Steady State, HIIT, Or LISS Cardio? What Are They And What Do They Mean?

What is HIIT? What is LISS? What is steady state? Trying to keep up with the latest fitness trends is a challenge these days. Today I would like to clear up a few of the most common types of cardio. Ever been exhausted from walking up stairs or doing yard work? Starting some form of cardio is bound to improve your everyday life. Doing cardio has been known to help depression, anxiety, and many other health factors that many of us suffer from daily. Being an online personal trainer I custom tailor exercise programs for my clients based off their fitness goals.

The programs that I design for my clients will always have some form of cardio in it at some point. Cardio should always be apart of any fitness program. The most common question I get when my clients get their program is, what does HIIT mean? What is LISS? What is steady state? These are fitness terms us fit freaks always use. If your new to the fitness world all these terms will be quite confusing. Which is why I decided to write this article to help clear things up a bit. I'm not going to go into great detail or science on each form of cardio as this article is for people new to fitness and could start to confuse you. Better to keep things simple and to the point!


Steady State is when you exercise at a steady pace for an extended period of time. It's the most common form of cardio to this day. Steady state will have you using about 65% of your max heart rate. Normally steady state cardio last for a period greater than 30 minutes at a time. Here are a few different types of steady state cardio.

  • Running
  • Jogging
  • Cycling
  • Elliptical
  • Stair Climber


Beside that steady state cardio helps reduce fat cells in the body by using stored energy (fat) for fuel its also great to build up endurance. A greater endurance is something we all can benefit from as it can make everyday life easier.


Choosing the right type of steady state cardio is really easy if you think about it. What's your favorite outdoor activity? Jogging, running, getting on your bike and going for a ride? All of these done for an extended period of time is steady state cardio. If you prefer perform indoors then the local gym is full of equipment that can help you out!


Steady state cardio should not be a walk in the park, it should be intense to an extent. The golden rule for steady state is if you're able to carry on conversation with the person next to you then might want to up the intensity a little.

HIIT CARDIO (High Intensity Interval Training)

To answer the question so many people ask me, what does HIIT mean? To answer the question, High Intensity Interval Training. HIIT is a form of cardio that is all out burst of 90-100% maximum capacity followed by a period of sometimes active rest. If you're in a pinch for time then this is a great alternative because you can get a good cardio session in about 15-20 minutes. Here is an example of HIIT cardio. This type of training will have you using about 85% or more of your max heart rate. An example of HIIT is.

  • Cycle 40 seconds at a RPM of 40
  • Cycle 20 seconds at a RPM of over 100
  • Cycle 40 seconds at a RPM of 40
  • Cycle 20 seconds at a RPM of over 100
  • Cycle 40 seconds at a RPM of 40
  • Cycle 20 seconds at a RPM of over 100
  • Cycle 40 seconds at a RPM of 40
  • Cycle 20 seconds at a RPM of over 100
  • Rest 2 minutes then repeat 3-4 times


Just like steady state cardio HIIT helps reduce fat cells in the body by using stored energy (fat) for fuel. Another benefit from doing HIIT is time. If you're always on the go, limited on time, and has to out workout within 45 minutes then you might want to consider trying HIIT. Most of the HIIT routines are anywhere from 15-30 minutes long. Not to mention HIIT is one of the more exciting forms of cardio as it involves you changing direction or exercises to keep things more interesting.


Really depends on what you enjoy doing. You can design your HIIT with many different types of exercise. Because of the high intensity I would recommend something like sprints followed by walking or on a stationary bike. These are well grounded exercises that will not require balance challenges. Once you become more experienced you can start adding more difficult exercises.


You will know right after your first round of HIIT. If you're doing it right you will be short of breath and have a pounding heart. It's much more intense than any other type of cardio. I'm sure at one point in your lift you had a food race with a friend across the street or across a field. That feeling when you reach the end and feel completely out of breath and your heart wanting to jump out of your chest is what you want to shoot for.

LISS CARDIO (Low Intensity Steady State)

What does LISS mean, Low Intensity Steady State. LISS is the same as steady state except the intensity is very low. LISS is a more relaxed form of cardio that is normally a period greater than 45 minutes. The max heart rate for LISS is about 65% or less. Some good examples of LISS are.

  • Walking
  • Swimming
  • Hiking
  • Cycling


LISS is not the optimal form of cardio to reduce fat cells. This form of cardio is ideal for people new to fitness, the elder, and very obese people. While it's not as effective as the others not over doing it with extreme cardio is more likely to have people adhere to a fitness program in the beginning.


Like the other forms of cardio it's always best to choose a type of exercise that is most enjoyable to you. If you're new to fitness I would recommend starting with a simple walk around the block then start to experiment with others.


When it comes to what cardio is better for you it's really apples to oranges. All cardio is beneficial especially if your new to fitness. What it brings down to is what you enjoy most, have time for, and your fitness goals. I personally enjoy HIIT after years of being a wrestler long steady state sessions are not my cup of tea.

Learn More About Passenger Lift and Elevator

The advent of technology has been making the life of humans simpler and sophisticated. It has completely changed the life of mankind. The conservative method of leading the life has been replenished by the newer techno goods. All credit goes to the innovative and the extreme engineering because humans are worth it. An elevator is a vertical transport vehicle that efficiently moves people or goods between floors of a building which are generally powered by electric motors

The passenger lift has been a boon for everyone. The lift is commonly used for the service of carrying passengers, goods and is commonly used in hospitals, shopping malls, and so on. The government has made a compulsion for lifts and elevators in huge buildings that would be equally good for the wheelchairs also. There are two types of passenger lifts-

o passenger elevator

o Express elevator

The commercial elevators make things go easy. These are the elevators that are found in hospitals, hotels, business houses, manufacturing companies and so on. The elevators are extremely safe as compared to any kind of vehicles. It has well protected metal made that completely makes the strong wall of the lift. The annals report that the first elevator was built by Archimedes, in 236 BC

However in some literary sources of later historical periods, elevators were mentioned as cabs on a hemp rope and powered by hand or by animals. It is assumed that elevators of this type were installed in the Sinai monastery of Egypt. In the 17th century the prototypes of elevators were located in the palace buildings of England and France. The goods lifts are used to ferry goods and products from one place to the other. The lift whether it is passenger or the commercial is made up of steel and iron to give the strong protection.

All modern elevators will have-

1. Space to stand and luxury seating cushion.

2. Air conditioned units and electric fans.

3. Calling buttons.

4. A set of locked-doors to prevent unintentional access.

5. A stop switch which halts the elevator.

6. Alarm button and switches.

7. Some high tech-elevators may also include:

8. Elevator telephone.

9. Grip button.

10. Entrance Restriction Key Switches

11. More set of doors this serves different floor plans.

12. Security Cameras

13. Plain wall or mirrored wall.

Usually there are wonderful innovative development going around the world but the introduction of the lifts or elevators has simplified the human burden. The goods have simultaneously changed the life of the people in manufacturing companies has been helped in order to carry huge bulk of goods and the like stuffs.

How to Make Beautiful Handmade Greeting Cards

This simple card is great to showcase your own collages and artwork. Accurate measuring and cutting is essential because you want the card to be able to stand up on its own. Use stiff paper, card stock, in whites, beiges and vanilla tones. Depending on the time of year you can make birthday cards, Christmas cards and any other holiday cards. Use colors and found objects accordingly. For example use green, red, and gold for Christmas cards.


Sheet of handmade paper, card stock, or stiff paper
Scrap piece of card for window template
Bits and pieces of handmade papers, fibers, ribbons, fabrics, trims and interesting found objects
Matching paper for envelope
Craft knife
Self-healing mat
Bone folder
PVA adhesive and brush
Double-sided tape (optional)

Basic Methods:

If you feel a bit uneasy you can always practice these steps first on an inexpensive sheet of paper. Then keep your first card as a template.

1. You will need one sheet of 8 1/4 x 11 inch inch paper. On the back mark the paper into thirds across the width. Score with a bone folder and fold both end panels inwards.

2. Open the card and lay it on a self-healing mat and cut a window in the center panel using your window template this way you can be more certain the position of your window, before you start cutting. Your window template should be approximately 2 x3 inches. You can change the size of the window for different cards if you prefer. Rescore the fold lines.

3. Create a collage on the inside of the first flap. Have fun and be creative. Use your little scraps of paper, ribbon, and other embellishments. Study the composition by closing the flap; check how your collage looks through the window before gluing the pieces in place.

4. Glue the two front panels together with watered down glue or double sided tape.

5. To make the envelope, use another sheet of matching or contrasting paper. Lay the card diagonally across it and fold up the sides. Glue down two sides and bottom fold to create the envelope.

Applause Etiquette – To Clap Or Not to Clap

You might not be up to snuff on the proper time to clap when you’re at your next high brow social event. The rules of applause vary from the monster truck rally to the opera. If you normally go to sporting events and regular movies in a movie theater you’ll want to beef up on the rules of engagement.

At events today it seems people clap as a sort of audience participation, which has developed for the most part from sports on TV at which you can see the audience cheering – or sometimes booing – almost continuously. In the theater the audience will often applaud at the entrance of the main characters, when the curtain is raised, and the sometimes even applaud the set.

Although every person that performs wants to hear some appreciation from the audience, when there is an opera, a ballet, or a concert it’s best if you leave your enthusiasm at the door instead of risking the chance of breaking the rhythm and continuity of the program with your raucous applause.

At the opera, it sometimes occurs that the audience will clap when the conductor takes their place at the podium. Clapping is mostly expected after an aria, but be sure the aria is finished before you begin your applause. Sometimes there may be curtain calls between the acts, in which case it’s better to hold your applause for a set amount of time.

At the ballet the audience applauds when the conductor makes his entrance and sometimes after solos and pas de deux.

At a concert you should applaud when the conductor takes his place at the podium and when the concert is completed. Applause I also expected after each work listed on the program is completed. Applause between movements of a symphony or after a concerto solo breaks the flow of the music although exuberant audiences have with the music being played, it’s better to wait and see if others begin to applaud or yours may be the sound of one pair of hands clapping.

Take the time between movements to clear your throat if you must and to shift your position. Have cough drops or hard candy on hand to alleviate a tickle in your throat. Noise from the audience is frowned upon. I once attended a concert during which the harpsichord soloist took his time between movements to admonish a snoring man sitting in one of the first few rows. If you don’t know the music well, take your cue from the conductor as to when the concert is finished or when it’s time to intermission. When he leaves the podium it is always appropriate to applaud.

5 Simple Steps to Make a Career Change

With a new school year, many people turn to also look for a new career or work opportunity. Is this the year that you finally decide to break with a dead-end job that's taking you now or a boss who causes your blood pressure to rise? Are you done giving everything that you've got in the tank to a company that does not acknowledge your contribution? Have you thought about moving to a new career, but did not know how to get from here to there?

Your opportunity for change is now. It's here. There's no time like the present.

If you've been thinking about leaving your job for a new career opportunity, now is a great time to look to see what's out there in the market. The economy is generally good, businesses are feeling more confident, and so unemployment is at low levels. We know that everything is cyclical and there will come a time this will not be the case, and so this is a great environment to see if you can improve your work situation.

Do you need a new job or a new career?

The first question to ask yourself is whether you prefer a new job or a career change. Moving into a new industry will come with all sorts of challenges, such as training, a pay cut, or taking a job that's at a lower rank than where you are in your current industry. Moving to a new career is a lot of work, and so it requires careful consideration and thought. If you're not wholly committed to doing everything necessary for a new career, the chances are high that as much as you would like to have been, you'll probably be okay with a new job.

Take an inventory of your skills.

Even if you're looking to move into an entirely different industry, you should review and assess your skills, especially those that are transferable to another career. For instance, ask yourself if you're a communicator or manager? Do you have particular skills in marketing, finance or operations? A reason to carefully assess your skills is that you should be keenly aware of your best skills as you begin to transition and go on job interviews. Also, you may be able to ease into a transition to your ultimate career by exploring job opportunities that will get you a step or two closer to your goal, but not yet be the career and job of your dreams.

What's going to be the effort for a new career?

Once you've decided that a new career is in the cards for you, you have to get started on doing your research. Some people who are chasing their career dreams may end up in a situation where they are evaluating more than one industry. Making a career change is more challenging than a job change, so you're going to have to assess what it will take for you to switch careers. In your research, see if you will be required to attend training or get any certificates. When you make a career change, you will also have to consider if you will be getting a pay cut and starting out a few rungs below where you are on the corporate ladder. Now is the time to prepare your personal circumstances to give you the best chance at success.

Get in touch with who you know.

When you have a firmer idea of ​​what you want to do for your career change, make it a point to speak to the people you know and work yourself out from that point. By communicating to everyone you know, you might have an opportunity, such as an introduction, open up for you. Additionally, the people who know you best will be able to support you and sometimes give you different perspectives and ideas as you begin to search for your new path. Be aware that you might have one or two people who may tell you that you should not make a career change for whatever reason. We all have one or two of those friends. Take what they have to say with a grain of salt and stay focused on moving along in your career and life.

Get going and make it happen.

Finally, get started. One of the most challenging things to do for so many people is to begin. For many others, once they start and see the additional work demands that come from making a career change, on top of their regular responsibilities, the desire to change a career begins to dim. The way to ensure this does not happen is to create a 90-120 day plan with measurable goals and objectives that you break down weekly. If you need additional training, one of the tasks could be researching schools and then signing up. Another task could be to reach out to a certain number of people you know, as well as professionals in the industry, each week. It's crucial to keep the passion going so you can make a successful transition.

Making a career change can be daunting. There can be a lot of fear that bubbles to the surface of the unknown and failure, but it does not have to be the case.

It's all a matter of perspective.

If you take small steps that are regular (daily or weekly), you will be able to make a successful transition.

Curved Staircases

Staircases allow people to reach places that are of a height higher than they currently are, they allow access to places that are otherwise unreachable. The most common place you will find a staircase is in a house, any property that has more than 1 floor will contain 1, this will allow you access to the floor above.

There are many different types of staircases and the standard ones found in homes are simple and straight, they go up at an angle in a straight line, however there are variations to these and are often found in larger properties with a lot more space. The curved staircase is a variation and looks amazing, it has the exact same purpose but is manufactured and installed in a different way. The case goes up at an angle but instead of going in a straight line it curves round in a certain direction, the main reason these are used is for their aesthetic design, they look expensive and really add character to the property. They are also found in other properties like schools, museums and other large establishments.

The curved staircase can be enlarged even further and be turned into spiral (helical staircase), these are one again curved in appearance but instead of having one curve that they go all the way round into a spiral and essentially going up in a vertical line. There are 2 instances when these are used, the first being in restricted space where a diagonal staircase would not fit and the other in Abbeys, Mansions and other grand places where the staircase is required to go up a great height, not only do the extend to great highest but look exquisite.

Multi-Housing Exterior Stairs Technology

Multi-housing property owners hate to replace stairs more than any other type of repair, but they will not devote proper maintenance to stairways until it is too late. The average lifespan for present day materials, in the best conditions, before major repair is necessary, is around 10 years, and 7 years for unfavorable conditions. It is not uncommon for the same stairs to be replaced as many as 3 times in a 20-year period. The restoration and replacement of all types of aging and damaged outer stair cases constructed of several types of material, or a combination of materials, is an ongoing expenditure.

Stairways need renovation for a number of reasons, the most important being that the materials themselves became failed products after exterior application utilized in stair treads. The primary reason for material failure of metal, concrete on metal pans, concrete, or wood is the natural elements. Fluctuation of temperature, moisture in the air, salt air, humidity, or lack of sunlight for drying out moisture represent a few of the natural elements contributing to early deterioration.

Another reason for this material failure is man-made chemicals used as protection from cold, ice, or snow. There is no protection against these chemicals, and their excess use, for the usual materials. There are several types of 'wonder sealers' in the marketplace used as a protective coating, but none are adequately efficient, especially when stair maintenance is insufficient.

Stair maintenance, such as seasonal prepping and pre-protection, is always neglected. Attending to exterior stair maintenance by property staff is generally non-existent, until it is too late. And, stairway replacement is usually put off until the situation is desperate.

Many times, the materials used in the initial construction of a property was the wrong one to use in that particular location, and it would be very cost to use the same materials in the current use of the property. An example of this would be solid concrete on a hilly terrain that now has mature landscaping. To install the same product would legislate a greater expenditure because, more than likely, you probably would not be able to get vehicles capable of carrying the weight of prefab concrete stairs, or concrete trucks, to each individual location without damaging the landscaping. This, of course, would add more expense. And it might be impossible to even get the vehicles to the location. Pumping concrete in to the site may not be feasible for this same reason.

A wheelbarrow may have to be used if the terrain is bad, or the landscaping is mature. Using this method, you can not reproduce a complete 13-step stairway, demolish and rebuild, in a timeframe that will not inconvenience tenants for more than a day. The more time spent, the more your cost. The time frame to replace the treads in almost all cases can not exceed eight hours. Most tenants, whether multi-housing apartments, commercial, or industrial can not be relocated for more than an 8-hour period.

The demolition of the existing stairs, including the complete stairway and stringers, handrails, and steps will normally take 8 to 12 hours for a complete demolition. The same time frame would apply in removing just the existing steps, their support brackets (usually necessary), along with repairing damage to the stringers, sanding, spot welding, scraping off top rust, prime painting the areas, then add new brackets, and install and level step. Owners tend to try to get by with doing just the step replacement to save time and expense.

Metal stringers and handrails, with attentive repair and upkeep, such as painting regularly, and removing rust while it is still wonderful will last for several years. The discrepancy between the longevity of the stringers, as opposed to the steps, is the fact that the stringers do not hold water and other moisture as long, they do not normally get chemicals sprayed on them, and they do not get the traffic or weight abuse.

The use of wood above one flight is prohibited by most new building codes. And, most new codes will not grant it any longer. Wood stringers, even treated wood, due to the elements, and any over spray from chemicals, etc, ages out faster than metal or concrete.

Surprisingly, concrete stringers deteriorate the fastest. The elements, traffic, weight burden, and chemicals break up the composite of the material, and thus greatly lower the integrity of the design, and reduce its strength. Concrete, once it starts separating, decomposes rapidly, and will break with a minimum of stress or strain. Due to this, there have been many more accidents from concrete stairs than either wood or metal.

The cost factor of replacing staircases has even led to the mix up four kinds of materials on the same 13-step stairway. This is certainly not aesthetically pleasing to potential tenants or buyers. If the inspector does not make you replace them, he will make you vacate all the upper floors until they are repaired to code. And then there is the insurance adjuster. If there is a fall, and the stairway condition is the cause, the insurance company will not pay, you will pay.

Due to all the problems mentioned, clients are begging for anything that will increase life span, decrease maintenance, and improve on the safety issue of exterior stairs. Much research and the consulting of numerous experts went into finding an answer.

Fiberglass appeared to be an ideal material. And, although there are fiberglass steps available, none of them meet the current building codes for multi-level housing or commercial bids. Each state, and even each county, may have variance on these codes; however, they are all similar and workable with a new revolutionary product called ReplacementSteps.

Introduction, Basic Definitions, Major Components of Scaffolding (BS 5973-1993)

Basic Scaffolding Construction: An Overview of British Standard BS 5973-1993

Introduction, Basic Definitions, Major Components

What is Scaffolding?

Scaffolding is a basic temporary structure embracing an existing or future possible structure per design that aids the construction worker in having safe and ergonomic access to intended job and broadly used in industries and private properties, to some extent.

For building and use of a Scaffold, optimum protection, supervision etc. are required as failure to do so may cause injury leading to fatality. Incidents also contribute to loss of work hour, resources, human lives, effect to environment and countless other aspects of our personal and professional lives.

There are a number of Standards that could have considered for Scaffold construction, for instance, the US OSHA standard, British Standard, Australian Standard etc. Business and Personal choice and implementation of standard depend primarily on compliance with local legislation and of course as set by an individual standard.

British Standard for building a Scaffold offers a definitive exposure to the relevant construction and safety aspect right from the beginning of construction and day to day inspection that fosters safe work practice and maintenance of the temporary structure built to meet business or personal needs.

Considering the most potential hazards associated with building, maintenance and working on Scaffolding, the common issues observed are:

a. Removing boards from working platform without proper communication and meeting the standard requirement
b. Taking bracing out at the platform levels
c. Removing hand rails and toe boards
d. Taking ladders away from their intended places and
e. Failing to stack material properly


The basic definitions related to Scaffolding are as follows:

Standard: An upright component supporting tube bearing on the ground.

Ledger: An horizontal component / tube that supports transom.

Transom: A tube fixed across two or more components that balances out the lateral imbalanced force and provides stability.

Sway Brace: Restricts left to right movement of Scaffolding considering the front view of the structure.

Base Plate: Used to distribute the load from standards to ground.

Sole Plate / boards: A suitable piece of timber to spread the load.

Foot lift: A lift is erected near the ground to reinforce the base of the scaffold and allow clearance of that base from ground level.

Scaffold bay: The spans of upright members / Standards along the Front View of Scaffold. A rule of thumb in load calculation to follow is "Smaller the bay, larger the Safe Working Load (SWL) of that Scaffold."

Height: The vertical distance considering the base and topmost assembly of the Ledger and Transoms.

Width: The width of a scaffold measured at right angles to the ledgers from the center of the standards. Another measure to calculate the width is by calculating the number of boards in between two adjunct Standards.

Length: The length of a Scaffold between to standards sitting at either ends of a Scaffold structure.

Lift Height: The elevation length between main horizontal members that are called Ledgers.

Puncheon: A Standard that is not supported from the ground.

Spur: An inclining bearing tube used for structure reinforcement from rickety or wobbly movement along longitudinal or lateral direction.

Needle: Needle is one horizontal cantilever tube.

Butt tube: Any bearing tube of comparatively short in length.

Scarf: The length of an Upright / Standard above the working lift.

Lapping: Lapping means joining standards or ledgers that reinforces the structure.

Decking out: It means boarding out of working platform.

Sheeting out: Horizontal or vertical component fixed on inclined sheets of material such as corrugated or plastic sheet attached to the scaffold to provide protection.

Toe board: A barricade installed at the platform ground level next to "toe" preventing inadvertent dropping off tools, objects, small debris from construction work to lower platform and grade.

Guardrail: Guardrail is an engineered control for falling off of height and has got set vertical distances. Along the horizontal direction of a structure, there is usually a couple of Guardrails, namely, top and mid guard rail. There is also stop end guard rail and drop bars in place.

Scaffold tie: This is another reinforcement process used by attaching the scaffold to an existing structure / building for stability. A tie that is fixed to a building is called the Physical Tie.

Reveal tie: Tube wedged in to the opening in the building.

Foot tie: A tube added to secure the base of the standard.

Scaffold Tubes: Tubes should be manufactured and tested in accordance with BS 1139 Part 1 Specification for tubes for use in Scaffold construction.

The array of Scaffolding tubes follows the following:

a. Black steel
b. Galvanized steel
c. Aluminum alloy tubes

The specifics of Aluminum Tubes are as follows:

Outside diameter 48.3 mm
Nominal wall thickness 4.5 mm
Weight 1.7 kg / m

Heat Treatment: Aluminum tubes are tempered and subject to weakening of further heat treatment.

Apart from the Aluminum tubes, the Black and Galvanized steel tubes are both similar in dimensions. However, Galvanized ones are preferred over the other due to being corrosion resistant and protected from weathering effect.

The specifics of Galvanized Tubes are as follows:

Outside diameter 48.3 mm
Nominal wall thickness 4 mm
Weight 4.37 kg / m
Length 6.4 m

A precaution that should be followed while choosing the construction material is the different type of tubes should not be mixed together because of their difference in Material properties like Yield Stress, Elasticity, Fatigue, Bulk Modulus etc.

The end of the tube should be square to the tube axis. If it's needed to be cut, the cut surface containing sharp edge should be trimmed to fillet; otherwise it generates fair chance of getting cut, lacerated or worse during construction and use of the structure.

Before use, all the tubes must be inspected for splits, flaws, corrosion etc. The marginal value for weight for such scaffold tube is 3.75 kg / m beyond which, the tube must be scrapped of the bunch.

BS 1139 Part 1 dictates that tube should not deviate by more than 1/600 of its length.

Scaffold Fittings: Scaffold fittings can be Drop forged, sprung steel or Pressed steel. The standard followed for Scaffold Fittings is BS 1139 Part 2 Specification for couplers and fittings for use in tubular scaffolding.

Mass: For steel coupler, it ranges from 1 kg to 2.5 kg.

Precaution: Couplers and fittings must be checked for rust, thread damage, wear, tear and distortion.


Right Angle Coupler: Used for connecting tubes at right angles, for instance, standard to ledger connection.

Specification: Pressed steel is used and Safe Working Load is 6.25 kilo newton.

Swivel Coupler: Used for connecting tubes at any angle of desire as it has greater degree of freedom than the earlier kind. This could be used for a brace to a Standard.

Specification: Pressed steel is used Safe Working Load is 6.25 kilo newton.

Sleeve Coupler: End to end connection in between tubes is built by using this external fitting and works practically as a metal sleeve.

Specification: Pressed steel is used and Safe Working Load is 3.1 kilo newton.

Putlog Coupler / Single Clamp: This type of coupler is used of either of the below mentioned purposes:

a. Fixing a putlog
b. Fixing a transom to a ledger and
c. Connect a tube used as a guardrail

Specification: Pressed steel is used and Safe Working Load is 0.5 kilo newton.

Girder Coupler / Beam Clamp: This type of coupler is used with I-beam in a structure or the similar kind and they are used in pairs.

Specification: Drop forged steel is used and Safe Working Load is 30 kilo newton.

Base Plate: This is a square shaped ground rested piece of fitting in Scaffolding that:

a. Distributes the load from the standard to ground
b. Restricts lateral movement or swaying and
c. Helps preventing damaging the tube material

Specification: Pressed steel is used and Dimensions are 150 mm x 150 mm x 7 mm. There is one vertical pin at the center with Outer Diameter 50.8 mm.

There is one special type of Base Plate apart from the basic form of this fitting, namely the Adjustable Base Plate allowing adjustment of the Standards to fit the varying floor level.

Sole Plate: Sole plates are used together with the base plate to ensure adequate load transfer to the ground for designed balance of Scaffold nodes.


Material Pressed steel
Dimension (Firm Ground) 500 mm x 225 mm x 35 mm
Dimension (Soft Ground) 765 mm x 225 mm x 35 mm
Dimension (Two Standard Scaffold) 1550 mm x 225 mm x 35 mm

There is one special type of Base Plate apart from the basic form of this fitting, namely the Adjustable Base Plate allowing adjustment of the Standards to fit the varying floor level.

Scaffold Boards (Timber):

According to BS 2482- 1981 specification for Timber Scaffold Boards, it is deemed necessary to check for the condition before each use and color code accordingly.

The expected dimension of each piece should be as follows:

Material Sawn Softwood
Dimension 3000/2500/2000/1500/1000 mm x 200 mm x 38 mm
Vertical pin at center Outer diameter 50.8 mm


Legibly marked timber piece with BS 2482 Accompanied by Supplier Trade Mark / Identification, Machine (M) / Visual (V) gradation symbol, supporting span length followed by denotation MAX are required to be in place before use. The boards should also be of fire retardant application.

Relation of thickness to Span, Overhang and Pressure reference table:

Dimension (Firm Ground) Dimension (Firm Ground) Dimension (Firm Ground) Dimension (Firm Ground) Dimension (Firm Ground)
38 mm 1.5 m 50 mm 150 mm 24 kg / m2
50 mm 2.6 m 50 mm 200 mm 33 kg / m2
63 mm 3.25 m 50 mm 250 mm 41 kg / m2

Laminate Flooring 'How To' – Scribing Your First Row

Typically laminate flooring instructions will advise you to start laying your laminate along a straight wall-but what if you do not have the luxury of a straight beginning wall? What do you do then? Fold and call in the professionals or hang in there, tough it out and increase your knowledge and sense of accomplishment?

If you choose the latter, scribing the first row is actually fairly simple. You'll need a protractor — remember those funny hinged things you used in math class way back when? And you'll need a jig saw to cut the laminate to the shape of the starting wall.

Begin by assembling the laminate row end-to-end and line it up against the crooked starting wall. Make sure the tongue side of the row length is facing the wall and leave enough room for the expansion gap which should be anywhere from "" to "". (You can allow about an eighth of an inch for the tongue).

The expansion gap is the space you'll need between the laminate and the wall on all sides to allow for the natural expansion and contracting of the floating floor due to changes in temperature and humidity through out the year. If you do not leave a proper gap, your finished floor will buckle.

To recap, you've laid out your first row and lined it up against the starting wall with sufficient space for the expansion gap. Now take your protractor and set the width at the widest point from the wall to the straight row of laminate. Run the protractor along the length of the wall, marking the laminate row on the tongue side with the attached pencil. The pencil marks indicate how you'll cut the laminate pieces to match the wall.

Disassemble the laminate row and cut each piece with a jig saw following the pencil marks on the tongue side. Be sure to reassemble the row in the same order, and lay it out, again leaving space for the expansion gap. Your starting row now matches the crooked starting wall, while the groove side presents a straight line from which to lay the rest of the floor.

Compositions and Uses For Lacquers

Almost all of the large paint and varnish manufacturers in the United States are now making lacquers, which in some cases are being unwisely advertised as suitable for nearly all purposes. In the hands of a skilled finisher they produce satisfactory effects, but when a novice attempts to spread them with a brush over newly varnished surfaces, there is sure to be trouble because the solvents in the lacquer are similar to those contained in some of the paint and varnish removers and the newly applied coating reacts with the old, resulting in a spoiled finish.

If a varnished or enameled surface is old, hard, and well preserved, a lacquer finish may adhere satisfactorily soon after it is applied. However, checking is apt to occur later on. Lacquer finishes have certain limitations and can not be used over other finishes indiscriminitely with assurance of success. Lacquer finishes have grown in popularity on wood frames, fireplace designs, and designer window toppers and, when used properly by one who understands them and their limitations, they are attractive and durable and possess many good qualities.

Lacquer enamels, which are pigmented lacquers, are successful and popular finishes for automobiles. Lacquers of various kinds are used extensively on metalwork, particularly building-hardware, electric-light fixtures, metal spinning and stamping objects, and often for toys, artwork, and even jewelry. They are also used satisfactorily on high grade furniture. Pigmented lacquers are used on electric light fixtures, novelties, and machinery, and also almost universally on the highest priced automobiles.

Composition of Nitrocellulose Lacquers

Clear or transparent lacquers contain five types of ingredients:

o nitrocellulose or pyroxylin
o varnish resins
o solvents
o Platsicizers
o dilutents or thinners

Pigmented lacquers (for use on everything from fireplace accessories and wood frames to frieze boards) are often called lacquer enamels. These enamels contain one extra ingredient. They must give obscuration or hiding power and to give this opacity various kinds of pigments and coloring matter are added to the lacquer. Pigments and coloring-matter may there before be considered as the sixth type of ingredient found in lacquers.

Nitrocellulose, Soluble Cotton, or Pyroxylin

The distinct ingredient in a modern lacquer, that makes it quite different in behavior from other varnishlike materials, is given various names, such as nitrocellulose, cellulose nitrate, soluble cotton, and pyroxylin. The words nitrocellulose and nitrocotton mean that the substance is made of cellulose or cotton that has been nitrated. Cotton is one of the purest forms of cellulose fibers and is the chief source of raw material from which nitrocellulose is manufactured.

Long-fibered cotton which is valuable for making cotton-cloth is usually too expensive for nitrating; therefore, the short-fibered material, called "cotton linters," is generally used. In the factories the cotton gin removes the long fibered cotton from the linters, hull fibers, dirt, and other impurities. The linters are separated from the waste material by boiling, chemical treatment, bleaching, washing, and drying and are then nitrated through treatment with a mixture of nitric and sulphuric acids.

The particular function of the sulphuric acid is to remove the moisture from the cotton fibers during the nitrating process. The amount of nitrogen given to the cotton is very carefully controlled, and depends upon the use for which the nitrocellulose is intended. The nitrogen content of nitrocellulose used in lacquer variants from 11.5 to 12.4 percent, with a viscosity of a half-second up to about 80 seconds. Nitrocellulose that has between 12.5 to 13.5 percent of nitrogen is called gun-cotton and is used in the manufacture of smokeless powder and various explosives.

Nitrocellulose for use in making lacquer for fireplace accessories, frieze boards , and wood corner blocks is made wet with denatured alcohol, in order to remove traces of water, and then dried out to a 30 per cent alcohol content mixture, which is not explosive though it is flammable. The gun cotton type of nitrocellulose has having between 12.5 to 13.5 percent of nitrogen by weight is very explosive when dry and is soluble only in acetone, while the nitrocelluloses which contain a lower amount of nitrogen are easily soluble in a mixture of anhydrous ethyl alcohol, anhydrous ethyl acetate and other well-known solvents.

The viscosity of the early types of nitrocellulose used in making lacquers for metal was relatively high and the amount of solvents and thinners were great in proportion. The result was a very thin film when the mixture was applied. The lacquers of the present day typically contain a nitrocellulose of rather low viscosity and certain resins which, when combined, produce a film that is much like a varnish in body or solid matter.

Components Of Professional Web Design

After the introduction of the web, the primacy of web design could not be ignored. The first was the baby of TimBerners-Lee of CERN, (one of the world’s largest and most respected centers for scientific research) when he created a global hypertext project, which he christened as the World Wide Web defined as “a wide area hypermedia information retrieval initiative aiming to give access to a large universe of documents.”

Web design, though now associated with graphic design arises from technological advancements of the browser in particular. Starting with the Mosaic to Internet Explorer and beyond, web browsers have helped web design evolve at a rapid pace.

Today, companies vie with each other and are constantly improving on their web design. And this is not surprising because first impressions, which are very important, are all formed on the basis of the design of the website.

There are seven components of a visually appealing web design

  1. Colors – The website’s color should convey your company’s identity. Colors have emotional connotations so it is important you use the right color.
  2. Fonts can also carry the meaning of what your company stands for like a serious looking font like Times Roman would be suitable for a news website rather than Freestyle Script.
  3. Pictures and Graphics – Make the website visually appealing rather than lines of text only.
  4. Simplicity- It should be simple not complex and simple not boring.
  5. User friendly – Navigation should be easy and meaningful
  6. Clarity – Images and text should be sharp
  7. Consistency – Every page on the website should have the same heading, color, button styles to reinforce the subliminal message that the website is conveying through its design to the viewer.

The latest trends in web designing are listed below:

Web trends – Use of hero images (a large banner image, usually placed in the center of the web page and consists of image and text and may be static or moving). There use of minimal (use of negative space) flat design which incorporates the needs of mobile interface rather than a computer, video sliders or slide shows added to a web page, background video, CSS animation, front end frameworks and framework of ready components like Bootstrap, etc.

The latest web designs take care of the two most important concerns of UX (user experience) and mobile platforms, for which Flat designs are being preferred as they are easy to download and basically have the visuals stripped to the basic levels.

Typography – A variety of typographies are available such as serif, sans serif and handwriting.

Material design, which is a set of Google design standards, that has separate elements like the layers concept in image editing software. More imagery and less text.

Dynamic storytelling – Telling a story through graphics supported by text.

Feedback, but from comments on social media pages rather than from the commenting system provided on the website.

Latest designer tools like Adobe Project Comet launched in 2016 and as always uniqueness

A website builder or a website designer?

A website builder is a set of tools without manual code editing that helps you build your website. They may be web hosting companies.

Designing websites is a very complicated and elaborate process. If you can afford it, it is better to employ the services of a website designer.

Be Safe This Christmas Weaving an Armored Leather Jacket

There is a reason why bikers wear leather, to be protected. Leather is known to be the best protective material for motorcyclists, helping to reduce injuries. Armored leather jackets come with protective armours and premium quality leather which is ideal for the majority of bikers. The ways in which jackets which are armored can protect you are: road burns / injuries, road debris and the weather.

All bikers know that when they are in a situation of possibly being in a major accident, the best thing to do is let go of your bike. This will cause the biker to slide across the road. These slides will cause road burns and rashes. When wearing normal clothing and cottoned jackets, this will have no effect in protecting your skin from the sliding burns and will inevitably result in injuries. Leather jackets help to minimize the possibilities of road burns bystanding the friction between the biker and the surface and absorbing the impact. Armored leather jackets will help further in decreasing injuries, this will allow the biker more time when sliding before the leather and the armour burn through to the skin. The impact of the leather in this situation depends on the thickness and quality, if you go for leather which is poor in quality and incredibly thin then the impact of absorption will not be as effective.

When riding on different roads and surfaces at high speeds, rocks and debris can be lifted and possibly hit the rider. Leather jackets will help protect the rider's skin from being hit and potentially causing an injury. Even leather trousers can help to prevent cuts and grazes caused by small pieces of gravel.

The biggest element bikers are faced with when riding is wind when riding at high speeds the wind will hit the biker. Wearing leather biker jacket will help to deflect the wind, keep the biker warmer and helping to prevent less forces pushing on them. Not only will amore leather jackets protect you from the cold weather but are also ideal in the hot summer days. Adding in meshed pockets and air vents will help t allow some air to circulate in the jacket keeping the biker cool.

Armours are a must for bikers that protect the most targeted joints and bones when involved in a accident. The elbow, shoulder and back pads along with the padded leather will help to protect you from broken arms, legs and possibly damaging your spell. So be safe this winter when riding with an armored leather jacket.

Air Conditioning Maintenance – Keeping You and Your Air Conditioner Well Maintained!

An air conditioner is a good option of keeping your home or office cool. It is also valuable as it improves your standards of living. Imagine how it feels when you walk into an office or a home that has been cooled off. It just feels better and more relaxing than a hot room. An air conditioner like other electrical equipment needs to be maintained to give you the service that you desire. Regular air conditioning maintenance will also help to prolong the life of the unit. You do not want to turn on your condition during a hot day, only for it to fail you!
But keeping your condition maintained is a simple task if you know what you are doing and have the right tools.

However, it is recommended that you hire an expert to maintain the air conditioner for you. A professional engineer will tell you of the possible malfunctions that your air conditioner may have. The engineer will also tell you how often you should maintain your conditioner. The air conditioner is supposed to be served every 6-12 weeks. Add this serving in to your schedule and make it a routine. This helps you keep track on when and how the unit should be maintained.

The most important air conditioning maintenance required to be made for the duct air (refrigerating) system is cleaning it. The purpose of the filter in the air grille is to suck back the air into the unit. To be able to clean the grille filter, you have to first open the grille and slide out the filter or you can clean it in its place. This is done by using warm water with soap or by vacuuming the filter. It is best to do this every 3 months. If it produces an unfamiliar noise, it's a sign that it needs to be cleaned.

Regular air conditioning maintenance ensures that your air conditioner consumes less energy, runs efficiently, becomes more reliable, is clean, and its life span is prolonged. Maintenance will help you save money as you will not have to keep on changing your unit. As it consumes less energy, you will not have such high energy bills. No matter the season, your conditioner unit needs maintenance. This is because most people tend to ignore or forget to maintain their units during winter when it is cold as they do not need it. But remember, during those hot days in summer, you will want to find yourself with a functioning unit.

Soy Pillar Candles Burn Cleaner, Cooler & Longer

There are many reasons why soy pillar candles are becoming the preferred choice when it comes to candles. Besides the obvious ecological reason that soy wax is a “green” alternative, soy candles actually burn better than paraffin. There are 3 reasons: they burn cleaner, cooler and longer.

Soy pillar candles burn cleaner:

Perhaps the most important reason here is that soy candles burn cleaner. Paraffin candles can produce soot when they are burned because paraffin is derived from petroleum. When you burn soy wax, you produce no soot. Therefore, the air is cleaner, the walls are cleaner (paraffin candles can leave black residue on the walls and ceiling), and you are cleaner! Have you ever burned a paraffin jar candle and seen the entire interior of the jar covered in a nasty black residue? Although you should burn all candles in well ventilated areas, you can see why that is much more important for paraffin candles. If you want cleaner lungs, you might want to consider switching to soy.

Soy pillar candles burn cooler:

Soy wax has a much lower melting point than paraffin. Pure soy wax melts at about 110 to 115 degrees F. Soy pillar candles are actually made from a blend that generally consists of approximately 90% (or more) soy wax. The remaining 5% usually consists of beeswax or other vegetable based additives such as vegetable stearic acid. The melting point of soy pillar blends can range between 130 and 140 degrees F. The melting point of paraffin pillar blends can be 20-40 degrees F higher. Another factor when you consider the lower temperature at which soy wax burns is the ambient temperature of the room. Paraffin candles tend to increase the temperature of the room considerably.

So what does this mean? Firstly, the melted wax is cooler, and therefore safer. Since the wax is cooler, it is less likely to permanently stain carpets and clothing. There are many other reasons for this, but we’ll stay on topic here. Another thing to consider is that it is much less painful if you happen to spill the wax pool directly on your skin. That extra 20 or more degrees can be the difference between a red mark and a scar. Lastly, since the wax burns at a cooler temperature, it burns longer.

Soy pillar candles burn longer:

Perhaps the most popular reason why many people prefer burning soy pillar candles is because they last longer. Soy wax can be a bit more expensive than paraffin candles, but in the long run, they are more economical. Soy wax burns up to 50% longer than paraffin wax, and some say even more. Now if a soy candle costs $12 as opposed to a paraffin candle that costs $10, which one would you buy? Personally, I would opt for soy, but in the end, it’s really a matter of personal preference.

Two Ways To Kill Carpet Mold and Prevent it From Coming Back

Carpet Mold is all around us and the first sign is the musty odor. If you are suffering from asthma and musty odors you may be susceptible to mold growing in your carpet and will need a clear way to kill mold in carpeting.

In order to effectively kill mildew in carpeting, you will need to follow the correct remediation guidelines. These mold remediation. guidelines should be followed strictly because mildew can sometimes be discharged into the air. The problem from carpeting that causes mold is because either moisture or some dampness has been allotted on the carceting. At times when you hire carpet cleaners and they use water or other moisture cleaning products, you can have problems. Most problems in carpeting is caused from excess water or flooding that happens from sinks, showers, and other water sources. Many times you will discover that there are black spotting on the carpeting.

This is most likely from the spores growing on the surface of the carpet fibers. In order to kill mold in carpet, you have two options. The first option is to remove the moldy carpet entirely. The second option is to use a natural cleaning product that will take out the mold enzymes. Removing the moldy carpet is usually in the category of mold remediation. You want to be sure when removing carpeting that you follow all the remediation guidelines. At times spores can be liberated into the air because of the shaking and removal of the carpeting. This can cause a larger problem due to the spores liberating into the AC system and through the house.

In order to correctly and efficiently remove mildew it is recommended to have a natural cleaning product that kills and also anticipates spores from coming back. You want to make sure that the product is a solid solution that does not have harsh chemicals, bleach, or acid. The bleach, acid, and harsh chemicals will not only destroy the carpeting, but will also destroy the inside of your lungs. There are natural cleaning products available that remove black mold and also encapsulate the mold area. These natural cleaners will remove staining so you carpeting will look fresh and clean and have no issues. It is important to attack the source of the problem and also use a strong natural cleaning product so the critters does not come back.

The trick to kill carpet mold is not only killing it but also preventing it entirely from growing back.

The trick is, with carpeting, you keep it dry if possible. When dealing with moldy carpets, it is a tough situation to handle. Most times, when a carpet is wet, or cleaned excessively, the carpet fibers are damages. At times, you can remediate the problem by removing the carpeting, or simply using effective natural cleaning products. Cleaning products, which will not damage the carpeting, and your home and yourself, are the most effective to use. Mildew has a case to come back, when cleaned with bleach or any other cleaning agent, will grow back because the spores are not destroyed indefinitely. The trick is to use a cleaning agent, or a green cleaning product that will remove the spores entirely. And then also block and prevent any future mold amplification. Carpeting is always a judicial problem. Many cases in mold remediation, the carpeting is sometimes remove due to the excess water damage. When you have a carpet of large amounts of water stains, and there is musty odor, it is usually time to use a powerful cleaning product, or remove the carpeting entirely.

"If you remove the carpeting entirely, be sure to remove the tack strips below the carpeting as well."

There will be mildew on the wooden tack strips as well. If you start smelling musty odors above the carpeting area, that means that you have black mold and mildew growing inside your home. You do not have to remove carpeting, there is always other solutions. You can use natural cleaning products that will remove and prevent, but be sure to use the correct ones that will not damage carpeting. Green products are usually the best case because of the natural ingredients that can kill mold effectively. But do not forget to prevent from future growth of the mold. Many green cleaning products will clean the area, but will not prevent mold and mildew.

In order to prevent mold and mildew, there are numerous products out there which you can look for, such as safe shield, and other molderizer products. Your best bet is to effectively use these products and find the source of the problem. If you do not find the source of the problem, your mold problem will come back guaranteed no matter what product you use. Always find a simpler solution when dealing with black mold. Mold remediation is cost and resource intensive. Sometimes it is necessary, but always try to find a simple solution before investing your time and money into a larger issue. Seek professional advise, and always talk to a mold remediation expert, or use natural cleaning products.