and nylon, as well as jute and other natural fibers
  • Rugs: Floor and area rugs can brighten a dark space. They can also add a touch of luxury or elegance, depending on color and style. They go particularly well with wood and stone floors

Tips Before You Buy Your Flooring

  • Draw an outline of the room or rooms. Indicate where the entrances are placed
  • Measure the room accurately with a measuring tape and write down its width and length. Remember, smaller print patterns can make the room seem a lot bigger
  • Take into account adjoining rooms and the flooring on those rooms and make sure you harmonize the new flooring with the old
  • If too much natural light enters the room, you might consider a laminated floor, and vinyl, ceramic or porcelain tiles
  • Coordinate the color and style of your flooring with your furniture, curtains and wallpaper
  • The foot traffic that a room gets should dictate your flooring idea. A room with a high volume of traffic needs more durable flooring
  • Similarly, a room used mainly for leisure activities can accommodate relatively delicate flooring materials
  • Remember, pets may damage flooring, so factor that in. equally, the number of children in the house will also impact flooring
  • Lighter colors make rooms seem bigger
  • How much will the new flooring cost? Is sub-floor preparation part of the quoted price? Also, is the quoted price inclusive of the installation? Make sure all the necessary materials are included in the quoted price

Now you have your flooring ideas in place, go play!

The Ladder Rack, Rolling Ladder, and Similar Industrial Equipment

Whether you work in construction, contracting, or just generally do a lot of hands-on building, there are certain tools that can help you do your job with ease. A ladder rack is a great way to get your ladder and other materials such as lumber or pipe to where you need to go. Another tool that a lot of builders use regularly is the rolling ladder. It is safe and convenient to use because it is built to be sturdy with no chance of tipping or falling because of a slick floor or other otherwise dangerous ground conditions. A ladder rack with a rolling ladder are the basic useful items that can make your work simple.

You can have a custom ladder rack attached to your truck specific to your usage needs and size limits. A ladder rack is of course used for transporting your work ladder but you can use it for many other types of materials. Most racks are removable so that they are not taking up space when they are not in use. Some go over the bed of the truck, while over-the-cargo styles are made for longer materials so that you are can avoid having materials extending beyond you vehicle. A flat rack is a little less common but can be just the right size if you do not need to haul a large amount of material.

A rolling ladder is one of the safest ways to boost yourself without being in danger while you work. Scaffolding is a type of rolling ladder that is ideal for construction because it stands alone, has adjustable height, and can hold more than one person at a time. For added safety, the wheels are lockable so that you will never accidentally roll. Smaller rolling ladders are better for indoor work. The top platform is larger than the steps so that you have plenty of room to work safely and you will always have access to the guard rails for added security.

Safety is always the most important factor to consider with anything that you do. A ladder rack is the safest and most appropriate way to carry your ladder and building materials to a new location without obstructing your view to drive and also keeping objects out of the space of other vehicles on the road. A rolling ladder or scaffolding are reliable and safe tools for anyone who requires doing work at a height that is unreachable to you. When working, it is always most important to use the proper tools for the job, and to take the necessary precautions to ensure your safety as well as the safety of those around you.

Beautify Your House With Glass Balustrades

In this day and age, many people are now more adventurous when exploring new materials for design. Glass is slowly becoming one of the most sought after materials that evoke a modern appeal and a touch of elegance. Glass balustrades are no exception. Used as a balustrade for staircases, balconies, or terraces, a glass balustrade maximizes a persons view and initiates a sense of excitement. Balustrades are created to keep people from ever falling off a balcony or a staircase. With glass balustrades, you can make them feel a pleasant thrill of being unsupported, while at the same time, maximizing their views of the lower levels.

Originally and historically, balustrades were once only made of metal or wood. The advancements in technology and architecture has allowed the usage of glass as efficient and extremely durable balustrades perfect for commercial or domestic use.

Glass balustrades are created with vertical or horizontal sheets of glass. Now used commercially, you can see glass balustrades in malls and shopping centers, allowing light to flow freely and giving the venue a sense of sophistication. For a modern take on design, why not take these glass balustrades into your own home and line your staircases with balustrades made of glass? Frameless glass balustrades can be beautifully simple, but they can be intricate and ornate as well. Using frosted glass with intricate designs based solely on your own preference, you can add to your homes beauty and sophistication.

Today’s innovation in manufacturing has made it extremely easy for glass to be made as a balustrade, even for your own home. These types of balustrades can now be used for your landings or your staircases. Ready-made kits are even available for you to patch the glass balustrade by yourself, or if you find this process too difficult, you can hire a specialist to help you with constructing it.

When it comes to creating these balustrades, you need shoe moldings, rails, panel clips, and glass panels. Choosing your glass panels is very significant for you need to choose toughened glass or Plexiglas for safety. The shoe molding provides the ground support of the balustrade, securing it in place and making sure it doesn’t wobble or fall out. These moldings can be made of different kinds of metal, but for added foundation, aluminum is often used. To recreate the handrail, cap rails are used to line the edge of the glass. Cap rails prevent the sharp edges of the glass to prevent injury, and they come in various forms and designs as well.

Glass balustrades are very easy to maintain. Using a glass cleaner or solvent and a piece of rag, you can wipe unwanted hand prints and dust in a jiffy. If you’re living in a small house with a staircase, glass balustrades are a great way to create the illusion of space and make your house look vaster. They also allow light to travel and flow freely, giving your house a lighter, more vibrant appeal. Very affordable and easy to acquire, a glass balustrade can be a very good investment for improving your home’s design.

Flower Arrangements With Container Gardening

When a flower arrangement is completed by a florist, there is always the creative placement of taller blooms in your arrangement in one area while shorter blooms are placed elsewhere. This gives your bouquet that pleasing eye look and comfortable feeling. I concluded you could perform the same creative work with your container gardening flowers.

Why use just one size pot? Why not entertain the idea of ​​using variable size pots in your flower containers. This will give your guests or friends a tremendous visual impact. The use of props hanging around your garage or garden will increase the visual concept of your container. I took the following steps in my garden by placing a tall container on a stump with a smaller container by its side and with the use of an old hand water pump placed behind the two giving a depth to the arrangements. I also placed a container or pot in front of the stump mixed with other flowers already planted in this garden. This resulted in a real visual and beautiful arrangement.

The use of old upturned empty pots, stacks of tiles or bricks or even a low table or old chair with other pots grouped around it makes quite an impression. While traveling around my area or other parts of the country, I found the placement of pots of flowers on the front stairway to be a good arrangement.

The use of intensely colorful flowers on each edge of the stairway to the door was quite a site indeed. A ladder or ladders can also be used to form a multi level plant stand.

A strawberry pot with small holes evenly distributed over the pot can make a dramatic container gardening flower visual .. The best looking selection in this situation is the use of ornamental grasses to make your point. I would start with a fountain grass in the top and follow it up with other grasses such as Blaze Little Bluestem Grass and Sweet Alyssum in the other openings of the strawberry or pocket pot. You could even plant berries for contrast.

I would make an effort to find a cup shape pocket pot rather than those with slits. It is much easier to deal with the cup shaped pocket as far as soil placement and moisture content than the slits. Its best to start the soil fill from the bottom and work up to the first tier pocket holes and then add the plants. It is easy to work with and provides an interesting view over regular container gardening. Much more is there information on container gardening and garden : other information at my web site Http://

Dropped Object Prevention

There are certain industries where dropped object prevention is a given; industries like petrochemical, offshore work, and construction. But in reality, any work that requires tools to be used at height requires comprehensive dropped object prevention solutions. Without such solutions workers and the general public are significantly less safe. So much so that statistics indicate there are hundreds of injuries every year in the UK suffered from the consequences of dropped objects. In addition, a few dozen people die annually.

It's important to note that while dropping a screwdriver from a distance of a few feet is generally no big deal, dropping it from a height of two or three stories could be potentially dangerous. Without a hard hat, being struck by a screwdriver dropped from a height of two stories could be potentially fatal. Even with a hard hat, heavier tools can be the source of significant injuries when dropped from above. Therefore, it is vitally important for anyone working at height to properly secure tools and other objects so they will not fall.

The Barrier Principle

In the world of safety assessments, a principle known as the "barrier principle" is significant in steering how workers will prevent working at height accidents. This principle assumes that a chain reaction of events must exist in order for a tool or other object to be dropped. Barriers (Collective measures) are things put in the way to interrupt this chain of events so that the accident can not occur. The more barriers in place in a given process, the safer that process theoretically becomes.

When it comes to dropped object prevention, the barrier principle must be well balanced with the need for worker productivity. In other words, managers could put so many barriers in place that workers could barely get anything done in the course of the workday. While that makes a company's safety record impeccable, it can very easily destroy production which, in turn, could ruin your business. On the other hand, relaxing all safety regulations in order to produce maximum output may do just that, but it then makes your site inherently unsafe.

The idea is to develop enough barriers to reasonably interrupt the normal course of events that would lead to an accident without diminishing productivity significantly. That makes dropped object prevention somewhat of an art form rather than just a technical analysis. Those who do it best are those most likely to succeed in their line of work.

Tool Tethering

Tool tethering is one of the more popular barriers when it comes to using hand tools at height. Not only is it effective, but it's also one of the few barriers that directly addresses dropped object prevention. Other safety measures, including enclosed workspaces and nets, do prevent a dropped tool from reaching the ground, but they do not prevent the tool from being dropped. The tethering system provides the closest thing to total dropped object prevention because the object in question is always connected to the individual worker or his equipment.

Tool tethering involves attaching a lanyard to both the tool and some other piece of stationary equipment. Often times the tether is attached to a worker's safety harness, his tool belt or his person. In other instances a tool is tethered to a static tool bag or box that is affixed to the scaffolding or cherry picker. And of course, some tools are tethered directly to the scaffold or the cherry picker. How a specific tool is tethered determines not only its safety, but also the comfort level of the individual using it. That makes tethering choices extremely important.

Tethering Appropriate to the Task

There are several different kinds of tool tethering systems including wire tethers, synthetic or Velcro straps, retractable tethers, and so on. Knowing what choice to make depends on the type of work being done, the tools being used, and the way those tools will be used by workers. The best tethering systems will prevent tools from falling to the ground while at the same time not be cumbersome to the worker using them. If workers are encumbered by tethers they are more likely to be less productive and willing to cut corners when possible.

It's interesting to note that the same tool might have multiple tethering options depending on how and when it is used. For example, a screwdriver that will be used fairly closely to its tethering point can be affixed with a lanyard of fairy short length. But if that screwdriver will be stretched out to quite a distance, a lanyard may not be appropriate because it could be extremely long to compensate for the distance. In that case a retractable lanyard might be the better choice. By using a retractable lanyard to worker does not have all that extra material hanging from his tool belt; material that could get caught on something else and cause an accident.

Worker Training

Just as important to dropped object prevention as proper tethering systems is the training of individual employees. Unless a worker has observed or been involved in a dropped object accident, he often does not think in terms of that potential. Education goes a long way in making workers aware of potential safety risks and causes them to think in that direction. All workers and supervisors should be trained in the potential damage falling objects can cause, the proper way to use company safety systems, and how to be both safe and productive at the same time.

With proper training and hands-on experience workers quickly become comfortable with safety and tool tethering systems. The best workers will even learn to adapt to any restrictions tool safety systems put on them so that their output is not changed. On the other hand, employees who are not motivated will always struggle with dropped object prevention and efficiency. Those are the types of workers that managers and job site supervisors need to keep a special eye on.

Ongoing Inspections

Unfortunately, with repetitive work comes the tendency to cut corners and be unsafe. Supervisors must therefore continually inspect working areas to ensure worker compliance with safety regulations. Not that supervisors have to be mean and abusive to employees, but they do have to correct any violations they see. Workers who know that supervisors will pay attention are more likely to simply obey the regulations without question.

Safety inspections are especially critical when bringing new workers onto a job. It's assumed that if the employee is new, human resources will have done its job in properly vetting said individual. But supervisors still must assume new workers have little to no experience with the tool safety systems they are using. They must regularly check on new employees until they are comfortable such workers can properly follow safety procedures without someone looking over their shoulders.

Save Money With DIY Laminate Flooring

Laminate flooring has come a long way in the last five years. There are more varieties, colors and grades than you can imagine. Not only is it more reasonable than hardwood, but it’s so easy to install that the average do-it-yourselfer can take it on. The result is a high quality floor that looks almost like wood, and if installed correctly, supports a hefty warranty period. Some brands warranty their laminates for over 25 years.

Here are the steps for installing the Torlys Quick-Step flooring and some of the details you need to be aware of that apply to most laminate flooring.

Place the boxes of flooring in your home and allow 24 to 48 hours to climatize before installation. If installing in a new home, you may want to run a dehumidifier for one week prior to installation. The humidity should be approximately 40 to 60 percent.

Thoroughly clean and level the sub floor using self-leveling concrete for anything more than 1/12″ per 39 1/2″.

The flooring basically floats, but it requires a 3/8″ expansion gap around the outside of the room or any fixed objects. If your baseboard will not cover the gap you can either add quarter round trim or undercut the drywall and slide the laminate under the wall.

When laying over concrete floor, it’s important to determine whether you have a moisture problem. Tape pieces of clear polyethylene plastic in several places on the floor, leave for 24 hours and check whether condensation has formed. Any extensive water build-up or leakage need to be fixed before laying the floor.

Before placing the laminate, start with a 2-mm layer of underlay of antimicrobial foam with attached self-sealing moisture barrier which provides sound absorption and warmth. The underlay is placed in the same direction as the planks. Generally, these are run parallel to the flow of natural light or to the longest wall.

Overlap the underlay about 4″ up the wall to create a vapor barrier. In doorways or cut ends, seal with damp-proof or tuck tape. When attaching one row to another, pull back the foam, removing tape on adhesive strip and replace foam to form a continuous vapor barrier.

Lay down a test row of laminate planks, ensuring the last plank will not be less than 8″. For the first row, begin in the corner and move left to right keeping the groove in front of you. This small step will make the rest of your job easier.

When you’re ready to begin, open several boxes and choose packs randomly from different packs, inspecting each before laying.

Saw off the tongue off the long side of the first row of planks (and the short side of the corner board), so they will fit nicely against the outer edge and create the 3/8″ expansion gap. Don’t cut your last plank until all the pieces in the first row are clicked in place.

Uses the wedges provided by the manufacturer to create your expansion gap for the outer perimeter. When starting the second row, it should be smaller than the first piece you used in the previous row, but no less than 8″. This will stagger the joints as you go along. Click the board into place by angling it slightly, insert tongue into groove, and rock it into place. Click in a scrap at the joints to keep both planks level, and using the tapping block, lightly tap into place.

When installing the last plank in the row, use the board puller to securely attach the plank.

Apply molding to finish off the edges in the doorway, still allowing for an expansion gap. Use T-molding to transition between two types of flooring and snap into place.


laminate flooring

foam underlay

tuck tape

utility knife

table saw

wedges (provided by manufacturer)

tapping block (provided by manufacturer)

board puller (provided by manufacturer)

All About Flooring – Wooden Floors (Part 1)

Let's discuss an important element of any dwelling – the floor, you know, that horizontal surface that everything rests on. Floor defines the actual living space fenced by the walls.

The more civilized a nation, the more materials it uses for flooring. In the rural villages of Central Asia, where people work in their fields and gardens, their houses have no flooring – the floor is made of dense clay. The wealthy cover their floors with carpets made of camel wool, and the poor with thin and cheap rugs. The woodless Central Asia had no suitable material for poor people's flooring and only the wealthier people could afford ceramic flooring made of burnt clay.

In Europe wood used to be the most common flooring material. And if we track the evolution of wood as a flooring material, it becomes very obvious that the width of this coating changed according to people's capability to work with it. As long as everything was done using just one axe, the width of timber boards was 100 – 120 mm. When the chain-saw was invented, the width dropped to 40-50mm. Milling machines made it possible to use 16 to 30 mm wide boards.

I am not familiar with better material for flooring than timber – it is the most humane, warm, clean, practical, aesthetic, durable and easy to maintain. Of course I refer to the real wood, either parquet (made of harder wood) or timber boards (made of softer wood).

The most durable wooden flooring is parquet. Although it's small width (16 mm) it can last a century, given proper care and 3 or 4 renovation cycles. Up to 7 mm of its width can come off during the polishing and then after being lacquered it is as good as new.

Naturally, parquet laying requires compliance with the technology and rigor. I would advise against laying parquet in such spaces where it can get wet – kitchen, toilets, and bathrooms. However in the corridors, bedrooms, living and dining rooms it looks perfect, neat and solid.

Parquet floor can be made to anyone's taste, looking either simple and modest or amazingly beautiful with fancy patters and ornaments on the floor. I have seen various kinds of Vietnamese parquet. Its color was ranging from lemon yellow to flamingo pink -that country is rich in exotic woods. Without a doubt, a talented designer can turn these colors into a "lace" on the floor.

The durability of parquet depends on the base it is laid on. Wooden base that will not dry out and crack (such as multilayer plywood) is a very good one for parquet.

Speaking of real parquet, we must mention all of its look-alikes, cheaper and less durable floorings. The most popular one is laminate – flooring made of thin layers of wood bound together by simultaneously applied heat and pressure. Laminate floors have a high-resolution photo of wood on the top layer and covered with high quality lacquer. Laminate boards are fitted together and look very similar to parquet. As a rule, it consists of narrow boards of different width, up to 1.2 meters long, 8-9 mm thick.

Having described parquet, let's move on to different timber flooring – polished floor boards. Its look depends on the way the boards were dried and milled, and if that was done properly then the lively texture of timber will be preserved and the boards can be just lacquered. If the boards are crooked, not even, then they need to be filled and painted. The boards should be 32 – 40mm thick and the distance between the bearer beams is 70 – 90 cm. It's easy enough to repair polished boards floor. In time the bearer beams can become loose and to fix that the boards are removed, the beams are strengthened, the same boards are densely laid (with addition of 1 or 2 boards per room). After such fix, the floors will be good for another 15 – 20 years.

Fail to Plan, Plan To Fail: The Importance of Goal Setting

Goal setting is a powerful tool, whether applied to one's professional life, personal aspirations or health objectives. In fact, goal setting can make the critical difference between success and failure.

One obvious goal of many may be to simply stick to your diet and / or exericse program in the context of a busy, overscheduled daily routine, but effective goal setting goes far beyond this fairly elementary ambition.

While life may seem out of control at times and that you're a passenger in life rather than the driver, remind yourselg that YOU hold the greatest power of all – that is the ability to design your own life. You can wake up every morning and decide to exercise, lift your own spirit through positive affirmations, and eat a nutritious breakfast, or you can choose other options that may be detrimental to your emotional and / or physical health. Ultimately, the decision is yours and yours alone.

Here are a few tips to make lifetime commitments through goal setting:

1. Do not compare yourself with anyone except your self. This is not about winning or losing. This is about making your life better – whatever that means for YOU.

2. Focus on the present – How will you feel after your exercise session today? Will your ability to resist that danish fill you with a sense of accomplishment?

3. Imagine the results – literally. How you picture yourself is often a self fulfilling proficy. Day dream in detail about how you would like to look. Athletes picture themselves performing their event over and over again in ther minds until they finally perfect it. If you see your self as soft, sloppy, weak, tired, or stressed, this may very well become yoru reality for just thinking it. Picture yourself standing tall taking deep breaths, confidently striding forward as you approach life head on.

4. Take small steps – they DO count! It's impossible to stop smoking, start drinking 64 oz of water, and exerising 5 days a week. Start slowly, one attainable goal at a time. Begin with taking a short walk and slowly work your way up.

5. Be patient – it make take weeks before you start noticing you have more energy, your clothes are fitting more loosely and you are not getting short of breath walking up a flight of steps. When you do recognize these signs of achievement, revel in the glory.

6. Put holes in your excuses. When you find your self coming up with an excuse not to exercise, go back to the reasons why you want to exericse in the first place. Put a stop to the negative self talk and obstacle formation. Grab that mental sledge hammer and break through!

7. Journal – If you do just one thing related to goal seetting, begin journaling. Tracking your progress can help you stay focused. Write down not only your goals, but what exercises you did, how you are feeling and what small changes you are noticing in your everyday life like, not being short of breath or lifting something with ease, or having less pain. Writing your goals in front of your journal would help you to review them daily.

What Is Your Best Local Roof Material?

Choosing a roof material for your home can be a complex job. Although most people tend to stick to the same type of material as their old roof, many benefits could be missed by using this strategy. With so many new roof materials available in an array of colors and styles, why choose the same one as before?

In many cases, people are afraid to try new things when it comes to the products used around the home. With the costs of repairs, trying something new seems like risky business. In fact, it could be that the opposite is true. New recycled roof materials, green roofs and solar panels have many cost cutting and energy saving benefits. In general, choosing a roof material should be based on the climate you live in, but you should also look for upgraded materials that could save you money down the line.

Wet Climates

Many coastal regions face unique challenges. In addition to the added moisture in the air, there may also be risks of hurricanes or floods. The problem homeowners face in coastal or wet climates is that increased moisture can easily damage some roof materials, leading to further problems with the roof. Mold, mildew, wood rot and water leaks are all very common problems among roofs in wet climates.

So which roof material is best? Traditional asphalt shingles are an inexpensive option for high moisture areas as they are durable and resistant to mold and mildew. However, they can be easily broken by high winds, leaving the base materials susceptible to water damage. Metal roofing is a good choice for wet climates as they contain natural waterproofing abilities and are rust-resistant. A metal roof can also stand up to high winds better than an asphalt roof.

Hot Climates

Hot climates also tend to dry climates, which can be a problematic combination. High temperature also tends to mean increased exposure to the sun’s damaging rays. The heat and the UV rays together can cause bending and cracking among some roof materials.

Although asphalt shingles are found in hot and dry climates, they are not always the best choice. Typically chosen for their lower cost, these shingles can have a reduced life span in some areas where the heat and sun can last the majority of the year. One of the best roof materials for a hot or dry climate is clay or slate tile. These products are made from earth derived elements, which means they are inherently resistant to heat and dry weather. Clay and slate tiles are highly resistant to the heat and can even reflect the sun’s UV rays, resulting in less heat absorption into the home.

Cold Climates

Homes in cold climates are generally free from extreme weather conditions other than snow. Although snow itself isn’t that damaging to a roof, there are some roof materials that cause more buildup during heavy snow storms. For example, metal roofing tends to contain grooves, which can store excess snow and promote buildup.

The best roof material for cold climates is asphalt shingles as they are made from rubber and can tolerate snow buildup. Asphalt shingles are flat and will not interfere with natural snow removal by way of gravity. However, it is important that homes in cold climates choose a dark colored shingle to increase the absorption of the sun’s rays to ensure better heating of the home.

Composite Materials

Composite materials "benefit" a structure. Composite theory, properties of materials, various and varied processing techniques have been discovered through research to bring strength with low weight to composite bonded structures.

Basically, a composite material is one which is composed of at least two elements which, when put together, produce material properties that are different to the properties of those elements on their own. In practice, most composites consist of the matrix, and a reinforcement of some kind, added primarily to increase the strength and stiffness of the matrix. Reinforcement is usually in fibre form. There are 3 basic types of man-made composites:

Polymer Matrix Composites PMCs … Also known as Fibre Reinforced Polymers FRP (or Plastics), these materials use a polymer-based resin as the matrix, and a variety of fibres such as glass, carbon and aramid as the reinforcement.

Metal Matrix Composites MMCs … mostly used in the automotive industry, these materials have a metal such as aluminium as the matrix, and reinforce it with fibres such as silicon carbide.

Ceramic Matrix Composites CMCs … Used in very high temperature environments, these materials use a ceramic as the matrix and reinforce it with short fibres such as those made from silicon carbide and boron nitride.

Composite Resin Systems

Any resin system for use in a composite material will need good mechanical properties, adhesive properties, toughness and resistance to environmental degradation. The resin must be able to deform to at least the same extent as the fibre. High adhesion between resin and reinforcement fibres is necessary for any resin system. This will ensure that the loads are transferred efficiently and will prevent cracking or debonding when stressed.

Toughness is a measure of a material's resistance to cracking. Generally the more deformation the resin will accept before failure, the tougher and more crack-resistant the resulting composite materials will be. Good resistance to the environment, water and other aggressive substances, together with an ability to withstand constant stress cycling, are properties essential to composite resin systems.

Plasma Spray Coatings

Protective coatings and barrier layers include gelcoats, which are used as coatings in the mould. They involve colour technology, air release, thick film build-up and rapid cure times to produce finished surfaces with excellent gloss, colour and surface integrity retention after years of environmental exposure. Gelcoats provide both excellent protection for structural laminates as well as the levels of gloss and colour retention. Thermal sprayed aluminium coatings provide wear and corrosion resistant coatings.

Composite Reinforcements

The role of the reinforcement in a composite material is fundamentally one of increasing the mechanical properties of the neat resin system. All of the different fibres used in composites have different properties and so affect the properties of the composite in different ways. Individual fibres or fibre bundles can only be used on their own in a few processes such as filament winding. For most applications, the fibres need to be arranged into some form of sheet, known as a fabric, to make handling possible. Different ways for assembling fibres into sheets and the variety of fibre orientations possible lead to there being many different types of fabrics, each of which has its own characteristics.

Core Materials

Engineering theory shows that the flexural stiffness of composite panels is proportional to the cube of its thickness. The purpose of a core in composite laminates is therefore to increase the laminate's stiffness by thickening it with a low-density core material. This can provide a dramatic increase in stiffness for very little additional weight. In addition, particularly when using lightweight, thin laminate skins, the core must be capable of taking a compressive loading without premature failure. This helps to prevent the thin skins from failing when buckling.

Composites design.

In summary, there are many different composite materials, all with their own strength, stiffness, toughness, heat resistance, cost, production rate etc. Composite design includes composite materials selection for bonded structures.

Composites Repair.

Damaged lightweight composite structures are repairable, but sometimes unpredictable due to variable adhesion during manufacture. They can be damaged unwittingly and no two composites are identical.

Car Paint Chip Repair

Normal wear and tear and ordinary driving conditions can cause chips in your car’s paint. One area that is particularly prone to paint chips is the hood of the car, although your paint can become chipped in any area from debris on the road or even accidents with shopping carts at the local grocery. Chips on your car’s paint job can really deflect from the total look of your vehicle and even reduce its resale value if you decide to put it up for sale or trade it in on a newer model. Car paint chip repair can be expensive when hired out, and very tedious when done as a DIY project, especially if you are not accustomed to doing work like this. Repairing the chip in your car’s paint job should be done as soon as possible to avoid rust damage or prevent further rusting.

Chip or Scratch?

Before repairing your car paint chip, make sure it is a chip and not just a scratch. The difference between the two is the width. A mere scratch can be repaired using a paint pen and then polishing the scratch out. If the chip is an actual chip, you will need to repair it and fill it in yourself as it is not worth the expense to have a professional refinish the area for one small chip. There are some disadvantages to repairing a chip or scratch yourself, and among them is the fact that most people don’t have the time or the skills to accomplish the task. And if not done right, car paint chip repair is a temporary fix at best, and can sometimes worsen the problem.

Avoiding Car Paint Chips

A car bra can be a great way to avoid chips to the paint on your car’s hood, although many people are hesitant to install a car bra because of the eighties-retro look that a car bra can evoke. A better alternative is to use paint protection film for this area and for the entire paint job, optimally installed by a professional installer using a high grade paint protection film product. Trying to install paint protection film is much like trying to install your own window tint; you often end up with a messy pile of sticky film and an empty wallet. A professionally installed paint protection film is completely safe for factory paint jobs. Besides installing a car bra or having paint protection film installed on your vehicle, you can also avoid or decrease the incidence of paint chips by increasing the distance between you and other drivers on the road, particularly when you are driving in a construction zone or any area where there may be debris on the road.