Discussing the Civil Engineer Resume

Introduction of the Job

Civil Engineers can work in a wide variety of subsidiary fields of engineering such as hydraulic, environmental, structural, sanitation and construction engineering. Working in these various sectors he or she could be responsible for designing a variety of structures such as sewage systems, harbor and water flow systems as well as highways, tunnels, bridges and other transportation related systems. Most choose to specialize in one sector of engineering in order to be successfully versed in all the aspects of that particular division.

Key Responsibilities

As mentioned, there is great variation in the roles and divisions of civil engineers and therefore key responsibilities of the position vary greatly as well. However, they are generally responsible for designing and planning systems to benefit the populace of their working area. Some civil engineers work solely in the planning and developing sector of engineering while others also oversee the construction of such designed plans.

Level of Education Required

In order to become a civil engineer one must be proficient in the fields of mathematics as well as physical sciences. Knowledge in logical thinking and the ability to communicate well with others are also necessary requirements. One must typically hold a bachelor degree from a four-year institution in civil engineering. Specialized knowledge in such fields as stress analysis and thermodynamics as well as other areas of social science may also be required. On-site field training is also required and graduates in civil engineering from accredited institutions must typically gain four to five years of work experience before they can find employment as a civil engineer. Some areas further require that civil engineers hold a state license in civil engineering that can be obtained by passing a licensing examination.

Career Path

Once the initial years of obtaining education and experience working in the field have been acquired, there are many ways a he or she can advance within the field. Most large companies employ civil engineers at many levels within the hierarchy of the enterprise. They may employ a junior, assistant and associate engineer in various departments creating many opportunities to advance within a single enterprise. Furthermore, civil engineers can work to become increasingly specialized within their specific field of engineering and the more specializations one has the more valuable they are to an employer. The average salary is around $75,000 per year, but can be as high as $115,000 per year.


When discussing the Civil Engineer Resume, it is a good career choice for those who enjoy both the logic of math and science, as well as the creativity of designing and finding new ways to organize environmental structures to better their community. They can be a very rewarding job as one can choose to specialize in the area that most interests them. While the career does have some amount of pressure when one must make crucial decisions and oversee operations, there is also a high degree of contentment and satisfaction associated with the job due to the fact that when all the hard work is done one can see the physical product of their design and how it is beneficial to those living in the area.

What Are the Success Rates for Retinal Detachment Surgery?

Retinal detachment is a condition that can develop in many people from all walks of life, and is a serious illness that can result in severe loss of vision when not treated rapidly. With that said, there are several excellent treatment methods available today which can effectively deal with the problem if action is taken rapidly.

These different methods all fall under the umbrella of retinal detachment surgery, and include vitrectomy, pneumatic retinopexy and scleral buckling. In addition to this, laser eye surgery or cryopexy can be performed to repair small tears in the retina.

All of these different treatment options are available depending on the type of retinal detachment that the individual is suffering from and what will be the most efficient method to stop progression of the condition and retain as high a level of vision as possible.

Several of these treatments – including cryopexy, pneumatic retinopexy and laser eye surgery – can be completed in the office of the eye specialist and there is no need for surgery. On the other hand, vitrectomy and scleral buckling treatment are both out patient procedures that take place under local anaesthetic.

All of these different treatments are more or less successful at halting the further development of the condition, repairing parts of the damaged retina and maintaining a good level of vision for the patient.

Pneumatic retinopexy – which works by inserting a gas bubble into the eye to push the retina back to the wall of the eye – is the least successful statistically than other two forms of local anaesthetic surgery mentioned above. In general, this boasts a rate of 75%, although this is by no means a low success rate.

In many cases where this fails to work as well as it s should, there is some blame that lies with the patient. This is because there are several requirements in regards to the positioning of the head after the treatment has taken place. These can be difficult to abide by, but they are absolutely essential in order for the patient to make a speedy recovery.

In other cases whether this type of treatment has been carried out, new tears can occur in the retina. In all the above cases, a follow up surgical procedure such as vitrectomy can be highly successful in reattaching the retina if the pneumatic retinopexy fails.

Vitrectomy itself has a very high success rate of over 90%. This works by removing the vitreous fluid that is inside the eye, at which point scar tissue can be removed and tears healed with laser eye surgery or cryopexy. The vitreous fluid is replaced with a gas bubble, which will be replaced naturally by the eye as it refills with fluid.

Although the success rate is very high, the outcome ultimately depends on how severe the condition was before it was treated.

Scleral buckle treatment works different by attaching a piece of silicone to the exterior of the eye, which then pushes the retinaand the eye wall together. Like vitrectomy, this has a 90% success rate, making it one of the better options, particularly for those whose condition cannot be treated by mere laser surgery or pneumatic retinopexy.

All in all, however, the outcome will take some time to gauge precisely. Many patients who have gone through the procedures outlined above have noted that their eyesight can deteriorate further several months after the surgery, at which time they will need a new vision correction prescription.

How good the patient’s eyesight is will mostly depend on how rapidly the condition has been detected and how quickly doctors were able to treat it. If the patient’s vision was relatively good before the condition developed, there are higher chances of vision still being good post-procedure.

Choosing Between Floor or Roof Insulation

Having insulation for your home is incredibly important, and a very important way to ensure that you minimize your carbon footprint and your energy bill at the end of each month. Insulation basically refers to any material used in a property to trap heat and to keep it in the building. If you have insulation in your floor for instance then this will prevent the hot air from escaping. At the same time this simultaneously prevents the cold air from getting in to your property. You also get insulation in wall cavities and other parts of properties.

Insulation in the roof or floor is particularly important however because it will prevent the warm air from escaping through the top of your home. This is an important precaution as anyone with a little bit of scientific knowledge should remember that heat rises to areas of lower pressure. If you don’t have insulation then your heat will simply fill the house, and then rise up and out of the home into the night…

Another reason that roof or floor insulation is so important is that it can help to prevent the cold form effecting your property through the floor. It can prevent breezes getting in for instance, but at the same time it can also combat still water standing on the roof. If you get a lot of rain in a short amount of time on a flat roof, then this can sometimes pool on top of the roof, and this will then steel the heat energy from your property in order to be able to evaporate away again. This is also a problem with condensation.

There are many different kinds of insulation for your properties which you can use in order to protect your energy bill and keep the heat inside your building. These include some forms of insulation that effect the floor (on the underside) and some that effect the roof.

For instance, if you have a sloped roof then you are likely to have a large loft space between your top floor and the roof. This then gives you plenty of space where you can place insulation bats – large blocks of fiber glass and other materials that can prevent the heat from escaping through them.

On the other hand it is also possible to get roof insulation on the top of the roof. This can come in the form of coated tiles, or metal or other material added to the roof in such a way as to keep the warm air in and deflect the cold.

Insulation bats here is your cheaper option and this is something you can often do yourself (unless you have a very small attic space and need a roofer). However, in some cases, you will need to use roof insulation instead – for instance if you have a flat roof with no real space for floor insulation, or if your property is prone to fire (because floor insulation is very flammable). If for instance you are using certain types of lighting in your floor, then this might get too hot to use insulation bats near.

Natural Teeth Whitening At Home Tips

Everyone wants beautiful white teeth. Having white teeth gives you more confidence; you are more assured knowing you have a flawless smile. However, multiple trips to the dentist for whiter teeth can be quite expensive especially when the stains can come back quickly. Eating, drinking, smoking and medicine contribute to the color of our teeth. The food residue that seeps into the teeth cracks makes cleaning it out even more difficult. The whitening toothpaste will only remove the minor discolorations, not stains that have accumulated over the years.

If you decide that visiting the dentist regularly to get your teeth whitened is too expansive, or you just do not want to put all sorts of chemicals on your teeth or you just do not have the patience to sit down and paint each tooth individually, then you should try some home remedies that might just do the trick for you.

Baking soda: this option works quickly and dentists have agreed that this is safe and easy to use. All you need to do is to mix a little with toothpaste (to avoid the salty taste) and brush your teeth, or you could just put some on a damp toothbrush and Voila! White teeth! Who knew baking soda could also be a teeth whitening solution!

Hydrogen peroxide: Sounds like something you would clean the toilet with, but it can white your teeth. The results can be seen in a few weeks, but you might get faster results too. All you need to do is too gargle with it and then rinse thoroughly. Your gums will feel like it is burning for a while, but you will have whiter teeth. Just make sure that your whitening treatment is followed by gargling water and lots of it. You could use a cotton swab, but you would have to wipe your teeth front and back. Gargling sounds easier.

Wood ash: This sounds weird, but it works because the potassium hydroxide bleaches your teeth. The tiny crystals will scrape off the yellow plague on your teeth and it will give you an instant home teeth whitening system. Just remember that excessive scrubbing and usage can wear down the enamel on your teeth, so you might want to slow with the rubbing. To use, simple crush the wood ash, apply it to your toothbrush and brush! You could also mix it with toothpaste if you want.

Strawberries: not only do they make a great smoothie, they also help to provide you with a teeth whitening treatment. These berries actually contain teeth whitening agents and the seeds work well for cleaning. You could either rub the strawberry directly on your teeth or, mash it and use it like toothpaste (edible toothpaste!)

Homemade toothpaste: all you need for this it the baking soda, hydrogen peroxide, salt and some toothpaste. Mix the ingredients together and you have your own home whitening treatment.

Just remember that is natural for teeth to look a bit yellow due to the calcium that is crucial for the enamel. Excessive whitening, scrubbing, usage lemon juice, vitamin C or acid can ruin your enamel. Once the enamel is ruined, teeth will be sensitive and the damage will be irreversible. Remember to use all teeth whitening in moderation.

White Washing Painting Techniques

White washing, whether you do it yourself or hire a professionally painting company, if applied correctly, can give a subtle, aged look to a room, piece of furniture or most substances that it is applied to. There are many methods and techniques, so you need to decide which one is right for you.

White washing can give your home a historic, aged feel. Using a white washing technique creates a soft, almost chalky finish. It can also create a subtle, calming refreshing look. You can achieve this technique on your own or choose to save time and end up with a professional-looking room by hiring a reputable painting company.

What is White Washing?

White washing gives a diluted look to the surface with which it is painted. You can use it on drywall, brick, wood and many other surfaces. This technique has been around for a long time, even back in the days of the pioneer. The effect is traditionally created by using lime and water, but it can also be done with plaster, thinned paint or a product specifically designed to create the effect. If you use a pre-made product, read the instructions carefully. Some of the pre-made white wash paints require you to add others and some are fine as is.

How Do You Achieve the White-washed Effect?

There are several do-it-yourself methods. You can water down an acrylic paint and apply that to the wall space, you can make a mixture of lime and salt, or you can buy a prepared paint that creates the white-washed effect. The key to achieving good results is to take your time and test a small area of the wall space. If you are using a lime mixture, wear gloves and be careful since it can harm tile grout. If it comes in contact with other items, it may cause damage. Use a drop cloth. You can use a wide brush and pick one with either soft or hard bristles depending on the look you are trying to achieve, or you can use a sponge in a small area. You don’t want it to end up looking “sponged,” and you don’t want to apply the whitewash too heavily, or it will look more like a painted wall and you will lose the effect.

White washing is a great technique to use in a historic home. Many times, historic homes must follow strict guidelines that ensure that they keep to their authentic design and feel. It is also a wonderful technique that helps add interest and give a room a natural feel. Because it is so time-consuming to apply and some of the mixtures have to be hand mixed, you may find that the job is best left to a professional painting company.

Ideas for Pub and Bar Logos

Running a bar or a pub can be a rewarding and profitable experience. However, your success will really depend on your ability to attract customers, particularly regulars. To win customers you need a solid marketing plan that includes ideas on brand development. A logo design should be an integral part of this plan.

We set out to take a closer look at pub and bar logos and how businesses in this industry typically go about incorporating a logo into their branding strategy. We also offer some tips on how to go about getting the best possible logo design for your bar.

Why is a Logo so Important?

A professional looking logo design can help you to make the positive first impression on people that you need to get them in the door. It can also help you to stay prominently placed in their minds so that they will often return.

Success for a bar or pub comes down to the quality of the experience that your customers have while they are with you. This depends on the quality of the food and beverages that you sell, your service level and the atmosphere that you create.

It is also important to create the right image as different people are attracted towards different kinds of bars. You need to first understand how preferences in your local market are divided by age, socio economic status or even musical tastes among other factors. Once you know what kind of customer you want to target you can then work on getting a logo design that will appeal directly to this group.

Multiple Uses

Probably the most important use of a bar logo design is on exterior signage. You can also have it displayed on your menus, coasters and possibly even on staff uniforms. Lastly, you can use it on a wide range of marketing materials from business cards through to printed advertisements. To suit all of these purposes you will need a logo that can be scaled up or down so that it is clear and effective no matter what size it is.

Common Bar Logo Images

Bar and pub logos are usually most effective when they combine an image or symbol with text in a way that both parts fit together well and compliment each other.

While there are really no rules here it is common for bars and pubs to try to convey a message through their logo about what kind of establishment they are. Make it obvious so that newcomers know what to expect.

It is easy if you have a strong theme like sports bars or Irish pubs do. There are numerous options when it comes to choosing an image for these kinds of logos. Other bars and pubs have used imagery that relates to their name, their location, the kind of music that they play or the kind of drinks that they specialize in.

Think about the kind of impression that you want to give people. Do you want to project the image of a rowdy pub that serves mostly beer or a sophisticated wine bar? Ideally your logo will be the perfect visual representation of what your establishment has to offer.

The best way to get some inspiration is to take a look and see what other bars around the world have done with their logos. Do a Google image search for ‘bar logos’ and you will find numerous examples that include images that people typically associate with alcohol and good times.

Color Choice

A good designer will limit the number of colors used on your logo to two or three. This usually makes for a design that is simple and uncluttered while also lowering printing costs.

Style of Font

The style of font that is used should compliment the overall design and enhance the image that the logo projects. The style of lettering or typeface that is used can lead people to make many assumptions about a business. Some pubs use classical looking cursive fonts to show that they are well established for example.

Working with a Designer

There are numerous logo companies online that can customize a design for your bar. Many have large portfolios on their websites so you can go through and look at other projects that they have done for bars, pubs taverns and restaurants. You can then refer your designer to some of the designs that you like and some of those that you really dislike so that they have a better idea of what you want.

When you order a custom logo design online you will have to fill out a briefing form so that the design team have an idea of what kind of bar or pub you are and the kind of customers that you are trying to attract. Give them as much information as possible about your business and how your bar or pub is different from all the others. Let them know how you want to shape public perceptions.

With a little bit of research and planning you could soon be on your way to getting a cool bar logo that will be working hard for you for many year. The right design will help to convince people that your bar of pub is the place that they want to hang out.

Simple Tips For Improving Your Golf Swing

The golf swing. Wherever you look these days you can see articles, magazines and programs that offer tips on improving your golf swing. So why are golfers not perfecting their swings? Could it be that because the process of rebuilding a golf swing is a difficult task for a pro with a swing coach let alone someone who hopes to achieve perfection using articles downloaded from the internet? Most recreational golfers do not have the time or the money to hire a swing coach to perfect their swings. So what can the average golfer do to get better?

If you're a recreational golfer you're probably just looking for simple pointers on improving your golf swing so that you get solid contact on a more regular basis. The following tips should provide you with more consistent contact every single time you are out, whether you are playing nine, eighteen or are just brushing up on the driving range.

Swing Tip # 1

Your arms have very little to do with a good golf swing! Think about it as putting your golf club behind your back while turning your back towards the target. It's like taking the golf club back and hinging your arm at the shoulder. Also, if you do not think about where your arms are going at the beginning and the end of your swing, you're less likely to bend your left elbow on the back swing. Try to take away any reason you have to bend your elbow.

Swing Tip # 2

Cock your wrists! If you take your club back straight like everyone tells you without cocking your wrists then you will never un-cock your wrists. Not cocking your wrists leads to a whole host of problems that more often than not leads to a shanked golf shot. Try a swing without cocking your wrists. You will see how this can only lead to a bad shot. Remember, as long as your wrists are cocked at 90 degrees at the top of your swing you should be alright.

Swing Tip # 3

Try to keep your feet on the ground. By letting the front foot heel come off the ground during the back swing you lose the torque that is generated by twisting your body. It takes a bit to get used to doing this and also requires flexibility but you will generate more power. Let your foot roll to the inside, but keep that foot on the ground use it to anchor your swing.

Swing Tip # 4

Trigger your down swing with your hips not your shoulders. As most of your power comes from your lower body so this is where the down swing should be initiated. This will allow you to generate more power and more consistent golf shots.

Swing Tip # 5

Turn your waist towards the target. After your follow-through your waist should be facing the target. Most people turn their hips to the target but quite often it's just an afterthought. Try turning your hips as fast and powerful as possible. This ensures that you will have a smooth & powerful finish and your drives should start going noticeably longer and straighter.
These are few tips that have worked for me but like anything, practice is the key. Spend some time on the range trying these tips. Chances are you'll get results.

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10 Ways to Identify a Player

Identifying a player is never an easy task, sometimes these people are so good at their game and so smooth that part of them really believes the things they say. They don’t necessarily ‘lie’ because if they get caught, it’s game over. But, they have to be more cunning than that. Acting genuine and honest gives them a greater chance of secure whomever their prey is and keeping them as long as they desire. Some people have no problems with players, all’s fair in the game of love. But there are others who are genuinely looking for someting more than these players can provide. The sooner you can spot a player, the sooner you can run in the other direction and keep yourself from wasting time and energy. Being with a player is a thrilling, exciting experience. Yet, it’s one of those experience that one only needs to experience once and they know what it’s about. So, for those still wet behind the ears in dating, here are 10 rules to spot a player:

1. Calls you affectionate names from the get go

At first, this may seem sweet and innocent, but this is a technique to lure you in from the get go. Players try to soften your defenses. When they do this, you’ll let them in and be more apt to go along with their agenda. Exchanging these verbal pet names gives an illusion of closeness, making you feel that you can trust that person more, and you grow an emotional bond to them. The stronger the emotional bond, the greater chance they have to get their wants met and the longer they can keep you around. To keep from being lured in, either cut it off from the start (you’ll hear that repeated frequently throughout this article) or pull back and keep your guard up. And by keeping your guard up, I mean to constantly evaluate what they’re saying and judge whether it’s truthful or not. Actions speak louder than words, so always always pay attention to their behavior when they utter such sweet nothings.

2. Tries to hit a home run asap

I think this one is obvious. Everybody knows that sometimes the name of the game in dating is just plain SEX. With players it is no different, players feed on having sex with as many partners as possible. It’s a sense of conquest and brings an exciting challenge their way every time they find new prey. A major difference from just any regular person’s desire for sex is that players are confident and aggressive. They know they have a high sex factor and will go for it right from the start. The sooner they can dominate and come out with their prize, the sooner they can move on to the next victim. Players will make an occasion to do the deed even if the mood hasn’t built up to that

3. Talks about different sexual fantasies trying to entice you to join in

Now this one may see exciting and stimulating for your sex life with the player. But, again, players feed on subjecting their chosen victims to making them feel special or different, and that they’re sharing special sexual escapades together. Getting their victim to go along with their sexual agenda feeds into their feeling of domination in the ‘relationship’. For some, it’s not even a physical pleasure, but a feeling of bringing home the prize, much the way an athlete brings home trophies or the fisherman brings back coolers full of fish. Ask any player their number and they’ve got it memorized, given they’re with their trusted friends who know about their lifestyle, they’ll have endless stories of their experiences. Sharing those stories is another way they build their ego and confidence in their game, as they get assurance from others or praise.

4. Phone never leaves their side

This goes without saying. Player and serial players alike have prospects all over the place, some being so broad as to capture anyone they’re remotely attracted to. Of course their phones are going off the hook, they spread their net wide and anyone who is caught is thrown in with the others. And, being as you can’t control when these prospects are going to call or text, keeping their phone close gives them the opportunity to hide the others from you. Hiding isn’t necessarily lying, and in the player’s eyes, they’re being honest with you. If you happen to be the person that’s with the player for the day, more likely than not, they’ll keep their phone on silent and out of your view, so they can give the illusion that they’re focused on you and there is no other person. As long as they feed into the prospect’s illusion of being the focus, again, they can keep them right where they need them.

5. Disappear for a day or so unannounced

This again goes back to reason #4. A true player has only 24 hours in the day as everyone else, so to fit in their maximum victims, they have to work fast and smart. One way of doing that is giving each one a ‘day’ of focus and attention. Maybe keep you laid up in bed wooing you and calling you ‘babe’. Whatever it takes, they’ll pull that trick out of their hat. Doing this makes them more valuable to their prey and less likely to be revealed and kicked to the curb which most people would do. They’ve studies thousands of the opposite sex and know certain behaviors, and they’ll adjust to it. Whatever you need them to be (to a certain extent), they’ll play that role to ensure they again dominate and get their needs met. This disappearing is also a test in their book to see how long they can keep you around, if they know you’ll let them get away with it and they still have a need for you. They’ll keep you and these ‘disappearing’ days may come in more frequency.

6. Very charming and are great with compliments

If they weren’t charming, they’d get nowhere. Flattery gets you everywhere with people. Feed a person’s ego and build them up, and they’ll be putty in your hands. The better the prey feel around the player, the more they’ll stick to them. This goes without saying, who doesn’t want someone to make them feel like a million bucks. Giving this false sense of secuirty, gives the player a greater chance to receive back what they want from their prospect. And some of the players may be very sincere in their compliments, the thing that sets them apart is they know how to use it to get their hidden agenda met. So, take each compliment with a grain of salt, after all, who knows how many other people they say the same thing too. There are only a few ways to say ‘you’re sexy’ to someone. This skill is easy to get good at, especially for a player who studies the opposite sex’s behavior.

7. Don’t really take the time to get to know you as a person

This is obvious, and this goes for players and regular daters as well. If they want one thing and want one thing alone, the finish line is all they’re focused on. Never mind all the fluff on the side of who you are. Allowing themselves the chance to know more about you brings about the possibility that they may find you interesting or start to care about you. Keeping you at arm’s length (or even longer) is what gives them their control, if their victim is one to keep longer than others, the better it is to ‘teach’ their prey that there is a line that they should not cross to share or to ask about their life. They may be silent when you discuss their life or just nod their head and move on to the next subject–something THEY want to talk about (again, this feeds their need for dominance). You are a challenge to them, and the more they ignore who you are as a being, the less guilty they’ll feel when they make their exit.

8. Doesn’t really share much of their personal life and interests

This defense mechanism is a very powerful one. It sends the message to you that what they share is under hidden lock and key, giving them 1) the feeling that their business is much too much important to just open up to you and 2) they don’t want to give you a reason to stick around longer than needed. Most players don’t get that way because they like to break hearts, the thrill of the chase and catch is much more important to them. If they can avoid a big scene and confrontation, the cleaner break lets them escape to other prospects. If they are serial players and they’re going down the list like dominoes, the last thing they want is a psycho or badgering person. After all, they can’t just change their phone number all the time, that would give them a loss of potential ‘callbacks’ should the occasion arise that they need them.

9. Likes to dominate the relationship

This again goes back to the player’s need to feed their ego. The more in control they are of the ‘relationship’, the more they can push and pull on it as they need. They may want you one day, don’t want you another day, just depending on how they’re feeling they should play their game. Doing this lets them direct the relationship to fulfill their hidden agenda. They may cut it off to keep you guessing and feeling confused. Then turn around again and come back casually. As long as they can get away with this behavior they’ll do it. But once you put your foot down and they know you’re not tolerating their player lifestyle, they will be done with you and move on to the next person (or even the other person they’ve had around).

10. Doesn’t introduce you or want to introduce you to anyone significant in their life..

This is similar to not sharing their life with you. They don’t want you to get attached to the family or vice versa. If you become a cool girl/guy in the eyes of the important people in your life, the more likely you will stick around the player’s life beyond their need time for you. Having less attachments means less baggage to keep the player for taking flight whenever the need arises. The player doesn’t want to see the propsect in any other light than one that serves his purpose. Attachments yield possible conflict when they start to see the victim as more valuable with feelings.

Going up against a player is a tough game, especially if they’re good at what they do and have been doing it awhile. But if you’re prepared and are keeping your eyes open to spot their ‘player’ behavior and not be fooled that it’s unique behavior toward just you, then get in the ring! Players aren’t unstoppable and nothing is worse to them than to have a prospect cut out on them. Do what you gotta do with them, for whatever purpose it is that you feel you need them for, whether it’s physical, emotional, companionship, honing your player skills, etc. But when it’s time to cut out, be the first to jump off and your player mate will crush down to their knees. Players feed on their ego and that is an ego bust to the nth degree. Have fun and play on!

Boiler Explosions

A boiler, also known as a steam generator, is a closed compartment in which water, or sometimes another fluid, is heated. The heat is used to produce steam, which in turn is used to power an engine or for heating applications. Historically, boilers have been known to cause devastating explosions, and although modern boilers are designed and assembled with caution regarding worker safety, sadly, catastrophic explosions may still occur if a boiler fails.

Boiler Failure

Older-model boilers often have a lack of structural integrity that can cause explosions. If a boiler is made of a brittle, thin metal shell, it can rupture. If seams are poorly riveted or welded, they may come apart. If a tube collapses or becomes dislodged, dangerous steam and smoke can spray out and injure anyone in the near vicinity. Or, if the water drains from a boiler and new water is added, the new water may evaporate on contact with the hot shell and cause and explosion. Failures in large boilers that offer a large amount of energy to operate factories can destroy entire buildings.

General reasons for boiler failure include:

  • An excess of pressure within the boiler
  • A lack of water inside the boiler, causing the vessel to overheat
  • Defective construction or lack of maintenance, causing pressure vessel failure

Why Boilers are Dangerous

Many people underestimate the dangers of boilers, thinking that water and steam can only do so much damage. However, the boiling water inside of a boiler has enough energy to power entire engines, machines, and even large factories. A failed boiler can cause devastating injuries, loss of life, and loss of property.

Some basic boilers contain pressurized water held at a temperature of about 300 degrees Fahrenheit. If somehow the boiler looses pressure suddenly, all of the water would instantly evaporate into steam. Water in its gaseous state takes up around 1,600 times as much space as water in liquid form. If a leak occurs in a boiler, this evaporation and expansion of water into steam can take place less than one second, producing a giant explosion.

Modern boilers contain many safety features to reduce the risk of explosions, including:

  • Safety valves, which can be adjusted to release steam before a buildup of pressure
  • Fusible plugs, which may overheat, melt, and produce a whistling noise to warn workers when a problem occurs
  • Ties, also known as stays, which attach the boiler casing to its exterior compartment and prevent warping.

Confusion Behind The Plate

The family had just gotten home from the son’s little league game. During dinner, the mom wondered aloud why all the left-handed kids in the league were pitchers, even the ones who weren’t so good at it. Since the dad had once been a not so good left-handed pitcher himself, he felt a special affinity for the subject.

“First of all,” he said, slicing his steak, “Most kids are right-handed, so left-handedness is inherently confusing.”

“For you or someone else?”

“In fencing, they say it’s a killer advantage.”

“So baseball is like fencing?”

“Not really,” he admitted, putting down the knife. “But batting from the opposite side does favor the batter. Not only does the batter get a better look at the ball, but it doesn’t leave the pitcher’s hand on a line with the batter’s head, which can be very influential if the batter is you.”

“But wouldn’t you want right-handed pitchers if most people bat right-handed?”

“Absolutely,” he said. “And that’s why there’s a premium on left-handed batters, to get the opposite-side batting advantage against those right-handed pitchers. A left-handed batter is also a couple of steps closer to first base.”

“What’s that got to do with left-handed pitching?”

“Well,” he said between bites, “If you need left-handed batters, then you need left-handed pitchers to throw to those guys, which is why if you’re left-handed you will pitch at some point in your career, even though you won’t have the same-sided pitcher’s advantage until the less talented get winnowed out at higher levels of the sport, where the conventional wisdom expects more winnowing of righties than lefties.”

“How do you know that happens?”

“I don’t. It’s conventional wisdom. It doesn’t have to be correct, just conventional.”

“Go on,” she invited.

“There’s even some left-brain, right-brain research suggesting lefties have a natural reaction-time advantage. All of which,” he proclaimed, “supports the conventional wisdom that it’s easier for lefties than righties to get ahead in baseball.”

“Then what’s your excuse?”

“Premature winnowing?”

“I heard you can take something for that.”

“Nah,” he said. “I’m like the guy in Landmark Status, whose basketball career was cut short by his height.”

“Except less funny,” she said, bringing dessert. “Why don’t you check the percentage of left-handers in the big leagues against the population at large? Then you’ll know if your conventional wisdom is just a myth.”

“Hmmm,” he said, sounding thoughtful, but enjoying his work-free weekend, and his myth. “I guess there’s another reason for making lefties pitchers,” he offered. “They can only play first base or outfield otherwise.”

“Okay,” she said. “I’ll bite. Why’s that?”

“Because they can’t play on the left side of the infield.”

“Where’s that?” she asked, sipping her coffee.

“Third base, shortstop and second base.”

“Why not?”

“Because they have to either spin or step back to make the throw to first base, while a right-hander is already pointed that way when he fields the ball.”

“What about catcher?” she asked. “Catcher isn’t on the left side of the infield. It’s in the middle, right behind the plate.”

“Hmmm,” he said, mulling it over. “Well, you do want to have your throwing arm on the opposite side from the batter.”

“I know,” she said, clearing the dishes. “And most batters are righties, except where they’re not.”

“Exactly,” he said, triumphantly pushing back from the table and pitching in.

“But once you’ve got all those left-handed batters,” she asked, “Wouldn’t you also want left-handed catchers?”

“Hmmm,” he said, buying time. “The right-hander’s still in a better position to make the throw to, um, maybe first, not sure about second, but third for sure, I think.” He checked his watch. “Hey, the game’s started!” he exclaimed, and turned on the television.

Get Your Goat!

So many people wish desperately to get back to the land…to get ‘off-grid’, to own animals that produce sustenance and to grow a garden for food. We dream of fresh vegetables, real milk and cheese and no electric bill! Visions of perfect rows of plants growing tomatoes and a peacefully grazing Jersey cow crowd our thoughts as we sit in rush-hour traffic.

The reality of that world is not clearly seen until you are in the middle of it. Vegetables do not always grow perfect fruit in a straight row. Off-grid power is certainly a developing area, but requires understanding and finances to acquire it. Cows can be very messy and are bigger than you may realize. They also do not always stay where you put them!

However the determination to try this lifestyle can win out and you find yourself with a hobby farmstead. One of the animals showing up more and more in hobby farms are GOATS! These adorable and endearing creatures can be fun to raise, they can also be a real headache if not prepared for. Getting a call at work by a distraught neighbor whose flower garden is now nothing but a patch of stems is not your goal.

To get your goat and enjoy her ownership requires some planning and knowledge. Fences – proper ones – are a must. You should have your fences at least 4′ tall and of sturdy woven wire. Ridged panels can also be used. Fencing is one area you do NOT want to go cheap or ‘good enough’ since goat will test their boundaries. They will rub on the fence and climb on it. They just do!

Goats hate to get wet so be sure to include a shelter of some sort. It can be as simple as a three-sided shed with a roof for her to get into out of the weather or as elaborate as you want to have it. It should be warm enough for the winter months as well. Adding hay or straw on the floor will keep her out of the mud and on a warm, dry bed. It will need cleaned out every so often…use that old bedding on your garden! Your plants will love it.

Goats do not eat anything and everything. They need a proper diet of browse and fresh water. Browse includes things like brush, bushes, trees and such. They will walk, take a bite, walk, take another bite. They browse much like deer. They like fresh, clean browse and will chose that over grass. If you have them on a small lot without much browse you will need to provide them fresh hay in a feeder. If they pull hay out onto the ground, and they will, and they step on it they will not eat it! It is the same with their grain. If they are fed on the ground and it gets ‘dirty’ they will not eat it. They must also have fresh water every day.

Goats can survive in a small paddock but they will not thrive like they would if let out on pasture. Even an acre or two of browse or even grasses is preferable to a small lot. Do not ever tie your goat out! They can choke on their leash or be harassed and even killed by neighborhood dogs. When you tie her for milking, feeding or grooming be sure to stay with her and keep an eye on her.

Milking is easy enough to do by hand and is actually quite an enjoyable time for you to get to know your goat better. While milking you can inspect her for injuries, bumps and scrapes. You will want a milking stand and a dish for her to eat from while you milk. Use a stainless steel bucket to collect the milk in and be sure to keep everything clean before, during and after milking. Always clean and sterilize your bucket after use.

To get her milking you will need to have her bred. The farm you buy her from will be able to help you find a buck to breed her to. Then you get to enjoy one of the most amazing things ever…the birth of new life into the world! Those kids can be awfully cute! Before you know it you will have several goats in that area you fenced so be sure you think of that during it’s construction.. The kids that she produces can be sold for profit..either as bottle babies or after they’re weaned.

Getting your goat and bringing her home is a fun adventure. Be prepared and it will be enjoyable as well.

Encounter the Best of Morocco With Hotel Amanjena

The first time I stayed in Hotel Amanjena on one of my travels in Morocco, it made me think of coming back and staying there the next time I come for a visit. I think this hotel is one of the most exquisite hotels in terms of architecture that I know. It is the first Aman resort in the African continent and it certainly lives up to its name that means “peaceful paradise”.

It’s pretty obvious that Amanjena made sure that careful selection of materials and interior are upheld to the highest of standards. These combined with the architecture, create a resplendent yet quiet atmosphere that provides the perfect surrounding to loosen up and enjoy being treated like a king.

Hotel Amanjena is a luxury hotel and is just twenty minutes from the airport and ten minutes from the city centre. The great Atlas Mountains stand in the background and a championship golf course is in the hotel’s foreground. They have 34 rose toned pavilions to offer aside from 6 two-story maisons, two-story townhouses with fireplaces, guest bedrooms, butler service, and your own private pool.

Amanjena has provided a health centre for their guests that include hammams, spa and gym plus two tennis courts, mountain bikes and their very own boutique if you want to go shopping conveniently. They also have a library and a heated pool. The food served in their Thai and Moroccan restaurants is so wonderful that I ate at the hotel everyday!

The rooms in Amanjena are attached but self-contained houses or apartments that are basically “Casitas” that has a walled enclosure and a pavilion outside. It comes furnished with your own built-in lounging furniture. It is large and clean with large baths with windows that open to small outside gardens. Another thing that I liked about my stay in Amanjena was there were always snacks in our room. There were fruits, dates, almonds and peanuts that never seem to run out. The service is certainly the best!

Your visit to the Red City wouldn’t be complete without a close look at the sights around it. I would recommend taking the guided tour that Hotel Amanjena offers. They can arrange an extensive range of private tours with English-speaking guides to take you to the souks and to see the sights of Marrakech and the Atlas Mountains nearby.

The Majorelle Gardens is a botanical garden that I would consider a masterpiece! It used to be owned by Jacques Majorelle, a Frenchman and a plant collector. The place was bought in 1980 by Yves Saint-Laurent and Pierre Bergé who restored the place and is undoubtedly one of the city’s most incredible sights to this day and Amanjena could take you there.

You should also check out Djemaa el-Fna Square where berber merchants, travelers, peddlers and entertainers such as snake charmers, musicians, fire-eaters and fortune-tellers abound. It is a truly unforgettable and remarkable cultural experience. If you like History, you will surely enjoy the countless ancient monuments there are to see. Make sure you do not miss out on the Koutoubia Mosque, Saadien Tombs, El Badii Palace and the magnificent fountains of Mouassine and Echrab ou Chouf.

Hotel Amanjena sees to it that their guests are always met by one of their representatives and transported by guide and private car to the resort regardless of whether they come to or from the airport or another hotel. Now that is something that no other luxury hotel can offer.

Experience London

Thinking of visiting one of the top tourist destinations in the world? Then visit London!

A centre-point in the world offering an array of culture, art and a mesmerising sightseeing experience, London is one of the top tourist destinations in the world.

To cope with the huge demand of tourists that regularly flock to the UK's capital, London has thousands of hotels, Bed & Breakfasts, Guest Houses and Inns throughout the entire city.

Your experience in London can be tailored to surpass your expectations with the wide variety of accommodation available. As with most capital cities expect to pay a lot more for hotels and lodging in the centre and in specialist tourism areas, however thanks to the London Underground, it's possible to stay a little further away from the centre of London and enjoy hotels that are more affordable but do not sacrifice on quality. The cost of transportation around London whether by bus, the tube or by other means is extremely reasonable and therefore you can make significant savings choosing your accommodation a few miles out of the centre.

So what can you expect from your accommodation in London?

Well this depends really on what kind of London experience you are looking for. At one end of the spectrum you can enjoy 5 star luxury in award winning classic hotels that are usually the choice of the rich and famous, and if you are on a tighter budget there is a staggering choice of Guest Houses, Bed & Breakfasts and lower tourist board graded hotels to choose from.

You can choose from a well known chain hotel where the experience and levels of service are similar throughout the world, or if you prefer to enjoy something more quintessentially British, choose a classic London Bed & Breakfast where the service and styling of the accommodation is more unique.

Tips on Making a Wooden Bow Maker

For your home, you can use bows as an ornament for various crafts. This is an absolute necessity when gift giving! Bows can be expensive to buy, but they can easily be handmade at home for a much lower cost. A wooden bow maker will help you make a quality product every time. These directions will teach you how to build and use a wooden bow maker.

You will need the following materials:

1 x 4 wooden board

Wooden dowels



Bottle of wood glue

Sheet of sandpaper

Tape measure

Carpenter's pencil

Make a cut on the board. First, reduce your wooden board to twelve inches. Sand the edges with the sandpaper in order to have smoother sides. Not only will this help prevent splinters, but it will look much nicer if you do this!) Draw a horizontal line on the board with your measuring tape.

Mark the exact middle of the board with an 'X'. Measure a half inch in from either side and mark it with an "X". Using a quarter-inch drill bit, drill through both of the X's you marked before (but not the middle "X"). It is not advisable to drill more than halfway through the board.

Measure out one inch increments from the X's that you just marked. Do not choose the center "X". Continue this along the whole board. Drill holes in all spots, making sure the holes are not overly deep.

Next, cut the dowel. After that, gauge four 3-inch sections along a part of the dowel and cut them (carefully! Using a handsaw. You may splinter the wood by cutting too fast. A neat trick is that taping along both sides of a cut will keep this from happening. Sand down a single end of every dowel section.

Place the dowel squarely into the board. Insert some wood glue into both of the holes directly to either side of the middle 'X'. Push a dowel into each one, making sure it goes as deep in as possible. After drying, these dowels will form the middle of the bow.

The remaining holes which were drilled at 1 "increments are meant to make your wooden bow maker adjustable. Do not use any adhesive in these. The other two dowel pieces can be put into any of the holes. This will change the length or size of your bow.

Now you should use the bow maker. You are now ready to use your wooden bow maker. Place ribbon through the center of the two dowels that were glued in place. Loop it around the remaining two dowels (which you put in the outer holes that you specifically chose). Making a basic bow with a pair of loops requires a single repetition of this movement with your wood bow maker device. Tie around the middle of the bow and then remove it from the wooden bow maker. The size of the bow can be adjusted by wrapping the ribbon around the outside dowels a variety of times. You can make any bow size using a wooden bow maker.

No Limit Hold'em Short Stack Strategy Guide – Part 1, Playing with a 10BB Stack

No limit hold'em has become the true game of choice over the past couple of years thanks to the television coverage and the proliferation of online capped buyin games. But getting started in the game can be tough due to its complexity, as skilled players have a big advantage over even the well-read beginner. Experience and discipline are key to winning at no limit hold'em, and these only come in time.

Fortunately the new player, or even the experienced player looking for an easy edge can turn the tables on the opposition by making one simple adjustment – buying in for less than the maximum amount of chips allowed. There are many advantages to this as will be discussed later in this series, but for now we will start with the simplest strategy of all, playing with stacks of only ten times the big blind.

Only a few sites allow the 10% or 10bb buyin, with the most prominent being probably the Prima Poker network. Many live games allow 10bb buyins as well, especially at the smaller stakes. The good thing about learning this strategy is that with a few adjustments you can take it to sit and go and multi table tournaments as well, where 10bb stacks are common.

With 10 times the big blind there are only two moves preflop: all-in or fold. Any other size raise commits you to the hand; if reraised or if you see a flop, you will be getting odds that are so good that you should simply put the rest of your chips in the pot and hope for the best. So all you need to know are what hands to push with. To understand what hands have value in such a situation, you should definitely check out No Limit Hold'em: Theory and Practice for its excellent Sklansky / Chubukov numbers that solve this problem exactly. But I will give a good enough list based on the book here. The list assumes a ten handed table.

* Early Position (the first three positions): AA-TT, AK-AQ

* Middle Position (the next three): Add 99-88, AJ, AT suited

* Cutoff: Add 77-66, AT-A8, A7-A5s KQ, KJs

* Button: Add any pair, any ace, KJ-KT, K9s, QJs

* Small Blind: Add K5 +, Kxs, QJ-Q9, Q5s +, JT, J8s +, T9s

This is a fairly tight range, and if you have a read that your opponents are playing tightly against your pushes you can add a few more hands. But my experience is that you will be called by some very poor hands, meaning much of your profits will come from poor calls made by your opponents.

The next problem for to solve in short stack no limit is what to do when facing an open raise. Usually the raise will be to 3-4 times the big blind. Once again your only play is to fold or push. The exact strategy varies greatly on the aggressiveness of the raiser, but these general guidelines are probably decent enough to use in most situations.

* Against a raise from the first four positions: Push with JJ +, AK

* Add against raises from the next two: TT, AQ

* Add against cutoff raises: 99-88, AJ

* Add against button raises: 77-66, AT, KQs

* Add against small blind raises: 55-44, A7, KQ-KJ

Once again this is fairly tight, and you can open up a little, but not too much, if the raiser is loose / aggressive.

Finally sometimes you will get a free play in the big blind. It is important to try to maximize value in this situation. With good hands simply push all in; I usually use the cutoff open range in this spot. Otherwise check and see a flop. How to play the flop is based on your stack size and the number of opponents you are facing. But a basic strategy is to simply bet the pot with top pair or better until you are all in against any number of opponents. Against two opponents you can add middle pair and a flush / open end straight draw using both of your cards. Against one opponent you can add a few bluffs. Bet all the hands listed above, plus random missed hands around 30% of the time. If called on your bluff, fold the turn. The strategy here is a simple one, but it is at least close to correct. With such a short stack most players will give you a lot of action, so you need a good hand to put your chips in the pot.

The 10bb buyin is some of the simplest poker you can play. This guide will probably put you 80% of the way to playing perfect 10bb stack no limit hold'em; the rest is simply in gaining experience and reads on your opponents. No other form of poker can be described so fully in a short guide like this one. The drawback is that while you will almost certainly be a winner in most games, you probably can not win that much unless you are up against opponents that simply make awful calls against you. The good news is that this strategy tends to work even as you move up in stakes; in fact it may be even more effective in these aggressive games as your opponents will be putting more money in preflop, which is good for you, as you can often get your 10 big blinds in against their weak hands. Short stack no limit hold'em with only 10bb may not require a lot of skill or be very exciting, but it's a great way to pump up your bankroll.

The next article will begin discussion of 20bb play, the standard minimum buyin for most online no limit hold'em cash games.