Titanium and Jet Engines

Owing to their strength, resistance to corrosion and their ability to withstand high temperatures without getting deformed, titanium alloys are used to make critical parts of aircraft, rockets and missiles among others. One important application of this metallic material is in the manufacture of jet engines.

The jet engine is the lifeblood of today’s modern jet. It moves the aircraft forward and powers many of the jet’s other systems. It works by drawing in air while the jet is moving, compressing it and mixing it with fuel. The heated fuel produces a gas which is ejected, causing the aircraft to move forward at great speed.

Although initially designed in 1921, it was not until 1942 that the first American jet engine was made. Today’s engines weigh over 10,000 pounds and produce over 100,000 pounds of thrust. Because a standard jet engine may have as many as 25,000 parts, it takes about two years to assemble and a testing period of five years before it is actually used commercially. A large part of that is made of titanium.

Over 65 percent of all titanium metal produced is incorporated into the construction of aircraft frames and engines. When Lockheed first produced the SR-71 ‘Blackbird’ in the early 1960’s, 85 percent of the plane was constructed from titanium that was smuggled in from the former Soviet Union. That set the pace for many other commercial and military aircraft construction. Anywhere between 18 and 146 metric tons of titanium is used in the manufacture of most aircraft today. This is especially important in the construction of jet engines which features rotors, hydraulics, nacelles and compressor blades. Almost 50 percent of all alloys used in aircraft parts utilize the titanium alloy 6AL-4v.

To suck in large amounts of air, the jet engine has a large spinning fan with titanium blades. These blades not only increase the engine’s efficiency but reduce noise. Other titanium-made components are the compressor and combustion chamber.

As David Harris of eNotes.com describes, “The intake fan at the front of the engine must be extremely strong so that it doesn’t fracture when large birds and other debris are sucked into its blades.”

Jet engines are made to withstand great temperatures, pressures and the stress associated with both. The middle compressor of these engines are made of aluminum but once the air and fuel mixture reaches the high pressure and high temperature section, the combustor, its chamber and turbine blades are constructed from nickel and titanium alloys. The most intense heat of the engine is felt here.

Harris continues, “Often, both the combustion chamber and the turbine receive special ceramic coatings that better enable them to resist heat. The inner duct of the exhaust system is crafted from titanium while the outer exhaust duct is made from composites – synthetic fibers held together with resins.”

Amazing, isn’t it? So the next time you see a jet, think about titanium – a space age metal that has a thousand and one uses.

Decorative Candles For Anyone

Candles make a wonderful warm and inviting accent to any room in a home or office. Scented or non-scented decorative come in a variety of sizes, colors and wick counts and can be easily decorated to add a homey touch to your home.

Candle wreaths made from natural vines or dried flowers add a country charm to a decorative candle dinning room table centerpiece. Glass marbles are another great way to add a classic modern touch to a candle. With a hot glue gun and some glass marbles, start placing a small drop of glue on a marble at a time and glue to around the base of the glass container holding your favorite scented organic candle until you reach the desired look. You can also do this with decorative natural rock or dried vine to give it a more naturalistic look. Both compliment the 100% organic theme nicely while adding a decorative touch to your home. Raffia ribbon also works beautifully.

A teenager's room can be given a decorative candle by simply adding a ribbon around the candle jar or gluing small decorative wooden cutouts that match the teen's room. If it is a sports fans room, miniature wooden basketballs or footballs can show off your teen's favorite sport while scenting the room disguising the stinky sneakers in the closet. Decorative candles are any candle you take and add a decorative touch to match a theme or feeling of any room in your home. You can use pillar candles, or short fat three wick candles. The options are limitless. If you can think it, it can be done.

Decorative candles can come in a large variety of scents as well. A teen's room you may want to add a more lively scent such as a Sicilian lemon, fresh basil or if cramming for mid terms maybe a more smoothing and distressing scent like English Lavender, Sweet Basil or Jasmine in decorative candles may be more beneficial. Decorative candles in a deeply warming and rich spicy scent made from 100% natural organic oils would be a good match for a young man's room. A nice romantic decorative candle in the bedroom scented with sweet lavender, geranium, and juniper oils or warm sensual cinnamon, mandarin, frankincense and Tonka bean organic oils can help set the mood for anything.

For your environmentally conscious friends and family a decorative candle made from 100% natural vegetable wax and scented wit organic natural oils will make a wise gift that they will be sure to appreciate. Decorative organic candles add a touch of charm, create an inviting atmosphere and emit a pleasing scent throughout any room for any lifestyle whether they are for your own personal use or for a given as a gift to a loved one.

Cannot Decide What to Do

Sometimes, one of the hardest tasks in a young graduates life is to decide what to do with their life. This decision can be made a lot easier if you have developed a keen interest in a subject or in a possible career. The decision, however, on what to choose, or what avenue to pursue can be, nevertheless, quite difficult.

Some people speak to friends about what it is they are going to do, and why they decided on this course. Others go out to work at some kind of employment in order to take some time off from school to get a better handle on what it is they really want. Unfortunately, some of these types of people find that they trap themselves from going further in any field because they make too many commitments that are difficult to get out of. For example, some decide that marriage, or a family, is what they wanted before pursuing a career but find that this leads to financial obligations that prevent them from attending school full-time.

On the other hand, some people choose to attend college or university in a general program hoping they will be able to discover their real interests, and switch to a more specific course of studies in their second year. From those I’ve met and spoken to, this option works on occasion but isn’t the best alternative. For the majority, the old adage applies, and that is basically if you don’t know what port you are sailing to you’ll most likely end up in one you don’t want.

One option to help you decide is to sit down in a quiet location devoid of any distraction. Take a pen and paper, or laptop, or computer and divide a page into four columns. The first column is for all those things you like to do. Don’t judge what you are writing – write everything you like to do. This can be such things like going bowling, playing computer games etc. The next step, right below what you like to do, is to write down the kinds of careers you may be interested in whether that is an artist, or a bank manager. The next step is to take time and thought to record beside each entry what you like about what you wrote down, and then after completing all of these, the third column is where you write down all the things you feel you wouldn’t like about each of the items you wrote.

The next step is to write in the last column what you feel you would have to do to make each one into a career or a related career. For example, if you wrote that you like to play computer pPC games, you may be able to plan a strategy that sees you work in a game related store with the intention of growing in the job to become a manager of the store. If you wrote down that you would like to design house plans, you could decide that you want to become an architect and what schooling would be required to accomplish this chosen field.

By completing this task, you may have a much better idea of what you want to do with your life. As the old saying goes, if you love what you do, you never work a day in your life. Give it a try.

Steps to Installing Interlocking Floor Tiles

The floor of a room, like its roof is significant. The floor that the feet feel under it should be smooth and to the eyes it must be pleasant. One can choose from a variety of tiles flooding the market. The tiles are made of different materials. Each lends a particular look to the room. The interlocking floor tiles are steadily gaining popularity among the people because of their advantageous features.

These tiles are installed easily and quickly. The edges of the tiles are to be set into the grooves well and with a mallet need to be tapped in place. In order to place the tiles glue is not required, unlike other tiles. These tiles are resistant to chemicals which is a great advantage.

Strong chemicals damage the normal flooring tiles by corroding them but the interlocking tiles are strong enough to withstand the ravages of any chemical. They are stain proof too. Very easily a damaged portion of the floor can be covered with the help of these tiles. Another benefit of these is that they can be comfortably carried to any place as they are portable. The eco-friendly character of these tiles is an added quality. They are made from recycled items.

There are plenty of brands to choose from. The Flexi tiles have earned quite a reputation for themselves. They are 7 mm wide and are made from PVC. Available in two varieties, the flexible and the hard one these serve good flooring purpose according to the room. The garage floors need the tough type, whereas the bedroom floor would need the flexible soft one. The textures are of two types, the raised and the flat. They come in nine different shades. The warrant of twelve years is definitely an attraction.

The Kiwi tiles are another leading name giving Flexi tiles a run for their money. They are durable, weather proof. Moisture does not ruin them and the glue used is strong enough to withstand damp and dry weather. The Kiwi tiles are perforated and that means water is easily drained out while the floor is being washed. Walking throughout the house for the elderly and the children is fun on such tiles, as they are not slippery, very unlike the other varieties. Even though these are made from recycled materials, the tiles are resistant to bacteria. Installation of these are easily done with one’s own hand.

Selecting the right design for the rooms is a work of art. The plain colored floors are as good as the geometrically designed ones .The traditional patterns and sculpted figures raise the glamour of a room. Not just for indoor flooring, these tiles are equally good for the garden pathways, the patio and other outdoor areas.

Used Brick – Blessing or Curse?

Do you have 'used brick' on your home or business? If so then you probably know by now, that they can be a blessing and a curse as well. How is that … you may wonder? Well used brick certainly are a beautiful veneer for colonial or traditional applications however, if they are not maintained properly … watch out!

You could find yourself deep into the thousands in repair cost that could have been avoided, if you had only followed these simple tips to used brick maintenance.

What are used brick? – Used bricks are salvaged from old building when the building are torn down or demolished. They became widely available in the '70s when many older downtown buildings across the country were being raised. They were in abundance and a source of cheap building materials for the builders.

They can vary widely is size and shape and are usually red, orange, brown and a pink-salmon color. They have rounded corners from the demolition process, soft and sometimes have chips in the face. Most were salvaged from the back-up portion or interior walls of old masonry buildings and have various stains ranging from black soot, whitewash to paint. It is one of the few bricks though, that blend perfectly with colonial architecture. Unfortunately architecture aside, they were used extensively on all types of buildings because they were cheap and easy to find

How do I know if I have used brick on my home or business? – Used brick have a peculiar characteristic of being soft and when you look at a used brick building from the street it has an old appearance. If you take a screwdriver and scrape it along the surface of a used brick, you will likely gouge the surface of the brick easily.

A new brick wall on the other hand would be too hard, if not impossible to gouge and are more regular and rectangular in shape. If you looked at a new brick building from the street it would have a more uniform appearance and look 'newer'.

How do I look for damage in used brick? – Fortunately used brick tend to deteriorate as individual units unlike new brick, which tend to deteriorate in sections. As you walk around your building look closely for bricks that have a chalky, orange color to them. These bricks are the first to deteriorate in a used brick wall and for some reason will be very noticeable.

As you look closer at the wall you may also find bricks that are 'powdering' which means that they turn to powder as they deteriorate. Regardless of how they manifest, you should remove and replace all the damaged used bricks that you find. While inspecting the individual bricks for damage also look for cracks and loose or missing mortar. Fill in any holes that you find and repair any cracks. This will go a long way to preventing excessive water from entering the wall.

After you have completed the repairs you are now ready for your final and most important preventive maintenance chore.

Seal your bricks! – There is nothing more valuable to your used brick building than a saturation application of high quality masonry sealer. I can not be more enthusiastic about the protection of used bricks with sealer. Most used brick are probably over 100 years old at this point and need protection.

As you watch that liquid gold being sucked into your brickwork by the gallons, remember that it will protect the used brick and save you ongoing maintenance and repair cost over the long haul. It is the cheapest insurance that you can buy against used brick deterioration.

Student Apartments – Studying and Living in the Apartment

Searching an appropriate student apartment is a tiresome task to perform. In definite places such as college towns, it might even take months to search the right one. Several students live outside of the campus, in the rental apartments. Students face various problems related to the food, accommodation, amenities, furniture, and several other aspects. These problems might seem trivial, but they are comparatively annoying these problems are to be resolved. This can be express for the life of the student's, who live away from their place and lasting out with the friends.

Several student apartments circulate their brochures at the city and campus. This brochures listing the addresses of the available or near by apartments. You can as well access the websites that allows for the information about the locations of student apartments and many other housing options. On the side the advert postures will be set up on the college notice boards.

Inspect all the services which are available and amenities provided by each apartment. You can visit their web sites and search for the lease periods, prices, floor plans and images. If you search the apartment that matches your demands, then contact the apartment management for farther applications and details.

Few of the early notifications and postings related to social events and gatherings were comparatively put forward by NewMark. Information about software developers and internet was as well made available on the Craigslist.

Abruptly there was a step increase in the number of subscribers and postings. People started the utilization the mailing lists that were surely non eventful and ascertained that the technical positions which proven to be vacant can be very easily filled up. This finally contributed to the accession of job category. The constant needs for several categories indirectly led to the step-up in number of categories.

If you have decided to lease an apartment then first ask your friends. At the beginning, ask your colleagues and friends if they have any recommendations in the side by side area. Probably, many young people will have an actual concept of an apartment that you can rent.

However, the problem with this sample is that it is inferior. You probably know 4 to 5 people with great ideas; even so, there are 1000s of citizens that lease these apartments, all with a different ideas or opinion.

Use the World Wide Web to ascertain these apartments and as well search other that come across this criteria you hold legitimate. This can be expense, location and amenities. You have lot of choices. Locators will search you these apartments and adjust you up the apartment visits.

Cute Flat Wedding Shoes

The shoes that you choose for your wedding have to fulfill a lot of requirements. They need to be comfortable, beautiful, and work with your wedding gown. When high heels are not an option, some brides think that they will never be able to find cute flats; don’t fret, though, because there are actually some great styles out there.

There are plenty of reasons why a bride might decide to wear flat shoes for her wedding. She might be having her ceremony on grass or sand, and wants a shoe that won’t sink into the turf. If her fiance is not much taller than she is, many a bride feels like a low shoe is important for the sake of the wedding photos. Or perhaps you just want to be comfortable. In my case, one of my bridesmaids wisely pointed out that I didn’t know how to walk gracefully in heels, and my wedding day was certainly not the time to learn! (It was good advice – I went with the flats, a classic pair of Kenneth Cole white silk flats with a small tailored bow.)

Whatever your reason, there is going to be a pair of flat shoes that is perfect for your wedding. In most cases brides prefer to go with a bridal shoe in a fabric that matches the white or ivory of her gown; there is not rule, though, that you can’t be more playful with your wedding shoes. This is especially true if you are wearing a very full skirted gown, since your guests will really only be getting a glimpse of the shoes anyway. Go ahead and choose a flat in an elegant silver or gold silk, or really be bold and wear a bright red silk shoe (a peep-toe style could be adorable).

One option that many brides like is to wear ballet slippers. You know that you won’t have blisters on your feet by the end of the night if you choose this super comfy type of flat. Real ballet slippers (as opposed to a ballet slipper style of shoe) have very soft soles which over time will form to your feet. They actually are made in one shape – there is no right or left slipper – so you will want to wear them around the house to get them to conform to your feet (otherwise they look funny).

Not every bride embraces the idea of wearing a flat shoe for her wedding, especially those who are only doing it so that they will not tower over their new husband. Even if you are normally a stiletto lover, you can still find flats that are stylish and sophisticated. There are a few wedding shoes designers who specialize in low strappy shoes, like Stuart Weitman (also nice for the mother of the bride who wants a comfortable dressy shoe).

Plain shoes can also be customized to make them more special. If you find a pair of shoes that feels great but needs some pizazz, buy them, and plan to embellish them to coordinate with the rest of your wedding ensemble. Brides love sparkle, and many of them will add some crystal or rhinestone accents to their wedding shoes to go with their crystal bridal jewelry. All you do is pick out an element from your bridal jewelry that you really love, such as a small crystal flower, and stitch it to the toe of the shoe. This is a particularly great idea for brides who are wearing silk thongs for beach weddings. A little bit of sparkle will take the flip flop from casual to elegant.

Once you start looking, you will realize that there are lots of cute wedding flats available. They may not be as sexy as a pair of sky high heels, but when you are still dancing at the end of the night instead of limping like the bride who chose the stilettos, you will be glad you went with the flats!

Suomy Helmet Review

The Spec-1 R Suomy helmet is a premium motorcycle helmet. But, like any helmet, it has its drawbacks. Read on to learn the strengths and weaknesses of the Suomy helmet.

The Suomy helmet is offered in a wide variety of graphic styles. The detail and finishing on the helmet is superb. You can not wear one without drawing compliments. The bad side of this, is that you'll constantly worry about dropping it or scratching it.

The light weight of the Suomy helmet is one of the biggest draws. The helmet is noticeably lighter than its competitors. You'll appreciate this on longer rides when neck fatigue would normally set in.

There are a couple of drawbacks to the Suomy helmet. Noise is an issue. This helmet lets in a fair amount of road noise. You'll want to consider a pair of ear plugs if you go with this helmet, especially if you've got aftermarket exhaust.

Changing the shield is also not as easy as it should be. Shield removal requires a special tool and takes a few minutes. Not a big deal, but something to consider. According to Suomy, this is a "feature" – the shield will not pop off in a crash.

This helmet is also at the high end of the pricing scale. If you shop around, you can find a good deal, though. I like to use MCGearDeals.com. Have a listing they 're of the best deals on Suomy helmets .

Another drawback of the Suomy helmet is the inability to close the top vent channels. I'm not sure whey they would not have included this feature in the design. When riding in extremely cold weather, this will be an issue.

In my opinion, Suomy helmet is just as comfortable as any other on the market. Suomy sizing is not entirely accurate, but once you find the right fit, the light weight and comfortable liner make this a very comfortable helmet.

So, there you have it. This helmet's got excellent graphics and safety (Snell and BSI certified) with a high price tag and a few inconveniences (shield removal and noise). You'll have to decide for yourself if a Suomy helmet is right for you. Most will agree that it's a good package, especially if you can find one for a good price.

Roofing Shapes – Get Acquainted With What’s Out There

Roofing is a very important aspect of any home. Even if you have not built your own home, as a home owner you should have a basic knowledge of what different shapes a roof can come in.

One of the defining characteristics of every dwelling is its roof. The style of a roof is often what determines the type of home it is classified as. For example there is roofing that is modern in nature, classic, American, Victorian, gothic and so on. The line of a roof can help the owner of a home to figure out the most appropriate way to make an addition to the residence or to position the chimney. The shape is very telling when it comes to its structure. In other words, how strong it will be to withstand the harsh elements of nature and the climate of the region.

The more you understand about roofing terms the better. For instance, how do you define a roof? The most basic and simple definition is that it is the exterior and upper surface of a house or any type of building or structure. Just as the foundation of a house is significant, so is its upper surface. Here we look at some basic terminology in terms of roof shapes to give you a better understand of the structure that provides the topping for your home.

The two most common shapes for a roof are known as gabled and hipped. Let us take a brief look at each one of these.

A gabled roof has a straight slope that runs from ridge to eave. This type features a triangle or a peak that is located either on the front facade or the side. Houses that are built with the gabled roofing shape have eaves on the non-gabled facades and rakes on the gable facades. Gabled roofs are broken down into front-gabled, side-gabled and cross-gabled.

The categories of houses that have the hipped roofing style do not have a triangle or peak at the junction where the roof meets. Instead the plane is broken down along the line of the slope. The purpose of this is in order that the roof will wrap around the dwelling as it is supposed to do. Buildings that are hipped feature an even roof to wall junction that goes all the way around the structure. These buildings also have eaves on all sides. Hipped options can be classified into three groups. There are simple ones, pyramidal ones and cross-hipped ones.

Other types of gabled options that are less common but can still be found include the gambrel style (which is most often used when building barns), the saltbox style and the shed. The shed design is commonly used for raised-roof sections of a residence, as well as porches and additions built onto a home. Another type of hipped roof you sometimes see is the mansard which has two distinct pitches on the rooftop and slopes low from the ridgeline or the flat top.

There is also a flat roof which does not fit into either the gables or the hipped groups. This type stands alone because it has no slope to speak of and can end with eaves or without them. The choice is up to the builder.

Power Tool Batteries – Important Information About Them

Power tool batteries determine the performance of your cordless tools. So while purchasing a cordless power tool for your household project voltage of the batteries though important is not the only factor to be taken into consideration. Their amp/hour capacity should also be checked before opting for it. Battery cost is the capital cost in any power tools. Such rechargeable batteries have cells with voltage of 1.2V, 1.5V or 3.6V. Batteries with voltage of 3.6V to 12 V are used in light duty tools and high duty tools need 14.4V to 36 V They may last for short time even after being charged because of the “memory effect” in them, which affects their runtime seriously.

Power tool batteries should be used regularly for its smooth functioning. Numerous small batteries together make up one battery. It’s electric current is measured by voltage while how long it will last is determined by ampere hour. They are also available in three types for using in power tools that is

1. Lithium ion also known as Li-ion

2.Nickel Cadmium also known as Ni-cad and

3. Nickel Metal Hydride also known as Ni-MH.

Lithium ion has a life span for more than 1200 charges while Nickel Cadmium will survive 400 charge cycles and thereafter needs to be replaced. Nickel Metal Hydride will last more than 400 charges.

Power tool batteries if overcharged will reduce its life span. It is the most common occurrence that we forget to switch off the battery which is left charging, sometimes overnight. Because of the heat that is generated it damages the battery. You not only spoil your battery, the energy is wasted and you are the risk of electrical fire. To avoid risks and accidents you should take precautionary measures. The new types of batteries have the options of inbuilt cooler fan and sounds to indicate that the charging is over. But none of them switch off automatically. They are costly products and in order to avoid incurring expenses on them it is advisable to take good care of them.

Power tool batteries replacement is a costly affair that all of us are aware of. The latest new service that you might not be cognizant with is the power tool battery rebuilding services. The battery is rebuilt with new cells which are better than the original, improving its performance and life span. In this process whole battery is pulled apart and then the new cells are put in. Even if it sounds simple it is not do-it- yourself kind of a project. Non working batteries make up the most of the wastes and it is hazardous for environment. With advancement in technology the old batteries become unavailable in market and your tool becomes useless too. With rebuilding service you will be able to use your tool as long as you wish.

Without power tool batteries your tool will become ineffective and hence taking good care of it is very important. So do not overcharge your battery resulting in its reduced life span and save your money too.

Career As a Transportation Engineer

Transport engineering is a sub domain of civil engineering and it aims at designing and constructing efficient and comfortable means of transport for the public. It takes into account factors like traffic engineering, trip generation, urban planning to design such structures which can manage traffic and ensures smooth and hassle free travel for the public. There is a rapid increase in number of automobiles on road and hence accident rate has also increased drastically. So, the need of the hour is to design such infrastructure which can aid in lowering accident rates.

Nature of Work

Being in a job of civil engineering domain, a transportation engineer is supposed to look after every aspect of designing, drafting and realizing transportation infrastructure like roads, flyovers, roundabouts etc. first of all a design pattern is laid out and its feasibility is checked on various parameters. Each idea which is conceived may not be feasible under realistic domains. So it is job of transportation engineer to check feasibility of such projects.

While working on large projects a transportation engineer has to coordinate with large number of people who are involved in different works. So it is mandatory that he should have good communication skills in order to manage everything well. Job of a transportation engineer can be tiring sometimes as you have to be on site for long hours. So one needs to be physically fit and healthy to take on all the hardships associated with this work.

Educational Qualifications

Being an engineering discipline, science background is mandatory to pursue a career in transportation engineering. You need to have a logical thinking aptitude and a calculative mind. Transportation engineer needs to design and draft blueprints for large infrastructures. So knowledge of engineering drawing is also required to perform our job efficiently. Many universities and colleges provide bachelor's and associate degree in this domain. You can take up this course individually or as a sub discipline of civil engineering.

Transportation engineering provides bright career opportunities for those who want to build efficient transportation system for their country and help common people to have a hassle free traveling experience.

A Vision Quest – My Experience With Retinal Detachment

After emerging victorious after a fun and refreshing bodyboard session at Ocean Beach yesterday, I turned to watch my husband, Mark, catch some more waves. As I stared out at the surf zone which was strangely gray and foggy, even as the beach was bathed in sunshine, I noticed that my vision was filled with small black dots. When I blinked and the dots did not disappear, a fear rose up in me. I turned to look at sunbathers on the sand, and the dots seemed to dimish; but they were really stark and obvious when I again turned towards the fog.

I've had floaters in my eyes for years, and have paid visits to the eye doctor because of them. He has said they are something I'll just have to live with, and explained how as we age, the viscous gels in our eyeballs get thinner and more liquidy; thus, the floaters are more noticeable. I've gotten used to the floaters and try not to concentrate on them, or they simply drive me crazy. A deep blue sky unfettered with clouds is like a canvas for the various shapes – like dust particles – that live within my eyeballs.

Well, these small black dots were nothing like the floaters I to which I had grown accustomed. This was something else. I thought about what could have caused it, and realized that I'd been rattled pretty good by a major wave that broke right over my head. I decided to relax and let the dots subside.

Later in the evening, when night fell and I walked outside, I noticed a slight flash that seemed to occur every time I blinked my left eye. With that cold fear once again gripping my heart, like one of those squeeze balls, I went on the Internet and googled "eye black dots flashes". After reading that these are all symptoms of a detached retina, and that ignoring the problem could lead to blindness, I resolved to call my eye doctor first thing in the morning.

Dr. Newman got right on the phone with me, and suggested that I see a retinal specialist immediately.

About an hour later, I stood on the first floor of the medical building waiting for an elevator. Quite a crowd had gathered, as two of the elevators were out of order. Finally, the middle one descended, opened, and we all crowded in, after a large man wheeling a woman in a wheelchair. When we arrived at the third floor, a woman in the back wanted to get out, so a few of us moved aside to let her through. She said in a panic-stricken voice, "I need to get off on this floor!" It seemed like the man wheeling the woman was trying to hem her in and not let her get off; she stood there, a little cowed by him. He said, "Have some patience. There are more of us who need to get off here." She stepped off, and then he followed with the woman in the wheelchair saying, "Although there are those who feel they're more privileged than others, it appears."

There was a man in green scrubs who looked at me as the elevator doors shut. "Well, look who's talking! That seemed like the pot calling the kettle black, did not it?" The look on his face was so classic, and his timing was so brilliant, I broke up laughing until tears came to my eyes. We both got off on the fifth floor, and I told him, "Thanks, I really needed a laugh." Then we both went our separate ways.

I was called into the exam room almost immediately where a female technician asked me some background questions and applied eye drops.

And then, the doctor entered. It was none other than the man in green scrubs who had made me laugh on the elevator. When I saw him, I knew everything was going to be all right.

As he examined my eyes, he said that the retina was not yet detached, but that it was poised to, so if I could lay off any jostling activities for the next six weeks, and let this trauma settle down, I'd be okay . He said, "Give peace a chance."

Apparently the symptom of floating black dots is something that occurs in many people as they – ahem – get older. So heads up, everyone. Keep your eyes open (pun intended) for such symptoms, and then if and when they occur, pay a visit to your friendly ophthalmologist.

Cavity Wall Insulation Products – A Quick Buying Guide

Cavity wall insulation means the process of sealing the gaps between two layers of brick walls. The insulation forms a barrier in order to block flowing of the heat outside. Wall insulation is vital for those properties that were built during the period between 1920 and 1989, as building regulations of that time rule separating one layer of walls from another by keeping gaps in between for air passage. However, nowadays cavity walls pose a threat to climate condition of our planet by giving rise to excessive release of carbon dioxide gases. That’s why, insulating walls with an appropriate type of insulation material is necessary to prevent generating CO2 and increasing fuel bills for heating homes by using heating systems.

Types of Cavity Wall Insulation Materials

Insulation materials tend to vary in broad ranges from synthetic insulation materials to eco-friendly, greener materials. The right insulation materials should be selected as per the requirement. The best way to decide suitable materials to insulate cavity walls is by conducting a home inspection. Professional inspectors or insulation installers are the best people to rely on than yourself to inspect your house and determine the requirement of the insulation materials.

Three main materials are chosen for cavity wall insulation and they are –

  1. Mineral Wool
  2. Polystyrene Beads
  3. Urea Formaldehyde Foam

These cavity wall insulation products are selected for the ability to render stable insulation effects to the building for the life of it. These insulation materials have high heat resistance capacity, low heat conductivity and they are non-combustible. Moreover, these products have proven to resist water flow or penetration to it thus making these ideal to prevent condensation or moisture build-up through the walls. Low moisture build up ensures long life of the insulation in the walls and lessening fuel bills more and more with time. Estimations taken on the effectiveness in reducing energy bills have revealed it is an amount of £90 per year in which fuel bills tend to lessen.

If you believe in using everything natural and eco-friendly, choose green insulation materials instead of synthetic materials. Sheep’s wool, flax, hemp, cellulose or recycled newspapers, cork board or straw materials are green cavity wall insulation materials that do not biodegrade and cause irritants on skin during installing insulation. Nonetheless, these materials are prone to forming pests or fungus and require them to be replaced with time. According to insulation experts’ observations, fibreglass insulation including batt and roll insulation and blown-in cellulose insulation are the most effective for insulating cavity walls.

Natural Teeth Whitening Remedies – What Works?

There have been many information about natural teeth whitening remedies to help you get a mouth full of white, healthy looking teeth from the comfort of your own home. Many of such traditional whitening methods work very well, although they will require repeated application to achieve the maximum effect. It is also important to know how to use each of them, though, so that you do not risk harming your teeth. In some cases, you can damage the enamel and even cause cavities if you use materials that are abrasive or acidic without proper care.

Here are some of the most popular natural teeth whitening remedies that you might like to try:

Brushing With Baking Soda

Baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) is well known as a cleaning agent and deodorizer. You probably know that you can buy toothpaste containing baking soda, but you can also mix half a teaspoonful with regular toothpaste for the same natural teeth whitening effect. Alternatively, you can also mix baking soda with a bit of water and apply it directly to your toothbrush. Although brushing with baking soda will not bleach your teeth white, it does effectively gets rid of stains to help make your teeth shine. Baking soda is safe to swallow, but it is important not to use it every day since sodium bicarbonate is quite abrasive and can damage the enamel.

Lemon Juice

Another natural remedy that can help you whiten your teeth is lemon juice. It's natural bleaching properties will brighten your teeth if you brush your teeth with it or by rubbing the peel across the teeth. Unfortunately, lemon juice is quite acidic and the citric acid in the lemon can potentially weaken the enamel, making it softer by depleting the vital calcium in both the enamel and the underlying tooth. Many dental experts recommend not using lemon juice at all for whitening your teeth because of the dangers of tooth decay.


This is a little known natural teeth whitening home remedy that actually works. It seems counterintuitive, because strawberries are red and can stain clothes. However this remedy has surprising effects that you have to try out to believe.

To use strawberries, rub the fruit over your teeth and then brush your teeth immediately afterward. You can also mash the fruit into a toothpaste like substance and brush it over your teeth. Just like lemon juice, strawberries contain an acid that brightens the teeth. With the sugar and malic acid contained inside the fruit, you need to be sure to brush your teeth immediately after this treatment otherwise the acid could damage the enamel on your teeth.

Wood Ash

Before toothpaste was available to buy, people used to clean their teeth with ashes from the fireplace. Wood ash, specifically from hard wood, contains potassium hydroxide (lye), which has a powerful bleaching action that gives you whiter teeth. You should be aware that potassium hydroxide is a harsh chemical that can damage the teeth with frequent use, however.

Apple Cider Vinegar

Apple cider vinegar is also another natural product which is famous as a teeth whitening solution, and whenever one finds teeth whitening tips, he or she will notice apple cider vinegar mentioned. Apple cider vinegar can always be mixed with a little bit of soda, which will be enough to form a paste, and this paste can be used to brush the teeth. A more liquid mixture can also be made out of the two and used to gargle before brushing your teeth with regular toothpaste, as this helps keep stains from the enamel at bay.

Other tried and tested natural ways to get a brighter smile include rubbing with the pith of an orange or a sage leaf, brushing with ground almond peel and salt, and chewing on the twigs of the neem plant, as followers of Ayurvedic medicine in India do when they want whiter teeth.

Important Note: There are also some regular habits which one needs to maintain in order to make sure that the teeth remain white naturally. Brushing and flossing regularly is a must, and it is a very good habit to brush off the teeth after each vital meal. Rinsing off the mouth thoroughly is needed after the consumption of potatoes and apples, as well as after drinking coffee or wine. Avoiding colas, wine, coffee and smoking is always good for your dental health and there is one more item which one ought to avoid – fluoride. Many mouth rinses and mouth washes make use of fluoride, but high exposure to fluorine and especially at an early age causes teeth to discolor and stain. Avoidance of tetracycline antibiotics during pregnancy and during the early childhood years is necessary in order to protect teeth from discoloring.

Sodding Your Lawn With Zoysia Grass

Sodding has definite advantages over other methods of establishing a new lawn, ie the instant transformation of your lawn to a new tailored look for your continuing use and enjoyment. It can be done anytime throughout the year except when the ground is frozen or covered with snow. When sodding is completed and the grass well rooted your lawn will only need proper care and will last indefinitely.

A soil test is always advisable. Your county extension agent can get this done for a small fee. His report will tell you how much lime (for lower pH soils) and the amount and kinds of fertilizer your soil may need, and the frequency of application. If you can not get this done before you sod, get it done after planting, and follow the recommended program on lime and fertilizer. Most soils are low in pH and lime is important to raise low pH soils to an ideal pH of between 6-7. High pH soils use sulphur to lower pH instead of lime. Winrock Zoysia likes most soils, whether sandy, silty or clay based.

Grade the lawn to a smooth surface sloping slightly away from the house. A slope of one foot to 50 linear feet is usually adequate for drainage. Remember to smooth off the surface as much as possible so your lawn will be smooth and will mow without scalping. Steep slopes are difficult to water and mow.

Plow, disc, till or otherwise loosen the soil about 6 inches deep. Remove rocks, sticks, and clods that are near the surface. The lime (or sulphur if high pH) and fertilizer needed should then be applied and mixed in the loosened soil. If you do not have soil test results, about 2 pounds of lime per 1,000 square feet is usually adequate.

Use fertilizer called for in your soil test results. If no soil test was made, we suggest 2 pounds of 10-20-10 or 13-13-13 fertilizer per 1,000 square feet. Both the lime and fertilizer should be thoroughly mixed into dry soil before sodding or irrigating.

Sod normally comes in strips 18 inches by 24 inches, and is easily laid. Lay as close together as possible. Stagger the lateral joints if desired and butt the ends close together. If available, roll with a light roller after laying to firm the pads against the soil.

As soon as the sod is laid, water until water is soaking into the ground beneath. For the next two to three weeks repeat heavy watering every two or three days. Be sure the soil does not dry out during the rooting period.

Apply 1-inch of water every week or 10 days either by natural rainfall or supplemental irrigation. At least an inch of water every week is needed during the hot summer growing season. It is best to apply water in the morning. In winter or when the sod is dormant you do not need to water unless the ground becomes dry from drought. Most problems we see after the Zoysiagrass has become established stem from over-watering or over-fertilizing.

A healthy mature stand of Zoysiagrass will choke out weeds on its own. However, a first year application of pre-emergent herbicide is a good idea in the early Spring or early Fall.