The Basics on Camping Tents

When it comes to selecting a tent for your camping needs, there are a few things to consider. With the wide variety of makes and models available, your decision can seem overwhelming. However, you can simplify the process by knowing what you need before you start to shop.

One of the first things to consider when buying a camping tent is size. Think about how many people will be in the tent and the amount of supplies you will keep in the tent. You want to make sure you have enough room to be comfortable. If you’re planning an extended trip where you’ll need a lot of supplies, you might want to purchase another tent just for storage.

You also must consider the weather. Base your buying decision on what the climate is normally like where you plan to camp. When you’re going to an area you’re not familiar with, check what the usual precipitation levels, temperature ranges and wind speeds are. All of this will help you choose a camping tent suitable to that area’s climate.

Price also should be a consideration. Choose the best quality material that is within your budget. You want the material to be as durable as possible so you get years of use out of your tent. You need to consider maintenance, as well. Look for quality workmanship. This is not only in the actual tent material, but also in the poles, pegs, rope, tensioners and accessories. You want the best quality in all elements of the tent. This enables you to avoid repair and replacement costs over the life of the tent. You might as well pay more upfront for a better tent than have to pay for repairs, or even a completely new tent, after just a few uses.

Another thing you may want to consider is ease of assembly. If you are camping alone, you want a tent that you can set up without much labor or strain. When you know you will camp with other adults, you can look for something more elaborate since you’ll have the extra help. Ease of transportation is something else to think about. Do you need a camping tent you can carry easily on your back? There are many durable, lightweight tents on the market today. A compact, lightweight tent is perfect for backpackers going to areas not accessible by vehicle.

Look for reinforced eaves when buying a camping tent. The eaves handle most of the pressure on camping tents. When tightening roofs with ropes and stakes, the eaves bear the strain. Reinforced eaves are especially important for winter camping. Tents tear along the eaves and grommets when heavy snow collects on the roof. Reinforced eaves can prevent this from happening.

Look at purchasing a rain fly for your camping tent. A rain fly covers the roof and walls of your tent, which provides several benefits. Air collects between the rain fly and the tent roof, which becomes insulation in cold weather. A rain fly protects a canvas camping tent from ultraviolet rays, which can cause the canvas to break down. A rain fly can also prevent tree sap, bird droppings and other foreign substances from falling directly on the roof of your tent.

Above all, consider good, old-fashioned comfort when buying a camping tent. You know what you like and what makes you feel comfortable. Look for tent features that suit your needs. Your camping experience will be much more enjoyable when you love where you’re living.

Six Tips For Choosing the Best Multi-Tool

The versatility of a multi-tool makes it a great holiday gift for just about anyone. Like a Swiss Army knife, this all-in-one gadget contains multiple tools in one compact, easily portable form. To give the right multi-tool, it's important to assess the needs of the individual you're buying for and choose a model specifically tailored for them.

Here's what you should keep in mind during your search:

Not All Multi-Tools Are the Same
There's a wide variety of multi-tools on the market, and many are customized for specific situations. Some are geared for fishing or kayaking, while others cater more to campers or home improvement. Some are intended for tough repair jobs in the wild; others just offer basic utility while you're out and about. Consider who will be using the tool and what they will need it for before making a selection.

Not All Multi-Tool User are the Same
There are people who keep a single multi-tool on hand in case of emergencies, and there are people who own a variety of them for different situations and use them on a regular basis. A connoisseur will have more specific requirements and preferences than a casual user. You should also consider how the tool will be carried. On a tool belt, every ounce of weight matters, so the tool should be as efficient and streamlined as possible. In a purse or bag, however, a little extra weight does not make as much of a difference so it's okay to choose a slightly heavier tool with more functionality.

Get What You Need
There's no point in spending extra money for a features you will not use. Choose the smallest, lightest multi-tool that meets your needs.

Shop and Compare
Make a list of essential features you're looking for in a multi-tool, and find several models that fit the bill. Then compare the additional gadgets they offer and weigh which would be most useful to you. Once you've identified the important features you're looking for, consider the user's other hobbies and interests. If the person is a wine drinker, look for a tool with a corkscrew. If you're buying for a camper, a fork and spoon might be appreciated.

Consider Who Will Be Using the Tool
When choosing a multi-tool for a wife or girlfriend, keep in mind that a woman will often have different priorities than a man. For example, many multi-tool fans claim scissors are pointless because you can just use a knife for cutting, but a woman would be more likely to use scissors for many jobs. Also, choose a tool with screwdrivers and not just bit drivers, as many women will not want to carry bits with them.

Consider the Form as well as Function
A good multi-tool should be streamlined and fit nicely in the hand. It should also be easy to carry, whether on a tool belt or in a purse. If it's too bulky or intimidating, it might end up tucked in a drawer instead of carried around and used.

~ Nicole Krueger, 2009

Productive Differences – Engineer Versus Medical Specialist

In what way are engineers similarly productive to medical specialists? The field of the engineer is in design, repair and development of systems and products. The medical specialist is wholly dedicated to the repair (cure) of the human body (or mind).

As the former craftsmen were organized in guilds, the modern engineer is organized in bodies of competences, like “FEANI: the voice of Europe’s Engineers.” One of their products is to standardize the field of the engineer, so that engineers from different countries in Europe can exchange their work.

Medical specialists are organized in similar bodies, with one difference: the medical specialist must maintain its skills and this is prominent in the body: “maintenance of certification” (2). The engineer must update his knowledge on new technological development, but there is no harm if his skills are not used for a while. The medical specialist on the other hand will loose on agility for example with can be dangerous in curing patients.

“The universe of” engineering is related to science, technology, and innovation. (1)

Science is “the body of, and quest for,” fundamental knowledge and understanding of natural and man-made objects; their structure, properties, and how they behave. (1) There is a difference between “Pure Science” and “Applied Science” that serves a specific knowledge.

The medical universe is similarly built-up: science, technology and innovation. In medical technology the engineer will collaborate with the specialist in sharing knowledge.

The definition of Engineering is — from the same organization — the knowledge required, and the process applied, to conceive, design, make, build, operate, sustain, recycle or retire, something of significant technical content for a specific purpose; – a concept, a model, a product, a device, a process, a system, a technology. (1)

To come up with a definition of a medical specialist is more complicated. There are specialists for different field – similar to engineering. But would knowledge and process to apply not equally match for the medical specialist too: knowledge in the domain (oncology, gynecology, surgery, etc) and the process of repair (cure) a body (patient).

The side also offers a definition on Technology: “an enabling package of knowledge, devices, systems, processes, and other technologies, created for a specific purpose.” The word technology is usually used to describe a complete system, a capability, or a specific device.

Medical technology is also related to engineering. The Surgery robots for example use technology to perform surgery. These robots are designed by medical specialist and engineers.

Innovation is not limited to the field of the engineer. Also the medical specialist is innovative. But in both cases it is about “the successful introduction of something new.” In a business context it relates to something of practical use, with significant technical content and offers a commercial success. Outside the market (in society as a whole) innovation is about improvements in the quality of life.

Palliative care is an example of an innovative improvement in medicine where the quality of life of patients is improved during or after their cure.

Very important are also the two main components of engineering: engineering knowledge, the “know what”, and engineering process, the “know how”.

  • Engineering Knowledge – is the growing body of facts, experience and skills in science, engineering and technology disciplines; coupled to an understanding of the fields of application.
  • Engineering Process – is the creative process which applies knowledge and experience to seek one or more technical solutions to meet a requirement, solve a problem, and then exercise informed judgment to implement the one that best meets constraints.(1)

What about the know-what and know-how of the medical specialist. And more important how does this affect the organization?

The productivity profile of both the engineer and the specialist is quite similar. Both work on curing a problem (disease or technical fault), they organize resources to solve this by using other expertise and resources (assistance, other medical specialists like radiology, etc) and they can coach or teach others in their job on medical subjects.

Medical specialists however are more than engineers directly involved in client contact. The engineer works for a sponsor who wants to solve an issue. The medical specialist works directly for the client who is also the patient. Informing the client (sponsor) on the work to be done is however in both cases not always the first priority nor the best competence of the engineer / specialist.

Teamwork is also for both the engineer and specialist a recurring challenge. Both are very capable of solving issues themselves, although the world (technology and problems) becomes more complex that the individual problem solver needs to address others more and more.

Innovation is likely a topic that will be valued different too by either. The engineer wants to use new technology because it means progress in his job and career. But this can be different for the person behind the engineer or specialist. Some are more innovation-prone than others. Innovation requires the development of new practices and old experience becomes obsolete. Think about the surgeon who will change from traditional manual surgery towards computer assisted surgery. Both methods are not compatible on the long term.


(1) –

An Exercise To Attain Objective Detachment

This is an excellent exercise to attain an objective detachment to events and retain a freedom from being negatively emotionally effected.

The exercise is;

Do not say anything that will not serve a useful purpose.

Most often, when someone says something that is wrong, we jump at the chance to correct them. If it is not important information that needs to be corrected, this serves no other purpose than to make you look and feel smarter than the other person by putting them down in front of others.

There are many things that people will say in a group that is not entirely accurate or correct. When it is something that really does not matter in any way, there is no need to correct them, as that will only cause embarrassment.

By controlling yourself from speaking up in these situations, you will come to see the objective reality of the irrelevance of most things and by that you gain mastery of your ego. It is your lower childish ego that needs to correct irrelevant information so it stands out as the smarter one.

This just feeds your ego in two ways. First; building it by feeding its need to be superior, and second; feeding it fear of being caught out when it is wrong. What I do to others will undoubtedly be done to me.

For example, if you are in a social group of people, just enjoying a coffee and chat, and one person is talking about their experiences hiking in the Nepal. Perhaps they get the names of the mountains they climbed wrong, or said they saw a llama instead of calling it a yak, this is really irrelevant in the discussion. But if you point out that they could not have seen a llama in Nepal because that animal is local to South America, it would embarrass them but not serve any purpose at all.

It may be true, but what difference does it make to anyone's life if they got it wrong. This is the type of situation I am suggesting that it is best for all concerned that the incorrect statement go left without correction. I am sure you will find many examples of this sort.

Before speaking or commenting, ask yourself; 'Will it serve a purpose? What purpose does it serve? '

From this day onwards, you will keep your mouth closed and let other people feel better about themselves and enjoy their time without making everyone feel bad.

You will find yourself struggle to keep silent, but as you do, you will soon find that you feel and are a much stronger person.

If anyone would like to share their experiences with this exercise, please do.

Cavity Wall & Loft Insulation Grants

Cavity Wall Grants

If you need insulation, you can get 100% grants to completely cover the cost of the insulation. You can also get a partial grant of between 40% and 70% of the total cost. Cavity wall insulation is for buildings which were made with a gap, or cavity, between two layers of the external wall.

Advantages of Insulating Walls

You should insulate cavity walls if you want to reduce your household’s carbon footprint because the insulation is a good way to save energy. Saving energy is a good way of reducing the emission of carbon dioxide. When you save energy, you also save money. Cavity wall insulation is also important in that it reduces condensation inside the house. You should get cavity wall insulation because it is quick, taking about three hours, and it is inexpensive. The installation comes with a 25 year independent guarantee from Cavity Insulation Guarantee Agency or CIGA.

Funding for Cavity Wall Insulation

Funding for cavity wall insulation grants is provided by EON, NPower, Scottish & Southern Energy, Scottish Power, EDF, and British Gas, among other utility companies. This follows the Government’s Carbon Emissions Reduction Target, or CERT. The UK Government has set targets aimed at reducing carbon emission by 2011 for these companies.

How to Increase your Chances

Grants are offered to domestic UK households, mostly those built between 1924 and 1982. To increase your chances of getting a cavity wall grant, the insulation must be fitted by an approved local insulation installer, the insulation must be from the ground floor to the roof, and the right material must be used. To be eligible for the grant, your cavity must be at least 50mm wide and the brickwork of the property must be in good condition.

How to Get a Grant

The internet is the best place to apply for a grant. This is because it is convenient since you can apply 24/7, all year round, it is cheap since there are no logistical costs, and it is anonymous.

Choose a credible and reliable company. It should be registered with the relevant bodies such as The National Insulation Association, Cavity Insulation Guarantee Agency, and British Board of Agreement. One of the best and easiest options is to use a website and get insulation free.

Memories of Growing Up in Little Italy, NY – A Memoir by Guz Petruzzelli

When I first came across the title of this book on, I knew I just had to buy it. The reason? Because I grew up in Little Italy too, and lived in the “neighborhood” for 48 years, before I relocated to Sarasota, Florida in late 1995.

“Memories of Growing Up in Little Italy, NY – A Memoir by Guz Petruzzelli,” is only 83 pages long, and maybe a little expensive at $15.99. But that aside, this book gives an accurate account of what it was like growing up in Manhattan’s Little Italy more that 50 year ago.

Petruzzelli is a few years older than me, and he grew up in Little Italy on Mulberry Street above Canal Street, whereas, I grew up just a half a block south of Canal, one block west of Mulberry on Baxter Street. Believe it or not, these are basically two different neighborhoods; Canal Street being the dividing line. I remember many times crossing Canal Street, and having to run for my life, not to catch a beating from the above-Canal Street toughs, who considered me an invader on their sacred turf. Good thing I was a fast runner.

Petruzzelli writes short chapters, with titles like “Street Games,” “Hand-Made Scooters and Wagons,” “The Fire Hydrant” and “Street Ball,” which exactly parallels the way things were when I was a kid growing up in Little Italy. We played the same games, sometimes in the same places, but more often not.

Petruzzelli writes a chapter on “James Center,” a youth center on Hester Street, where I played basketball and softball many times. I remember the basketball court at James Center was short and narrow, with two beams hanging parallel on the ceiling, from one basket to the other, making it impossible to shoot from any corner. The only jump shots that were possible were from around the key.

But when Petruzzelli writes about neighborhood restaurants and specialty luncheonettes, he lists totally different ones than people from below Canal Street frequented. Petruzzelli mentions restaurants like Puglia’s, Vincent’s Calm Bar, Angelo’s and Grotta Azzura, all places where I occasionally ate. But he fails to mention fine restaurants like Forlini’s, Antica Roma, The Lime House and Giambone’s, which were the favorites of those who lived below Canal. He writes a chapter on Dave’s Corner, which was a legendary eatery on the Corner of Canal and Broadway, but that is the only eating place we both frequented regularly. (There’s an entire chapter in my novel Find Big Fat Fanny Fast that takes place in Dave’s Corner.)

Petruzzelli totally loses me when he mentions the grammar schools, high schools and parks he frequented. Under “Grammar School,” he lists PS 130 as the school that “everyone in the neighborhood went too.” Simply not true for us who lived below Canal Street. Everyone I knew went to Transfiguration Grammar School at 29 Mott Street, which was a Catholic school that had a very small tuition fee to attend. If someone below Canal couldn’t afford the fee, they went to PS 24, on the corner of Mulberry and Bayard.

Petruzzelli also mentions Haaren High School in Hell’s Kitchen as the public high school most of his friends “decided to attend.” Yet below Canal, most of us went to Catholic high schools like Cardinal Hayes in the Bronx, where I attended, or Lasalle Academy, located almost right in the neighborhood, at Sixth Street between Second and Third Avenue. The public school of choice for people below Canal Street was Seward Park High School, also close to the Little Italy, on Grand Street near Essex.

Yet the chapter that really puzzles me is one entitled “Playing in the Parks.” Petruzzelli mentions Christie Street Park as the one he and his pals hung out in, but he doesn’t even mention Columbus Park, on Mulberry, just one block south of Canal. Everyone I knew, both from above and below Canal Street, hung out in Columbus Park. We played cards on the numerous benches and played baseball, football and basketball in the large concrete athletic field, with hundreds of neighborhood people watching the league sporting events, a lot of them from above Canal Street.

Those differences aside, “Memories of Growing Up in Little Italy, NY – A Memoir by Guz Petruzzelli” is a fine read. I just wish the book was a little longer, so Petruzzelli could have included the places in Little Italy which those of us who lived below Canal Street frequented too.

No mention of Columbus Park in Little Italy in the 1950’s and 60’s? That’s almost like writing a book about growing up in the South Bronx, and not mentioning Yankee Stadium.

5 Tips for Avoiding The Dreaded Kidney Stones

My father has recently had some problems with kidney stones which encouraged me to write this article for you in the hope I can pass on some of the tips I learned when helping my dear father.

He had been in pain for more than 2 months before we discovered that kidney stones were to blame. Even though he now admits he was often buckled up with stabbing pain, he hid it from the rest of us quite well.

If you have ever heard of someone that has had a kidney stone, you know how painful it is. In fact, having kidney stones can be excruciatingly painful and some equate it to giving birth. Although, my sister’s best friend just told me that it’s worse than giving birth. She said she would’ve much preferred to have another child than have the pain of kidney stones.

So in the hope I can help someone you love, here are my 5 tips that you can use to avoid getting kidney stones yourself or someone in your family.

Drink Lots More Water

One of the most important things that you want to do to avoid getting kidney stones is to drink enough water. I think it is fair to say, most of us could benefit from drinking much more fresh water than we are currently doing. Go on admit it, you know you don’t drink enough of the aqua libre.

If you don’t drink the amount of water that you need, there’s going to be more minerals in your urine which can lead to kidney stones. You should drink enough water so that you produce a minimum of two quarts full of urine in 24 hours. But if you want to know if you’re drinking enough, look at your urine’s color. It should be pale yellow. So can the color of your urine actually explain your current status of your health? Much like the consistency of your poo-poo telling a doctor all sorts of things (that’s why they test your urine for certain medical conditions), urine can tell a host of secrets about you.

So, go and grab a glass right now. Yes, right now! Then, of course you can continue reading the rest of this article.

Get Enough Magnesium

Magnesium’s responsible for over 300 bodily biochemical reactions. When you don’t have enough of this in your system, it can result in getting kidney stones. It also will affect how your body absorbs and assimilates calcium. If you take in too much calcium and don’t take in magnesium, the extra calcium can cause things like kidney stones.

A good way to get magnesium is by eating leafy green vegetables such as Swiss chard and spinach. An easy way to get what you need is through juicing vegetables. Other great sources of magnesium are nuts such as almonds, seeds, sunflower seeds, pumpkin seeds, beans, and sesame seeds.

Stay Away from Sugar like Soda and Fructose

I think you don’t need me to remind you of this one, but I’ll say it anyway. When you consume a lot of sugar, you may have some problems with kidney stones. Sugar will upset your body’s mineral relationships because it interferes with the absorption of magnesium and calcium. Consuming way too much soda and unhealthy sugar is a major factor as to why children are getting kidney stones.

Hit That Exercise Program You’ve Been Putting Off

Just like drinking enough water, most people know they are not taking enough regular exercise. Why is that, do you think? I know my own mother is almost 80 and she is still riding her bicycle everywhere and playing tennis two or three times a week, and even in the middle of a British winter. Yikes!

My mother isn’t keeping fit only for the benefit of her health, but because she enjoys it. This is the crucial key to being successful in the fitness game. If going to the gym does your head in, don’t quit there. You have to make sure you find an alternative form of exercise which you do enjoy.

There are literally hundreds of different types of exercise, so keep trying them out until you find one you enjoy and can keep at long until you are my mother’s age.

Because if you aren’t active enough and you’re simply sitting around the house all day, you’re going to have a greater chance of getting the dreaded kidney stones. This is partly due to the fact that limited activity often makes bones release additional calcium.

Exercise’s also going to help you with resolving elevated blood pressure, which also can cause kidney stones.

Avoid Soy That Is Non-Fermented

Soy-based foods and soybeans might cause people who are prone to kidney stones to have problems with kidney stones. The reason is that they have high oxalate levels, which bind with the calcium in kidneys so that stones are formed

This is just one of the reasons that unfermented soy, which is found in soy burgers, tofu, soy milk, and ice cream made with soy, isn’t considered healthy. If you want to consume soy, make sure that you are only consuming the fermented soy. The fermenting process reduces the levels of anti-nutrients and phytate and the beneficial properties are there for your body.

OK, there you have my 5 tips to help you avoid kidney stones. Do the things above and they will help you with reducing your risk of kidney stones and help you have a much better all-round health.

Gardening 101 – PH of Soil Is CRITICAL to Maximize Uptake of Macro and Micro Nutrients

Most anyone can plant a seed or plant and get it to grow in just about any kind of soil. After more than 40 years of vegetable gardening, the last twenty organic gardening, the most important thing I have learned is that the pH of soil is by far the most critical. The optimal pH for growing most vegetables is between 6.0 and 7.2.

What does pH mean? It actually stands for the Power of Hydrogen or H + ions. The scale for pH is measured from 0 – 14 and as the number of hydrogen ions increases the soil pH decreases. Zero is very acidic and something that has a 0.0 pH is hydrochloric acid. Fourteen is very alkaline and sodium hydroxide, also called lye, measures a pH of 14.0. Neutral is considered 7.0 and pure water is an example of something that has a neutral pH.

Soil nutrients are broken up into what is called Macro and Micro Nutrients. Macro Nutrients are Nitrogen (N), Potassium (P), Phosphorus (K), Sulfur (S), Calcium (Ca), and Magnesium (Mg). You will see the top three Macro Nutrients, NPK, listed on every bag of fertilizer on the market. Macro nutrients are Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn), Boron (B), Copper (Cu), and Zinc (Zn)

You may hear many so-called experts talk first about the nitrogen in soil, phosphorus in soil, or the potassium in soil. This is like someone trying to sell you a brand new beautiful car without an engine. The pH of soil is the engine! It is very important to understand that you could have high levels of every Macro & Micro Nutrient in your soils, but they are only available to plants if the pH is in the right range.

This pH scale from 0-14 is on a base ten scale. This means a substance that has a pH of 4 is 10 times (10 x 1) more acidic than a substance that has a pH of 5, 100 times (10 x 10) more acidic than a pH of 6, and 1000 times (10 x 10 x 10) more acidic than a pH of 7. Determining the pH of soil in your garden is easy.

Do not waste your money on the soil test kits you can buy from the big box stores. They are very inaccurate and unreliable. Your money, and especially your time, are best spent having a professional soils lab do the testing. For years I was relying on a simple test kit I purchased that had powered capsules you mixed with soil & water along with a color chart which proved to be VERY inaccurate.

The pH of soil determines how well, or not, a plant can absorb available nutrients. Think of pH as the lifeblood, or better yet the vanes, of your garden. This does not mean you will not be able to grown vegetables if the pH is outside this range, but for maximum results with most every plant in organic vegetable gardening soil pH is the key

When your pH of soil drops below 6.0 the ability for most vegetable plants to absorb nitrogen, sulfur, calcium, and magnesium drops off quickly. When the pH is above 7.2 most vegetable plants start having problems absorbing iron, manganese, and boron. If your pH is between 7.5 and 8.4 available phosphorus to plants is less than half what it is with a pH between 6 – 7.2. Any pH over 7.5 has another challenge with copper and zinc becoming more and more unavailable to plants as the pH climbs.

If you thought you had a soil pH between 6 – 7.2 and it really was above 7.5 your garden plants can exhibit an iron or phosphorus deficiency. Adding all the phosphorus and iron in the world will not change how your plants grow unless the pH of soil is adjusted. Most likely why garden centers do not want to talk to you about the pH is either they do not know how to help you change it or they already know that it is sometimes very difficult to change.

Depending on where you live in the world you will have different challenges with pH. In the majority of humid regions of the world pH of soil tends to be more acidic while in the vast dry regions the ph is more alkaline. In dry regions the amounts of natural Macro & Micro Nutrients, excluding Nitrogen in Soil, is usually high. This is due to the low amount of annual rainfall not washing away these minerals over time. The opposite is true in most humid regions of the world.

A list of For garden That vegetables vegetables grow best in any Particular pH range you can lands check out this chart " by Ideal Soil pH" . As you can see some vegetables have the ability to grow very well in a pH of Soil in a much wider range such as Watercress that loves the pH to be between 5.0 – 8.0. On the other hand if you want to grow potatoes they grow best with a pH between 4.5 – 6.0.

I speak all over the country on Organic Gardening 101 and on advanced gardening techniques and the one thing that always amazes me is the lack of Quality advise there is out in this market, especially when it comes to soils. Do yourself a big favor and get a professional soils test performed on your garden soil. Once you know your pH of soil you can start tailoring what you grow to your existing soils while working to adjusting your pH over time. The actual job of adjusting the pH can be challenging. For more information on adjusting the pH of your soils please contact The Bird Man.

Applebees Recipes Will Make You Famous!

I say Applebee's Recipes will make you famous because I feel like that's kind of what they've done for me. If nothing else, I'm certainly more appreciated for my cooking than I've ever been!

Here's an example of just one Applebees Recipe that's got a few of my neighbors ranting …

Applebee's Tequila Lime Chicken – The Ingredients :

  • Two 5 oz. chicken breasts
  • 1 cup fresh lime juice
  • 1/2 cup tequila
  • 1 cup tortilla chips
  • 1/2 cup Mexi-ranch dressing (see recipe below)
  • 1/2 cup shredded cheddar jack cheese

Is your mouth starting to water yet? If not, stay tuned …

Applebee's Tequila Lime Chicken – The Process :

  1. Pour lime juice and tequila into a sealable plastic bag.
  2. Place chicken in bag and chill. Marinate overnight.
  3. When you're ready to cook, set your oven to broil.
  4. Remove chicken from marinade and grill over medium heat for 10 minutes.
  5. During the grilling, prepare Mexi-ranch dressing by combining 2 tbsp. salsa and 6 tbsp. ranch dressing.
  6. Scatter tortilla chips on two oven-safe plates.
  7. Place your chicken on top of the chips.
  8. Pour Mexi-ranch dressing over chicken, then cover with shredded cheese.
  9. Place plates under broiler until cheese is completely melted.
  10. Remove from oven … CAREFULLY! ┬íLos platos estan muy caliente! (They're freakin 'HOT!)
  11. Enjoy with pico de gallo and Mexican style rice.

Aha! Now you're mouth is watering! And so will be the mouth (s) of ANYONE you serve this dish to. It'll make ya famous!

This recipe is obviously meant to serve two. Of course, you can alter the quantities accordingly to accommodate whatever number of guests you're entertaining.

By the way, what are your plans for the rest of that bottle of tequila? (Provided you did not decide to marinate yourself along with the chicken last night!) Wanna make an Applebee's Perfect Margarita?

I thought you might!

Applebee's Perfect Margarita – The Ingredients:

  • 1 1/4 oz. Cuervo 1800 Reposado tequila (great choice for your chicken, too!)
  • 3/4 oz. Cointreau
  • 3/4 oz. Grand Marnier
  • 1 oz. Rose's lime juice
  • 3 oz. sweet & sour mix

Applebee's Perfect Margarita – The Process:

  1. Shake all ingredients over ice.
  2. Strain into an ice-filled glass with an optional salted rim.
  3. Garnish with a fresh lime wedge.
  4. Drink responsibly!

I've got a good feelin 'about you. You're gonna make the big time with these two incredible recipes. Please, all I ask is that you do not forget us little people, okay?

Have a blast and thanks for reading!

Bar Code Scanners

Barcode Scanners are hand-held or stationary devices used to read information contained in a barcode. These devices are connected to a computer through any type of port. Scanners cannot do calculations; they only capture the barcode into letters or numbers. Information, once fed into a computer is processed by the computer’s software. A barcode scanner consists of a code reader and decoder. The reader throws light on a barcode and measures the amount of light that is reflected back by the barcode. This light energy is converted into electrical energy by a scanner. The electrical energy in turn is changed into data in the computer.

Barcode scanners are available in many different varieties. They can be hand held and hands free, wearable, rugged, scan engines, laser or digital. Pen-wand scanners are perhaps the simplest types of such devices. They have to be kept in direct contact with the barcode and held at a precise angle. A pen-wand scanner is moved over the bar to read it. General purpose scanners are generally used at checkout counters and hospitals and are also used to process identification documents. Certain other kinds of scanners, like rugged scanners, are generally used in harsh or extreme conditions.

Another major distinction of barcode scanners is that of an image scanner and a laser scanner. A camera reader is embedded in an image scanner. The camera captures the barcode images, which are then processed by sophisticated image techniques to decode the barcode. An image scanner can read a barcode from four to ten inches away. Laser scanners use lenses to read the codes. Laser scanners enjoy the advantage of reading the bar even from a distance of 24 inches. Moreover a laser scanner can be positioned at any angle to read a barcode. With the advancement of technology, modern laser scanners can read the barcodes with ease from a distance of 30 feet.

10 London Ghosts

1. The Cock Lane Ghost

Perhaps the most famous of all London ghost stories began in January 1762 when Elizabeth, the twelve-year- old daughter of a parish clerk called Richard Parsons, seemed to become the conduit through which a murder victim could accuse her killer from beyond the grave. Communicating largely through the standard system of coded knocks (one for yes, two for no), the ghost of Fanny Kent, a former lodger with the Parsons, told how she had been poisoned by her common-law husband, William Kent. The story reached the newspapers and the Parsons’ home in Cock Lane, near St Paul’s, was besieged by journalists, clergymen and sightseers. For a time Cock Lane became as popular a destination for sensation-seekers as the lunatic asylum at Bedlam. Fanny, or Elizabeth, did not disappoint her audiences. When William Kent was brought to the house, he was greeted by a flurry of knockings, accusing him of doing away with his wife. Unsurprisingly, he denied it all. Visitors continued to flock to the house. One was the writer Oliver Goldsmith, who left an account of what he saw.

The spectators… sit looking at each other, suppressing laughter, and wait in silent expectation for the opening of the scene. As the ghost is a good deal offended at incredulity, the persons present are to conceal theirs if they have any, as by this concealment only can they hope to gratify their curiosity. For if they show, either before or when the knocking is begun, a too prying inquisition, or ludicrous style of thinking, the ghost continues usually silent, or to use the expression of the house, Miss Fanny is angry.’ Eventually a committee was formed to conduct a semi-official investigation into the haunting. Members included an eminent physician, the matron of a maternity hospital and the poet, lexicographer and all-round literary luminary, Dr Samuel Johnson. Fanny, in the shape of Elizabeth Parsons, proved largely uncooperative and the committee was unimpressed by the idea that a murdered woman had returned to call for revenge on her killer. As Dr Johnson wrote in The Gentleman’s Magazine, ‘It is… the opinion of the whole assembly, that the child has some art of making or counterfeiting particular noises, and that there is no agency of any higher cause.’ By the summer of 1762 William Kent had wearied of this ghostly attack on his good name and he brought a court case against Richard Parsons and others, claiming a conspiracy against him. A jury returned a verdict in his favour and Parsons was sentenced to spend time in the pillory. The Cock Lane ghost disappeared from the headlines.

2. The Man in Grey Theatre Royal, Drury Lane

Most London theatres of any age have at least one ghost which haunts the auditorium or appears suddenly in a dressing room to scare the wits out of an unsuspecting actor. The Adelphi Theatre, for instance, is reputed to be haunted by the ghost of William Terriss, an actor who, in 1897, was stabbed to death by a deranged rival just outside the stage door. The nineteenth-century clown, Joseph Grimaldi, has been seen at Sadler’s Wells, still wearing the make-up he made famous. Grimaldi has also been spotted at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane, but the most famous ghost seen there is the so-called ‘Man in Grey’. Dressed in a long grey coat, and wearing a tricorn hat, the ghost is unusual in that, unlike the majority of spooks, who await the witching hour, it appears during the daytime. Seeing the man in grey at rehearsals for a production is said to augur well for the show’s success. No one seems sure who the ghost might be, although some claim he is a man who was murdered in the theatre in 1780.

3. 50 Berkeley Square

Once described as London’s most haunted house, 50 Berkeley Square was reputed to be home to a supernatural creature so horrible that it drove those who saw it insane. The most frequently repeated story tells of two sailors who, some time in the middle decades of the nineteenth century, broke into the then unoccupied house in order to find a place to sleep. They had chosen their resting place unwisely. In the morning one of the sailors was found dead, impaled on the railings outside the house. The other sailor was still inside the house but had been reduced to a babbling lunatic. Further stories of foolhardy individuals agreeing to spend the night alone in the house and being found as gibbering wrecks were told in Victorian books and magazines. Various theories were advanced to explain the ghost. Perhaps it was the spirit of a former tenant, a Mr Myers, ‘an odd cross between Scrooge of A Christmas Carol and Miss Havisham of Great Expectations’, who had become a miserly recluse after he was jilted on his wedding day. Perhaps it was the ghost of another tenant’s lunatic brother, who had been shut away in the attic. The trouble with all the stories about 50 Berkeley Square is that they owe more to literature than to historical reality. Lord Lytton’s story, ‘The Haunted and the Haunters’, first published in 1859, with its tale of a man agreeing to pass a night in a haunted house that sounds remarkably similar to 50 Berkeley Square, may well have influenced later stories told as if they were fact. 50 Berkeley Square is currently home to the antiquarian booksellers, Maggs & Co, and they report no supernatural activities on their premises

4. British Museum Ghost

Lurid tales of a mummy’s curse and the spirits of long-dead Ancient Egyptians haunting the rooms of the British Museum have been told for decades. One particular mummy, that of a young girl who served the god Amon-Ra, has been the focus of many stories. Security staff claimed that, during their night patrols, they could sense a horrible presence close to the mummy. A photographer who took pictures of the mummy’s case killed himself after he developed them in his dark room and saw what the camera revealed. The old British Museum Underground station, no longer in use, was also reputed to be haunted by the ghost of an Ancient Egyptian, inadequately dressed for English weather in a loincloth and ceremonial head-dress.

5. Tower of London ghosts

So many people have been imprisoned in the Tower and so many have been executed either within its walls or on Tower Green, that it is little wonder that the place has so many ghost stories attached to it. Among the more famous of the Tower’s reluctant guests who have been spotted still walking its rooms and corridors are a headless Anne Boleyn, Sir Walter Raleigh, Guy Fawkes and the Princes in the Tower. The most dramatic of the Tower’s multiple hauntings is the ghostly re-enactment of the bungled execution of the Countess of Salisbury which is said to take place on the anniversary of her death in 1541. The elderly countess was condemned to death by Henry VIII, largely because of her son’s treason and because she had a remote claim to the throne. She went to her death very unwillingly and had to be chased around the block by the executioner, who struck at her repeatedly with his axe before she finally fell.

6. Ghost of a Bear in Cheyne Walk

Not all London ghosts are human. A ghostly bear was regularly seen in the garden of one of the houses in Cheyne Walk, Chelsea, in the nineteenth century and the early decades of the twentieth century. The creature was supposed to be one of the bears baited to death on the site in the sixteenth century but the story may have its origin in the menagerie of exotic animals kept at 16 Cheyne Walk in the 1860s by the poet Dante Gabriel Rossetti. Rossetti owned kangaroos, armadillos, zebus, a Brahmin bull and a somewhat mangy black bear, all of which had the run of the garden of his house. Tales of the poet’s weird pets may have contributed to the sightings of a spectral bear padding around the back gardens of Chelsea.

7. University College Hospital – Ghost of a Nurse

Unsurprisingly, hospitals regularly attract ghost stories. Most seem to be nurses returning to their old workplaces. The Grey Lady of St Thomas’s Hospital appears to patients who are about to die and is usually seen only from the knees upwards, supposedly because she materialises in a ward where the floor levels have been altered over the years. University College Hospital in Gower Street also has its own spectral visitor. Said to be the ghost of a nurse who accidentally gave a patient an overdose of morphine and was so traumatised by her mistake that she killed herself, the spirit regularly shows itself to both patients and staff. Dressed in a noticeably old-fashioned uniform, the ghost still has the best interests of the patient at heart and many have praised the kind treatment they have received from a nurse that no one else can see.

8. Collins Music Hall, Islington Ghost

Sam Vagg was a London chimney sweep who reinvented himself as an ‘Irish’ singer called Samuel Collins in the pubs and music halls of mid-Victorian England. In 1862 he took over a pub called The Lansdowne Arms on Islington Green and re-launched it as Collins Music Hall. Although Collins himself died three years later, at the age of only thirty-nine, his theatre thrived and most of the great names of music hall played there at some point in their careers. Gracie Fields made her London debut at Collins in 1912. For many years the founder seemed unwilling to tear himself away from the theatre that bore his name and his ghost was regularly seen in the offices where the day’s takings were counted. Collins was destroyed by fire in 1958 and never rebuilt. A branch of Waterstone’s now stands on the site.

9. Bank of England Ghosts

In 1933, during excavations connected to the rebuilding of the Bank, a coffin was unearthed in the old Garden Court. Seven-and-a-half feet long, the coffin belonged to a clerk at the Bank called William Jenkins, who had died in 1798. Unusually tall for his time – he was over 6 foot 7 inches – Jenkins had been obsessed during his final illness with the idea that body-snatchers would seize his corpse for its curiosity value and sell it to surgeons for dissection. His friends persuaded the Bank’s directors that, as a long- serving employee, Jenkins deserved the Bank’s protection post mortem, and he was buried in the Garden Court one morning before business began. Jenkins’s tall ghost is still said to walk the Bank’s corridors.

Outside the Bank, in Threadneedle Street, late-night passers-by have occasionally been confronted by a woman in early nineteenth-century dress asking whether or not they have seen her brother. This is the ghost known as ‘the Bank Nun’. In 1812 a clerk at the Bank called Whitehead was tried for forging a bill and hanged. For twenty-five years after this, his sister Sarah, driven insane by her brother’s death, came each day to the bank, convinced that he still worked there. She became a familiar sight to the bank workers, who dubbed her ‘the Bank Nun’ because of the long black dress she always wore. Sarah Whitehead’s ghost has also been seen in Bank Underground station.

10. The Phantom Bus of Ladbroke Grove

One of the longest-lasting urban legends of west London tells of a ghostly bus that, in the mid-1930s, was frequently seen careering along the roads of Ladbroke Grove in the early hours of the morning. The bus was usually sighted at the junction of St Mark’s Road and Cambridge Gardens and dozens of people claimed to have seen it. ‘I was turning the corner,’ one witness said, ‘and saw a bus tearing towards me, the lights of the top and bottom decks and the headlights were full on but I could see no crew or passengers.’ The junction, with a blind bend in both directions, had a reputation as an accident black spot and, initially, the phantom bus only added to this. Several car crashes were blamed on the shock drivers experienced when seeing it. Eventually, the council straightened the road at the junction and the ghostly red double-decker was seen no more.

Delivering an Effective Persuasive Speech – The Essential Elements

Delivering a persuasive speech is entirely different from delivering an informative speech. During an informative speech you are not required to convince or alter anyone’s point of view. However, when you deliver a persuasive speech, the sole aim is to convince listeners that they should accept your way of thinking. Influence is a major goal of a persuasive speech. Simply put, a persuasive speech explains why listeners should or should not do something and why they should believe the perspective of the speaker.

Not all speeches require the speaker to persuade the listener. For example, a budget speeches, project report presentations and technical presentations simply rely on facts and only require the speaker convey information.

An example of a persuasive speech would be a sales presentation, where closing the sale through proper persuasion would be the main motive. Another example is a speech at a fundraiser, where the motivation is the collection of funds or securing of grants. Each of these speeches requires that the speaker connect with, convince and motivate their listeners.

Elements of Persuasion

A persuasive speech will always:

  • Appeal to the moral beliefs and values of your listeners. There isn’t much chance of persuading your listeners until you can reach their core values and connect with them.
  • Convince them that the facts that you lay out in the speech are the truth.
  • Convince them that the solutions that you present are the ones that will work for the problems that you outline.

Body Language and Voice Tone

Body language and voice modulation are key when you want to make an impression that convinces. A strong, but not arrogant or stiff posture is important. Your audience is hardly likely to be energized about your cause or sales product, if you deliver the speech with sagging shoulders and a glum face. Your face must be filled with the power of what you are telling them. Your delivery should include the right inflections and proper variations of pitch and tone.

Using a monotone voice is a sure way to lose your audience during a persuasive speech. You’re trying to persuade and your voice should convey this with the correct emotional tone. A persuasive speech should be delivered in a loud, clear voice, although this doesn’t mean that you need to yell at your audience to convince them about your ideas.


Another delivery tip to keep in mind is to space your words correctly. This might not seem important, but it can make a huge difference in the pace and understandability of the speech. Don’t deliver your speech so slowly that you sound like a boring drone. On the other hand, don’t rush though your speech in your excitement to persuade. The audience must be given time to absorb facts, and let them sink in. An example would be pausing for a few moments before and after you deliver an important fact – For instance, a brief, but profound pause before and after a sentence like “One million children in Bangladesh face the prospect of starving over the next five years,” will give your facts the sense of significance they deserve. Rush through your lines, and you risk sounding like you don’t care enough about your subject to spend the necessary time, or worse, like a smooth talker who considers his audience putty.


Use the right hand movements and body gestures to illustrate key points in your speech, but don’t use so many of them that you look like a comical figure on the podium. Your gestures should not distract from the content of the speech. Use your movements to accentuate important points and to gain your audiences attention if they begin to drift.


Emotions are a big part of conveying your message. Sterile, cold mannerisms will not help listeners connect with you. Be real. Insincerity can be spotted from a mile away. Avoid ingratiating smiles, fake laughter and silly jokes that do nothing to build your credibility. Speak in your normal voice, without fake accents, exaggerated inflections or any other nervous tics that will put the audience off.

Developing Credibility

A big part of connecting with an audience and helping them believe them what is convincing them that you are an authority in your field. It could be as simple as mentioning your past experience on a specific project. For instance, a line that begins with “In my 15 years of working as a project coordinator for Feed the Children…” helps the audience build an image of you as someone who knows what he or she is talking about, and therefore, can be trusted. You may or may not have written the speech yourself, but even if you didn’t write it, the speech must always sound sincere and convincing.

Positive Speech

Cut down the use of words like “maybe”, “might”, “possibly”, etc. Instead, use powerful positive phrases like “we will” and “we must” that convey purposeful action, and not merely unsolidified plans. Use active phrases. For instance, instead of saying, “We have been told of a solution,” say “We have a solution.” Make your audience believe that you have the answers they are looking for.

Effective Persuasion

Your language should be designed to evoke an emotional reaction in the listener.

For instance, your audience will be unlikely to dip into their pocketbooks to write out hefty checks for a charity aimed at feeding children in Bangladesh if you say “These poor children abroad need food.”

Instead, a sentence like, “Everyday, in many parts of Asia, thousands of children below the age of five pick rubbish from dumps in search of scraps of food to eat,” creates a powerful mental picture in listener’s minds that’s hard to ignore.

Proper Closing

An effective closing that appeals to your listeners can make or break the deal. Don’t let your speech start off well, have great content, and then grind to a halt without making an impression.

The concluding paragraphs of the speech should always have a certain specific action that you would like the audience to perform. For instance, “Now, that you know how dire the situation is, and how little time we have, what are you going to do to help us make a difference in these childrens’ lives?” The closing para must have a clear cut call to action that prods listeners to do what you want. You’re not trying to get them to go home and think over what you just spent an hour telling them; you want them to begin taking action immediately after the speech has ended.

Cheating Girlfriend

Four Signs Of A Cheating Girlfriend

Infidelity is like an epidemic that has infected many committed men and women across the country. Almost everybody you know has probably cheated on his or her spouse or partner at least once while in a relationship. Cheating, I believe, is now as common as hay fever in springtime.

Traditionally, unfaithfulness is more commonly committed by men. Nowadays, however, many girlfriends and wives are also having illicit relationships.

If you want to ascertain if your partner is philandering with another man, you must be very observant and sensitive to the things that are happening around you. Here are the telltale signs that will help you determine if your girlfriend is seeing another person:

Sudden preoccupation with appearance

The first sign that your girlfriend is cheating on you is her sudden preoccupation with how she looks or smells. Pay attention to the word sudden because women really love to dress up and beautify themselves once in a while. However, be wary if she completely changed her hairstyle, perfume, nail polish and style of clothing, such as from conservative to more provocative, most especially if you were not the one who suggested the changes.

Reduced intimacy

Women usually equate intimacy with their emotional relation with a person. Thus, if your girlfriend seems to abhor kissing you or even holding your hand in public, chances are she is starting to develop an emotional relation with another man.

Most commonly, women wear sexy clothes and lingerie to make their partner notice them more. However, there is a big probability that your girlfriend is cheating on you if she wears shape fitting dresses and inviting lingerie but does not want to make love with you.

Increased overtime and girl's night out

Many women need to work hard to be on top. Thus, it is natural for them to sometimes spend extra time working for a project or a report. However, if she works overtime almost everyday, even on Sundays, you must be alarmed.

The best way to ensure that she is really working in the office even in the wee hours of the night is to drop by her office unexpectedly. You can probably bring her coffee or dinner as an excuse. Thus, if she is indeed working very hard, she will appreciate the gesture that you made by bringing her food. On the other hand, this is also a good way to know if she is really in the office and not somewhere else.

Instead of overtime, some women use their friends as their excuse. If your girlfriend seems to spend most of her time with her friends on vacations and overnight trips, you must be wary. Remember that although women love to regularly hang out with friends, they will still allocate time for their boyfriends.

Increase use of phone and Internet

Watch how your girlfriend reacts to calls and messages. If she tries to conceal some calls and erases her messages, then there might be something fishy going on. If she is really trying hard to conceal conversations or does not want you to use her mobile phone, then she maybe hiding something from you.

A poll on Internet Use and Abuse by Greenfield and Rivet showed that 57% of men and women use the Internet to flirt. Thus, you shouldnt Also monitor your girlfriend's chatting and Internet Activities.

If you noticed that your girlfriend is displaying at least two of the four signs that have been mentioned, then it is time for you to gather clues and more proof. Never confront your girlfriend about infidelity unless you are extremely sure about it.

Also, this is probably a good time to reflect on your relationship. Have you been a good boyfriend? Do you still go out of your way to make her happy? Are you sensitive to her needs and emotions? Assess your relationship and your feelings for her. If you want to pursue the relationship to a higher level, then maybe you need to find ways to rekindle the fire in your relationship.

Landscaping with Rocks

Have you ever considered landscaping with rocks? Not only does this add some texture to your garden, but it is also very attractive and doesn’t have to cost the earth. The beauty of using rocks is that you don’t necessarily have to spend a lot on materials, as you might already find you have a wide variety of rocks on your land to begin with.

My wife and I decided to go for landscaping with rocks because we were constantly turning up stones in our garden. The stones came in all manner of shapes and sizes which made it easy to create deep and meaningful displays in simple arrangements.

The first idea we had was to knock up a circle of stones around the four small trees towards the right hand corner or our back yard. Landscaping with rocks around each of the trees really helped to define the space. Each tree had its own little collection of stones circling it, a bit over two feet in diameter.

After that success, we decided to use the flat rocks we kept finding to make a walkway. We found this to be quite different from the tree design, because of the sheer time and effort that was required to uncover the stones and arrange them suitably, particularly because of the bad weather we were experiencing at the time.

Next, We laid a sheet of plastic over the grass and weeds growing by the trees and used the stones we had already laid to weigh it in place. We then put some red mulch over the plastic which gave us a nice, professional look. This high priced look came at very low cost, with the only expenditure being that on the mulch and the plastic sheet.

My wife came up with the idea of digging a small ditch to hammer a spike into numerous parts of the clay earth. This went some way to help the land absorb more water, which was proving to be a problem. We then filled the ditches with gravel and sand, before arranging some stones over the top.

After a great deal of sweat and perseverance, the walkway was completed. This time-consuming task was well worth it in the end and turned out to be quite cheap, apart from the hours of work we put in!

On the whole, landscaping with rocks already in your garden is a cheap way to spruce up your garden and give it a modern feel. The colors and textures of the stones are beautiful and contrasting, and we frequently receive comments from our guests about how nice the garden is looking. We are so happy with our garden now, and especially satisfied that we achieved our goal cheaply and relatively painlessly with resources already on our land.

So why no give it a go yourself. If you’re creative, there are so many things you can achieve when landscaping with rocks. It’ll save you money, and you’ll by happy in yourself, knowing that you’ve really accomplished something that looks so professional off your own back.

Counteroffensive Fencing Actions Classified

Counteroffensive actions offer the fencer a variety of options against the opponent's preparation or actual attack. To be able to use these effectively, you must understand where they fit in the tactical opportunities offered by an opponent's intent to hit you. Czajkowski calls these actions offensive-defensive. I prefer counteroffensive because the action is specifically designed to deny the offense a hit.

Every attack consists of a situation, preparation, and final attacking action. The situation is the combination of the phrase, the distance, and timing that creates the opportunity for attack. Preparation may be mental, the conception by the opponent that an attack is possible, or it may be physical, the footwork, engagement, feints, attacks on the blade, or takings of the blade that advance the final attack. And the final attacking action is the delivery of the final action with intent to score. Into these phases counteroffensive action can be delivered:

The point in line (in the situation). A point in line denies the opponent the opportunity to attack without removing the point, making the preparation of the attack to some degree predictable. In turn it provides the fencer with the point in line the opportunity to debrobe the attempted attack.

Attack on preparation (in preparation). The attack on preparation is executed on the opponent's attempt to close the distance without effective blade action or when the attack is incorrectly executed (for example, on the step forward of an advance lunge if the arm is not extending, or the attack by derobement when the opponent attempts to take or beat the blade). In some cases it is simply a question of timing. You instinctively attack into the opponent's action because you somehow know that it is coming, even though the opponent has not yet started to move. I should note that Tau considers the derobement a separate type of counter-attack, but I believe it is a technique that can be used in both attacks on preparation and in stop hits.

Stop hit (in preparation or final attacking action). The stop hit in foil or sabre is a counterattack that lands before the initiation of the final action with the intent of stopping the attack. However, as a practical matter, a stop hit against an attack that is short or that does not land because of poor aim, is effective because it results in one light. In sabre, the situation is even more complex because the stop hit delivered on the advanced target with a step back may arrive early enough to time out the final attack. In epee it only must land more than 1/25 of a second ahead of the attack.

Intercepting stop hit (in preparation or final attacking action). The intercepting stop hit closes a line through which the opponent's action must pass, effectively serving as a parry and riposte and preventing its completion. For example, an intercepting stop hit can be executed into 8th against a disengage from 6th to 4th in foil or epee.

Time hit, also called a stop hit with opposition (in final attacking action). This action differs from the intercepting stop hit in that it is delivered closing the final line of the attack so that the attack does not arrive. Like the intercepting stop hit it combines the features of parry and riposte. This requires a neat sense of timing and a high degree of confidence that you have identified the final line.

Although most counteroffensive action belongs to the opponent of the fencer who is attacking, there is one counteroffensive action open to the original attacker. The remise or redoublement is effectively a stop hit against the riposte, and is effective if the defender executes the riposte incorrectly or inaccurately.

This range of actions gives you a variety of ways to interrupt the opponent's attack. They all require judgment, steady nerves, excellent timing, and a high degree of accuracy. When properly executed they are a thing of beauty, and mark superior technical and tactical skill.