Black Beauty Standards

The black is beautiful movement has gone a long way towards reminding us that black beauty standards are as worthy of being respected and loved as any other skin color. And here’s a deep Truth (and by deep Truth I mean a truth that holds true for all cultures, for all people through all periods of time, in other words it doesn’t change according to some or other societal whim) – we are all beautiful Sacred Beings regardless of our body size or shape or it’s exterior color. Now those beauty standards are ones I can buy into!

Black beauty standards in rural Africa

I grew up, a White small country girl, in apartheid South Africa – a place where by far the majority of the population is Black. One vacation I came home from boarding school to be greated by Violet who wrapped me in her big black arms, and chortled with delight, “Utyebile kakulu ngoku!” In English she was telling me that I was very fat now. I was devastated – after all, I had gained weight but I desperately wanted to be thin. It would take me years to realize that Violet was complimenting me – her black beauty standards were very different to mine.

Part of the beauty standards in Violet’s rural Xhosa culture of the 1970’s when she passed this comment, is that ‘fat is beautiful.’ To be large in her culture was considered desirable and beautiful. It meant: you were healthy, you didn’t have AIDS. It meant you were fertile, sexy and womanly enough to attract a good husband – one who is wealthy enough to provide well. It meant you were wealthy enough to eat well.

The media and black beauty standards

What I remember most about Violet (and the other Black women who I came into daily contact with) was that they never questioned that black is beautiful – they weren’t immersed in a mainstream Western media that seems to rank skin colors and body sizes as supposedly more valued and worthy the whiter and skinnier you are.

How can any one skin color, or one body size or shape determine a person’s worth? Why would our great Creator create any one race or culture to be more Sacred than another? That’s all just nonsensical beauty standards made up by misguided humans.

Violet was my black beauty standard

I can still clearly see Violet’s ebony skin – it had a glow to it that was almost iridescent. And when she smiled (which was often) she had this row of startling white teeth all without the latest teeth whiteners. They say beauty lies in the eyes of the beholder – I loved Violet’s blackness. White wouldn’t have suited her. I loved the way she walked, tall and proud. She could balance a bucket of water on her head and walk as gracefully as a dancer.

And she made me laugh – like the one time she came across me sun-tanning and teased me about how I liked black so much that I was trying to get the sun to help me. And when I started perming my hair and she asked me why I wanted curly hair like hers.

Here’s what I think is so sensible about rural Black African women. Firstly, they don’t have scales they hop on and off of and that determine their mood for the day. They don’t swarm to shops bursting at the seams with the latest one-0-size-fits-all fashions. They don’t have mirrors that lie telling they are fat and ugly. They don’t spend hours on magazines and tv that continually bombards them with the message that only a certain shape of thin is beautiful. Their beauty standards are far more realistic.

Beauty standards can determine our stress levels

Instead they live in tune with the rhythms of the seasons and their bodies. Violet didn’t have the ongoing emotional stress of living in a large body which was continually insulted, stigmatized, hated or rejected either by themselves or others. This means her parasympathetic nervous system wasn’t constantly releasing stress chemicals (like noradrenaline, adrenaline and cortisol) into their bloodstream which would raise their health risks.

And interestingly enough, the Royal College of Physicians official medical report of 1983 found that rural Black South African women might well have a high prevalence of obesity but that it comes without the apparently inevitable poor morbidity and mortality. Makes you think about the value of living in sync with natural rhythms, rather than stressing about being skinny – doesn’t it?

Because they are immersed in their big is beautiful black beauty standards, they feel good living in their bodies. They’re thus continually flooding their biolological system with life-supporting molecules of emotion (like endorphics) that enhance their immune systems, and enhance their health.

Do you want to get off that treadmill of creating stress hormones about your body? You’ll find much more about this by following some of the links below.

Budget Quotations Vs Contract Bids

We are contemplating a comprehensive renovation of our existing office space, and would like to get some idea of the cost. Should we be getting multiple bids?

Yes, you should eventually get multiple construction bids, but that is not what you need right now!

If you are planning commercial construction or renovation, there are two types of construction estimates. You need to be aware of the advantages and disadvantages of both. A “budget quotation” is a rough estimate of the costs of construction which is prepared without a lot of detailed information on the quality or type of materials. A “contract bid” is a price for which the contractor is prepared to build, and is usually based on a complete set of drawings and/or outline specifications.

What you need at the moment is a budgetary quotation, and obtaining a quotation from just one reputable contractor will usually suffice. Why would anyone want a budget quotation? Our company recently provided a budget quotation to a Huntington businessman who was interested in expanding his building. An architect had prepared a single page plot plan showing an outline of the proposed addition on the site. That’s all there was. But it was enough for a budget quotation. In this case, a budget quotation helped our client make a GO/NO-GO decision. Will he be able to finance the addition? Will the additional carrying costs and taxes be more than offset by the additional business that can be booked? Our client did not want to bear the cost of a full set of architectural drawings before having an understanding of the scope of the project.

For the budgetary quotation, a contractor will need to have a reasonable idea of the demolition involved, lineal footage of new sheetrock, number of interior doors and level of finish (carpet, wall coverings, ceiling etc.) When our firm provides budgetary quotations, they are not a rough guess! We will break down the budgetary quotation by trade, and show you our assumptions and their associated costs. Now you have a fairly good idea of the cost of the project and can begin to make some intelligent decisions about the feasibility, scope or specifications of the project.

Unlike a budgetary quotation, a contract bid should be based upon very tight specifications (down to the last doorknob) and a complete set of plans. So once you have made the decision to move forward, an architect (or in some cases, a space planner) should be hired to prepare drawings and specifications. Only when those drawings are complete do you ask at least three reputable contractors to bid the work. Because the drawings reflect the work down to the last detail, there is no room for guesswork on the part of the contractor. If these drawings and specifications are not done, the result will be construction bids that vary widely based upon what each contractor believes you want. So a complete set of plans is the last place where you want to skimp!

If price is not that much of a consideration, you can safely skip the budgetary quotation and go straight to construction drawings. But on any major project never, but never, skip the construction drawings and multiple construction bids!

Simple Workshop Storage Ideas

There are many types of workshop storage answers on the market and in this article I will describe what has worked well for me, but obviously the final choice comes down to individual needs.

Utilize wall space

Take a look around your workshop (or garage, we will use both these terms to mean the same thing). Where do you see the most empty space? If you are a disorganised kind of person most of your stuff will be on the floor whereas the walls will be relatively free.

It pays to make efficient use of wall space. If you visit any kind of home centre or depot you will immediately realise how well they take advantage of the wall space to display items. Getting things off the floor and into the air is one of the key principles when it comes to workshop or any other kind of storage problem solving.


The most basic type of shelving one can use is horizontal brackets supporting lumber which creates a shelf.

My preferred way to deal with shelving is to use simple angle iron with drilled or punched holes to create a frame using standard nuts and bolts and fix this securely to the wall. The fixings used will depend if your supporting wall is masonry or timber frame construction.

You may want to consider building a frame using lumber instead of angle iron. If you have lightweight storage requirements for items such as sandpaper, power tools or small pots of paint or glue, you can use 2″x2″ for the verticals and horizontals and 3/8″ ply for the shelving. The horizontal spacing of the shelves should be designed so there is minimal wasted space between each shelf but make sure you allow at least two inches of clearance space between the top of the highest item and the bottom of the next highest shelf support.


Tall workshop storage cabinets can also be incorporated into your solution. If purpose made ones are too expensive then try and find some secondhand ones or use metal kitchen cabinets. If you cannot source metal ones then wooden cabinets will suffice.

If you also use base or low level workshop storage cabinets then fit them out with roll out shelving which will minimise the need to move things around to get to hard to access items at the back of the cabinet. Roll out shelves allow you to see what things you have available and to pick them out with ease.


For small items such as screws, nails, nuts and bolts and so on and for small hardware items you can use small stackable plastic workshop storage containers. Get some in different colours, sizes and shapes so you can readily categorise your items into different groups and you will also have an immediate visual clue as to where things are.

For example you may decide to but all your screws in blue containers, nails in red containers and bolts in yellow ones. The colour coding is entirely up to you but keep it simple.

Some storage containers are designed with a built-in french cleat which will enable you to hang them onto a pegboard. If you set out the bins at a suitable vertical height so there is a gap between each one you will be able to stack at least five or six high and still be able to see what is inside each one. Some storage containers also have a slot holder on the front so you can write what the contents are on a label and install it on the container.

Shop around and get ideas

Visit plenty of hardware and specialist stores before choosing a storage system and see what is on offer. Even if you do not buy the particular system you will get some good ideas that may be you can replicate using cheaper materials.

Have an idea of your storage requirements and loadings (light, medium or heavy duty) before you buy any pre-fabricated system and ensure shelves are deep enough and can be adjusted as necessary. A shelf should be a maximum of 26 inches deep so you will be able to reach items at the back of the shelf easily. This depth also applies to pegboards and cabinets too.

Hopefully this article has given you some ideas on how you can make your workshop and garage tidier and to give you more room to get your work done easily.

Helpful Tips to Choose a Quality Air Conditioning Installation Company

There are many ways to choose a company to install your new air conditioning system. Here are some of the things I would recommend checking:

You will want to make sure that the company you choose is licensed and insured to perform the air conditioning installation. Many of the companies out there claim they are "licensed and insured" but I always like to see proof in writing. The reason the company needs to be properly licensed is because this allows them to pull the necessary permits and have the inspections completed by the city or township. It also shows that the company has the required training and experience to obtain the licensing, which means your job will be done to the code requirements.

Make sure that the contractor is properly insured to perform your air conditioner installation; you'll want to make sure that the air conditioning contractor carries a liability policy and also a workman's compensation policy on his employees. This protects you the homeowner if something is to happen to your home or one of the contractors employees is hurt while installing you air conditioning system. I always want to see this in writing. If the contractor is not insured and something happens it can come back to your homeowners insurance or you personally.

Also, ask a few questions about the companies hiring and screening process of their employees. You'll want to look for a company that does background checks and drug screenings on their people. I like to have an idea of ​​what type of people will be coming out to my house. There are many contractors out there that have no hiring policies in place. It makes you think about who you would allow in your home. Do not forget to ask the contractor for referrals of customers where they have done a similar air conditioning job. Make sure to get the phone number and call their customer. Ask the testimonial a few questions to get a feel for the contractor that will be installing your air conditioning system and what you can expect from the contractor. I would recommend going and looking at the quality of workmanship if possible.

I also would recommend visiting the Better Business Bureau website. They have made it extremely easy to check on any contractor by just typing in their company phone number. If they are members you see the company's history, complaints, if any and how the complaints were resolved. This tells you a lot about how a company does business. This may not seem like an important thing to check but always check that the company actually has a real physical address and preferably an office at that location. There are many contractors who use post office boxes as their office. Where do you go if you do have a problem after the installation of your air conditioner? They are no where to be found. You will also want to look at the company's years in business; this usually lets you know you are dealing with a company that has a reputation to protect. In this day and age the company should have a website for customers to gather information and learn more about them. You should consider this when making your choice.

The last piece of information you will need to make an informed decision and pull everything together would be checking on their office staff, how the records of your air conditioner installation are recorded and maintained if they are needed in the future. How many service technicians do they employ in the event you need your system serviced in the future or a warranty issue arises? You can see that all of these things lead to the old saying "You get what you pay for". If you are getting pricing on a new air conditioning system, think about all of the above reasons why that other contractor is cheaper. Is he really cheaper in the long run? Check as many of the items above as possible before making your final decision.

What Is a Single Phase Motor?

A single phase motor is run from a power source with a singular distribution of alternating current electric power. This means that in the power supply, all of the voltages vary in unison. The typical characteristics for electric motors of single phase are that the current produces a pulsating rather than a rotating magnetic field and that an extra circuit is needed for starting this motion.

The currents in single phase motors reach their peak values simultaneously, making one phase. Three phase systems, on the other hand, reach peak current values sequentially, making three stages. In comparison to three phase systems, these motors do not have the same high efficiency levels, but can last indefinitely with little maintenance.

There are many different types of motors available, each category defined by the method used to start the mechanism. These categories include the split phase motor, capacitor start/ induction run, permanent slip capacitor and the capacitor start/capacitor run.

The split phase motor, also referred to as induction start/ induction run, is one of the simplest electric motor designs of single phase. It features a start and a main winding, with the start winding having a smaller gage wire and fewer turnings. This difference creates resistance in the motor and causes a rotating field. The main winding is heavier and maintains the running of the motor.

The capacitor start/ induction run type is a single phase motor that features a capacitor in the start winding which creates increased starting torque. A switch mechanism disconnects the start winding and capacitor when the speed reaches about 75% of its rated speed. The capacitor start motor also features a lower starting current, making it suitable for a wide range of applications.

The permanent split capacitor features a run capacitor which is connected permanently to the auxiliary start winding. Permanent split capacitors have low starting torque and low starting currents. Unlike many single phase electric motors, permanent split capacitors do not require any additional starting mechanisms.

The Capacitor start/ capacitor run type is a electric motor of single phase that combines elements from the capacitor start/ induction run and permanent split capacitor motors. It features a start type capacitor connected to the auxiliary winding as well as a run type capacitor that becomes active once the start winding is switched off. This allows for high starting torques at low currents.

These motors are generally used for low power applications where it would be inefficient to use more high powered mechanisms. Many single phase motors are ideal for applications with low inertia while others are engineered to meet high starting torque requirements.

Numerology and the Meaning of Numbers

Have you ever wondered what meanings may lurk beneath a number, perhaps one that keeps reappearing in your life? Since time immemorial humankind has wondered about the nature of number and how it relates to life. Numerologists believe that there are nine unique archetypes corresponding to nine cycles of development – the numbers 1 through 9. These numbers are also called Core Numbers or, Digital Root Numbers. Since Compound Numbers are merely combinations of these 9 Core Numbers, understanding the meaning of a number is predicated upon a thorough examination of these Roots. We shall now examine the evolution of these Root Numbers.

We begin with the Zero. This is the un-manifest where everything exists in potential. The Zero neither contains nor is contained by any number. It exists outside of any cycle. When the Zero is added to any number it symbolizes a perfection of that number’s meaning. Although 1 is the root of 10, 10 is not strictly synounymous with 1. This is because the addition of the Zero signifies a perfecting of the 1 influence, in effect moving out of the cycle of 1 through 9 and into a higher order – 10 through 19. When Zero is added to a number it tends to bring a universal responsibility to its root number. It is out of this formless perfection that some-thing appears.

Moving out of the formless realm of the Zero is some One thing which is whole, unified, and independent of the Zero. Our symbol for The Number One, 1, is a pillar. A phallic shape. The one is a masculine energy that strikes out on its own and pioneers what is new, original, and seething with energy. This One is the irreducible fact of consciousness, the eternal I AM.

Between the Zero and the One all other numbers have their being. As soon as the One appears it is placed in relation to the un-manifest Zero. For the One to be One at all it must be independent of something hence, the arising of The Number Two. The Two brings about a relationship, it holds within it the strength of the One but with a humbleness reflected in its character. The symbol itself, 2, reveals a man at prayer bowing to some greater power (1).

Once we recognize the arising of self and our relationship to something ‘higher’ (be it g-d, nature, principle or idea) we feel the need to express this understanding. The Number Three brings us into the social sphere. Out of the un-manifest Zero, 0, an independent form arises, 1, which brings us into an essential relation, 2, which we need to in some way express, 3. The character of the Three, 3, reflects this openness in its form. It is open at its top, receiving the higher influences, and open at its bottom, expressing those influences to others.

If what we express is to be of lasting value we must work to create a solid foundation – the Four. Many projects falter before reaching this point, making it to Three but never bridging the gap between expressing a higher ideal, 3, and embodying a higher ideal, 4. In order to maintain its balance the 4 must close off or limit the influence it is working with. The Number Four takes the ideas expressed by the Three and adds a self-imposed limitation, creating a stabile and enduring foundation.

After the discipline of the Four we encounter the change and activity of The Number Five, in effect testing the solidity of our foundation. The Five, 5, turns itself around and introduces freedom and adventure. It is open in both the front and the back. It is a point where decisions must be made, and true to its form, those decisions could radically alter the outcome.

The freedom introduced to the Four through the Five brings about a new balance symbolized in The Number Six. It simultaneously broadens the limits of the Four and places the necessary responsibility upon the five. The Six, 6, is pregnant with love. It is the number of family and social responsibility. The social responsibilities of the Six create a need to understand and gain insight, a need to find some way of placing experiences into a meaningful whole.

The Number Seven questions and seeks answers to the grand riddle of life. It is a number of magical, mystical maturity. Its character, 7, may be likened to an old man bent over with age or perhaps, carrying a staff or lantern that casts its light into the darkness surrounding it. It is the number of introspection, planning, and inner searching. Through the control, insight and planning that emerges with the Seven we realize that we reap what we sow.

The Number Eight becomes a carrier of dynamic power and the success of the seeds planted all the way back with the One. Its character, 8, reveals a perfect balance between the world of ideas and the world of action. It is closed off indicating the power that will bring ideas into fruition.

After the rewards bestowed by the Eight we realize we are reaching the end, The Number Nine. As we confront this ending the focus shifts from the material to the spiritual. Selfless service and universal ideas become paramount. The character of the Nine, 9, is very much like the Six, 6. Whereas the Six sends its love to the material world of family and friends, the Nine closes the cycle by returning its love and compassion to higher ideals.

And again we are faced with the Zero. We may start a new cycle, beginning once again with One. It is possible we may continue our endeavor and raise the One to the relative perfection of the Ten, learning lessons of a higher order. In either case, we find everything between nothing (0) and something (1).

5 Things to Consider When Designing or Building Your Mobile Website

Mobile web design is no easy feat. This is why if you are hiring people to do it you should be able to communicate what exactly it is that you want. To give you an idea, below are some things to consider when thinking about your mobile web design.

Define What Your Mobile Site is for

Mobile sites usually come about from three situations. Sometimes, it’s a completely new website and both the desktop site and mobile site need to be developed. Or it could be that a desktop site is being relaunched along with a completely new mobile optimized website. It could also be just a redesign of an existing desktop site to become more mobile friendly. Whichever it is, the purpose of your mobile site should be well-defined because it will influence all the decisions you make regarding your website.

Make Your Web Site Simple without Compromising Design

Load times are crucial for websites, especially for those that are mobile optimized. Wireless connections have become a whole lot faster than they used to be but they still are relatively slower and more inconsistent than a wired connection. For this reason it is important to design simple websites with smaller images etc. in order to keep load times down.

This doesn’t mean however that design should be compromised. A well designed website clearly has a lot of advantage over others that are more basic in nature. The key is to find a happy balance between awesome web design and practicality.

Consider a Single-column Layout

You can notice one desktop websites that links and call to action buttons tend to be all over the screen. This is fine especially when done in an organized manner but this type of design isn’t that ideal for mobile websites. A single-column layout is much more preferable. It is simple, easy to use, maximizes whatever small space you have on a phone screen and makes important links easier to spot.


You wouldn’t think it was important but not all fonts are made to be used online especially in the mobile format where the letters tend to be rather tiny. Sans Serif fonts tend to be much easier to read online. Sans serif fonts are defined as type fonts that look quite contemporary but with decorative finishes. Sticking to fonts like this instead of experimenting with fancier ones for the sake of design will make your mobile website that much easier to navigate.

Thinking in Color

A well-thought out color scheme can go a long way in mobile websites. Good mobile web design should take colors and what they mean into consideration. Different colors communicate different things and the color scheme of your website could say a lot of different things about your website and your company. Ideally, you would choose a color scheme that is similar to your company logo or a color you would like your company to be associated with. Another thing to consider would be how these colors translate into your mobile website. Will they make fonts a lot harder to read? Will these colors make it hard for other users to use your website?

Fiber Optic Cables

Each fiber optic cable guide includes a radius limiting portion that prevents fiber optic cables from being bent beyond their minimum bend radii. The fiber optic cables have clear advantages over the copper cables. There is more security, and the fiber optic cables are more reliable than any other wire available. The fiber optic cable is in the high voltage environment. Dry-band voltage of the polluted sheath's surface of the all-dielectric self-supporting fiber optic cable is analyzed in this paper.

The fiber optic cable 700, shown in FIG. The FIMT core 702 includes an inner tube 706 surrounding one or more optical fibers 708. The fiber optic cable is the main choice for high speed Internet connections and the primary material used for country to country or continent to continent Internet connections. By moving the connection type from copper to fiber optics it will allow the DisplayPort to achieve higher bandwidths which are necessary for HDTV playback and if you consider that there are a lot of games that you can play over the Internet, streaming them through the DisplayPort directly to your LCD TV might be one option the industry is going to take in the near future. The fiber optic cable can be installed easily from point to point, passing right next to major sources of EMI with no effect. Conversion from copper networks is easy with media converters, gadgets that convert most types of systems to fiber optics.

The fiber optic cable assembly includes a bundle of fiber optic fibers, a tube, a track, a plurality of fasteners and securing means. The tube has a front surface and a rear surface. The fiber optic cable transmits the photon to a second quantum dot that also happens to be sitting between two mirrors. In this case, the mirrors "catch" the photon and bounce it off the quantum dot until it finally absorbs it. The fiber optic cable has an end that is stripped. The stripped end includes a bare fiber that extends into the connector and through the ferrule.

The fiber optic cable carries multiple services throughout campus including: voice, video, cable TV, and data. In addition to having the fiber cable in place, newer fiber cable TV distribution equipment became more readily available at a reduced cost. The fiber optic cable and lens allows the instrument electronics to be kept away from the target environment where it would be subjected to higher temperatures, smoke, dust, steam or powerful electromagnetic emissions such as generated by induction heating. Both the stainless steel lens and rugged cable assembly can be replaced in the field without returning the instrument for calibration (a unique feature). The Fiber Optic Cable Blower is designed for the installation of fiber optic cables with diameters from 0.23 "(5.8 mm) to 1.13" (28.7 mm) into innerduct from 0.98 "(25 mm) outer diameter to 1.97" (50.0 mm) outer diameter . The correct size cable seals, feed tube and venturi must be determined for the cable being installed.

The fiber optic cable receives input from the reflection off of the internal 3/4 inch diameter sphere surface. The IS1 is ideal for portable color measurements and acts like a cosine receptor for irradiance measurements. The fiber optic cable (20) includes a light carrying center (28), a cladding (30) and a buffer (32). The cladding displacement connector (10) has surfaces (60,62) which can be used for displacing the buffer (32) and cladding (30) to expose (34) the light carrying center (28).

Fiber-optic wires carry information in the form of light. To make a fiber-optic nanowire, engineers first start with a regular fiber-optic cable. Fiber-optic cable is now being used to transport both video and audio signals for short and long distances. This is made possible by modulating a video / audio signal (s) onto a beam of coherent light, which is generated by a solid-state laser.

Fiber-optic cables are not crimped, soldered, or twisted together when they are repaired. If the cable is broken, another cable must be cut to fit between the two connectors. Fiber-optic technology is well known in telecommunications, local area networks, the CCTV security marketplace and in many Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) highway projects. Even CATV (cable) distribution to various local feed points within a residential community is now routine for fiber.

Network operators are looking to recoup the cost of the fiber-optic cable and other infrastructure pieces that make a high-speed Internet possible. They argue that the upgrades are necessary to deliver such innovations as high-definition video-on-demand and high-quality teleconferencing. Our standard fiber-optic ribbon cables provide superior tensile strength and resistance to cut-through and abrasion while maintaining flexibility. Cables are available for aerospace and other demanding applications. The fiber-optic cable did not allow that.

glass, glasses

Fiber Optic cabling is made with glass fibers. Provide very little variation in the signal they carry over long distances. Optical engineers have found that adding different additional chemicals to the basic silicon dioxide they can change the optical properties of the glass. By adding roughly 4% germanium dioxide (GeO2), for example, they can create a glass that has much less attenuation, and much 'flatter' attenuation across various frequencies of light, than silicon dioxide by itself. Although fibers can be made out of either plastic or glass, the fibers used in long-distance telecommunications applications are always glass, because of the lower optical absorption of glass. The light transmitted through the fiber is confined due to total internal reflection within the material.

FYI, fiber optic (the core of it, not shell to cover it) is made of glass and not plastic. The fiber optic strands of glass (optic fibers) within fiber optic cables carry analog or digital signals in the form of light waves. Distance and capabilities will increase even more once the glass becomes more pure.

Remembering the headache and the brilliant white light from high SiO2 glass, Richard knew that the formula would be ultra pure SiO2. Richard also knew that Corning made high purity SiO2 powder, by oxidizing pure SiCl4 into SiO2. NEP Supershooters has adapters that work around the fiber by breaking out the glass, but this means that the camera must be powered from the closest electrical outlet or generator. It's just one more thing to go wrong if the power plug gets pulled or the generator quits. A fibre optic cable consists of a glass silica core through which light is guided. This is covered with a material with a refractive index of slightly less than the core.

The core and the cladding (which has a lower-refractive-index) are usually made of high-quality silica glass, although they can both be made of plastic as well. Connecting two optical fibers is done by fusion splicing or mechanical splicing and requires special skills and interconnection technology due to the microscopic precision required to align the fiber cores. A type of cable that transmits data as light through strands of glass instead of electricity through copper. Fiber-optic cable is a wonderful thing; it can transmit almost insane amounts of data per second, and it is completely impervious to surge s, magnetic fields, lightning, and all the other EM nasties that can affect copper cable. Fiber optic data transmission uses light in glass fiber cable as a communication medium. It is ideal for spanning areas with severe interference, such as near heavy electrical equipment, welding or radio transmissions.

Fiber optics are thin filaments of glass through which light beams are transmitted. Advantages of fiber include high information carrying capacity (bandwidth), very low error rates and insensitivity to electromagnetic interference. Then, the bare glass (125 mm) is cleaned and set in place under a special laser below a custom photo mask that is set 50 mm above the cable. Once the laser performs its cycle, the assembly is now customized. Abraham Van Heel covered a bare fiber or glass or plastic with a transparent cladding of lower refractive index. This protected the total reflection surface from contamination and greatly reduced cross talk between fibers.

Fiber-optic cable consists of glass fibers, allowing for significantly higher transfer speeds compared to copper. Data are transmitted in the form of light pulses injected by a laser or an LED. The cable uses glass fibers instead of copper wires to transmit conversation and data. AT & T's old cables generally are shark- free because they do not emit much magnetism. Glass cables need to be custom-cut so that they have a nice crisp edge that does not scatter the light, but their plastic cousins ​​can be trimmed on the jobsite. Still, no ordinary wire cutter will do.

From a technical standpoint, fiber optic cable consists of a bundle of glass or plastic rods that can transmit data signals. Fiber optic cable can send and receive in both analog and digital formats, and can carry video, voice, and internet packets. Some new cable designers will actually provide built-in bend limits to protect the glass within.

While copper wires can be spliced ​​and mended as many times as needed, it is much harder to fix glass fiber-optic cables. And this time it's not all dependent on one market (though LCD glass is huge). We have the LCD glass, auto / diesel catalytic converter substrates, and fiber. Theoretical work showing that light loss in glass fibers could be decreased dramatically spurred experimental efforts to produce such fibers. Researchers continued exploring techniques to decrease light loss in optical fibers.

The light beam bounces off the side of the glass or plastic fibers in the cable, which are thinner than a human hair. The light does not pass through the wall of the fiber, but is reflected back in and travels along to the end of the fiber.

2009 Golf Digest Hot List Winners Review

A Peek at the 2009 Golf Digest Hot List

Whether you’re a golf equipment fanatic or just a casual observer of the latest offerings and trends in golf clubs and accessories, the 2009 Golf Digest Hot List is a golf equipment smorgasbord. From drivers, fairway woods and hybrids, to irons, wedges and putters-oh, and bags and balls, too-the equipment gurus at Golf Digest break it down in their popular annual equipment ranking.

The Process

If you’re wondering how golf equipment experts rate, for example, Callaway drivers or TaylorMade irons, think Excel spreadsheets with thousands of data points, hundreds of pages of technical data from golf equipment manufacturers, scientists, a four-part judging criteria, and a two-week visit to a San Jose, California, resort for field testing.

The process is, in a word, exhaustive. Golf Digest evaluated the “universe” of golf clubs-471 entries, to be exact-and judged them across four weighted criteria: 1) performance (40%), 2) innovation (30%), 3) look/sound/feel (20%), and 4) demand (10%). 

After all the facts and data were collected, the judges engaged in nine days of meetings that included 800 debates to arrive at the 116-club Hot List. Along the way, they ate a lot of take-out food.

 Following is a peek at this year’s list. 


Golf Digest breaks down the golf drivers category into two parts: drivers over $350 and drivers under $350. Then it splits the two categories into gold and silver winners.

Three of the gold winners in the over $350 category are the Callaway FT-9, PING Rapture V2 and the TaylorMade r7 Limited.

No one is better than Callaway at using multiple materials, said the judges about the FT-9. Players like the look, balance and carry of the PING Rapture V2, which has a similar look to the PING G10. The TaylorMade r7 Limited has movable weights and features an Ozik shaft. Some said it produces the best feel of any club on the market. 

Gold winners in the under $350 category included Adams Speedline, Callaway Big Bertha Diablo, PING G10 and TaylorMade Burner. 


Irons were broken into three categories that correspond with playing ability and interests: game improvement, super game improvement and players irons.

Gold winners in the game-improvement category included Callaway X-22, PING G10 and TaylorMade Burner. One player said he could hit the Callaway X-22 irons blindfolded. Sign me up, he said. Callaway X-22 led in the Demand category, which is an assessment of reputation, interest, intrigue and excitement. The PING G10 is a long-time category leader, and the TaylorMade Burner irons really shined, leading in three of the four judging categories: performance, innovation and look/sound/feel.

TaylorMade also had a gold winner in the super game improvement category: the Burner Plus, which features an oversized clubhead and hefty offset to help get the golf ball in the air.

In the players irons category, Titleist AP2 rose to the top, along with TaylorMade Tour Preferred, Callaway X-22 Tour, Callaway X-Forged and PING S57 models, four among the total of six gold winners.


Arguably, there’s no golf club more important than the putter. Golf Digest took a close look at two main categories: blade putters and mallet putters.

Gold winners in the blade putter category over $200 included the Odyssey Black Series I #6, TaylorMade Daytona TP-KIA MA and Titleist Cameron Studio Select, which led in three of four criteria: performance, look/sound/feel and demand.

In the blade putter category under $200, top picks were the Odyssey White Hot Tour 1, two PING Anser models and the TaylorMade Daytona.

Gold winners in the mallet putter category included the Odyssey Black Series I 2-Ball, PING iWi Craz-E and TaylorMade Itsy Bitsy Spider. And leading mid-mallet putters were Odyssey, Titleist Cameron and MacGregor models.


Hot List judges took a look at lightweight carry bags and “do it all” cart bags, selecting their 21 favorites. Leading the list of gold and silver winners were models from Callaway, PING, TaylorMade, Titleist, Bag Boy, Nike, Ogio, Sun Mountain, Wilson and Izzo.

What Tour Pros Play

What do the top tour professionals play? Following is just a sampling.

Callaway: Phil Mickelson, Ernie Els, Annika Sorenstam

TaylorMade: Kenny Perry, Sergio Garcia, Paula Creamer

PING: Angel Cabrera, Lorena Ochoa, Hunter Mahan

Titleist: Steve Stricker, Zach Johnson, Adam Scott

Brick Panels to Accentuate a Home

Wood paneling is one of your best options if you plan to give your home a new look. There are many types of wood paneling. We have the common wall paneling, stone paneling, bamboo paneling and brick paneling. Brick paneling is quite easy. It gives the same effect of brick masonry but at a cheaper cost. It is also easier to install. Brick paneling serves many advantages. One of it is the idea of saving a lot of time. One brick can cover a good amount of space at once. Filling up a panel with bricks is easier compared to other materials (like thin sheets of wood).

Aside from the convenience of installing, brick panels are very versatile. It works well both in indoor and outdoor, whether for residential or commercial use. It never fails to elicit a very classy and elegant look. Not to mention also that bricks are very strong, heavy and durable. Brick panels are unwavering in the house fashion. It is always one of the favorite materials for house constructions, and it never fails to deliver the right kind of effect that a house owner is expecting.


The common size of brick panels are 16 x 48 x 1 inches. Its weight is 26 pounds per blackboard panel and 40 pounds per cement board panel. The packaging for blackboard is 91 panels per pallet, and 70 panels per pallet for cement board. The materials produced are called brickette panels usually assembled in a factory. A panel brick weighs 1/5 of the full weight of the full-size brick. Each brick panel may be applied to any structurally sound substrate. It requires no footing or any kind of support. You also do not need to worry about the load bearing walls. Whatever product involving brick siding can be handled by brick panels.


Brick panels give natural beauty to all kinds of application. They can be used for new construction or renovation. It is a very versatile material. The adhesive used for brick panels is a synthetic rubber base adhesive. This adhesive must comply with the specification of APA. It should be waterproof and produced specifically for exterior use to guarantee the durability of your structure.

In installing and assembling the brick panel, the first thing to do is to fasten the panel to the supporting construction. This can be done by driving fasteners. The backing materials per square foot should not be less than two fasteners. There should be a water-resistant barrier applied in the substrate. The panel brick fabricated in the cementation backer board should be used where the panels are being installed. The location should be below six inches above the grade.


The brick panels system requires application of channels which are 1 inch by 3 inch J or L channels. These channels provide the adequate system relief that you need for your brick panel. Fill the masonry joints with mortar after setting your panel. It should be cement and masonry sand combined. This mixture will be mixed to a consistency that will flow through a grout bag. 


Always maintain the brick panel by cleaning it regularly. If you plan to detach the brickettes, clean the area of old mortar where it was attached before, before applying new bricks.

Apartment Inspection Checklist

You have found an apartment you like and you are eager to move in this lovely place. Hold on! Before you sign the lease with the landlord, some inspection is necessary and it might save you a lot of trouble. If you have already signed the lease, it will still be helpful to carefully inspect the apartment if you haven’t done it yet. In case you find any problem, you should let the landlord know and get the problems fixed.

Below is a checklist for apartment inspection.

1. Check the entrance: Does the door seal properly? Does the lock work?

2. Check the floors: Any stain or stuff on hardwood floor? Are the carpets clean?

3. Check the ceilings and walls: Any dents, cracks or holes? Is the wallpaper in good condition? Paint on the wall in good shape?

4. Check electricity and lights: All lights working? Electrical outlets functioning? Air conditioner working well? Ceiling fan working well? Phone jack in each room? Is there a cable TV connection?

5. Check the kitchen: faucets leaking? Water pressure good? All appliances working and clean? Refrigerator looking good and not making too much noise? Dishwasher working fine? Gas/electric stove working fine? Microwave functioning?

6. Check the bathroom: Faucets leaking? Hot water from the shower? Toilet working fine?

Water pressure good?

7. Check safety: Windows in good condition and safe? Intercom working? Locks on all doors working? Smoke and carbon monoxide detectors functioning? Lead hazards?

If you have found problems with the apartment, write them down and show it to the landlord (keep a copy for yourself). Make sure the problems get fixed before you move in.

Do Flat Fee MLS Listings Work?

The answer is yes but there are plenty of things a FSBO seller with an MLS listing can do to get their flat fee listing noticed by Realtors® and buyers.

Price is the foremost concern for any flat fee MLS listed seller. Below are my top 5 ways to sell flat fee in the MLS and have more success:

1) Forget about the 2005 bubble spike in prices when setting a listing price in a buyer's market. Where the market has been has no bearing on where it is today. Unfortunately, many homes bought during 2004-2006 are currently in a negative equity position and you might consider a short sale. For those sellers who are not underwater, price your property to the buyers.

2) Use my cash test to set your price when listing flat fee. The cash test uses the advertising concept called ADMA. Attention, Desire, Memory and Action. If you want to get someone's attention, advertise a price that creates action. Selling a home flat fee is not any different than selling a car. Once buyers are in your home, maybe one spouse will become attached and convince the other that your home is perfect (desire & memory). My cash test is: advertise your FSBO-MLS home for the price that you would sell to a cash buyer. Of course add in your buyer's agent commission and closings costs.

3) Do not leave room for negotiations when listing flat fee in the MLS. In 2 above, I did not discuss leaving any room for negotiations because the goal is to get offers. Negotiate possibly 1% off your MLS listed price. This will surprise the buyers and the Realtors® but that's OK. Let them figure out whether or not your flat fee MLS listing is a good value.

4) Consider offering a higher buyer's agent commission. Normally, flat fee sellers and full-service agents co-broke (share commissions) with buyer's agents® at 3%. Be different and offer 4%. Your flat fee listing will stand out. To advertise this higher than normal buyer's agent commission, consider using a flat fee MLS Realtor® eblast program.

5) Lastly, negotiate well. Flat fee sellers typically represent themselves. This is good and bad. The good part is you keep control and save about 3% in commissions. The bad part reminds me of the adage "a lawyer that represents himself has a fool for a client" and can also be applied to for sale by owner sellers. Most flat fee MLS listed sellers are not qualified to negotiate a sales contract, deal with contract repair limits and other contract matters. Often, unrepresented sellers leave money on the table by either negotiating too much or by being too generous when negotiating issues found on an inspection report. A skilled broker or agent would likely do better for the seller. Find a flat fee MLS program that addresses this concern.

Flat fee MLS works if you pay attention to details. The flat fee listing service that you list with can greatly affect your success. Self represented FSBO sellers often leave too much money on the table when negotiating. Pricing your home as if you're negotiating with a cash buyer can be a key in getting more showings and more offers.

Never Gamble Riding Without A Helmet!

Any paramedic first on the scene of a motorcycle accident will shake his head upon finding the injured without a helmet on. Riding a motorcycle without a helmet is synonymous with severe, if not fatal, injury. Death rates increase exponentially as helmets use decrease. Taking off your HJC helmet before taking off on a bike ride is a grave (no pun intended) mistake!

HJC Helmet, one of the leading helmet manufacturers in the world, and all other helmet makers for that matter, will really be against at the accident statistics involving helmet less bikers. And why not, when transportation statistics show a direct relation between the rise of motorcycle deaths and the drop in motorcyclists wearing helmets? It is really amazing how a biker can take the risk when a little discipline – just putting on one HJC helmet for example – goes a long way in prolonging the biker's life.

While traffic regulations say a helmet is mandatory, not every biker is that conformist. Wearing a helmet, much less paying for a high-end HJC helmet for instance, can be tedious if not actually a nuisance. Anti-helmet advocates shun Harley helmets or BMW or HJC helmets as water repels oil. But is it really cumbersome and tedious? Some can not see the reason when an innovative HJC helmet, for example the SY-MAX II, offers great features like optically superior face shield, one-touch integrated sunshield, pushbutton chin bar, single button face shield release, and cool interiors. With this kind of HJC helmet, it's practically like wearing no helmet at all!

What is surprising is that bikers will spend a lot on high-end motorcycles like BMW, Ducati, Harley Davidson, and other prestigious brands, but think twice about spending a few hundred dollars on one HJC helmet. Some bikers will pay extra for motorcycles with higher-revving powers, lowered chassis, great suspension, responsive gears, but will not spend anything on say, HJC helmet accessories like optional shields, headliners, balaclavas maybe, breath guards, breath boxes, face masks , flat shields, or pinlocks. These HJC helmet accessories actually come in a wide array of options for color, comfort, safety, ease of use, and other biker eccentricities. They spare no costs on motorcycles and the fuel these bikes guzzle, but hoard every penny so as not to shell out one for a protective jacket, reinforced boots, padded vests, or even motorcycle gloves.

Motorcycling is definitely fun! Riding a motorcycle with all the feeling of freedom it brings, the heady breeze, the rush of the wind on the ears, the refreshing morning sunlight can be very tempting for the biker to forget his helmet or other protective gear. Unfortunately, sometimes that's where the fun ends, as thoughtless riding without regard for personal safety can make motorcycling a disastrous – definitely not fun – activity. Motorcycles are great machines. They take the biker to places where cars normally do not go. Unfortunately again, though, those places are not always safe – like off-road and muddy, slippery, mountain trails, unpaved roads, and lots of unyielding road surfaces. Motorcycle safety should go hand in hand with motorcycling. Wearing a Harley or HJC helmet should also go hand in hand with wearing jackets, boots, and other protective apparel.

Improve Reading Speed ​​- 3 Awesome Tips

Improve reading speed? Yes you can! There are many different ways that you can read faster. You can look into reading courses or programs that can help you further from what you might have already learned.

If you have not been learning any different techniques for speed reading then you should know that looking around on different sites or at different books will give you many ideas and techniques that you can use to improve speed reading.

Ask Yourself These Questions

You might want to first find out what your speed of reading is:

Are you on the average side of reading speed?
Are you on the low side, or the high side?

This will let you know how far you are going to need to come before you are speed reading. There are several different little things that can help you right from the start. These will take nearly no effort and take very little of your time.

Picking a Place That Is Quite to Read

When you are able to be in a comfortable but quite place you are able to concentrate better. This leads to less distractions and a better speed of reading.

Use Something as a Pointer

This will keep you following along in the book and reduce the amount of times that you might have looked back at previous material read if not using it. You can also try holding your material further away from your eyes. This is supposed to help you with being able to read more words at one time.

5 Big Benefits of Portable Tool Boxes

Portable tool boxes function wherever you require them the most. You can slide in your portable tool box inside your vehicle when there’s plenty of work, or just set it aside when there is nothing to be done. These tool boxes often come in a whole range of colors, shapes and sizes where they are mostly crafted in wooden boxes, stainless steel and durable plastic. These portable tool boxes are frequently found in garages and sheds but these are also beneficial for more than just your tools and equipments.

Handy in kitchens

Portable tool boxes are also convenient in most kitchens. If you love to collect kitchen gadgets, a tool box are perfect storage systems for them where they can be organized neatly in its shallow compartments. There is no more hassle of digging for gadgets when you are in need of them. A stainless tool box would also go well in kitchens with stainless steel appliances.

Beneficial in craft rooms

Tool boxes are also convenient add-ons to your craft room. You can sort your brushes and place it in one compartment. Your paint in another one and your embroider threads could go well in another compartment.

Convenient in kids’ bedrooms

A portable tool box in your children’s room would certainly look great particularly if his decor is in a car theme. He can utilize this tool box to reorganize all his toys or he can simply shove his entire collections therein.

Make excellent gifts for newly-weds

A portable tool box might be a rare and bizarre wedding gift that you can give to a newly wedded couple where both can use it for several more years. Whenever they are going to dig for tools they will certainly think of you. They might seem unsuitable but no need to fret since tool boxes are convenient in every home.

Essential for do-it-your-own-projects at home

Each household must have a tool box with essential tools and equipments. Even if you are not mechanically inclined, you never know when you may require some tools and equipment for important projects at home. There are several essential tools offered for in the market that will tender everything that you might require for simple household repairs and maintenance.

There are lots of tool boxes that might be suitable for your needs. Searching for an excellent portable tool box might not be too hard for you since these are accessible everywhere. You can even go online to find the best tool box that will cater to your needs as well as your family.