Commercial Real Estate Contract Language

Commercial real estate contract language or terminology is different in many ways from what you may be used to seeing in a residential deal. Listed below are a few of these terms. You should become familiar with these terms, what they mean, and how and why they are used in a commercial real estate contract.

  • Representations and Warranties

In a residential closing, everyone buys homeowner's insurance because the Seller's representations and warranties expire at the closing, unless you insist that they do not. These are the property facts to which the Seller alleges in the sale, such as a solid roof or that no illegal action, including legal cases, are threatening against the property. Always include a representations and warranties clause in your contract that the Seller must live up to even after closing.

Although most commercial sellers will not warrant the roof, sometimes they'll warrant the structure. For instance, they might say that although there are cracks in a certain wall, they had testing done. They would give you a copy of that test, and agree to stand behind the safety of the wall. Any warranty that the Seller makes to you should survive the closing.

  • Commercial Closings

The closing, like the inspection period, is based on a formula. It starts at the end of the inspection period, so it's like a moving window.

  • Brokerages

Your contract must contain language regarding any brokerages involved. If this inclusion is not applicable, each of you wants to hold the other side harmless. This protects both Buyer and Seller if a finder's fee suddenly appears or a broker shows up at the closing, making unexpected claims.

If any brokers are involved in the deal, the contract should list each broker's name and indicate the manner of payment. Often, they may be paid based on a separate agreement between Seller and Broker.

Key Point: Many people write contracts for themselves with no broker language. Even if the broker clause is not applicable, include the broker language in your contract.

  • Assigning a Contract

Many contracts will either not have any assigning ability checked or include no assigning ability at all. If there's a specific paragraph that says the Buyer may assign the contract, the Buyer may freely assign it. However, if the signed contract has no assignment clause, then it is assignable. You do not have to include an assignment clause. Tip: To be safe, always include the assignment clause and specify whether it can be assigned.

These were a few extra commercial real estate contract terms, I felt were important to list in addition to the list I provided in another article posted earlier. If you like what you read or learned here, be sure to review the other article for a continuation of sorts about commercial real estate contract language and how to use it or interpret these items as you move into the commercial realm of investing.

Cross Stitch Storage Tips

Anyone who has cross stitched for years can tell you how quickly all the little bits, threads, fabrics and patterns can accumulate. But the most important thing to know is how to carefully store everything so that it is well organized and you are able to see what supplies you have at a glance. Here are some handy tips on how to store floss, cross stitch patterns, needles and your most current cross stitch project.

One idea is to use small Ziploc sandwich bags to easily store floss. The bags keep the floss protected from dirt and water and are easy to take with you on a trip. Plastic containers with dividers also work wonderful. Clear containers allow you to see inside for a quick visual of the colours available. Plus, all containers allow you to put stickers or labels on the outside of the container. For easy searching, just write the floss number on the sticker or label.

Do you have floss left over from kits or previous projects? If so, separate the colours and wind each colour around its own floss bobbin. There are two kinds of bobbins. The first one is circular and fits nicely into a sewing basket. The second one is a square piece of cardboard and fits nicely into plastic containers with dividers. Next, label each bobbin with the floss number and colour. Then place each labelled bobbin in a storage container that will keep the bobbins in place so they will stay organized after all your hard work.

Another storage tip is for storing your patterns. What do you do if you do not want a drawer full of loose patterns and you do not want to punch holes in your patterns? One great solution to this problem is to use clear plastic sheet protectors, found in your local office supply store. The sheet protectors come with a variety of features – some have three ring holes on the side, or zippers to keep everything in, or they can even come with index tabs attached. Just put each pattern in individual sheet protectors and then put them all in a binder. Use divider tabs in the binder to organize your patterns by designer, type or any other way that makes sense to you. Now everything is tidy and organized!

To keep from losing your needle while changing the floss colour, place your needle on a magnet. If you do not have a magnet handy, you can also place your needle in the top right or left hand corner of your cloth. Simply slip the needle in one hole and backup up a few holes over. Now you will not have to frantically search for your needle that has fallen on the couch or floor.

Are you going on vacation and want to bring your cross stitching with you? Then use plastic containers, such as Tupperware, to store your project and all your supplies. Plastic containers are great because they come in a variety of sizes and some even have dividers. The container (s) will keep your project clean and safe. Clear containers are great as you can see what is in them without having to open them. I find the dividers are useful for sorting threads and other accessories, such as beads or buttons. Happy travels!

Split Unit AC – How A Ductless Air Conditioner Saves You Money

Why consider Split Unit AC? When you have been hit by a heat wave this past summer, you know the value of an effective air conditioner. Either at home, in a home office, or at work, a comfortable environment will help us be more productive and happier. But we also want to save money. In this article we will touch on what it means to be “green” and how to be “green” in terms of energy consumption, and then provide three ways in which a split unit AC or a ductless air conditioner will save you money and help the environment at the same time.

Being green

There is a lot of talk about being “green”, that is, being friendly to the environment that we live in. Many people enjoy recycling, making sure that their room lights are off when they are out, etc. However, very few people know that it is not the recycled bottles but it is the air conditioning in the summer and heating in the winter where we can save the most energy and thus help the environment the most. How do I know that? Well all you have to do is look at your air conditioning bill. The bill ranging into the hundreds, even thousands of dollars per month is the bill that can possibly be drastically reduced. How?

Best way to be green

How to save the most energy and help the environment the most? By replacing the expensive, central air conditioning in our homes with ductless split unit air conditioning! In this article, we will go over three ways in which ductless air conditioner, or split unit AC will save you money compared with the central ducted air conditioning. These three ways you can save are: Cooling individual rooms in the house, Reducing the heat losses in the ducts, and better control of the air flow.

Cooling individual rooms in the house

Split unit AC devices come in single, dual, and quad configurations. This means that you can equip a single room, two, or four rooms or “zones” with a dedicated inside unit. The inside units are then connected with the single outside unit. The cost savings with such split unit air conditioner are obvious. Instead of cooling all the spaces in the house centrally, you just turn on the AC unit in the “zone” where you intend to spend time. Bedroom at night, living room or the home office during the day, etc.

Reducing the heat losses in the ducts

Large central air conditioning unit requires massive air ducts all across the house. As the cold air or the hot air travels through the ducts, some of the heat is transferred outside, and thus the heat losses occur that must be compensated for by the central air conditioner working harder and using more power. There are no ducts in ductless split unit AC air conditioners so duct losses are absent. The refrigerant hoses are well insulated, so the heat losses there are minimal.

Better control of the air flow with a split system

While the room cooling through a central air conditioning system is determined from the get go by the positioning of the exit and entrance duct openings, the ductless split units are more flexible, both as split unit coolers and split unit heat pumps. You can use the remote control not only to control the speed of the air blower, but also to control the exit flaps. By controlling the flaps, you can also control the direction of the air flow to a good degree. By judiciously selecting these parameters, you can even achieve a different climate in different parts of the same room, possibly accommodating people with different temperature comfort levels.

Central Heating

For most American homeowners, the energy required for heating and cooling the largest chunk of their energy bill. The industry that maintains and creates central heating systems is called the HVAC industry. HVAC is not so commonly used by consumers, but it is a good acronym to know. HVAC stands for heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning – or the mechanical systems used to keep interior temperatures comfortable. In today’s world most Denver HVAC systems are combined into one system called central air or central heat.

The central air unit pumps warmed or cooled air through your house through a system of ducts. Compared to older systems like fans and swamp coolers, central heating is more efficient and less invasive than older systems. The units that modern Denver air conditioning services companies operate on now are becoming increasingly efficient, but the average home still uses about half of its energy on central heat. So you can still save a significant amount of money by upgrading your air conditioner.

So next time your furnace breaks, resist calling the local Denver furnace repair company, and instead consider installing a new energy-efficient central heating system. A modern Energy Star certified compressor with a programmable thermostat will save you money while working faster to adjust your interior temperature.

Some central HVAC units pair a air conditioning unit with a furnace, while others use just a heat pump for both heating and cooling. Heat pumps are much more efficient at heating than furnaces. Temperate climates are especially good for heat pump central heating and air because their effectiveness diminishes the further from norm the temperature gets.

Heat pumps and central ac units work by transferring the heat or cold between the outside air and the inside, usually by using some sort of conductive liquid called a refrigerant. For cooling, the compressor then pumps this cool dry air from the outdoor unit around the house.

When shopping for a new HVAC system for your house, you can use some industry benchmarks to help make your decision. AC units are measured by SEER, or Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio. The higher the SEER number, the better the unit is at cooling without using a lot of energy. The Energy Star label also means the unit is more efficient than average. For heat pumps, the industry uses the Heating Seasonal Performance Factor. Just like SEER, a higher HSPF means less energy required for the unit to do its job.

Audi 100 Coupe S

In order to increase production volumes and to meet growing demand of VW Beetle model (also known as Käfer), Volkswagen corporation (hereinafter – VW) came into purchase-sales contract with Daimler-Benz in 1964 and acquired new factory in Ingolstadt as well as ownership of trademarks (Audi, DKW, Horch and Wanderer) of Auto Union GmbH. Since the "beetles" were stamped at a very high speed, working in one factory in several shifts, the main object of the mentioned contract was additional production line rather than increase of model line-up. On the contrary, VW boss Heinrich Nordhoff planned to discontinue further development of Audi and DKW, because the sales of DKW F102 and Audi F103 models were very low.

Dr. Ludwig Kraus held position of development director at Auto Union in those days. This man was initiator of development of new Audi model, which concept was unveiled for VW administration at the final stage only. Heinrich Nordhoff was fascinated by Audi future vision, and "blessed" developing model to see the day light. Since the model received 100 hp aggregate, the new Audi car was symbolically named as "100". Inside the company the model had C1 initials.

Dr. Ludwig Kraus is referred as to "dr. Audi" by some Audi fans, because they believe Audi could have been forgotten without efforts of this person. As the future will show, initiative of Ludwig Kraus inspired the appearance of one of the most successful Audi models ever built.

Closer look to Audi 100 Coupe S
Official debut of Audi 100 Coupe S (hereinafter – Coupe S) was held at International Frankurt Motorshow in 1969. The car featured four-speed manual gearbox and ventilated front disc brakes. These features were not unnecessary luxury components, since the car was able to make 185 km / h (115 mph) top speed what was high achievement at that time. The car also had wider tires, a variable-height steering wheel, tachometer, digital clock and upgraded interior equipment and trim. Power steering was available option from 1973. Though car specification showed Coupe S is a four-seater, the comfortable ride on the back seats was limited by car height (133 cm / 52,36 '').

1 871 ccm, 4-cylinder engine (115 hp) with two carburetors was originally fitted into Audi 100 Coupe S. "Thanks" to carburetors, the appetite of the car was near 17 liters / 100 km (13,84 mpg), while CO² emission did not pass the standards set in certain countries. Starting from 1971, the same engine with one carburetor was offered, what affected lower fuel consumption and slight power decrease.

The car was in production till 1976 and 30 687 exemplars were built in total. The production was canceled due to low sales figures, what was influenced by price increase. Raising the prices was a must for Audi, since manufacture costs were constantly growing. The last Audi 100 Coupe S models were priced at 19.350 DM in Germany, what is ~ 4.000 DM more comparing to the prices in 1970.

Typical Audi 100 Coupe S problems
1,9 L engine does not require any serious investments up to 150 000 km (94 000 miles). Additional liter of engine oil may be necessary in-between changing periods from 100 000 km (62 000 miles); however this problem is solved after replacement of valve seals. The drivers should constantly check engine oil pressure. There were some accidents when the engine oil leaked out because the screws of oil pan got unscrewed. The engine is also sensitive to overheating.

Transmission is a weak point of the car. Synchronizer rings are often replaced within 100 000 km (62 000 miles). The very first sign of this defect is more difficult shifting from 1st to 2nd gear. It should be also taken care on brake master cylinder, which is prone to rust.

The body of Coupe S is Achilles heel. Typical places where rust can be found are: sills, beside the pillar A, metal part under the main console. Due to the moisture under the battery, which is located under the back seat, the floor often becomes rusty on that area.

1971-1973 models had sound insulating mat, which was fixed on the front side of the bulkhead between engine and cabin. After few tenths thousands of miles this mat "acted" as a bath sponge and reliably kept moisture, dirtiness. For this reason, the first work of restoration is the removal of this mat.

The rear axle of the car is also week in respect of corrosion. It is very likely that rust already done a great job and eaten all the mounting screws.

In accordance with the above stated, many technical defects can be removed at low costs, so the main focus should be on body condition.

About the value
About 90 percent of survived Audi 100 Coupe S can be found in Germany. Up to 100 exemplars belong to the owners from England, France, Belgium, Netherlands, Sweden, and Switzerland. Based on the existing offers in the end of 2011, mint condition Coupe S can be purchased for € 13.000-16.000 and model which require restoration are available for € 4.000-7.000.

Final word
This car undoubtedly brought Audi to the new level and when considering relatively low production volumes, current Coupe S owners may be proud of having the part of Audi history.

Reward Stickers

Teachers in classrooms around the world know how important it is to keep children’s self-esteem high. They do this by rewarding students who show initiative, do well on tests, and sometimes, simply demonstrate kindness. There are many different ways of rewarding these students. In higher grades, it can be more difficult, but often, teachers notice that younger students enjoy simple things. One method of rewards that has stood the test of time is that of reward stickers.

Teachers can find stickers at just about any store, or they can order them online in bulk. Once they have the stickers, there are a number of different ways they can make use of them as a motivation and reward system for students. One very public way of awarding stickers is to buy an incentive and reward chart. This chart hangs on the wall of the classroom and lists all of the students in the first column. Then there are a number of columns to the right where teachers can place the Reward Stickers. At the top, teachers can often write what the sticker was awarded for. One column might be “received a perfect score on a test.”

If teachers don’t want to use the public reward method (and it can backfire, especially if one or two students have few stickers while the rest have a dozen or more), they can always affix reward stickers to each student’s papers before returning them. This way, students are more privately rewarded, but they still get that same excited feeling when they see that gold star or glittering smiley face sticker. Teachers are also given more latitude with stickers here-they could put a reward sticker on a paper that wasn’t quite perfect. This lets teachers give students who need it a bit of encouragement.

Of course, teachers can go in the opposite direction as well. If a student truly does something outstanding, the teacher may wish to call him or her to the front of the class and present the student with a large sticker that he or she can wear on his/her shirt. This is a way of letting everyone know what a great job that student did. This method of using reward stickers should be kept to a minimum, however, or the reward may start to seem not as important.

What counts as a “reward” sticker? It doesn’t always have to be gold stars or smiling faces. In fact, with today’s trends, those old-fashioned reward stickers may be a little outdated. Instead, teachers can find stickers with just about anything on them: animals, cartoon characters, race cars, and more. They may want to look for stickers that go with certain lessons. For example, if students are asked to name the planets in the solar system, teachers could use outer space stickers as rewards. Then they could give out Christmas themed stickers around the holidays. Teachers might even want to pick up some stickers featuring characters from popular cartoons and movies, especially ones that they know many of their students enjoy.

Car Mats – Too Important To Overlook

One of the things that has always enticed humans in every age and time are cars. A glorious machine, they have always been on top of the wish list of people. The advantages to be reaped out from them is simply too much to resist. No wonder then that there has always been a desire amongst people to opt for the latest car that hits the market.

Cars, on their part, help people in a number of ways. They not only make commuting easy but also add to the status symbol of people. However, while purchasing a car one will do well to take car accessories into account as well. Indeed, they deserve far more importance then is handed out to them. Whichever accessory one can think of, one thing is for sure that it can not be given a cold treatment. Even if that happens to be mats, an accessory not considered to be important by many.

Then again its not about any one accessory but about accessories in general. Neither of them command the respect they deserve. Its ironical because they actually enhance the value of a car manifold. Take the case of a stereo. Such is its importance that if a car do not have a factory fitted car stereo then it would not find any taker.

Similar is the case with car mats. After all they protect from dust and water as well as provide cushion to the feet. This not only saves the car from being dirty but also makes for a comfortable traveling. All that people are expected to do is to wash and dry them regularly so that they last long.

The above account shouldnt The road be to convince a people about the utility of car accessories salves are particularly That of car mats. It should also be enough to convince people about the utility of accessories and the role they play in enhancing the value of a car.

Sash Window Repair for Bungalows

If your sash windows are starting to look old from wear and tear, getting them professionally replaced or restored can be very expensive. If you feel up to it, sash window repair can be quite an interesting, and money-saving, do-it-yourself project.

Things you’ll need:

• Box cutter knife

• Mallet

• Blunt chisel

• Scraper

• Spirit level

• Medium-grade sandpaper

• Hammer

• Wooden shims

• Glazing putty

• Spray lubricant

• Primer

• Undercoat

• Paint

• 16-gauge ½-inch nails

• 1-inch carpet tacks


1. Remove and trim the inner stops. Use a box-cutter knife to cut through any caulk and paint along the edge of the trim. Pry the trim away from the frame by using a blunt chisel and a mallet.

2. Remove the pins used to attach the cords to the sash then tie a knot in the cord. You can now remove the bottom sash by lifting it away.

3. Remove the parting beads, the two strips running down vertically on either side of the frame. These are used to keep the cords separate. Just repeat what you did in removing the trim, cut through caulk and paint then gently pry away the parting strip.

4. You can now remove the top sash by using the same steps in removing the bottom sash.

5. Gently pry away the weight pockets so you can reach the weights and remove them. Simply untie them from the cords and take them away.

6. Take a good look at the frame and check it for damage. Use a scraper to get rid of any debris such as caulk, paint, or any soft or rotted areas. Make sure that the frame is still square by using a spirit level. If the frame is no longer square, use shims, small strips of wood, along the length of the frame to keep it level again.

7. Make sure that the cords can move up and down quietly and easily by spraying lubricant on the pulleys.

8. Inspect the glass panels on the top and bottom sashes. Make sure to replace any missing putty. If the glass is damaged, you may need to get them replaced.

9. Apply primer and undercoating on both sashes and the frame. Let the paint dry completely before refitting the window.

10. Tie the weights securely back onto the cords. Pull on each cord until the weights reach the top of the pulley. Place the top sash back in its original place. Use the carpet tack to pin the cord back in place. Make sure everything is in proper working order then use the nails to reattach the parting strips.

11. Use the same technique to reposition the bottom sash.

12. Use the nails to replace the interior stops using the same technique in reattaching the parting strips.

13. Remount the trim.

Don’t forget to plan and prepare properly before attempting your own sash window repair project. Unless you have some skill or experience in do-it-yourself projects, better call in a professional.

How to Build a Brick Wall

There is something about constructing walls that gives individuals a sense of fulfillment. This is the reason why that even though you can appoint a bricklayer to do the job for you; you feel that you want to try to build your brick wall yourself. Whether you plan to pursue a professional bricklaying career or just want to enjoy it as a pastime, constructing a brick wall needs careful study of the basics of brick wall construction.


You need to gather all the materials that you need to build your wall like a mortar mix, jointer, level, hammer, H2O, brush, wall ties, tape measure, nails bricks, trowel, shovel, line and wheel barrow. You also need to wear safety equipment at all times so that you will be protected from any untoward accident.

The trowel, which is a triangular metal shaped material is the main tool that you need to make your wall. You will need a trowel to evenly spread the mortar mixture as you assemble the bricks to make a wall.


A mortar mix is ​​mud-like concoction wherein the bricks are place in. To create a mortar mixture, you need combine fifteen to twenty scoops of sand and 1 seventy-pound container of mortar mixture. You will also need five gallons of H2O but it is advisable to combine the dry ingredients first before pouring water.

Place 1 gallon of H2O at a time until you achieve the consistency that you are aiming for. Bricks come in different sizes but for your first brick wall project, use the normal size bricks.Bricks are meant to be built as a veneer, which means that it should be constructed against another wall like in a house. You have to make sure that your foundation is strong enough to support the bricks. You also need to decide on the length of the brick wall that you are planning to construct.

Since the standard size of a brick is eight and a half inches long, place eight and three fourths intervals in the wall to give enough space for mortar mixture that will be spread in the joint of the bricks.

After you have placed the markings, you can now finish placing the 1st line of bricks. To accomplish this, you have to begin from left to right. Your left hand can pick up a brick from the stack and then your right hand can spread the mortar with the help of the trowel. Place an appropriate portion of mortar mix and set the brick in the mixture. Remove any residue after the brick is set in.

Repeat the whole process and continue placing down the brick until you achieve the height that you want. Remember to constantly check if the wall that you are making is level. If one portion appears disproportionate, place the bricks closer to the other side.

This simple brick wall building guide is helpful in your project but to learn more about the whole process, you can buy a DVD guide regarding the whole thing or enroll in courses that will teach you how to correctly construct a brick wall.

Landed Property Or Apartment?

Landed property or apartment, this is the question always surround property investment scene or homebuyers. It is also the most common asked question. Landed property usually has a piece of own land in the front entrance while apartment building has no land for the house owner. Some says apartment is inconvenient because it is high rise and far away from car park. Some argues that landed property is not as safe as apartment because it is easier to access. Some might also say that maintenance of apartment is higher. There are some truths to these statements but these are not all of the truth. Depend on what do you want in return. Let us look at it one by one from perspective of property investor.

Note: In Malaysian term, apartment and condominium is usually high rise with more than 10 stories tall, while landed house as it implies, has a piece of land and it is usually 1 to 3 story tall only.

Freedom of land – Landed property is usually associated with owning a land and the freedom to do anything you want at anytime on your own land. However as investor, through capital appreciation or rental income, you need to think if these factors could contribute to the rate of return? Probably this is best explained in the third point.

Not an ideal rental property – Landed property is always higher in price and monthly installment. For a decent terrace house in a good area can cost up to half a million – take Bandar Puteri as example (a township name in Malaysia). The monthly installment could be as high as RM2.5K. In order to generate positive cash flow, you need to at least rent out in RM3K. Probably you do not think this is too much if the tenant has family and children and they need bigger space to live in. But do you think they would rather rent the place instead of buying it on their own? Again, a small family will opt for smaller living space such as an apartment or condominium with 3-bedroom that only cost them around RM1.5k per month.

Note: RM stands for Ringgit Malaysia, mean Malaysian currency.

Landed properties tend to appreciate more in long term – this is not new, if your grandparents owned some land back since 60s, you would have seen the price gone up a few hundred times from the time they bought it. Same as landed property, as the land get scarcer, and population grows, the land price will go up as well. The faster the population grows, the faster the appreciation. In contrast, apartment or condominium unit does not appreciate as much as land properties simply because the "land" is divided into so many smaller parcels. The appreciation, if any, is simply spread out to all the unit owners. Another factor probably has to do with land reuse cost. More cost is involved in reusing the land with apartment built on compared with landed property that is usually 2-3 storys tall.

Since landed properties have always being associated with higher capital appreciation, it is also very common being used in flipping. For example the landed terrace house in Bandar Puteri (township name) was sold at RM350K + 4 years ago pre-constructed has recently appreciated to nearly RM600k. Without factoring in the other cost, we see a whopping 72% capital appreciation. The costs are anything involved during the time you purchased the property until it is sold off, which includes total installment paid plus interest, cost of rectification not covered by developer, furnishing and improvement, legal fees, middle man charges, other processing fee, etc .

Low entry cost for apartment compare to landed property – It's easier for people to make decision if the entry cost is low. For rental property, usually the tenant will need to come out with 1 month of rental deposit, 1 month advance rental and 3 months of utility deposit. If an apartment's rental cost is RM1.5k, then the initial cost tenant needs to come up is around RM1.5K x 2 + 750 (Let say 3 months utility deposit is roughly half month rental) = RM3.75K. However for landed property, tenant is required to come up to around RM3K x 2 + 1.5k (Let say 3 months utility deposit is roughly half month rental) = RM 7.5K as initial entry cost. In this case, an apartment's initial entry cost is only half of the landed.

Visible maintenance cost for apartment – Usually maintenance cost of apartment is proportion to the size of the unit. The larger the apartment unit, the higher the maintenance cost. Depending on variety of facilities provided and the quality, usually maintenance cost per square feet is around 15 to 20 cents, which is RM150 to RM200 for a 1000sqf unit. Landed property owner does not pay maintenance cost but they do need to pay for whatever exterior maintenances required such as paintings, roof repair, ducts, lawn mowing and miscellaneous efforts to keep the surrounding in proper condition. However, with some due diligent, maintenance of a landed property can be much lower than of apartments'.

Security problem – one of the reason people like apartment or condominium is because of security. For a very basic apartment there are two tiers of security system at minimum; one is the apartment compound fencing with electronic gate and security guard post and another is the security enforced entrance to the elevator area. Since apartment consists of many units in a building block it makes it harder for targeted attack or robbery. If apartment is high rise building, it will be quite rare for casual break-ins as well. In contrast, landed property owners need to invest quite amount of money into home security system such as auto gate, alarm system, window / door grill, etc. Even fully equipped, landed property still risk higher possibility of casual / targeted break-ins and robbery. However apartment security is not fool-proof as well, one example lies in security personnel being not scrutinized enough or too lenient to stranger visitors.

Property life expectancy – A well built landed property can last for twenty to thirty years or more without a question, however due to young age of Malaysia and shallow high rise living experience, no one can tell exactly how long can an apartment or condominium will last . In common sense, the value of apartment building will start to depreciate only after certain age, this usually happens when the building is deemed unsafe to live in.

Gain Flat Abs Fast

Anyone looking for a tone figure is going to want to have flat abs and the abdominals are going to be one of the hardest to handle areas of the body when it comes to removing fat and toning muscles. There are a number of different types of exercises that are available that can help you to gain flat abs quickly and help you to get the look you are after when it comes to your abdominals. To get the flat lean look you will want to focus more on the flexibility and stretching style of exercises than the strength training exercises.

This is because strength training tends to bulk up muscles and that means you can get less than a flat look with your abs. The flat look comes from muscles that are toned a particular way. Strength training tends to lead to washboard abs, which may be less appealing than the flat look that is obtained by using less strenuous methods of exercise.

Many people use aerobic style exercises such as Tai chi, Yoga, Pilates, and Tai Bo to help build the core strength of their muscles without creating the washboard or six pack effect. Instead, there is a lean look that comes with using these types of exercises that builds the underlining architecture of the muscles and helps to burn fat without creating a bulked appearance. The result is a lean look that provides your body with clean lines and a surprising underlying strength.

The key to these exercises is the fact that the exercises require the body to tighten up and hold the abdominal muscles in a controlled position. This tight control is maintained through a series of exercises. As a result, muscles are stretched and pulled while maintaining a tensed position. This creates a longer, leaner look.

If you have, a little extra, to lose before you can get started working on toning and creating the flat abs that you want you may want to try traditional exercises like crunches and sit-ups. These are great for removing belly fat and helping to create the basic architecture of the muscles. This can then be further defined using the less strenuous toning exercises that will help to provide flat abs.

It is important to maintain a consistency when doing these types of exercises. The reason being is it helps to not only build but maintain the structure that is being created. You constantly have to increase the difficulty of the exercises as well in order to keep the muscles from reaching a plateau before their natural stopping point. Every muscle group has a natural point at which they are the strongest they can be without artificially bulking them through muscle builders and strength training. To obtain flat abs you want to reach the natural point where the muscles are in their best shape and their strongest before it is necessary to consider alternatives to bulking up. This is how to obtain flat abs naturally.

Six Points to Consider on How to Buy a Motorcycle Helmet

I think most new riders understand that they should wear a motorcycle helmet when riding their new motorcycle but not very many of them likely understand what makes a good helmet and what makes a smart decision. It is far more than just matching the helmet to the same color as your motorcycle. This article is going to be a quick checklist of some points to consider when purchasing your new helmet. I will be expand on each point with a more detailed article if you are not comfortable and need more information.

1. Safety Certification

We would all agree that a helmet is not of much use if it provides you with no protection. A helmet that meets the standards of the Department of Transportation will come with a DOT sticker affixed to the helmet which is a stamp of assurance that the helmet at least meets a minimum level of safety as determined by the DOT In a nutshell, the DOT certification requires that a helmet be able to absorb a certain amount of energy and prevent most penetrations. It must also have a fastening system that will keep the helmet on your head despite a significant amount of force.

Snell is another certification that takes helmet safety to even another level so make sure you look for the DOT and / or Snell certifications on your helmets.

2. Fit and Comfort

A huge factor in the safety of a helmet is how it fits. A helmet that fits well will not come off in an accident and a helmet that is comfortable is one that you will not mind wearing. Both are key factors to your safety. A helmet should fit snugly so that it is stable when you shake your head in any direction. The helmet should not move or slide around on your head at all. You know you are pretty close when the helmet is snug enough such that your skin will move with the helmet when you move the helmet with your hands.

Comfort is very personal to the individual but some general things to consider are the comfort level of the padding. A quality helmet will have firm padding covered in a soft liner that feels good against your face. It should provide a good seal around your ears but not be so tight that it is painful and it should feel good against your forehead. A small pressure point on your forehead can develop into a huge amount of pain after a few hours.

3. Helmet Retention

Helmet retention could be considered part of the fit of the helmet but it bears mentioning separately as well. When a helmet is firmly secured on your head you should not be able to pull it off until you remove the strap. If you can, then it is either a poor design or it is a poor fit. Keep searching until you find one that can not come off your head.

4. Helmet Coverage

This is simple … the more coverage the better. A Full face provides the best amount of protection, a 3/4 helmet would be next, then a half helmet and then of course no helmet would come in last in regards to protection. Study after study will show conclusively that a helmet will reduce the level of damage incurred in an accident, regardless of what anyone tells you.

It of course is still your decision to wear one or what kind to wear but just remember, the more helmet coverage you have, then the better the protection will be if all else is equal.

5. Cost

Cost should not be a factor when it comes to safety but of course it is. Just make sure you spend enough to get the job done. I've seen too many people spend 10k on a shiny new motorcycle and 100 bucks on the helmet that could protect their brain. Look for the DOT certification and make sure you buy a helmet that is quality made. Some brands to look for are HJC, Shoei, Arai, Shark, Joe Rocket etc.

6. Appearance

Hey, let's face it. People are vain creatures and I am sure you are no different. You want to protect your head but you want your helmet to look good while doing it. Most riders will try to match the helmet to the bike somewhat and if that makes them happy then I am all for it. Anything that makes you more apt to wear your helmet is something that I am in favor of you doing.

A helmet that looks good and that you feel good about, is one you will wear …. and that's the best kind of helmet.

A Free-Flowing Gutter Is a Happy Gutter!

During any rainy season, gutters work hard to protect a house from the devastating effect of water seepage. This building component catches rainwater and directs it to the downspouts and eventually to ground drainage. Conventionally, its primary function is to prevent the build-up of moisture and large amounts of water from flowing down the sides of the building that could cause damage to the outside covering of the structure. Over time, gutters collect different types of debris that can cause blockage and impede the normal flow of water.

Such debris could include: dried leaves, broken branches, or pieces of shingle or granules. If these are left undisturbed, this gathering could cause potential damage to roof and fascia as well as breaking the eaves trough system which in the end would defeat its primary purpose. So contacting a roofing contractor to clean the gutter system is probably a wise decision to make.

Gutter Cleaning Importance

In the event the working condition of the eaves troughs is not noticed immediately, the accumulation of waste could get heavy and clog the system. If this happens, rainwater can overflow down the sides of the building onto the foundation and damage that structure. So it is important for this narrow channel to be maintained in good condition by cleaning and regular maintenance. Here are a few of the reasons for this important building upkeep action:

  • Enhanced Safety – During the summer when dry leaves accumulate in the gutters, that contributes to the fire hazard of dry leaves on the roof. Keeping the channel clear and free from any debris will reduce and mitigate this risk.
  • Water Damage – Regular maintenance reduces the possibility of water pooling and overflow that could result in damage to the roof’s structural integrity.
  • Corrosion Prevention – When water is allowed to stand in one place, a chemical reaction can take place which could result in corrosion to the roofing material; however, if the system is debris-free, it prevents such a chemical reaction from happening.
  • Health Risk – Mosquitoes and vermin love to breed in damp and moist places. If an eaves trough has accumulated leaves and trapped rainwater, it can create a breeding habitat for various insects and vermin. To avoid the risk of this occurrence, ongoing debris removal is important.

Gutter Cleaning Methods

Basically, eaves troughs and downspouts should be free from leaves or other debris. Blockage of these components can result in water overflowing; pulling the gutter away from its attached structure; rotting of any underlying wooden structure; and the corrosion and rusting of exposed metal. To prevent this from happening, follow these steps on how to clean an eaves channel.

  • Inspect – Collect any necessary tools such as buckets, garden trowels, ladders, heavy working gloves, and garden hoses and inspect the gutter for the presence of debris.
  • Debris Removal – Remove leaves, shingle granules, sticks, seeds, and twigs using a gardening shovel or gloved hands; place such debris in the bucket.
  • Flush and Brush – Flush out residual waste with the garden hose. Encrusted dirt can be removed using a hard bristle brush.
  • Check Cleaning – Ensure that obstructions have been cleared from the gutters and drainpipes.
  • Check for Pooling – Check the gutters for any pooling of water. This can indicate low spots or sagging of certain portions of the eaves channel. If this happens, fasten new hangers or additional ‘spikes and ferrules’ to hold the system sturdily in place.

Logically speaking, if a gutter is blocked it should be cleared immediately. There are simple clues that this is happening based on performance observations. If water flows over the side of the gutter, that portion is probably blocked and needs cleaning. Remove the debris that has caused this overflow to happen until functioning is back to normal. It is imperative that this drainage system be cleaned to prevent any resulting damage from such a condition. Regular maintenance from a roofing contractor will ensure that the gutter system is in good working condition and ready to protect a building from the destructive effect of water leakage. So a clean gutter is indeed a happy one!

Buying Tool Gifts For Men – 5 Buying Tools Tips For Women

Oh boy, it's Valentine's Day and I want to make a REALLY good impression on my sweetheart so this year I decided to take the plunge and buy him a tool gift. Sheesh! if you have ever been 'asked' to go to the tool store for one, 'simple thing,' for your husband, friend, mate, pal, son, dad and come home to show them what you got only to be, 'sternly reminded, '(repeatedly through the years), that what you got is as close to what they wanted as a ladder is to a peacock then you know that this decision to actually buy a tool gift basket for men is not an easy one!

For this tool gift to be special enough that it meets with approval, and something that will not get thrown in the back seat to be returned, I had to enlist the help of a good friend (a finish contractor) to create these 5 simple tool buying tips for women to act as a tool gift guide for those of us who do not normally buy tools (or avoid buying tools) – Until NOW!

1 – Mention you have a project you 'd like your man to look at – build a shelf, fix an appliance, repair a floor, build a deck, whatever you think of to start a conversation with him that involves tools. Engage him in a dialogue about your project and take him out to breakfast and shove a newspaper in his hand. Watch him and what he talks about as he goes through the tool section. Listen for any clues like, "To do a good job on that deck, I really need a ___," or "I'll have to borrow Tom's special ___ drill to make it look right and do a good job on that!"

2 – Call 'Tom,' as soon as possible and ask him for advice about that specific tool, because maybe he wants that tool or maybe he wants something like that tool, but does more than just build a deck, or do one repair. Gets 'Tom's' advice first because it helps narrow your choices. Men do not take borrowing each other's tools lightly, so if he mentions the name of a friend, call that friend, because he will know. He and your guy have probably spent a lot of time talking about tool gift ideas between themselves!

3 – Go online and read different reviews from real people who have used that tool and rate their satisfaction with the tool. Look at consumer reviews AND product reviews / product ratings. Find out if it is a tool that has had a lot of warranty problems – Popular Mechanics has such a site. Their articles and information cover a mile of topics! Air Hammer versus Auto-Hammer, for instance, plus many more! This step is especially important if you are buying tools online for your gift basket for men.

4 – Go to a store that specializes in tools – not just one kind of tool – like a place that specializes in lawn mowers (unless he specifically asked for a lawnmower), but a store that carries lots of tools-different ones. Ask their salespeople who may (or may not) blubber some sales pitch at you for some thing that ends up sitting in the backseat to be returned. Then when the salesperson is finished talking look for someone who looks like a contractor roaming the aisles and ask them what they think about that specific tool. Tell them that you are looking for tool gift ideas for men for a tool gift basket for him. Gets lots of advice because a tool is like a good book – very personal to the one receiving it.

5 – Buy the darn thing and make sure you get a gift receipt – just in case he wanted the, 'bigger one.'

Now that you are armed and dangerous you may want to go ahead and try assembling your tool gift basket for him, or tool gift basket for dad – for instance, if you selected a string trimmer, you'll want to get some extra string to go with it, maybe gloves, a gift certificate for a tune-up or a winterization, oil, gas, extra cord if it is an electric string trimmer … with a little luck and a little diligence, you'll look like you knew EXACTLY what you were doing and your tool purchase will be a 'smashing' success! So, when it comes to heading for the tool section of the store – do not be a sissy! Go ahead, "Give 'er!"

Civil Engineering Careers – What Do Civil Engineers Do Exactly?

A civil engineer is the one who practices civil engineering, which is the branch centered on the design, construction and maintenance of public works. Civil engineers are employed either by the government or by private companies landing contracts to build such public works. Though the qualifications vary by country, being a civil engineer requires at least a four year degree. In some cases, one can advertise as a professional after receiving formal certification.

A civil engineer designs safe structures that meet standard codes in the regions they are being built in. These structures should be designed with efficiency, maintenance and other economic concerns to endure through years of use. When it comes to transportation, he builds structures to facilitate the smooth flow of traffic and to allow expansion and higher user rates. These structures include tunnels, bridges, and freeway interchanges. He also constructs facilities handling fresh and waste water, including sewage plants, delivery systems for fresh water, dams, flood protection systems, seawalls and levees. He likewise can work on projects like a major office building or a city power plant.

There are many specialties within the civil engineering field. These specialties include structural, hydraulic, environmental and geotechnical engineers. Most of them develop drawings and plans for construction. These engineers are professionals educated to solve problems specifically on site matters. They are knowledgeable of how to deal with various problems occurring on site works.

The works of a civil engineer play a very important role as it equates for the overall safety of people in many different facets. Being this kind of professional needs strong commitment to using civil engineering background in planning and overseeing various construction efforts in many different areas of this field. He also applies engineering principles to ensure that the structures are built in the safest, sturdiest manner. The responsibility of civil engineering graduates is generally focused on construction jobs.

He may also have to analyze the proposed site location as well as the entire construction job to be completed at such a site. This engineer also analyzes the process for completing the construction phases every step of the way. This job involves planning of the construction projects that will be taking place in conjunction with the data from the analysis of the proposed project. Additionally, they should inspect the products to ensure to explicitly follow rules, regulations and guidelines for construction.

The demand for individuals graduated from engineering schools is actually on the rise. Engineering has been rapidly expanding as the steady increase in civil jobs in the infrastructure and construction industries continues. The continuous and rising demand for the maintenance and construction of new facilities is one of the most significant benefits of having a civil engineering job. The growing number of civil engineering graduates to supervise the projects is attributed to this demand. Civil engineers can take on government funded projects if ever private businesses start cutting back on their own projects.

One can certainly reach the goal of becoming a famous and successful civil engineer by having the right resources and the right choice of an engineering school.