High Quality Materials Make High Quality Fences For Years to Come

A Georgia fence contractor is someone who can help you determine the right fence for your property and then professionally install your chosen fencing. Many people opt to build their own fences out of materials that they buy. If the person is experienced in choosing the materials and fence building, the fence can turn out to be an asset to the home, making it more attractive and adding curb appeal. But too often a homemade fence installation looks homemade, and can be very unattractive.

Another drawback of do-it-yourself fence installation is that sometimes the materials purchased are not quality materials. And this can lead to a fence that looks old before its time, that does not stay secure and that becomes a general eyesore. This definitely will not add to the value of your home.

Even someone who can install a fence perfectly could sabotage the project by choosing the wrong fencing materials. Someone who does not go through a quality company to get the right materials could end up with a very unattractive fence. There are certain things to keep in mind when choosing materials and building a fence, to ensure that it holds up and lasts for years.

When choosing wood for your fence, which is a high quality and attractive material, making sure the wood is thoroughly painted, stained or treated is essential. Any spots that are missed are going to become problems. Often when someone puts up a wooden fence and then paints or stains it, the paint or stain does not get in the joints or cracks. But rainwater and moisture will get in there, where the wood is vulnerable. This leads to mildew and rotting in the very areas where the fence needs to stay the strongest – the joints and fixtures.

Making sure that the wood is thoroughly sealed before installation can help prevent these types of problems. So making sure you have high quality materials like the highest quality woods can save your fence. It'll cost more in the beginning, but the fence will last years longer while still looking great. Some metals vary in quality a lot, too. Cheap metal materials for a fence will quickly corrode or rust and look years older than they are.

If you go through a Georgia fence contractor you will not have to worry about these problems. Choose one that offers only the highest quality materials to make the highest quality fences and you'll know that you're getting qualified and guaranteed work. Very often the fencing contractor can help you make the decision as far as the material you want, and even the height you want. Much depends on whether the fence is for looks, privacy or just as a barrier for pets or children.

Talk to a professional fencing contractor in your area and they'll be able to tell you the best quality materials for your fence, as well as handle the logistics for you, install it perfectly and give you a high quality fence that you can enjoy for years to come.

The Fencing Lesson – The Silent Lesson

It is possible to deliver a complete fencing lesson silently, without oral cues, instruction, or discussion (beyond, perhaps, a brief statement of the lesson objectives). This removes oral cues from the lesson, forcing the student to focus on visual and tactile information. The silent lesson develops the Fencer’s problem-solving and decision-making capabilities without verbal cues. By removing oral instruction from the lesson, the Master forces the fencer to adapt to the conditions presented by the Master and to read cues that signal opportunities for successful actions, much as the fencer would have to in a bout.

The Master conducts the lesson without oral cues or discussion. All actions are presented as physical cues, by blade movement, footwork, and timing, and the student is expected to select an appropriate offensive or defensive action in response to the cue. The sequence of actions should be selected to be consistent with the tactical system used by the Master. For example, in working on the compound attack of feint of straight thrust, disengage, using the Tactical Wheel, the flow of the actions might be:

… (1st sequence) Master comes on guard with 6th open – student executes straight thrust into 6th and hits

… Finally – Master parries and ripostes

… (2nd sequence) Master closes 6th – then presses students blade – student disengages into 4th and hits

… (3rd sequence) Masters opens 6th – student feints straight thrust into 6th – Master starts to parry – student disengages to hit in 4th.

There is no theoretical limit to the length of the silent lesson. However, because this lesson requires a high degree of concentration on the part of the student to read the cues presented and to determine the appropriate action, to avoid excessive student fatigue, it would seem reasonable to restrict the lesson to less than 15 minutes.

The silent lesson also requires a high degree of concentration on the part of the Master. Because your cues are now blade or footwork cues, you must be careful to ensure that you are selecting the right cues and delivering them in the right way for the action you desire. To an even higher degree than that required for regular lessons, you must ensure that threats are clearly communicated and are realistic.

With this comes the requirement that student actions must receive corrective feedback. Normally feedback involves some level of oral communications. However, in this lesson, your actions become the feedback. A student feint that is wide and non-threatening either does not draw a reaction or draws an immediate counterattack, a parry incorrectly executed earns a hit by your attacking cue, etc. The student must be able to self-correct for this lesson to work well.

The silent lesson can be the whole lesson or part of the main body of the lesson. This approach is best suited to a training, bouting, or warm-up lesson. The requirement for technical perfection of actions, with the resultant demonstrations and corrections, makes this difficult as a lesson format for technical lessons.

The silent lesson can be used with students at any stage of development as long as they have been taught to identify and act on patterns of movement by opponents. With beginning or intermediate students it may be necessary to provide an objective at the beginning of the lesson that will ensure the student understands the focus of the lesson. Not all lessons should be silent lessons. But every fencer can benefit from the incorporation of silent lessons in the training program.

Holidays in Sicily Villas

There are many different options for villa rentals in Sicily. One of the most popular is the seaside villas. Any property boasting a seaside location should either be on the ocean's edge or within a minute's walk to the water. Much of Sicily's coast line is of the sandy beach variety, but there are also areas speckled with rocky coves for those less inclined to sunbath and more inclined the watch the waves break across the shore. There is a huge variety of waterfront villas. Some are renovated stone farmhouses. Another used to be a frantoio, or olive-oil press. There is even an old castle available. The prices on some of these accommodations can be a bit steep, but since they sleep anywhere from five to fifteen, the cost can be split up between multiple friends or families.

Rental companies often designate some of their villas as family properties. These properties are generally larger, sometimes having sleeping accommodation for twenty people, and come with private pools and grounds. Many of them are located near child-friendly attractions such as Mount Etna and its theme park, Etna Land. On the north coast is Palermo, a town known for its puppet theatre. Regardless of the surrounding attractions, every family villa comes equipped with satellite television and a DVD player.

With its azure seas, craggy cliffs and stunning sunsets, Sicily is a natural location for a honeymoon. There are many smaller, but no less exquisite, Sicily villas available for newlyweds to find the romance they are looking for. These properties may be set on a private beach or amidst the rolling hills of vineyard country. Cleaning service will be weekly, instead of daily, to ensure maximum privacy. In addition to a pool, they will often boast a Jacuzzi.

For those, who wish to experience more of Sicily's city life – the villas in and around the famous town of Taormina are a perfect option. Taormina was made an integral part of the Grand Tour a couple hundred years ago, and since then, luminaries such as Goethe and Steinbeck have made Taormina villas their home away from home. Some of these villas are apartments in the restored historic city center, while others are just a short walk or drive away.

Whether you're looking for a family vacation, honeymoon retreat, or just a relaxing week in the sunshine, Sicily villas can meet all your holiday needs.

Bed Linens Showroom – Asset Measurement

Bed linens showroom is an asset of a bed linens business. In placing value on the assets of a business, what figure should the accountant use? The market value? The cost of replacing them? Their original cost? Valuing assets is obviously a bristly problem.

Consider for example, the luxury bed ensemble you are using. If you were to value them at their market value, how would you determine that value? Any two persons would probably disagree as to the market value.

However, if we were to use your original cost of the bed ensemble as the basis for valuing them, any two persons would probably agree as to the price you paid, given the necessary information.

Market value provides a subjective basis for valuing objects, whereas original cost is an objective basis. If market value were used as the basis for valuing your luxury bed ensemble, a person to whom the valuation is given would not know how much he could trust the valuation.

Moreover, you are not likely to sell your bed ensemble, anyway. Therefore, you do not need to know their current market value. Instead, you are going to use them in the course of your normal activities. Because you are not about to resell your luxury bed ensemble, for most purposes its market value is irrelevant.

Similarly, a business purchases its assets with the assumption that they will be used in the company's operations; ie, the normal assumption is that the business is a going concern.

Thus, there are two reasons for valuing the assets of a business at cost rather than market value: First, market value is too subjective a measure and the second, the business does not need to know the market value because it intends to use the assets in the normal course of business rather than to resell them.

The accounting principle according to which we normally assume that a business will continue for an indefinite period and is not about to be sold is called the going concern concept.

The going-concern concept and the difficulty in determining market value objectively require us to value assets at their cost. The fact that normally assets are valued at their cost is another major accounting principle, the cost concept. Evidently, the going concern concept is one reason for the cost concept.

Assets should be recorded at cost which is the amount exchanged at the time the item was acquired. Machinery with a list price of $ 5,000 which was purchased at a discount of $ 1,000 should be recorded at $ 4,000. A bed linen showroom costing $ 70,000 at the time it was purchased on installment basis payable in 4 yearly installments of $ 20,000 or a total installment price of $ 80,000 should be recorded at $ 70,000 which is the amount or value exchanged at the time the asset was acquired.

Everybody Has a First Time – Buying a Home

There is no magic formula or secret plan when it comes to buying a home for the first time. Much of the mystery surrounding the process comes from the fact that you are dealing with a ton of information being thrown at you in a short period of time. However, following a few simple tips can alleviate some of the stress.

TIP 1: Real Estate Agent selection.

It is important to remember that your real estate agent is not doing you a favor; he is only helping you because he wants to make money. It is easy to begin forming a bond with your agent, especially when you are spending a great deal of time with them on a daily basis. However, never forget that he works for you; do not let yourself be guilted or bullied into doing something you do not want to do.

TIP 2: Price Range.

This tip goes with the first one nicely, because once you start the process, you are going to find your real estate agent slowly slipping more expensive houses into the list of homes that he wants you to look at. Once you identify how much you can afford for a house, do not let someone else nudge you off of that figure. The current market is full of foreclosed homes whose previous owners thought they could "swing" something outside of their price range.

TIP 3: Nirvana Complex.

This is what happens when you keep comparing the houses you are looking at to some magical idea in your own head, and not what is actually out there. The "dream" house does not exist anymore then a "dream" job or "dream" spouse. Nothing in life is exactly perfect. Find the best house out of your available options, not out of your imagination.

TIP 4: Patience.

People are going to keep asking you if you found a house yet. Your real estate agent is going to get frustrated. Do not listen to any of them. You look at as many houses as you need to be satisfied before you make a decision. Do not allow peer pressure or social expectations rush you through this decision.

Finding Construction Defects in Your Home

Building defects in homes in Kingston Jamaica may be considered to be a failing or shortcoming in the function, performance, statutory or user requirements of a building and might manifest itself within the structure, fabric, services or other facilities of the affected building.

Defects Classification

1. Defects affecting habitability – broadly any defect that diminishes the performance of the structure.

2. Defects affecting appearance – any defect of a superficial largely aesthetic nature.

3. Defects affecting safety – any defect that involves or may involve hazard to life.

Causes of defects

1. Faulty design: failure to follow established criteria, for example, Building Regulations,

Codes of Practices, Building Standards and other criteria that is generally acceptable building practices.

2. Faulty execution construction: failure on the part of the builder to effectively carry out a design which was satisfactory in itself and properly specified.

3. Faulty materials, components or proprietary systems: failure of these elements to meet their advertised or otherwise accepted performance levels.

4. Unexpected user requirements: defects caused by the user expecting more from the design than the designer anticipated.

One major problem is that homes in Kingston Jamaica were subject to scrutiny by the KSAC or Kingston and St. Andrew Council. They are constantly overburdened and realistically can not and could not reach everyone as quickly as possible.

Wall finish defects

External Rendering Defect t:

Surface crazing: This is caused by mixture too rich; sand used in mix is ​​too fine and structural movement.

Spalling: This is caused from poor workmanship , sulfate attack and steel corrosion.

Lack of adhesion: This is caused when the background is too smooth.

Shrinkage cracks: This is caused from too strong a mix.

Building defects

Rot in roof fascia: This is caused from roof sarking cut short of gutter.

Horizontal cracks to eaves of flat concrete roof : Caused by thermal movement.

Concrete lintel sags: Caused from faulty shuttering or formwork.

Fracture in wall: This is caused when there is moisture movement and soil heave.

Crack in wall wider at bottom than top : This is caused from differential settlement of building.

Excessive deflection at centre of beam: This is caused when the beam ends are not adequately supported and the depth not adequate.

Painting problems and their remedy


Identification: When raised circular bubbles or blisters is on the painted surface.

Causes: From painting over surfaces that contains moisture with an impervious coating.

Remedy: Eliminate the source of moisture, scrape off the blisters, rub down and repaint.


I dentification: The presence of pigment particles on a piece of black cloth used to rub the painted surface.

Causes: Destruction of oil paint by chemical or physical changes, for example, exposure to ultra violet light.

Remedy: Repaint with an appropriate paint.


Identification: Loosening of small piece of paint from the substitute.

Causes: Loss of adhesion to its substrate usually the result of painting over unprepared surfaces with emulsion paint.

Remedy: Thoroughly clean and rub down surface and repaint.


Identification: A severe lifting and loosening of large pieces of paint several square inches in area.

Causes: Loss of adhesion to its substrate usually the result of painting over unprepared surfaces with emulsion paint.

Remedy: Thoroughly clean and rub down surface and repaint.


Identification: Furrows and ridges in the surface of the paint film.

Causes: Application of too thick a paint film or rapid surface drying of the paint film resulting in the underlying layer remaining soft and the normal drying function being retarded.

Remedy: Allow surface to thoroughly harden, rub down, preferably with a waterproof abrasive paper and repaint with the appropriate material.

Water stains

Identification: Discolored patches appearing on the emulsion and oil painted surfaces.

Causes: Soluble matter from the substrate carried through the paint film by moisture resulting from building defect, for example, leaks from open joints.

Remedy: Repair leak, touch up stained area with one or two coats of sealer and repaint with emulsion or oil paints.

Rust stains

Identification: Brown or red stains appearing on or under any painted surface.

Causes: Corrosion of steel reinforcement or other ferrous metal.

Remedy: Scrape off paint over stained area, remove rust by sandblasting or wire brushing and then treat the surface with a rust remover. Apply one or two coats metal primer and when dry, finish with the appropriate paint.

While not all these defects can be found in homes in Kingston Jamaica, there are times when one must look for the common things; this will help in bargaining the sale price by the vendor.

30 Quick and Easy Kids Costumes

What happened to the ” good ol’ days” when a Halloween costume was your Dad’s old shirt and cap, and a burnt cork beard? Kids costumes don’t have to complicated to be cute!

Each of these quick and easy costumes starts with a few simple materials like hooded sweatshirts, sweat pants, posterboard, craft foam, felt, face paint, and a little imagination.

Pirate – Black sweats, white shirt, red sash and bandanna, cardboard sword covered in foil, parrot beanie baby, stubbly face made with burnt cork or tobacco sprinkled on vaseline covered cheeks

Kid Hit by Lightning – Gray sweats with large yellow felt zigzag pinned to the back, blackened zigzag tears in here and there on suit, hair gelled to stand straight up, burns on cheeks

Wrapped Present – Cover a large box with colorful wrapping paper. Make a hole in the bottom and invert over child’s head. Add lots of matching ribbons in child’s hair.

Pair of Dice – Paint two large boxes white and add black dots on each side to represent a pair of dice. Cut hole in bottom and invert over children’s heads. You need a friend for this one!

Box of Popcorn – Cover a large box with white butcher paper. Add wide red stripes with markers or colored paper. Make a hole for child’s head. Hot glue some popcorn to the top of the box. Wear red or white tights or sweat pants.

Placard Costumes – Another quick and easy idea for kid costumes is a “placard costume” in which the child wears a hooded sweatshirt and pulls front and back cardboard panels (the

placard) on over it. Shape the placard (poster board works fine) as needed for the costume desired, and design it with markers or felt pieces. This type of costume can be adapted to many different themes, such as:


M & M (two kids of different heights can be “plain”

and “peanut”!)

Soccerball, Basketball, or Baseball

Apple or Pumpkin

Deck of Cards

Favorite Book

Sunflower – Yellow sweat suit. Staple craft foam flower petals end to end onto a wide ribbon and tie around child’s face to make the flower. Paint the face reddish brown with black spots. Make a couple of bright green leaves from craft foam and pin side by side onto front of sweat suit.

Bunch of Grapes – Start with a purple sweat suit. Blow up several purple balloons to the same size and attach to the sweat suit with small safety pins. Complete the look with a green knit cap with a couple of large green felt leaves attached.

Bag of Trash – Make two leg holes is a large sized trash bag. Have child step into the bag, then add balls of crumpled newspaper to hold a round shape. Make two armholes in each side and secure around the neck .

Little Old Lady – An old house dress with torn stockings and slippers. Curlers in the hair or white wig. Glasses, blacked out tooth, old fashioned pocketbook.

Tourist – Hawaiian shirt or other loud clothes, camera, hat with pins all over it, maps sticking out of pockets, sunglasses.

Crayon – Sweat suit in the chosen color of your crayon. Design the crayon wrapper from poster board, felt pieces or craft foam and baste or pin onto the sweat suit. Add a like-colored plant pot for a hat, or use a large round of poster board, cut from edge to center and make into a pointy hat.

Secure under child’s chin with a wide strip of elastic stapled to the hat.

Static Cling – Start with sweat suit of your choice, pin on small clothing items such as socks, hats, mittens, and underwear along with a few dryer sheets.

Cow, Pig, Kitty, Doggy – Hooded sweat suit in the appropriate color ( white cow, pink pig, brown dog). Embellish with felt scraps to make spots, ears, tail, etc.

Backwards Costume – Put clothes and hat on backwards, sunglasses on back of head, say “Treat or Trick!”

Mummy – Tear a white sheet into strips. Paint face white and spray hair with white paint. Smear black under the eyes. Wrap child dressed in white long underwear with sheet strips, securing with clear medical tape, leaving eyes and mouth open.

Angel – White sweat suit with wings of tulle stretched over shaped coat hangers. Glittery headband made from wire circle covered with foil and colorful curling ribbon. Wand made from thin dowel with cardboard star attached to one end, painted silver or gold with glitter and curling ribbon added.

Clown – Sweat suit with colorful felt or fabric paint polka dots.. Clown collar made from felt triangles attached together in a circle to go around child’s neck. Colorful clown wig, nose, and oversized glasses. Facepaint simple blue crosses over eyes, red cheeks, and large red mouth.

Cook – White sweat suit, chef’s hat, large wooden spoon, cookbook under the arm, curly mustache drawn in face paint.

Nerd – Too small pants, shirt buttoned up wrong, pocket protector, hair slicked back, old pair of glasses with tape, white socks, large textbook to carry under the arm.

Copyright 2004 Kids Party Paradise All Rights Reserved

How to Make Roman Shades

Roman shades are a simple and elegant window treatment to block the sun or prying neighbors. Nicer than plain plastic shades, but less expensive than ornate window shades, Roman shades provide the perfect start to a beginning home decorator.

Roman shades can be purchased from home improvement or department stores, or they can be custom made by in interior designer. The cheapest way to decorate your home with Roman shades is to make them yourself. Get ready to refresh your math skills!

To make Roman shades, first measure the window you'd like to put them in. Measure the height and width of the window from inside its frame. Or, if you want the shade to cover more than the window, measure the height and width of the surface the shade will cover. Your shade will probably need to be between 45 and 54 inches wide.

Before you shop for your fabric, you'll need to calculate the number of dowels and the amount of fabric you'll need. To figure out how many dowels you will need, divide the window height by six to nine inches, which will be the space between each dowel fold. You'll need to find a number that goes evenly into your window height. For example, if your window height is 64 inches, divide by six. You'll then need eight dowels for eight pleats. Each dowel needs 1.5 inches, so multiplied by eight, you'll need an extra 12 inches of fabric. You'll also need an extra six inches of fabric to mount the shade, meaning you'll need 18 extra inches for this example. Add this to your window height to get your final height. Add two inches of fabric to your window width. Now you have the size of the fabric you need. Whew!

Next, the fun part: selecting the fabric of your shade. Shades without busy patterns are the easiest to work with because you will not need to make sure the pattern blends seamlessly with each fold. If your window gets southern light, consider picking a near-shear fabric. This will produce a warm, soothing light in your room. Take a picture or your room, fabric swatches of your furniture, and a paint sample of your room when you shop. You do not want to finish making your Roman shade to discover it clashes with the rest of your room!

While you are out buying your fabric, buy the rest of your supplies:

Drapery-lining fabric. You'll need an extra 0.25 inches to cover the mounting board.

Blind cord

Window cleat

Quarter-inch diameter window dowels, 0.25 inches smaller than the window width

A wooden mounting board, 0.25 inches smaller than the window width that's 1×2 inches.

Half-inch diameter shade rings

Screw eyes

Staple gun

Chalk or air-soluble marker


The easiest way to make a shade uses lots of pictures and few words. Find instructions at a home improvement store or for free online to make your own Roman shade. Find patterns that make the type of Roman shade you want, whether it is flat, pleated, or with a sunburst. You'll probably need a sewing machine to make the Roman shade quickly, especially to attach the lining to the fabric. With patience you can make your own Roman shade.

The Combo Behind the Full Stack

How do those incredible rock bands achieve those massive on-stage sounds? The real answer, in most cases, may surprise you. Ages ago, one of my producers told me a story. Pete Townsend, performing in his usual high energy manner, was caught just offstage by an unusually perceptive fan. No one in the congested mob could hardly miss the intimidating wall of full stacks roaring behind the band, but one detail apparently escaped all of them, save one man. He nervously approached the legend. He pointed past the guitarist to the cord dangling from the full stack behind Townsend. The amp was not connected to his guitar!

Now this was not an example of some kind of Who-doo magic. Nor was Pete the grandfather of Milli Vanilli. The story ends with Townsend leading the astute man behind the full stack tower to reveal ….. a Fender combo.

A Fender combo? That is the secret to the thunderous Who sound?

I tried to verify my producer's story, even with the marvels of the internet, I could not find it. Here is a quote I did find.

"I have terrible hearing trouble. I have unwittingly helped to invent and refine a type of music that makes its principal proponents deaf."

– Pete Townsend

A good quote. It is contrary to the point of my aforementioned rock anecdote, but nevertheless, it is a good quote. Well since Pete has proven he is of no help, let me tell you what I know. I am no Pete Townsend but I do know that tube amps do not sound their best until they are saturated.

Saturated? Now what does that mean? Before you go dunking your Traynors, let me give you a working definition for our purposes. Tube saturation is a natural distortion / overdrive (I use these terms loosely) achieved at volumes typically above 4 or 5.
So for these amps to sound their best they must be turned up louder. If you have an extremely high wattage amp and you must crack it to Spinal Tap's "11" to get the best sound, that makes for some difficulties in the live mixing department. This is why some opt for the 30 watts or 50 watts, the combo behind the full stack. The full stack looks the best, but some genuinely prefer the tones that open-backed combos offer as well.

Having been raised on high wattage, I know that this news goes against the rock's grain. Part of it is personal preference. There are millions of devout Mesa Boogie fanatics from which I have just isolated myself. And I have to admit, it is nice to have a little more power at outdoor venues. But for those of you writing off a low wattage amp simply because it does not put out the juice of your Crate, give it a little thought first. Louder is not always better. Think of tone quality and individuality before ball-crunchingness. Let the soundman do the mixing and maybe save a bit of that hearing for old age.

I know Pete would agree.

Arc Flash Safety And Hazards According To OSHA Guidelines

Arc flash is the light or heat produced in the form of fire with the use of two different phases of electrical arc. This results in an electrical explosion which is adequate to cause harm; but is very useful for welding and industrial function.

The Arc Flash Hazards

If mishandled the possibilities of electrical hazards could be many and cause colossal explosion by destroying equipment, workers and the surrounding area up till a superior capacity. The arc flash hazards put the lives of the workers at a greater risk. A survey showed that 5-10 of the workers are admitted in the hospital everyday due to arc flash hazards occurrence in the United States. The injury caused by it results are devastating and the treatment plan can cost up till $ 8-10 million. The New York Academy of Sciences has published an EPRI study which confers the burns through injury, costs and its treatment plan which can be highly extensive. The details can be found on "Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 888, October 30, 1999, pp 1-7."

The Arc Flash Safety Measures

In the 1980's a paper "The Other Electrical Hazard: Electric Arc Blast Burns" was published according to industry standards to take protective measures against the workers. But in observance with OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration) at least the following points must be followed:

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

A protective clothing of FR shirt, FR underwear FR pants, double layer switching coats and pants along with hard hat with face shield and protective gloves are required to be worn by the worker.

Calculation of Arc Flash Hazards

A data must be analyzed and then tested to check for any sensitivity, breaker or fuse characteristics according to the PEE requirements. In most cases the breakers are adjusted as old breakers have slow reaction times. Any loophole must be corrected before starting over the actual procedure. Also the chances of short circuit must be taken into account and checked.

Now that we have discussed the safety measures according to the OSHA standards, but still there are many who believe that the protective suit for the workers is not cumbersome as it's hot and provides poor visibility during work which in return can cause further dangerous situations during the chore. Moreover the safety analysis is not always correct. On several occasions OSHA has penalized companies and contractors esp. in New York and New Jersey over electrocution and other hazards. OSHA takes these matters strictly and makes sure that the company adheres to its guidance.

In June 2010 three New York contractors were charged over $ 465,000 in penalty by OSHA due to arc flash hazards which the workers were exposed to. Couple of months later The Fountainhead Group Inc of New York Mills faced $ 83, 650 in fine due to 34 OSHA violations according to arc flash safety concerns and the New York Postal Center were charged $ 210k in infringement for arc flash safety purpose.

On one incident, the Claremont Terminal site in New Jersey exposed its workers to lead; failing to endow with respiratory tract protection and other measures which caused an $ 188,500 fine. Service Corp on Suydam Avenue in New Jersey was also fined for 36 federal violations of $ 158k.

OSHA has played a pivotal part in protecting the workers and it's bystanders against arc flash hazards by implementing proper safety regulations. Noncompliance of electrical system and equipment has caused legal notices all over New York and New Jersey and this is not it, the online resources will come up with a bundle of more electrical safety measures bought up by OSHA.

How to Play Violin With Bow

To play violin with bow requires a delicate balancing act between the left and right hands. While the left hand is fingering the notes and keeping the instrument in tune, the right is assisting the intonation by smoothly drawing the bow across the string and maintaining an attractive sound from the instrument. So what is different when playing violin with bow than without, such as with pizzicato? Here are a couple of things that set it apart and quick tips you can use to improve your coordination between left and right hands to play violin with bow.

First off, make sure you hold the bow correctly. The bow needs to be supported primarily by the thumb and pinky fingers while the rest of the fingers simply provide weight that can be pressed into the string. To play violin with bow in proper form with your hand should mean that you can let go of the bow with your index, middle and ring fingers while still holding the bow and supporting the entire weight of the bow. Just be sure to keep both the thumb and pinky rounded out smoothly and do not lock the joints so as to keep the fingers nimble and balanced.

For proper elbow and wrist technique while playing violin with bow, you need to think of your entire arm as a piston that draws the bow along the string with your wrist adjusting to keep the path of the bow straight. So as your forearm goes away from the violin, your wrist turns towards you to adjust, and as you forearm goes towards you, your wrist turns away to adjust. This keeps the bow on a straight path and helps play violin with bow cleanly without wandering off of the string.

Finally, pay attention to the action of your shoulder and be sure it is not moving up and down to assist with bow movements. This is a common mistake many beginners make when playing violin with bow. Do not use the shoulder except to change from one string to the next. Drawing the bow along the string is primarily the task of the elbow and wrist and the shoulder should be held back and not allowed to move unless changing strings.

If you still need help on how to play violin with bow, I recommend visiting my website at howtoplayviolinforbeginners.net.

Benefits of Rainwater Drainage Systems

Every building, whether office building, hotel, hospital or residential property has rainwater drainage systems. We have always just accepted that they are there, those semi circular or squared strips that run along the edge of the roof, leading to a downpipe, but do you know why you have them and why you need to regularly inspect and maintain them to ensure that they are working at their best?

The first benefit of rainwater drainage systems is that they reduce the risk of walls getting wet when it rains. As you can imagine all the water that accumulates on the roof needs to run somewhere. If these systems were not in place, the water would simply run from the roof down the walls, which could lead to dampness and even leaks in the long run. It is much cheaper to ensure your systems are working properly and are debris free than having to fix a serious damp problem on your property.

Another benefit of rainwater drainage systems is that they steer water in a direct and chosen line, away from the property. This means the water runs into the drainage system and then proceeds to be pushed along the guttering to a downpipe. The downpipe is then linked to a storm water drain which washes away under the road and away from your property.

Rainwater drainage systems reduce the risk of leaks within the property. When it comes to rain there is always a risk that water will get into the building at some point. While roofs will need to be checked, it is also important to have the right systems in place to reduce the risk. Focusing on using rainwater draining systems can be an effective solution, pushing water away and reducing the risk of wet ceilings and walls moving forward, both of which can cost you a considerable sum of money in the long run.

These days these systems are available in PVC, a plastic, which is lightweight, durable and affordable. This makes the rainwater drainage systems easy to install, eliminates the risk of rust and can be cut to the length you need to reduce the risk of seams. Often you will find with these systems, the water will leak from the guttering at the seam, so less seams means the less likely you will have water dripping from your gutters.

Rainwater drainage systems are highly effective in rainwater harvesting. You can purchase rain barrels at just about any gardening store which is connected to the downpipe, collecting the rain water which you can then use to water your garden and save on the amount of water you use from your taps.

It is imperative to ensure you follow the maintenance instructions for rainwater drainage systems to ensure that when the winter hits and it rains day after day you are prepared. This means taking the time every few weeks to climb the ladder and check that the guttering isn’t filled with leaves and other debris which may affect water flow. It also requires you pour water along the pipes, checking for leaks. Leaks in the system is relatively easy to repair and it’s always best to get this completed before the wet seasons.

Installation is a major benefit to the rainwater drainage systems. Due to the lightweight of the PVC material, it is easy to install the systems with two people. In addition to this, the material can easily be cut to ensure you achieve the right lengths. PVC rainwater drainage can also be purchased in long lengths, which are highly beneficial and reduces the number of seams you need.

Home Remedies for a Clogged Drain

We have to face the truth that a clogged drain is an inevitable part of our household lives. Once we find ourselves in such situation, there will come to a point wherein we would decide to give up and simply call on a plumber, thereby forcing you to spend large amounts of cash just to get your drainage system working in no time. What most of us are not aware of, however, is that the most effective (and perhaps the cheapest) way of solving our drainage problems can be found right inside our house.

Here are some home remedies you can try in order to clear a clogged drain.

1. Hot water – This will be your most trusted friend when it comes to cleaning whatever blockage exists in your drainage system. How water will not only solve the problem, it can also prevent future ones. It has the ability to melt and dissolve any small particles that block the drains. To use hot water, simply pour it inside the holes of the sink, the basins, and even tubs.

2. Hot water with salt – Adding salt to your water will strengthen the liquid’s dissolving capacity. As much as possible, always come prepared with a spoonful of salt when it comes to solving drain problems.

3. Plunger – This is one of the most trusted tools when it comes to household problems such as this one. The plunger can solve not only toilet problems, but sink ones as well. To effectively use this, simply fill the drain with water until the plunger’s cup is immersed fully. Afterwards, simply pump with an up-and-down motion, creating a sort of suctioning effect that will push the blockage downwards into the pipes.

4. Vinegar and baking soda – To do this you will need to pour half a cup of baking soda down the clogged drain. Next, take half a cup of white vinegar and pour it into the drainage as well. Get a plate or a glass and cover the hole. Doing so will trap the baking soda solution. Leave it overnight. The next day, remove the plate or the glass and pour some hot water inside the drain, dissolving the solution and fixing the problem of the blockage.

5. Salt and baking soda – Another effective mixture that you can try out. Mix salt and baking soda in equal parts and pour the solution into the drainage. You must then pour some boiling water and leave it overnight. The next day, dissolve the solution with another amount of hot water.

6. Dishwashing liquid – Soap is also an ideal solution that can remove any unwanted blockages due to its slippery texture. Dishwashing liquid is perhaps the most ideal type of soap that can solve the problem of a clogged drain. You must first put one pound of washing liquid into three gallons of hot water. Next, pour the solution into the drain and wait overnight for the effects. The next day, do the same process as stated above by dissolving the solution with hot water.

Some Reviews on Drill Presses

Drill presses are power woodworking tools that precisely bore spaced holes with great accuracy. Basically, a drill press consists of two types: bench-top and floor-standing models. Bench-top drill presses can be directly escalated on their own bases or into a bench. These are more appropriate for small-scale drilling job.

On the other hand, the floor model drill presses have more power, more accessories and attachments, and greater material handling capabilities.

Below are some of the more popular models of drill press.

Delta 17-950L

It has ½ horsepower, 120 volts, and 1720 RPM. It features an adjustable lamp that gives additional light to the work area, three-spoke pilot wheel with 3 and 7/8 quill stroke.

Delts 16.5″ Floor Model Drill Press

It is rated as the top quality and well designed floor model drill press. It has a low-top speed and is appropriate for woodworking jobs.

Craftsman 15-Inch Drill Press

This drill press is suitable for amateur metal or woodworkers. It features the column-mounted flexible laser. It makes it quick and precise to line up bits to the drill mark

It has a removable toggle switch, making it easier to transfer it from one place to another. You can mount the 3-spoke quill handle on either side of the head casting. It has an adjustable lamp useful in dim working conditions.

The large cast-iron table is flat that can facilitate clamping-on of the work pieces. This model also has a keyless chuck, 12 mechanical spindle speeds ranging from 300 to 3100 rpm, and a large 5/8 inch capacity.

Wilton 720R 3 Radial Arm Drill Press

This radial arm drill press is considered to be one of the best. It has a 2 horsepower motor that provides ample drilling capacity in most work pieces. Likewise, the arm raising safety device and the centralized controls make it safe and convenient to use.

It has a high torque load, good for heavy duty drilling jobs. It is also very accurate. It has a 6 speeds/3 feed rates, independent arm electric clamping system, 110 Volts push button controls, and electrical circuit.

Milwaukee 4206-1 Electromagnetic Drill Press

This electromagnetic drill press incorporates 3/4-inch motor and chuck. It features a solid state electronic switching, computer controlled reverse, forward/reverse control, full wave magnetic holding power and feedback speed control.

Hitachi B13F 10 inch Drill Press

This popular drill press is built to the highest standard. It produces very accurate and precise results. Hitachi Power Tools manufacturing company pioneered this model, incorporating 5 speeds with laser sighting for more accurate drilling. Its swing is 10 inches, 5 inches from the center of the drill chuck to column.

Rockwell 10 12-Speed 1/4HP Drill Press

This industrial-grade drill press incorporates a laser, appropriate for any garage or workshop. This is built for recurring and accurate cutting in most materials and shapes. Some of its features are a 0-45 degree table bevel for miter or bevel drilling, heavy duty construction for better performance, drilling mode ranging from 0-1300 rpm for high speed, fast release door locks for improved service and faster blade changes, and blade guide dial adjustment.

How to Budget For Your New Timber Frame Home

One of the first things people think about before building a new timber frame home is “how much can I afford?” Many things affect the budget including site work, the design of your new home, the wood species you choose for the timber frame, choice of windows, and what materials you choose to finish your house.

There are a few big budget items that people do not typically think about when planning for their new timber frame home. One of the biggest factors people do not think about is their site. It can be very costly to prepare the site for your new home, however, it all depends on the complexity of the site. Does your property have a lot of boulders and trees to be removed? Or is your site already cleared?

The design of your new home can also impact your budget. The more complex the timber frame structure is, the more expensive it will be. For example, a Hammer Beam Truss timber frame system frame is more expensive principal purlin frame.

Also the more windows, gables, dormers and corners in your new homes design will have an impact on the overall cost. For example, a colonial style home with no dormers will cost less than a custom two story home with multiple dormers and extensions. Another thing to consider when budgeting for your new home is deciding on whether or not you want a finished basement. Using the finished basement as living space can lower your cost per square foot.

A typical timber frame package includes the exterior shell of the home (timber frame, Structural Insulated Panels, windows, doors, siding, roofing, and trim), and is only one part of the house, the exterior shell. The following are some other factors you will have to consider:

• What kind of heating system do I want?

• What kind of siding will we have?

• Will there be a fireplace?

• What kind of flooring will be used and where?

• What type of kitchen cabinets and appliances do I want?

• Am I going to build a garage right away?

How do you go about establishing costs that fit into your budget? First, interview local custom builders. Begin by consulting acquaintances who have built custom homes or check with your local chapter of the National Home Builders Association. Your builder will help you establish costs for all areas of the house.

Next, prioritize the rooms according to your main focus. For instance, most timber frame homes highlight the Great Room. And, if you’re an aspiring Chef or plan to do a lot of entertaining, the kitchen will also be a big focus. Look at those areas first and choose a timber frame system that enhances those areas but stays within your allowance for those rooms. Next work with your builder to establish a budget to work within. Then you can determine how the rest of the house can be finished to stay within your budget.

If your budget is tight, consider a hybrid system, combining timber framing with conventional stick frame construction for other areas of the house. Your builder can also recommend appliances, flooring, and finish materials to help you stay within budget.