Leaky Roof Repairs

If left undetected, a minor leak on a flat or pitched roof can go on to result in significant structural damage to a property. It is likely to be the case that a roof will start leaking long before structural damage is caused or a roof needs replacing. Generally, it is the case of damage or broken tiles that can be placed quite quickly and easily.

In the process of inspecting a roof for potential leak problems, it benefits to have a basic appreciation of the type of dangers that might be involved. If you aren’t overly confident with inspecting a roof by yourself, you can of course contact a professional roofing contractor who is fully qualified to inspect a roof and determine whether or not repairs are required.

It helps to have in place a regular schedule of when to inspect a roof to make sure it’s maintained to a high standard. Inspecting a roof more often throughout the winter or after heavy winds is advisable. A general roof inspection is likely to involve inspecting the roof for any possible signs of damage, such as cracked or missing tiles. If you don’t feel confident inspecting a roof at roof height, you can of course attempt to inspect the roof from ground level using a pair of high strength binoculars.

It is important to inspect areas around the outer edges of the tiles, chimneys, and vents and other potential sources of roof leaks. Also, to make sure that the water can quickly and easily clear from your property, it will always benefit to make sure that the guttering system is always clear of debris so water is able to flow freely. If you do detect leaks from inside the property, the main cause for these leaks is often damaged tiles.

Except for the most competent do-it-yourself enthusiast, most roof repairs are best left to the professional roofing contractor, mostly due to the fact that repairing roofs can be quite dangerous. Certain roof repairs can be quite expensive to have carried out, so it will therefore help to contact several roofing companies to get estimates on the potential repair costs. If you’re wishing to acquire the most competitive estimate for the roof repairs, it will greatly benefit if you contact at least two or three roofing companies for the required work. In choosing the right contractor, it is generally best to go with those offering a competitive rate, while was so having a great deal of knowledge and experience in the roofing trade.

Finding The Perfect Roof Material

Did you know that a roof material can make or break the look of your home? Did you know that the value of your home could be impacted by the roof material you choose?

Many people have never even thought about the statement their roof is or isn’t making for their home. In fact, most homeowners simply ignore their roof until there is a problem or in need of repair. Even then, most people just choose to replace their roof with the same material as before.

Choosing The Right Style

There are many different types of roof materials, each with their own benefits and drawbacks. For most people choosing a material is as simple as replacing the old material. However, simply upgrading the roof to a new or different style could make a bold, and profitable, statement.

The most traditional roof material choice is composite asphalt shingles. These shingles are known for their cheap pricing and variety of colors. As one of the most versatile roof materials around they make great choices for homes with complex rooflines or lots of detail, such as historically styled homes.

Clay or slate tile is a lesser popular roof material but are great for higher temperatures and dry climates. These roof tiles can easily withstand the high temperatures and UV rays of the sun for climates that are exposed to several warmer months of the year. These tiles present a unique look and are great for regions that are thematic, such as the southwest.

Metal roofs are becoming more popular among homeowner due to the fact that they are low maintenance. Cool and wet climates can benefit from the ease of care a metal roof has to offer. They are great for preventing mold and mildew associated with increased moisture and can easily tolerate snow buildup in cold temperatures.

Checking For Upgrades

These days, everyone is trying to do their part for the environment and choosing a recycled or green roofing material can help. Many of the traditional materials are now offered in recycled varieties or with the option to be recycled after use. You can now find asphalt shingles that are made from recycled rubber and plastic or recycled metal roofs made from scrap metal. Clay and slate tiles don’t require recycling as they are already environmentally friendly products made from earthy materials. Solar panels and even green roof materials, made from vegetation, are also great options for upgrading the look and quality of your home’s roof.

How to Paint Aluminium Window Frames

If you have old aluminium windows that you want to either restore the existing colour or you wish to change the colour, then, you can rest easy. You’ve come to the right place.

The process of aluminium window painting can be broken down into a series of steps with two distinct stages. These are preparation and application. The inexperienced however, will try and skip on the preparation to the detriment of the look and durability of the finished product.


The amount of preparation needed mainly depends on the type and condition of the original substrate. For example, if you have old powder coated painted aluminium windows that has chalky paint and rubs off against your fingers, then this will take a lot more preparation than newer powder coated surface that’s not chalking and is being painted for a colour change.

However, anodized aluminium windows will take a lot more preparation than all other substrates regardless of its substrate condition because, the surfaces needs a lot more mechanical abrasion to key the surface up enough to allow the paint to stick.

Protection of adjacent finished surfaces- Whenever you are painting isolated section, it is important that you protect adjacent finished surfaces. When painting the aluminium windows in your home or apartment, you’ll need to think about putting plastic drop sheets down, followed by canvas drop sheets. I suggest applying plastic film and 3M, which you can with a hand dispenser to protect the glass and the walls directly surrounding the window frame.

Cleaning – Make sure all surfaces are clean and free of dirt. Grime and grease are critical in the process of aluminium window painting. If surfaces are dirty then paint adhesion is reduced. Clean the frames on the outside with soapy water and a sponge. However, use a soap that is salt free such as truck wash. Wash off all excess soap with clean fresh water.

Then, alternately clean surfaces down both inside and out with solvent wash such as prepsol.

Use a scour to apply the solvent. The scour will clean and key the surface at the same time. It is important that you carry out a second solvent wash on dirty windows by applying solvent with a clean cloth then wiping off with another clean cloth.

Sanding the substrate – There is no easy way around this process. This can be difficult and monotonous especially getting into the tighter spots such as the upper channel because there is no mechanical sanding equipment that can make the job a lot quicker. Thus, doing the job manually by hand is hard and time consuming.

If you have powder coated surface that is chalking, I would recommend sanding with 120 grit. The sand paper is less likely to clog. If your substrate is powder coated and is not chalking then 240 grit will be enough to key the surface especially if you have scoured it first. However, if your substrate is anodized then you’re in for some real work because you’ll need to break out the 60 grit sand paper. Have some masking tape band aids for the ends of your fingers ready because this is where you are going to be “rubbing your fingers to the bone.”

Sixty grit will really carve the anodized surface up. And you would want the paint to really stick, right? Skip this and you’ll be doing the job all over again. Once you’ve done this, it’s best that you go over the job again with 120 grit sand paper to smooth out the gouges caused by the 60 grit.

You’re nearly ready to start the fun part which is applying the paint. Just before you paint a window give it another clean wipe using your solvent wash, remember to use two different clean cloths.

Painting- Use a three coat system with the first coat being a primer sealer light coat- use a single pac etch primer. The second coat being the first of the top coats, then the second top coat being the third coat.

At this point, you have to make a couple of choices. First, what type of paint do you want to apply? I recommend either oil based enamel or a two pac poly urethane. If you have little or no experience with using two pacs, stick with the oil based enamels and apply it using a quality brush. However, if you have used two pacs before, then, the only way to apply them is by using an HVLP spray gun in order to gain quality finish. The benefit of using a two pac paint over an oil based enamel, is that you will get a more durable quality finish that closely resembles a powder coat finish.

Functions of Mechanical Tools and Equipments Used for Construction

A construction site usually has many mechanical tools and equipments in the scene, each having a specific and important function to perform. The main purpose of using mechanical tools like cement mixers is to significantly lower down the work load of the construction site workers.

These machine based tools and equipments also enable fast construction works that save time as well as construction costs. It is the result of using these powerful tools that even the biggest construction projects are completed with ease and within the designated deadlines. For the rest of the discussion, you can learn about the functionality of cement mixers and other construction site mechanical tools.

Cement or Concrete Mixers

Concrete is an important constituent required for the construction work. Cement mixers are the mechanical tools used for the preparation of concrete by mixing cement, sand and water. The function of these tools is to make concrete ready on the construction site so that it can be used for construction before hardening. These mixers have wheels that make them easy to be transported to different parts of construction sites. Concrete mixing transportation trucks are the advanced versions of these mixers.


Forklift is a useful construction site mechanical equipment type which is also known by many names like lift truck, trailer loader, tow motor and fork truck. An important function of these trucks is to lift the construction materials. They are also used for the transportation of these materials. Some of the common forklift designs include hand pallet truck, rider stacker, side loader, rider stacker and others.


Just like cement mixers and forklifts, loaders too are the important mechanical tools that are a part of any construction project. As the name suggests, these equipments are used to load different construction materials like asphalt, gravel, sand, rock and debris to other types of mechanical equipments. Dump tucks, for example, are loaded with debris, dirt or other waste materials using loaders. Some of the popular designs of these equipments include armored wheel loaders, tractor front loaders and skid loaders.


In order to lift and move abnormally heavy loads, cranes are the befitting equipments one can see at different construction sites. It is one machine which makes use of many small mechanical tools to perform its functions. Lever, pulley and hydraulic cylinder are among the small machines that enable a crane to work. There are numerous types of cranes, each designed to perform for different projects related to construction industry.

Backhoe Loaders

Small construction projects require small sized cement mixers and loaders. Backhoe loaders are the mechanical equipments used for building a small house or repairing a road or any other similar type of project. Transportation of building materials, paving roads and demolition of small structures are among the functions performed by these machines.

Skid steer, excavators, crawlers, road rollers and many other mechanical tools and equipments are used in conjunction with cement mixers, cranes and other aforementioned machines to make task easier at construction sites. It is important that all these importance machines are purchased carefully and only from reputed manufacturers and suppliers.

Drain Cleaning Tactics And Options

What better way to start the New Year than with clean drains! Okay…maybe you can think of a few better ways to start off the New Year, but as a plumber, we want to make sure you know about your drain cleaning options. Preventative drain maintenance is a great way to save money and reduce stress. When you schedule a routine drain cleaning, you are greatly reducing the chance that you’ll find yourself in a situation of having an emergency drain problem (like when you’re just about the leave for vacation or having guests over for the weekend!). You have several options to ensure that you get that peace of mind:


Drain snaking is a simple, yet effective way to provide drain cleaning. San Diego residents can benefit from the use of a specialized cable (the snaking technique) which will effectively clear through most two inch and four inch drains to clear the obstructions in your sewer lines. Many places even offer packages include snaking of all your two-inch drains within your home, as well as your four-inch main line.


Using the high-pressure water system, hydro jetting is extremely effective in removing debris (including roots and grease) from your drain lines and providing you with the very best in drain cleaning. San Diego residents know the results of hydro-jetting lasts longer and also carry a longer warranty. Using hydro jetting on your 2-inch drain lines, specifically on your kitchen drain, is ideal in removing that stubborn grease that builds up in the line over time. Hydro jetting utilizes specialized nozzles powered by water up to 3,000 PSI to thoroughly clean drain lines. Specialized tools are also used to restore your drain line to its original diameter.

Sewer Camera Inspections

For those stubborn San Diego drain-cleaning issues that keep happening to your sewer line, you can schedule a sewer camera inspection to find out exactly what is causing the issue and where that issue is. Technology exists to pinpoint exactly where the problem is so that you can receive an estimate to repair that issue immediately.

Epoxy Sewer Lining

Also known as “drain-lining” this trench free technology is the most effective way to make sure your San Diego drain cleaning service works well and your sewer lines do not continue to cause you problems. Using the sewer camera, your San Diego drain cleaning technician will first inspect the line to evaluate the drain system, properly diagnose the problem and offer you options for a permanent solution. After using specialized tools to restore the sewer line, a felt liner saturated with an epoxy mixture is placed into the exact location needed to make the pipe repair. The liner (or bladder) is inflated, creating a pipe inside of a pipe. Once the epoxy is cured, the bladder is removed and your new pipe is ready to use.

The Top 10 Signs You Could Benefit From Wellness Coaching

1. You start a new diet … every single Monday morning.

2. You start to fall off said diet by Tuesday or Wednesday … and by Friday, forget it! You decide to call it a week and start fresh on Monday morning.

3. You wish you could look like and have the bubbly attitude of the spin instructor at your gym but you just can not seem to get past believing exercise is a chore or – even worse – a punishment.

4. Your relationship with food and exercise bears a striking resemblance to the love-hate affair between Elizabeth Taylor and Richard Burton.

5. You think you can get your life and weight under control by popping fat burners, diet supplements and other OTC drugs.

6. You weigh yourself daily and your self-esteem and confidence correlate directly with the reading on the scale.

7. Some days, you daydream about running away from it all and imagine what it'd be like to have no worries and no responsibilities.

8. Other days, you daydream about going back in time to when you were a kid and your parents took care of you.

9. You lack a support system to help you sort through and manage your problems.

10. You wish you had a script that could help you figure out your life and how you're supposed to be living it.

If any of the above statements resonate with you, there's a good chance you could benefit from working with a wellness coach.

In today's fast-paced world, maintaining a healthy lifestyle is not always easy. Intellectually, you might know what you need to do – eat clean, exercise more, find time to relax and restore balance in your life – but actually finding time to DO those things, in addition to your other responsibilities, may seem impossible. After all, who has time to sit down and map out how to reach one's personal wellness goals when there are kids' lunches to pack, team practices to get to, homework to help finish, family dinners to cook, cleaning to do, dogs to walk, and / or a career to maintain? So instead of thinking about your personal goals and realistic ways of reaching them, you try the next fad diet or buy a few of the super foods and supplements you heard recommended by the well-known TV doctor everyone loves. But none of your efforts seem to stick and you just end up more and more frustrated with your seeming failures at staying on the road to wellness.

Would not it be nice if you had your own personal compass for your wellness journey? Someone to tell you when you're veering off-course before you've landed in a ditch (ditches that seem to get deeper and deeper, and harder to escape, with each passing year)? Someone to keep you pointed in the right direction when you've become distracted by "life" and feel like you might be heading for a tailspin? Someone to remind you why you started this journey in the first place?

A wellness coach can be your personal compass on the road to healthier living. In fact, a wellness coach will do even more than a conventional compass. Coaching will address the needs of your mind, body and spirit, taking a holistic approach to the recovery of your health. A wellness coach will first help you identify your vision for wellness and then create realistic goals for achieving that vision. Using your personal values ​​and strengths, and factoring in your lifestyle and daily routines, your coach will aid you in translating your goals into action plans that will get you moving in the right direction. Regular progress reports and on-going dialogue will enable your coach to monitor your progress and tweak your plans to keep you from derailing. Everything about the plans will be tailored for you and your lifestyle, greatly improving your chances for long-term success.

The idea of ​​having a wellness coach might seem like a luxury – something only the rich and famous can afford to do. It is true that there is a cost associated with hiring a wellness coach but think of it as investing in the only asset you can not live without – your well-being. We all know that advances in technology and medicine have extended the lifespan of the average human. Living those extra years in a state of wellness is hardly something on which you can put a price tag. A wellness coach will not only help you change bad habits and meet short-term objectives but will also facilitate lasting change and growth. The return on your investment is certain to be worth it in the long run.

Futures Trading Contracts

Futures trading contracts are normally classified into two types – Commodities and Treasuries. The term commodities refer to the contracts traded for physical delivery. Also known as financial instruments, Treasuries, are futures contracts ended with a cash settlement. Futures contracts can be traded directly and electronically.

Commodity futures contracts follow the same trading principles of shares of a stock market. The only difference is that every commodity contracts end in delivery. Its online trading version always depends on speculators and hedgers.

The commodity futures trading put some obligations on the buyers and sellers. The buyer is responsible for taking delivery and paying for the cash commodity during a fixed time period. The seller is responsible for delivering the commodity, for which he / she will be paid the price that was decided in the exchange pit by the dealers.

Commodity futures create a contract to sell or buy the goods for a fixed price by a certain date in the future. This contract period is the major reason of the huge potential for profit and loss. Future trading also involves all the exciting aspects of trading, as it intrinsically occupies predictions of the future and consequently uncertainty and risk.

Treasuries Futures contracts, which is traded for cash settlement, include treasury notes, bonds, short sterling, gilt, euribor, etc. These types of contacts are also popular by the name 'currency futures'. These contracts are generally traded through electronic platforms.

Oil, grain and metal contracts are same example for the Commodity Futures trading. Soybean, sugar, oats, corn, wheat, etc are example for agricultural commodities. Future oil contracts include crude oil, heating oil, natural gas, etc. Examples for commodity metal contracts are gold, silver, platinum, etc.

Baby Wild Birds – To Help Or Not to Help

Spring is here and early summer is on the way. With early summer comes baby birds leaving the nest. Many people see a baby bird on the ground and immediately think they should do something to help it. However, before you try to help any baby wild bird you should be certain that the bird really needs your help. There are several things to consider before you attempt to provide assistance.

A key point to remember is that some birds actually nest on the ground, especially precocial birds. These are birds that are covered with down feathers and can move about with the parents almost as soon as they are hatched. Gallinaceous birds (quails, pheasants, turkeys, grouse), shorebirds and ducks are precocial. Therefore, if you see baby quails, turkey, shorebirds or ducks on the ground before they can fly, remember, they belong there.

Another thing you should know about is fledglings. These are baby birds that have left the nest but are not fully feathered. Their flying skills are limited to short low flights or long hops. Do not worry if you see a fledgling on the ground. Most birds leave the nest before they can fly and this is a normal part of their development. The parents will coach the young birds to safety by calling them or landing on the ground and leading them to shelter. The baby may be very noisy and that , too, is normal. The baby calls to the parents for food in much the same way a human baby cries for attention. Robin, Towhee, Jay and Sparrow fledglings are most frequently encountered on the ground in backyards and parks. Remember, they belong there.

Now you know that not all baby birds require your assistance. So, how do you determine if a baby bird is healthy and happy or one that truly needs you help?

The first thing you need to determine is if the parent birds are taking care of the baby or not. To best accomplish this clear children, pets and yourself out of the area but position yourself out of sight such that you can still observe the baby. This will give the parents the opportunity to come to the baby. Wait patiently for at least one hour to see if the parent birds come in to the baby. Why so long? You must remember that the parents will usually have more than one fledgling to feed and care for and each baby must wait his turn to feed.

If it is not possible to keep the neighbors cat or children away from the bird, by all means move the baby to shelter. This is best done by capturing the bird by placing a towel over it and releasing it in low, thick shrubs. Do not place a fledgling high in a tree. Remember, they cannot fly yet. Start timing the hour over again. Contrary to popular believe, the adult birds will not abandon the fledgling because you have touched it. They have very strong parental instincts, much like humans. The baby will continue to call and the adult birds will generally find him and continue to care for him.

What should you do when an hour has passed and the parent birds have not returned to the baby? Remember, all native wild birds are protected by law so the first step is to call a rehabilitation center or the local wildlife agency or game warden. These people are the best ones to advise you on the local species.

If it is not possible to reach anyone immediately you will need to take action. Locate a container which is large enough for the fledgling to stand and turn around in, but is small enough so that it can not flutter around and hurt itself. Line the bottom of the container with paper towels or tissues. Carefully capture the baby with a towel and place it in the container. Cover the container with the towel remembering to leave a small gap for air circulation. Place the container in a quiet and warm location. Do not play music for the bird or place him on a heating pad and avoid peeking at him as that will induce stress on the baby.

Continue to try to reach the proper officials. It is very hard for the average person to care for a wild baby bird. Different bird species need different foods and feeding the wrong food can be a disaster. Avoid feeding bread to young birds. Adult birds have gravel in their crop and can grind bread crumbs. Often, the crop of baby birds is empty and the bread can compact and can cause death.

ALWAYS REMEMBER that all native wild birds are protected by law and it is not legal for you to posses a wild bird unless you are licensed to do so. Get the fledgling to a licensed, experienced person as soon as possible. If you cannot reach your local game warden try the local animal shelter, humane society, police or veterinarian. With luck they will be able to provide you with the contact information that you need.

Air Conditioning and Heating – What Are The Best Thermostat Settings?

When temperatures are high outside, many people respond by blasting their air conditioning inside to compensate. Then, when the temperature hits 30 degrees in the winter months, many respond by jacking up the heat on their thermostats. While this might provide you comfort, it can be a drain financially. The key to controlling your heating and cooling bill is to find the right thermostat and the right settings.

Adjusting your thermostat properly to match the changes in weather is part art and part science. It requires an understanding of the optimum temperature to keep you comfortable without running up energy bill. The recommended temperature is 68 degrees. However, when it's freezing outside sometimes 68 degrees does not feel warm enough and people often end up raising the temperature on the thermostat. But there are two new options that free people from having to constantly adjust their thermostat. They are programmable thermostats and smart thermostats.

Programmable thermostats allow people to set the most comfortable and cost-effective temperature for both summer and winter. With these thermostats you only set the temperature once and the system adjusts as necessary to keep your home at a comfortable temperature all year long. This ensures that no matter the weather conditions, you will save money and not waste energy. These systems offer a level of convenience not available before.

Controlling your air conditioning and heating cost is important, especially in this difficult economic climate. Dramatic changes in temperature throughout the year means either the air conditioning or heating system will have to be working. With proper planning or through the use of programmable thermostats you can keep your home or business comfortable without your energy costs going through the roof.

With programmable thermostats you can program the settings for blocks of time. They can be set for 8-hour blocks or for blocks as long as 7 days. You can also change the setting if you will be going on vacation and not lose your presets if you have zone heating and cooling; each zone can have its own programmable thermostat. Some of these thermostats even have systems to remind you to change your air filters or alert you of air conditioner or furnace problems. This saves you money on heating and cooling costs and can prevent expensive repairs.

Smart thermostats cost a little more, but they pay for themselves with the money you will save on energy costs. They have presets and zone controls like programmable thermostats, but they also allow for more control of the temperature within your home. There are smart thermostats that can be controlled by computers or smart phones and are touch screen operated. Smart thermostats are learning thermostats that remember your preferences and automatically make the temperature changes you have made in the past. Smart thermostats that use smart grid technology can provide real-time data about energy usage in your home and can make your energy bills more accurate.

Effective Power Transmission Systems – The Cornerstone of the Manufacturing Process

Power transmission systems form the backbone of nearly every industrial process. Assembly lines are driven by mechanical propulsion systems and they are the most common method for mass production of products, from automobiles to consumer goods. Liquids are moved in chemical processes by pumps that make gasoline, diesel, heating oil, and plastics and specialty chemicals. In the home, compressors can be found in the back of every refrigerator to run the refrigeration cycle that keeps our food fresh and in the air conditioners that cool our homes. Commercial appliances, farm equipment, and business equipment all use power transmission systems to run businesses and make our lives easier.

Power transmission systems break down into sub-systems, motors, drive systems, and bearings. In this article, we will examine each sub-system and analyze the choices and applications available for industry.

Motors That Drive Industry

Motors are ubiquitous in industry. Converting energy, be it electrical, steam, or compressed air, into work is the paradigm that runs manufacturing. They are the essential part of power transmission systems and are thus seen in every facet of life even outside of manufacturing.

Motors can be used to move air by driving fans. Fan blades can either be attached directly to the motor's shaft, or a drive system, typically a belt, can link the power generated to the fan blades. In order to compress gases, motors run compressors. Pressurized gases are the working fluid for refrigeration systems. Every piece of food that is kept cold and every air conditioner utilize a motor driven compressor. Pressurizing air is another widely used application for powering tools.

Motor driven pumps are the essential component when moving liquids. Centrifugal pumps use a motor to spin an impeller, which accelerates the movement of liquid. It then flows through a volute or diffuser to increase the liquid pressure. Positive displacement pumps pressurize liquids by trapping them in a chamber and then using a motor to apply a force. Imagine a piston in a cylinder, similar to a car engine.

Motors are found practically everywhere, from cars and refrigerators to industry and business.

Powering Mechanical Drive Systems

In a power transmission system, where the motors generate power, drive systems transfer that power to perform work. In a technical sense, drive systems convert a motor's cyclical power into linear motion. This is how a motor can spin in a circle, but provides the power to run a conveyor belt in a straight line.

The most simple drive system is a direct coupling. Take a spinning motor shaft and weld fan blades onto the end to create a fan to move air. Centrifugal pumps' impeller fans are also directly coupled, as well as sealed to contain liquid, to the drive shaft of the motor. While simple in design, direct coupling is limited to one device operated per motor, and the need to have many motors.

To transfer linear motion to a device that is not directly coupled to a motor, belt and pulley systems are often used. Belts have been in use since the 18th century in water-powered textile mills. The concept is that the motor turns a pulley with a belt attached that runs to a series of pulleys and bushings all attached to other equipment. In this way, one motor can drive multiple machines, as its power is transferred via the belt. Belt and pulley systems can also be synchronized, like the system in a car engine that uses power from the engine to run the alternator, air conditioner, and power steering.

Chain systems are another form of power transmission of linear motion. Often seen in conveyor belts, chain systems transfer a motor's power directly into work, such as moving an assembly line. Mass production facilities utilize this direct application of power as their means of production.

The Right Bearings To Maintain Operation

With all of these heavy metal components in motion, lubrication is needed to ensure smooth movement and power transmission as well as to reduce the load that friction will apply to materials. Bearings are used as the essential method for ensuring that metal does not grind against metal, destroying the machinery. They consist of a set of concentric rings with ball bearings and lubricating fluid set between them. Bearings will support a load in any direction depending on their configuration so they can be used in rotary and linear motion applications.

Linear motion bearings are commonly seen as rollers that will guide material along a specific path. Radial bearings support loads that run perpendicular to the axis of rotation and thrust bearings support loads that run parallel. A full set will support a motor shaft and prevent excessive vibration, friction, and material wear. Advanced bearings will include ports that allow a steady flow of fresh lubricant to enter the bearings and provide a cooling effect for high temperature applications. Ultimately, bearings can be custom made to even support non-uniform shapes.

When all of the components of a power transmission system are designed with integration in mind, work is accomplished more effectively with less down time. Motors that are properly supported by bearings and a drive system that transfers energy into work are the cornerstones of manufacturing processes.

Improve Intelligence

Every parent, every boss, every teacher, possibly everyone wants to improve intelligence, because we operate from this paradigm that improved intelligence somehow makes us quicker, faster, richer, smarter, you fill in the blank…. If I somehow have more of ‘it’, then I will achieve more and achieve ‘it’ more easily.

But what is intelligence at the level of the brain? The psychologists will measure a number of constructs, but at the level of the neuron, intelligence is the connections between neurons, what we have learned to call neuroplasticity, and neuroplasticity can be enhanced, recovered, nurtured.

In fact, you could make a point that since it is now accepted science that we grow new neurons every day, which we call neurogenesis, that we can grow new intelligence every day,and the brain fitness folks are saying that we can work out our brain to make it a most hospitable place for neuroplasticity, and neurogenesis to happen.

So improving intelligence will certainly involve working out the brain, as Simon Evans,PH.D. and Paul Burghardt,Ph.D. point out int their excellent e-book called Brainfit for Life. Evans and Burghardt make a compelling case for taking care of the brain and its neuroplastic and neurogenetic capacities. Taking care of the hardware makes the software more effective, so if we think of improving intelligence as a goal, then I want to suggest that a brain growing more neurons and forming new connections is a brain with more intelligence.

Evans and Burghardt site the research and make a compelling case for taking care of what they call the pillars of brain fitness, which are physical activity/exercise, nutrition, including lots of antioxidants and omega 3 fatty acids, good sleep, stress management, and novel learning experiences to improve intelligence.

Sounds vaguely like messages you got from Grandmother, except for the novel learning experience part, right, because the Seniors I know now say cross word puzzles and sudoku keep their brains sharp, which is correct up to a point.

The novel learning experience that really improves neuroplasticity and neurogenesis is the kind of novel learning experience you experience when you are learning a new language or a new instrument, where there is a continually growing complexity and an appropriate amount of success and failure.

So the key to this brain fitness pillar is that it is novel, and doing crosswords or sudoku which do not increase in complexity will not be the best help for my brain.

Put another way, as a counselor, I cannot read another counseling book, and expect increased neurogenesis or neuroplasticity.

But What About My Schedule…?

Is there a solution to improved intelligence and my limited schedule for practicing a new instrument or new language?

Well, Evans and Burghadt describe some research about a computerized task called the dual n back task.

It increases what is called fluid intelligence, which is very broadly, the intelligence that allows me to pick one stimulus from many to pay attention to.

Practice with this tool will rapidly teach you about your lack of attentional skills, meaning you will learn how fast you drift away from a task.

The dual n back practice will impact the neuroplastic connections between your attention paying neurons, and the researchers have actually demonstrated in increased intelligence using a paper and pencil intelligence test, so it is possible isn’t it, to demonstrate improved intelligence.

The catch? The experimenters tried a number of different practice schedules, and the schedule demonstrating the most success was the practice one time per day for nineteen days schedule, each practice lasting a half-hour, so there is a time commitment, and a need to follow through regularly for the best results.

Practice makes perfect for your neurons too, and your boss/teacher/supervisor/wife will love you newly improved intelligence.

Analytical Cash Receipts and Cash Payments Books

The Performa of analytical cash receipts and cash payments books relating to the insurance business appears in this page. Any business can modify suitably the proforma depending upon its own requirements.

Petty Cash Book

Every business has to make payments involving smaller or petty amount, eg. carriage, cartage, cooly hire, postage telegrams etc. Such payments, by their very nature can not be made by cheques. It is usual for the business units to maintain a separate cash book to record small payments only. Such cash book is known as Petty Cash Book. It relieves the main cash book of numerous transactions involving petty sums and also helps in reducing the work-load of chief cashier.

Imprested System

Under this method, petty cashier is provided with a fixed amount of money known as imprested or float which is sufficient to meet the needs of balancing period. Balancing period may be a week or fortnight or month. At the end of balancing period the petty cashier is given fresh cheque of the amount equal to his payments during the same period. Thus, in the beginning, every time, he will start with the amount fixed: ie imprested or float.

Usual method of maintaining petty cash book is to rule it for obtaining analysis of expenditure. The book will have one column on the debit side to record receipt of cash (only from the main cashier) and credit side is divided into different columns. Each column is reserved for one particular type of expenditure. Name and number of columns in each case will depend upon the requirements of the business.


(1) Reduces the work load of chief cashier.

(2) Effective control can be exercised over small payments because each payment has to be supported by vouchers and vouchers are examined frequently ie. at the end of each balancing period.

(3) Saving in labor because each payment is not required to be posted in the ledger separately.

Accounting Treatment

The periodical cheques drawn for petty cash are entered on the credit side of the cash book and debited to Petty Cash A / c in the ledger. Such amount shall also be entered on the debit side of the Petty Cash Book (for memorandum purposes). At the balancing period the Petty Cash Book will be analyzed under the different columns provided in it. For each column provided init (except ledger and miscellaneous columns) one nominal account is opened in the ledger. Each expense account or nominal account will be debited and Petty Cash Ale will be credited. This should be done by means of journal entry. Reason is that here petty cash book is considered to be a memorandum book only.

Analytical or Columnar Petty Cash Book

While recording the transactions in petty cash book if all the expenses are analyzed and entries are recorded in cash book on the basis of this analysis. such petty cash book is called 'analytical petty cashbook'. For recording the expenses in this book, whole of the petty expenses are classified into few 'heads' and a decision is taken as to which of the petty expenditure is to be recorded under which head. All expenses are recorded in the books according to the decision. The description of each expenditure is recorded in particulars column but the head of expenditure recorded in separate columns. At the end of period this petty cash book is balanced in the same manner as in case of simple petty cash book.

Making Candies

The air is cold, the snow is starting to fall and you realize that the seasons are fast approaching. Every season has its own feeling and when winter arrives you may feel warm and cozy and excited like you did when you were a child opening presents. How do you prepare for the holidays?

The holidays are a very special time of year, whether you celebrate Christmas, Hanukkah, Kwanza or another religion. It's a time for family, for peace and cheer, and having fun. It's also a great time for homemade candy and treats, especially if your family is overseas and away from home. There are many different holiday candies that can be made that will ship well overseas to the servicemen and women that are unable to make it home to be with their families. It gives them a tiny slice of home and something to share to make their holidays brighter.

English toffee is easy to make and hardens with a just a little time in the refrigerator. Made with butter, sugar, water and some vanilla extract, the toffee itself is spread out on a baking sheet after being heated to three hundred degrees Fahrenheit. While still hot, spread melted chocolate over the toffee; sprinkle chopped nuts on top and then let it harden in the refrigerator. Once set, break apart into piece and store in a zip lock bag in the refrigerator. If you temper your chocolate prior to spreading it over the toffee, it will not need to be kept cool and you can ship the chocolate covered toffee overseas without the chocolate melting.

Popcorn balls are another delicious treat that holds up well in travel. These easy to make treats are a great way to get the children involved as well. By using flavored gelatin, the popcorn balls can be rolled together in a variety of colors. Simply melt butter and a package of large marshmallows in a pan, stir in the gelatin and mix well then pour over the popcorn to roll. Wrap them in pretty colored cellophane after cooling and you can ship your favorite person a treat specifically for them in the favorite team or holiday colors.

Peanut brittle is a great way to relieve a little frustration of your loved ones not being home to celebrate the holidays with you. After combining and cooking the ingredients into the brittle and making sure it has hardened, take a mallet and break the brittle into pieces. This little bit of stress reliever is not only fun, but useful. Just make sure you do not pulverize the delicious candy you just made in your enthusiasm.

There are other sweet treats you can make to ship out to your loved ones that will hold up well during overseas travel. Peppermint candies, hard candies, anything that will not easily melt are the perfect treat. There are thousands of simple, easy to make recipes that can be found on the Internet, including some that can made in the microwave. It is a little piece of home that will make your family feel closer to you over the holidays and show them just how much they are loved and missed.

How Brick Stone Can Make Your Home Energy Efficient

Brick Stone Home Energy Efficient

A home that's energy-efficient is actually healthier and more cost effective. Energy efficiency modifications in your home can eliminate or at least lessen the poor quality of air that's brought in by various weather conditions. One way to make your home energy efficient is to pay attention to the building materials and to the house design.

In Australia, bricks have long been recognized as commonly chosen building materials. In fact, nearly 90% of built houses are constructed using bricks. Because of the campaign to decrease energy consumption in its entire form, there are building regulations these days that require the newly built houses to be more energy efficient. There are some things you need to know in order to come up with an informed choice.

Think about the amount of energy that's usually consumed in your home. Maybe, you'll be surprised to find out that a large part of the home energy is used up in cooling and heating. Cooking and lighting, even when put together, comprise only a few percent. Hence, anything which can help lessen the cooling and heating bills of your home will be a good investment, right? But the question is, do you think it is possible to cut down cooling and heating energy consumption while keeping up a practical thermal comfort inside your home? It is in this case that passive design comes into play.

Passive design handles the energy coming from the sun to improve the house's cooling and heating in a natural way. There are actually four major principles in passive design. These are orientation, ventilation, insulation and thermal mass.

Orientation – The huge glass portion in the north part allows the low winter sun in. And to block the high summer sun, simple shading like eaves is applied.

Ventilation – When the crest of summer time has already passed, air is permitted to get in and go out of the house in order to make it cool in a natural manner. To optimize cross ventilation, either side of the building or the house has generous openings with almost negligible internal obstructions.

Insulation – The insulation in the wall and ceiling serves as the obstacle to heat transportation. Insulation efficiency can be calculated by means of its R-value but it does not present the whole issue. Various walls may have the same R-value but may not work the same.

Thermal Mass – Wall materials that are dense and heavy, like bricks, suck up heat and hamper its conveyance through the walls. Through these, temperature changes become moderate and the heat absorption during summer is significantly hampered. Compared to brick walls, the lightweight materials have very low thermal mass. And because of this thermal mass, brick walls turn out to be more capable of moderating home temperature even if they have similar R-values.

Now come to think of thermal mass and consider brick stone. The first two techniques in the passive design, which are orientation and ventilation, need to be set up into the house. And your home material preference has a major effect on the quantity of thermal mass in a house or a building. One of the simplest and most economical ways to put up thermal mass is through bricks. Those bricks that are made from clay contain very high thermal mass. They are available to make your home well ventilated, comfortable and more energy efficient.

There is a research proving the idea that Brick stone homes are energy efficient. The said research has revealed that a large part of the heat is bounced back to the outside environment via the brick's exterior panel. Another conclusion that came out is that in summertime, the temperature inside a home that's constructed from bricks remained favorable and comfortable in spite of the changing temperature outside.

The US Department of Energy stated that thermal mass stores up heat by means of converting its temperature. It can be achieved by storing heat coming from a warm room or by means or transforming direct solar radiation into heat. And since brick stone has more thermal mass than other building lightweight materials, it is a very useful element that can be used up in making your home more energy efficient.

To sum up, brick is a very simple and inexpensive technique in putting up thermal mass in your next home. Therefore a brick stone home is more energy efficient than those thatare made from other materials.

Choosing an Apartment With Amenities

When choosing an apartment it may be important to you to have the apartment sit in a gorgeous setting. Surely you will want an apartment that you will always feel safe in and maybe a gated community is what you are looking for. A benefit to look for is a balcony or patio so you can sit outside to enjoy the California sunshine while letting your every care be a distant memory.

Perhaps you are looking for an apartment located in the West Valley of Los Angeles? If you are attending college you may need to be able to easily access one or two major freeways from your apartment.

Maybe you want to retire to an apartment. If this is the case, you will want to be offered an affordable apartment, minutes from many fun and exciting things to do and the added benefit that all of the amenities are a very affordable price. The amenities you may be looking for include: a state of the art fitness center that is open twenty four hours a day, a tennis court that is lighted, a luxurious heated swimming pool, a walking and jogging track to get your exercise in if you so choose, a putting green, spa, sauna, laundry area and recreation room. Your view may include breathtaking views of the fountains and gardens.

You could be looking for the choice of being able to choose from a studio apartment, one bedroom apartment, two bedroom apartments and three bedroom apartments. Usually in apartments the number of bathrooms and closets in each apartment depends on the number of bedrooms. For instance, there is one closet and one bathroom in most studio apartments whereas the three bedroom apartments have four closets and two bathrooms.

When choosing an apartment it may be important to you to live in one that offers a garbage disposal and dishwasher as we know you live a very busy life. A must in California is central air as well as heating for those chilly nights so make sure that is on your list when choosing an apartment.

Some additional amenities you may be looking for when choosing an apartment is a unit that offers a mirrored fireplace, wood burning stove, a breakfast bar, etc.

Once you move into the apartment of your choice you may invite your friends and family over. If you chose an apartment that offers a recreation room you and your guests can meet in the spacious recreation room and you will keep your own apartment clean. All of you can enjoy a relaxing day or evening in the heated pool, spa and sauna while catching up with each other. If your apartment building offers a tennis court you could challenge each other to a game of tennis at night as the court is well lit. The following morning you and your guests can take a long walk or jog around the track. Throw your laundry in while you and your guests have fun on the putting green. Take a little break by the stunning fountains and gardens.

Show your guests the mall and other close by areas as you are very close to downtown Los Angeles in your new apartment. You are also not far from Malibu Beach. Before you know it your friends and family will want to move into an apartment in the area you live in as well.

You may want to choose an apartment that will hook you up to the Internet as soon as you move in. You will be able to use your computer for business or fun immediately. Your new apartment may also offer cable if you so choose to accept it.

When choosing an apartment you may need one that offers very flexible rental leasing options. You may sign a lease that is six months, nine months, or annually. You can make arrangements to stay a short amount of time as well.

The benefit of an apartment that you choose may make you feel like you are on vacation, but you will feel very comfortable and at home living in it.