Sheet Music Then & Now

Most modern musicians take sheet music for granted. Sheet music abounds in printed form and can even be downloaded from the Internet. It's a far cry from the days of oral tradition. Centuries ago, there were few ways to pass on music other than to "hum a few bars" until the listener caught on.

The available manuscripts had to be painstakingly marked out by a transcriptionist and were limited in number. In fact, while many songs were known on a wide scale, they were likely spread about by travelling minstrels and troubadours. They were certainly not available in printed form at the local music shop.

Prior to the invention of the printing press in the mid 15th century, very few private citizens owned or had access to sheet music. The ones in existence were owned by a few wealthy noblemen. Because the only way to publish written music was to copy it by hand, it's little wonder that sheet music was scarce.

The process took long hours and careful copying skills, plus access to the right materials. Before the printing press, the only songs available in written score were sacred songs. Most of these were chants used in liturgical services. Virtually no secular music scores existed prior to the 15th century.

The invention of the printing press in 1439 changed the history of sheet music. This is in spite of the fact that the earliest methods of reproducing musical scores were almost as painstaking as copying music by hand. Italian printer Ottaviano Petrucci may be considered the "father of sheet music."

He developed the first method for reproducing sheet music. He was also granted an exclusive patent for his work, giving him an early monopoly on the business for several years. His method involved three stages. The paper was pressed three times. First, the staff was printed. On the second impression, the words were added. The final impression laid down the notes.

The downside to the process was that it was time-consuming and expensive. This made it relatively impractical for the average citizen to own sheet music. However, technology evolved over the years. Eventually, better and more efficient methods of printing were developed.

Most of the earliest music that was published was sacred music. In fact, the printing, distribution and publication of music were largely controlled by the church for several centuries. Eventually this changed, and soon music companies found themselves in the thriving business of music publishing. The retail distribution of sheet music took off in the late 1800s and early 1900s. This was in spite of the fact that there was no means for promoting particular songs or artists, like radio or television.

The popularity of sheet music prompted many governments around the world to examine the issue of copyright and pass their own laws in that regard. With copyright becoming a worldwide issue, the Berne Convention of 1886 established a universal principle regarding copyright. Today, approximately 76 countries around the world adhere to this standard.

Of course, technology continues to evolve. Radio, television and the Internet have posed new challenges to the ability of governments to enforce copyright laws. Sheet music can now be downloaded straight from the Internet, often illegally. Notwithstanding this, the annual sale of sheet music ranges in the tens of thousands today. Music-publishing software has brought the printing of music full circle from the days when stolid monks sat writing music with a quill by candlelight.

Information to Keep Off of Facebook

In the day and age of identity theft and cyber-stalking there's a lot of information you should be keeping confidential. When you use Facebook, much of the information that they ask for should not be shared with the general public. You may have your privacy settings so that only your friends will be able to access your profile, but you'll still want to do a check while you're logged out to see what's available to a casual visitor. You might be surprised.

Your Birthday – This is the number one thing that most people willingly post to their profile. After your social security number, your birth date is the next big piece of your identity puzzle. If someone knows your birth date they know exactly how old you are and when you turned it. They might also be able to guess your PIN number a little easier, if it's made up of any combination of your birth date numbers.

Your Current Job – If you have a really sweet job, you might be tempted to post it on your profile's information page. There's not really a need to post it, and if you work at a place that's open to the public, you open yourself up for a stalker to come pay you a visit at work. They might let you know that they're at your job, or they might just watch you from a distance. Either way, it's really creepy and it can be easily avoided by just keeping the information off of your profile.

Where you went to school. This is another useless piece of information that only helps Facebook target ads to you. Before, when Facebook was exclusive to college students it was necessary to have a college email to get in. Now that it's not, you should remove your network and just use a regular email address. By staying in a college network you are giving Facebook tons of demographic information without even knowing it.

Religious views – No one wants to know what your religious views are by scanning your Facebook profile. This is something that should come out during a real conversation with someone. Unless you feel really strongly one way or the other about religion there's really no point to including it. Again, this just gives Facebook one more drop in the demographic bucket. You'll just get advertisements that are targeted to your religious beliefs. If you're OK with the thought of a for-profit company making money off of your religious affiliation, by all means, keep it on there.

Where you live. Your friends should know where you live, right? If they do not they're probably just someone with bad intentions so why give them directions to your neighborhood?

Five Weekend Project Ideas to Add Value to Your Home

We all want our homes to look great and be worth more, however not all of us have the money to invest in our homes the way we would like. Fortunately, there are many things you can do to increase the value and look of your home that is not so expensive and things you can do all on your own. That is right, there are a lot of do it yourself projects that can make a huge difference in the way your home appears from the outside as well as in that will also increase the value. Consider the following five weekend project ideas to add value to your home!

Project # 1 Paint

Painting inside your home can be a really great project that will freshen up the look of your home and make it look brand new, not to mention increase the property value. Consider using colors to complement the room and furniture like taupes, reds, yellows, blues, even pinks and browns. Adding color makes your home look more fashionable and is really a great way to improve the value as well. So, pick out some colors, buy some paint brushes, and start painting!

Project # 2 Landscape

When you landscape you brighten up your home considerably and a landscaped yard adds value to a home, too! If you do not know how to landscape then simply look online for some guides that will show you exactly what to do as well as what plants, flowers, and shrubs to buy! After a weekend of hard work tilling and planting you will have a beautifully landscaped yard that will welcome you home each day and make your home look like a million bucks, almost!

Project # 3 New Linoleum

Linoleum has a way of looking old and dirty after a few years so if you are looking for a way to improve the value of your home and make it look better as well then you should simply replace the linoleum. Of course, you can hire someone to do this, but doing it yourself will save money and is not too difficult. You just need to do some measurements, pick out a linoleum flooring you like, and install! You can find instructions where you buy the linoleum as well as online.

Project # 4 Add a Deck

Every home needs a deck to really set off the house and add a place for the family to cookout and socialize. A deck is really not hard to build if you have basic woodworking skills and it is really not too expensive either if you do the work yourself or with a friend or family member. In addition, when you add a deck the value of your home will go up!

Project # 5 New Knobs and Door handles

Buy new knobs and door handles for all doors, drawers, and cabinets. This might seem like an unnoticed part of your home, but when you change all of these your entire home will have a shine and look brand new! In addition, when you add the new knobs and handles you increase the value of your home, so it is definitely worth it.

There are many ways you can add value to your home, but these five weekend project ideas to add value to your home are easy and do not take too much work or expertise. Give them a try and you will be surprised how they turn your home around!

The Benefits of a Fiberglass Step Ladder

Why Fiberglass

Everyone likes to use a fiberglass step ladder day in and day out installing commercial doors and hardware. For any application up to eight feet, this is the ideal fiberglass ladder. A reason why the fiberglass is better than aluminum ladders is fiberglass does not conduct electricity. The fiberglass is much safer than aluminum. Moreover, the firefighters have more confidence that the fiberglass is more fire resistant. It does offer a more durable alternative to natural wood and a safer alternative to conductive aluminum.


When it comes to manufacturers there are more than a few that offer the ladder. Popular brands like Werner and Little Giant both offer one until eight step ladders as well as many other less known brands. You can compare prices on each manufacturer. The best way to choose a manufacturer is based on product reviews. By reading the product reviews, you will get good feel for the quality of their merchandise.


The step amount of your ladder will play a big part in available choices. There are some choices of fiberglass step ladder, from 3-foot until 8-foot. You can choose from double or single sinks as well as the stylish farmhouse sink that is coming back into popularity. It is all up to your personal necessity.


The price is going to be highly relative, where you purchase the fiberglass ladder. If you want to climb the ladder higher, the price of it you purchase will be more expensive, which is about $ 275 for 10-feet. But you can purchase it only $ 54.07 for 2-foot.

The Paradoxical Art Of MC Escher

MC Escher was a graphic artist renowned for his lithographs, mezzotints and woodcuts inspired by mathematics. Born in 1898, his first remarkable work came in 1937 with the print Still Life and Street, a piece that utilized the play on perspective that would become known as "impossible reality". The edge of the desk in the foreground continues deep into the drawing and melds into a street and books sitting on it seem to be leaning against the buildings behind them.

An instantly recognizable Escher work is Drawing Hands, produced in 1948. The lithograph shows a paradox (a common theme to his works) of two drawn hands "rising" from their page to draw their counterpart, bound at the wrists to the paper below them . The paradox arises from the fact that each of the hands is being created simultaneously by the other.

Sky and Water I, a woodcutting from 1938, is a regularly divided plane alternating the darkened images of birds with the light images of fish, locking together like puzzle pieces. The animals form a diamond shape with the birds being more obvious to the eye at top, the fish at the bottom and sharing the attention (depending on which shade the eye decides to focus on) in the center. Escher said, "We associate flying with sky, and so for each of the black birds the sky in which it is flying is formed by the four white fish which encircle it. Similarly swimming makes us think of water, and therefore the four black birds that surround a fish become the water in which it swims. " The work is often used in art, science and mathematics courses to show the concept of visual perception.

Relativity, a 1953 lithograph, combines the theme of paradox with another common Escher theme- the staircase. In Relativity, the laws of gravity are ignored in favor of rooms and staircases that are turned in every direction. The inhabitants of this world are going about their daily business (eating, socializing, walking, etc.) as if nothing is amiss. But the "people" are dressed in the same clothing and have oddly shaped heads. The rooms that these people are in have gravity maintained within them regardless of its position. The staircases lead from these rooms and also follow the laws of gravity in relation to the rooms it accesses. But since more than one room applies to each staircase, and those rooms are gravitationally irrelevant to one another, the staircases have two sides and somewhat abstract. It has perhaps one of Escher's most famous works and has been referenced numerous times in other media sources, including the final showdown scenes in the children's film Labyrinth.

The Ascending and Descending, a lithograph printed in 1960, shows an enormous building whose roof is a never-ending staircase. Identically clothed men appear in two separate lines on the staircase, one going up and the other down. There are two people away from that grouping- a lone figure in the courtyard and another on the lower staircase. Instead of using relative proportions for an illusion of depth, Escher utilizes conflicting proportions to highlight his beloved paradoxes.

Concrete Repairs Made Simple

Have you ever observed concrete problems? If you took a walk outside today I would say you have. Especially in the areas of the U.S. with freezing temperatures. We all know about how the freeze thaw cycles effect concrete and when one puts a patching material down it simply does not last a winter season. So what usually happens is a maintenance staff member will apply more of the same material once the weather warms up.

Wouldn’t it be great if one could put down a material once and have that material last for more than one year? Take an exterior stairway at a shopping mall. After years of the freeze thaw cycle and salt being applied to the stairs in the winter the concrete is eroding away. Now comes one of two choices for the operations manager. Choice one is to hire a contractor to come in and repair that stairwell using ready mix concrete or a Portland cement patching material. Choice two is to have internal staff make the repair using a polymer modified material.

Now we will evaluate both options. Its great when a contractor can quote a job and complete the repair for a lower cost than having to replace an entire stairway. Your problem comes when the winter arrives, because the bond on concrete to concrete is not strong enough and when your freeze thaw cycle occurs and your chloride sinks into the surface your repair is not going to last more than a few years. Now there are ways to protect the concrete from chloride attack and ways to get a stronger bond to your surface but some contractors are concerned with profit and will make that shortcut more often than not.

When using non cement polymer material such as the Enecon Duraquartz one will not have to worry about bond strengths or chloride resistance. The material can hold up to the chloride in the wintertime and has a bond strength that is so strong that it cannot be broken without ripping out existing concrete in the process. What about a curbs in a parking lot? The material is nearly four times as strong as conventional concrete which means when a repair with conventional patching material has failed the Duraquartz will not.

Dentistry’s Holy Grail: Human Teeth Regeneration

Echoes of Kennedy’s Moon Shot

In 2006, a group of scientists, with a bold ambitious plan, and modeled after President Kennedy’s manned lunar mission program, began laying out the foundations for Dentistry’s Holy Grail: whole human teeth regeneration. Like the NASA space program, the scientists come from a variety of backgrounds and implementing stem cell and engineering biology to tackle the enormous complexity of ontogenesis. Some of the processes involved include: bioreactor reactor grafting, regenerated cap-stage tooth organ, organogenesis inducement, and stem cell odontogenic signaling. The scientists envision a 10 year plan, with a target date of 2017.

The Benefits

Not only would this regenerative procedure make a superior alternative to wearing dentures, but also offer an alternative to the currently popular synthetic dental implants. It would replicate a natural tooth in every way, including full immune system involvement, neural excitement, systematic capillary development, and trauma self-repair.

The Progressive Steps

It is believed that a cap stage regenerated tooth should be realized in 2011, followed by animal trials in 2012, human trials in 2014, clinician training in 2015, and finally released to clinical practice by 2017. The cap-stage implant progressive steps would be as follows

1: Adult stem cell harvesting

2: Cellular culture expansion

3: Scaffold cell seeding

4: Cellular signaling to induce odontogenic tissue

5: Ontogenesis gene expression profiling

6: Repeating the above steps to conclude cap-stage cellular expressed gene associated ontogenesis.


Ontogenesis and the technology to grow replacement teeth, would mean the end of life long suffering for denture wearers. Living teeth would be superior and far more preferable to dentures, in the fact that they are responsive to human bites, as well as promoting optimal health for surrounding teeth and gums. In Japan and other countries, successful animal trials on mice with full root development have set the stage for human trials in the very near future, and the prospect for yet, another shining epic achievement for the field of regenerative medicine.

Laminate Flooring Problems You Should Be Aware Of

Like all types of flooring that you install in your home, you may never have laminate flooring problems, but just in case you do, you should be ware of how to repair them. The usual problems that homeowners have with this type of flooring are:
* Peaking
* Buckling
* Gapping
* Mold and mildew
* Expanding chipped corners

Peaking refers to the boards pushing one another up in places in the floor and forming a type of small peak. It could be the result of a lack of room for the flooring to expand because there was not enough room left around the sides of the room. To repair this problem, follow the board along to the wall and remove the baseboard or molding. Thai may allow the flooring the space it needs or you may need to cut away some of the laminate close to the wall. Then you can replace the baseboard.

Moisture and water damage can cause the flooring to buckle. A laminate floor should never be wet mopped because the moisture can get into the MDF layer of the plank and damage it. If this is a problem you encounter, you will have to replace the floor.

Gapping happens when the planks of the flooring start to pull away from one another. However, this problem does not occur very often. It will happen if the temperature of the room drops to below normal causing the planks to contract.

Mold and mildew are caused by excessive moisture. If you have this problem with your laminate flooring, you first have to find the source of the mold and mildew and eradicate it. Then you have to find the source of the excessive moisture and take steps to prevent it from occurring again. Once you clean up the mold from the flooring and make sure you have solved the moisture problem, you will not have this problem with your flooring.

If you notice chipped corners, you may not have installed the flooring properly. If you tap the planks together using too much force, you could chip the corners. If you notice this happening, you should replace them as soon as it happens. Using a vacuum cleaner on laminate flooring with a beater bar can also damage the floor and it could also be the result of poor quality flooring. If you choose thin flooring because of the cheap price and install it in a high traffic area, then you will probably have to replace it because of this chipping problem.

Sculpting a Wooden Pepper Mill

When people first see an exotic wood pepper mill, such as one of the stunning pieces created by the renowned craftsman Pinky Martin, they typically want to know how it was made. The answer varies widely-no two artisans go about the task in the same manner, and few are accomplished enough to master the kinds of elaborate designs originated by Mr. Martin.

Pinky Martin’s museum-quality wood pepper-mills was first brought to wide public attention on Sara Moulton’s Cooking Live television show. Later, on the Oprah show, one of Pinky’s mills was given to a lucky fan, allowing her to bypass the two-year waiting period.

Pinky’s pepper mill designs are famed for their signature combinations of select woods and artful patterns. Each is truly one-of-a-kind-even when using identical types of wood, the grain patterns are inherently unique. The singular appearance of each pepper grinder is dependent on the selection of distinct wood slices and the shape and contours of the design.

Below is the general process of crafting an exotic peppermill in the tradition of Pinky Martin:

  • Wood selection. An artist must first decide which wood, or woods, to use to create the pepper mill. Today’s top pepper mill artisans often choose rare, exotic wood varieties prized for their grain colors, patterns, and overall beauty.
  • Cut and pattern. Once the desired woods are chosen, they are cut to the appropriate size and placed together to create an alluring pattern of varying, warm wood grains. When an eye-catching pattern emerges, the pieces are fused together using a permanent wood glue. This results in a pepper mill “blank.”
  • Lathing. The blank is center-drilled and turned on a lathe until the artist is satisfied with the shape and contour of the pepper-mill-grinder. When this is completed, the mill’s body is sanded smooth.
  • Finishing. A wood grain filler is often applied to prepare the surface for lacquer. Once this filler coat is dry, the piece is sanded and lacquered. The surface is rubbed to a lustrous finish as multiple layers of lacquer are applied.
  • Grinder installation. The pepper mill is complete when the grinder assembly is installed in the center hole. Fresh peppercorns can now be stored inside the pepper-mill-grinder, ready for your next meal.

Unfortunately, Pinky Martin is only one man, and there is only a very limited quantity of his exquisite wooden pepper grinder mills. The good news is that several talented and highly-skilled artists have taken up the mantle, inspired by Mr. Martin’s groundbreaking work. The most notable of these, Rudy Paredes, is creating exceptional pieces that pay homage to the great Pinky Martin, while also carving out a distinct identity for himself. Examples of his remarkable wood pepper mills can be found at

Do You Have These Panic Attack Symptoms?

A panic attack is a one of those things that literally grabs you by the throat and doesn’t let go. A sufferer can virtually find himself or herself running around in circles trying to “escape” the feeling of dread. However, that’s the extreme case. What about those times when you’re quite not sure what it is you’re suffering from? Not all panic symptoms hit you over the head with a sledge hammer.

So the question is, how can you tell if you’re having a panic? If you’re having any of the following symptoms, you just might be. One of the most common symptoms of a panic is a racing heart. It can almost feel like it’s trying to jump out of your body. If you put your hand to your chest, you can feel it pounding.

Another common symptom of panic attacks is feeling weak or dizzy. You may lose your balance or feel like you’re going to pass out. Of course these symptoms can also be caused by high blood pressure or even low blood sugar. That’s why it’s important to make note of all your symptoms and not just one or two.

You may also feel a tingling or numbing sensation in the fingers. However, and most people don’t know this, sinus problems can also cause the same sensation. If you’re prone to sinus problems or have allergies (see your allergist) that tingling sensation doesn’t have to be caused by panic.

A common symptom is a feeling of dread or death. At times this can almost feel like a premonition. I’m not suggesting that people having panic attacks can actually predict the future (that’s a topic for another time) but in their minds, the person having the attack is sure that something terrible is going to happen.

In addition to the above, you may also feel sweaty or might be having chills. Of course this could also be caused by having the flue or a severe cold. Again, you need to look at all the symptoms in order to make a proper self diagnosis.

A serious symptom is one of chest pains. The reason this is serious is because what may appear to be a panic attack could very well be the onset of a heart episode. If you are having chest pains, don’t guess. See a doctor immediately, especially if the pains worsen.

You may also have trouble breathing or feel like you are losing control of yourself. That sense of loss of control is usually when the panic attack begins to worsen. If you are having several of the above symptoms, it is quite possible that you’re having a panic attack. Once you’ve determined that much, the question is…what next?

Treating panic attacks, outside of traditional medicine which can have serious side effects, is your safest and best option. And yes, there are natural treatments for panic attacks. For more information on that subject, please see the link below.

In the meantime, please make a note of these symptoms any time that you feel that you’re having a panic attack. Proper diagnosis is the first step to finding a cure.

Redoing Your Roof

Some specific home renovation tasks may require that a home owner replace the whole roof or do some repairs. Do not fret. In the modern market today, there are many types of roofing materials that are suitable for all kinds of roofing jobs. They range from asphalt, clay, slate, fiberglass, to rubber. Rubber of late is actually pulling home owners in droves.

The roofing material that is of rubber comes in rolls or as shingles. These are then spread on the roof and fixed using adhesive.

Take care to see that the face of the roof is properly cleaned to be rid of all dirt, oil and any other debris. Rubber will not stick well if the roof is not cleaned well because it needs to cling to the surface.

If your idea was to get the rubber roofing product and just spread it over the old one, forget it. The roofing manufacturers will not view this kindly. They have made it very clear that they will not honor any warranties for the homeowners who refuse to clean the surface of their roofs thoroughly before fixing the rubber roofing in place.

The reason rubber is well loved as a roofing material is because it is budget friendly as compared to other similar materials. It is easy to use, is durable since it can last for decades without creating any issues at all. This is because rubber expands as compared to the contemporaries that are more rigid.

The advantage you have with rubber roofing is that it is a roof for all seasons; able to contract or expand as the seasons come and go. It will still be able to remain in perfect shape to keep your roof looking ever good. With this type of roofing you will never, well, almost never experience any leakages. Its maintenance costs are almost zero plus it is echo-friendly since it is recyclable.

The down turn to this product is just one; once it is fixed to the roof it can be very stubborn. There is no way it will be removed from the roof once it has stuck properly with adhesive. The only useful advice is that you get a very good artisan to cut the exact measurements on the pieces required for the roof so that you would not have the headache of needing to adjust anything once it is fixed.

To install it properly, take your time and do it with a lot of patience, since the material only comes in some kind of rolls. A new roof made from this material is bound to smell like new tires to somebody who has keen senses.

Needless to say that once your roof in done, you will never ever again complain of any leakages, and it is a good insulator plus is quite durable.

Important Considerations for Office Chairs

Office chairs being the most important furniture of an office needs to be purchased with lot of care. Nobody can deny the fact that there are abundant office chairs for consumers to select from. One gets a number of options, no matter whether he or she is shopping at a retail shop or online store. The availability of large number of designs and patterns often confuse individuals. Different chairs come with different shapes, sizes, colours, materials and features.

It is extremely important to keep some factors in mind before choosing high quality office chairs. When you want to shop for the best chairs as per your needs, it is vital to consider certain aspects. These include:

Job positions

In case you are planning to purchase chairs for executive positions, plush chairs are considered as the best. This is because of the presence of high backs and comfortable upholstery. On the other hand, if you are looking for receptionist chairs, ergonomic, swivel chairs are considered as the best option.

Materials and colours

This is another important point that should be kept in mind before purchasing any kind of chair for an office. Always go with chairs which are durable and long-lasti0ng in nature. It is very important to do a deep research on material of the chair which you are planning to purchase.

Apart from physical comfort, it is also important to choose chairs which go well with the decor style. That is why; chairs are made in a wide variety of materials as well as colours. Today one can find a chair in almost all possible colours and material as per his or her wish. All materials are available ranging from leather, cotton or any other.

Available office space

This important factor should also be kept on priority. Always examine the available space of your office before you go to purchase office chairs. This will help you in purchasing chair which suits your office space best.


Make sure that the chairs you purchase are comfortable in nature. This will not only help employees sit comfortably but also reduce chances of getting back strains and other harmful diseases which are caused because of uncomfortable chairs.

By keeping all these important factors in mind, one can easily make an efficient purchase. Best way of The finding out office chairs is thru internet color : as this medium Provides a number of options to the Individuals.

How to Paint Eyelashes – Painting Techniques

When painting eyes in a portrait, eyelashes are sometimes the final touch and can make or break your work. All eyelashes are not created equal. Sometimes just a few strokes of the brush is all that is needed to give the suggestion of lashes. Other times it is necessary to delicately detail lashes since that is the feature you want to stand out.

One of the things to remember when painting eyelashes is to study your model or reference photo. Seldom are human eyes lashes uniformly straight up from the eyelid. Even so this is a common way for beginning artists to paint them. If you look carefully, you will see that the top lashes usually go off to the side, then gently lift upward. The bottom lashes are similar.

Be careful when painting eyelashes on male subjects. Too much paint and they will look too dark. The same is true on children. A good technique to follow is to use a tiny brush, and to use quick strokes. Stand back and view the painting before adding more. Often times just a few strokes is all you need. Paint too many and you may be unhappy. It’s easy to overdo eyelashes.

When I paint portraits I like to paint the eyes, and then the eyelashes last. The reason is that the eyes define a person and finalize the portrait in a sense. There are other portions of the eye that need to be painted correctly of course as well. When it comes to the eyelashes however, sometimes less is more. My advise it to use a tiny detail brush, quick strokes and to know when to stop!

A Guide to Choosing the Correct Envelope

With a wide range of envelopes to choose from, here is a brief guide to help choose the correct envelope for the correct purpose.

Envelopes Weights (GSM)

Envelopes can be found in various weight/thicknesses and are measured in Grams per square inch or GSM. In exactly the same way that paper is graded, the greater the gsm of the envelope the thicker the paper/card it is made from.

Types of Envelopes

o Gummed – Traditional “Lick and Stick” envelopes which require you to moisten the adhesive on the flap of the envelopes before pressing and sealing.

o Self Seal

o Press Seal – Fold over the flap of the envelopes and pressing to seal

o Peal & Seal – Similar to Press Seal but you must first remove a plastic strip to reveal the bonding glue before folding over the flap and pressing down to seal.

o Plain – Plain envelopes are useful if you are looking for a much more personalised correspondence and as they contain no window the address needs to be written on the envelope. Also useful if you are want to print directly onto the envelope

o Windowed – Windowed envelopes contains a small clear plastic film on the front of the envelope which is used to display the printed address of the letter/document inside.

o Manilla/White – Most envelopes come in a choice of either white or manila. Manilla is the traditional brown style of envelope that is available.

o Board Backed – A rigid board within the envelope keeps import and documents safe. Ideal solution when sending photographs.

o Padded – If you need to send an item -big or small – and require and envelopes which provide much more protection than an standard envelope. Exceptionally strong and tear-resistant, padded envelopes are ideal for bulky or heavy items as well as delicate items such as CD/DVDs. Many of our padded envelopes are also weather resistant.

o Recycled – If you have concerns about the environmental impact envelopes and other paper supplies have on the environment you need not worry. Most envelopes are now made from recycled content and indicate the percentage of recycled content in three grades – 100% recycled paper, up to 50% recycled and over 50% recycled.

You may also notice environmental information including whether it is FSC sourced.


Envelopes come in a variety of sizes and are listed in international (ISO) size system.

Envelope sizes range from C0 (being the largest) through to C7. The most common envelope sizes are ISO C4, C5 and DL. Below is a description of the dimensions of each envelope to help you decide the best way to send your letters, memos and other documents.

o C4 – measuring 324x229mm C4 envelope can hold an unfolded A4 sheet of paper. Ideal for sending reports, brochures and documents on A4 paper that cannot be folded.

o C5 – measuring 229x162mm C5 envelopes can either an A5 sheet of paper or an A4 sheet of paper folded in half

o C6 – measuring 114x162mm C6 envelopes will hold an A5 sheet folded in half or an A4 sheet of paper folded twice.

o DL – measuring 100x220mm DL envelopes will hold a A4 sheet folded twice or an A5 sheet folded once. DL Envelopes are what you typically use for sending letters and what you receive in your daily post.

How to Fill in Your In-Ground Swimming Pool

In my case, my in-ground pool was in need of some costly repairs, so my wife and I decided to fill in the swimming pool. Hiring a demolition company to do the job can also be very costly. In the range of about $5000 – $8000, as I found out. So we decided to tackle the job ourselves. This is a step by step process of how we did it.

This project is for avid do it yourselfers. Make no mistake. It is a physically demanding job. However, you will save thousands of dollars. First of all, be safe filling in the swimming pool. You must take every precaution to be safe as with any do it yourself project. Always wear ear and eye and face protection. This is simply a step by step account of how we did it.

Let’s get started! Drain any water that may be in the pool. Disable all power going to the pool.

The first thing I had to do was go to the City where I live and get a permit to perform the demolition of the pool in my backyard. This permit only cost me about $35. The City simply wants to make sure that the pool will drain sufficiently once you fill in the pool.

Next, I had to punch holes in the bottom of the in-ground pool to allow for drainage. You don’t want a big mud bog or standing water that will breed mosquitoes (or other creatures). To accomplish this, I rented an electric jackhammer. I made a series of holes close together near the drain at the deep end. Then using a sledge hammer, I began to break through the concrete. The rebar that is embedded makes this a little difficult, but just keep working on it. Every time I exposed the rebar, I would cut it out with an electric grinder with a 4 inch abrasive wheel. Keep hitting the edge of the hole you created to make the hole bigger and bigger. I made the hole in the deep end of the pool about 3 feet by 3 feet. Make sure you go deep enough to the underlying dirt.

I also dug a trench across the shallow end of the swimming pool as well as punching several random holes in various places. I wanted to make sure the pool would drain with no problem.

Now to break up the pool. After a couple of good rains and running some water in the pool, I was confident that I had good drainage. I notified the City that I had completed the holes. They then sent someone to inspect it and gave me the OK to start filling it in.

I began breaking up the Cool Decking around the pool with sledge hammers and jackhammer. (My wife also got out there frequently to swing the hammer, I was impressed. This activity will keep you in shape, that’s for sure.) Throw all of the broken pieces into the pool as well as any rocks, bricks, broken concrete you want to get rid of. I also put out the word to all of my friends that I needed some filler and to bring anything they have as well. You need bulk at this point to fill the bottom of the pool.

I chose to cut about a foot off the top edge of the pool. I had to cut deep enough to cut the rebar in the wall. A concrete saw was used for this. I also used a walk behind concrete saw to cut the concrete and rebar going around the top edge of the pool. (All tools rented at Home Depo or anywhere that rents tools). I made these cuts about 8inches apart. This makes it a bit easier to break up with the hammer. I simply throw all these pieces in the swimming pool as well.

After all of the concrete demolition of the pool is complete, now I needed dirt and lots of it. I found a great resource. Craigslist. If you look under the Free or Materials section, you can find people or construction companies looking for places to dump their dirt. Some will dump it for free. Just keep looking, you will find what you need. I found a guy that not only brought me about 8 loads of dirt, he also had a tractor that he brought over to level it all out, photo. It cost me a whopping $350.