Benefits of a Plastic Drain Pipe

There are numerous benefits why you may want to choose a plastic drain pipe over the other materials available on the market when working on your own home. There are so many great advantages to using plastic these days and you will soon notice that the cost saving isn’t the only benefit you will experience when you are replacing your drain pipe.

One of the main reasons why you may want to use plastic drain pipe over the other options available on the market today is that it is very lightweight. The benefit to the pipe being so light is that you find your labour costs will reduce and where you would need a high number of contractors to lay the pipe, you may get away with one or two, depending on the contractor you use.

You will find that the plastic drain pipe is also more flexible and provides you with easier installation and reduced labour costs. The pipe can be bent without damage and gives you the freedom to lay your pipes wherever you want on your property with complete ease and confidence.

The great thing about using plastic for your drainage system is that the pipe is completely watertight. The risk of leaks is dramatically reduced. With other materials, the pipe connectors will often corrode over time and this will result in leaks, but with the plastic pipes, there is no corrosion to worry about and the pipes remain watertight at all times. This improves your confidence and provides you with much needed peace of mind when putting your drainage system together at your home or office.

When it comes to corrosion, you will find that your metal pipes are likely to rust over time. This is expected putting metal in constant contact with water. The great thing about plastic is that it will never rust, which means that the pipes will last much longer and the need to replace them in the near future is reduced.

Another benefit to the plastic drain pipe is that it is safe. Unlike some of the metal pipes which can seep into your soil and cause poisoning to animals and plants, this will not happen with plastic, which is what makes this such a leading choice on a global scale.

With traditional drain pipe you will only be able to buy the product in set lengths. These are often short lengths, which need to be joined together and then cut to get the desired length. This is usually because of the weight of the material, making longer lengths impractical. With a plastic drain pipe you will find you are able to buy long lengths of the product, enabling you to complete your project with the limited number of cuts and joins. This reduces the risk of leaks and also makes this a more cost effective solution in the long run.

Plastic drain pipe is cheaper than the other materials available on the market today. While you can get it in longer lengths, the price is considerably less. This makes this a practical, affordable and convenient product that you can rely on and trust.

Further the material is highly durable and is made to last a long time, reducing the need to replace in the near future and the final benefit, something you may not have known, is that this product is also flame resistant, just an added benefit to complete the picture.

Cordless Drills: The Top Three

There are so many repairs and remodeling jobs that you could do on your home, your room or your office. You can either employ some people to do it for you or you can do it yourself. With power tools in abundance, there's no reason why you will not have enough muscle power to improve the look of your home or your office. Of all the power tools in the lot, it's the cordless drill that are of the utmost importance.

Here are a few things to look at with regard to shopping for the perfect cordless drills. First, there's the volts. This actually means the power the drill has. You also have to look into the ampere or how long the battery of the cordless one will have and also the type of batter. It can either be Ni-CD or Ni-MH. You also have to check into the electronic brake. It's how the drill bit can stop immediately.

As for the mechanical gear, the best one to get is something that's two position. You will not only be using your cordless drills for woodworking and that's why you would need to have the ability switch torque and variable speed settings in your drill.

Other things to look for in a good drill is the keyless chuck, a 15-minute fast charger, a switch that goes backward as well as forward and of course, and a drill that has the hammer action.

Of all the brands and models of drills out in the market today, it's the Craftsman 19.2V, the DeWalt 18V DC927 and the Hitachi 18V DS 18DL that are the top three.

For the first brand, you have the shortest cordless drill. Because of its size, it's a very agile tool. You have a gauge to tell you how much longer the battery can last and it also has a work light on the base of the handle.

For the DeWalt cordless drills, these types of drills are very easy to handle. You can do your boring and your driving chops because it's got a smooth turning clutch ring and also a three speed transmission.

The Hitachi brand puts up its flat with regard to boring holes and driving screws. With the pivoting work light, it's easier for you to see what you're boring a hole into. You can also extend battery life with the power limiting switch.

If you have to have the best of cordless drills, you have the top three to choose from now.

Australian Decking Timber Types

The best choices in timber for decking may be discovered by weighing the options that include weather conditions, the effect of the environment and presence of termites and other pests in the area. Hardwood that is conducive and resilient to the area's conditions will be the best choice in the long run.

Characteristics of some timber considered for decking

Treated Pine

Pine trees have a lifespan of hundreds of years. However, Pine trees have many disadvantages when it comes to construction as it decays fast and it may not last very long if attacked by pests and weather conditions. Natural pine may be used for paneling or for making furniture, but it is not recommended for decking etc. One variety of Pine trees, the Huon Pine is actually decay resistant. However, it takes a long time to mature and as a result, it can get very expensive. One way to lengthen the life of Pine wood is to use wood preservation techniques and appropriate construction regulations.

Silvertop Ash

Silvertop Ash or Coastal Ash trees grow in Australian table land and in the coastal areas. The color of the wood may be a pink or pale brown which can look quite elegant. Although it has a medium texture and the sap wood is not distinguishable, it is easy to bend and generally used for manufacturing handles and other simple things. This wood dried very slowly and is used for general construction. Due to the low resistance to termite attacks and low natural durability with ground contact, it is not a very good choice for decking.

Spotted Gum

The wood of the Spotted gum tree is dark brown or chocolate in color. The grain varies with individual species and the wavy grains are very attractive. It is easy to work with Spotted Gum wood. It has wonderful resistance to termites and the hardness is rated average whereas durability is rated very high. It is excellent for decking work and its availability locally in Australia makes it cost effective.

Iron Bark

The color of Iron Bark timber varies from pale brown to dark red.The texture is moderately course, even and grains are interlocked. The wood is heavy and difficult to work with and it is difficult to plane and hard to nail. Drying needs gentle care and the process is often slow. The Iron Bark timber has good resistance to attacks from termites. Natural durability of this wood is rated as 'very good'. It is often used for heavy engineering work, ship building, flooring and decking.

River Red

River red gum is attractive with reddish brown appearance. Texture is even and fine. Grains produce an attractive ripple. Bending is difficult but resistance to termites is good. Natural durability is Class 1 and hardness is average. Overall it is a good wood for decking.


Jarrah is available in rich red and deep brown in color. Grains are straight whereas texture is little coarse but this could be even too. Drying is easy and bending is possible. Density of wood is high but easy to work with sharp tools. Durability and resistance to termites makes it a good choice to be used in deck.

Silvertop Stringybark

The color of the Silvertop Stringybark is an attractive pale brown with a pinkish tinge. It is straight grained with even structure although it is not much resistant to termites. Durability and hardness is average but it can be used for flooring.

All the woods described above are different variations of Eucalyptus and are abundantly available in Australia. These woods are reasonably good for making decks which are naturally durable and in some cases, the durability may be increased by treatment

Building a Tree House

Tree houses are usually fun to build. They could be built using a wide range of materials. Some of the constructors of new homes also make them in the garden. Not surprisingly, most of the people show interest in homes with these houses. In order to promote sustainability, most of the builders use recycled materials for the construction of tree houses. This option is also available in Seattle residential additions.

They employ recycled materials such as reclaimed window frames, doors and used lumber for the construction of this house. If you don’t have it in your home as yet, and you wish to have one, then surely Seattle residential remodeling can help you.

Erecting it is not a big deal, but there are some indications that need to be followed so that you can keep the tree healthy and the structure safe. Most of these houses are raised above the ground and built among the branches. In this way you would be able to bring tree trunks with green leaves within this house. This would give a nice effect. Only a solid or mature tree should be taken, otherwise it won’t be safe.

It should be kept in mind to make the erection of this structure an eco-friendly practice. It could be done without causing much harm to the tree. To begin with the construction, you would need a diverse range of materials such as: wood, steel and some strong fabrics. Here are some simple and easy-to-follow steps if you are interested in making a one for yourself.

• First of all, you need to choose a tree that is strong and wide so that it could hold much of the structure.

• Now draw a neat plan on a chart paper. Try to keep this blueprint along with you at all times during the construction.

• Next, you need to plan a method to attach the house with the tree. You can use drill pins, bolts, nails into it and use cables for additional support.

• You must choose the material carefully. I would advise the salt treated lumber.

• Once, the construction starts, the first thing is the platform that has to be made. It’s a crucial step as a secure foundation is primarily important to support the structure.

• Then attach the floor and wall frames, and then finally comes the roof.

• For getting in and out, you can use a lumber or rope ladder. It adds a traditional look to the this type of house.

• Your job is not done after the construction is completed, but you also need to check your tree and the whole structure annually. There might be some things that need fixing.

• Building it is not so difficult but it is advisable that you consult local tree service professionals for branch removal, pruning and any other issues.

These types of houses don’t only provide a place of fun activities for kids but could also be used as relaxation spots for the whole family. It could also be used to make small home offices. Tree houses have become popular and the different ways in which they could be used makes them an ideal choice of this generation.

Build Your Own Board Of Experts

The most successful entrepreneurs rely on their advisory boards to help spot new opportunities and potential pitfalls. Now you can have your own advisory board: a shadow board of directors. A shadow board of directors is a low-tech technique for accessing the expertise of others and increasing your confidence and options.

A shadow board can help you get a variety of perspectives and access to information just like a regular board. Shadow boards of directors can push you out of your rut and help you find alternative solutions and expert advice.

The only difference between a regular board and a shadow board is that shadow boards exist only in your own imagination. Because your shadow board is portable, light and easy to carry, it’s always available.

It will challenge you to sharpen your thinking skills and expand your perspective. Your shadow board of directors teaches you to consider the views of others whether you agree with them or not.

It also makes available experts who are living or dead, known to you or strangers; talent you could never buy. To build your shadow board of directors, choose a variety of people for their strengths and skills. Choose them for their specific skills and talents, knowledge and gifts, no matter what their limitations might be. You’ll be tapping their strengths, not their limitations. Make sure you have the people you need or could profit from, no matter how outrageous anyone else might find them.

Use your shadow board of directors to help you think through and make tough decisions. You’ll use them for input and advice. Some of the members will change depending on the topics or the questions, others will be your old standbys.

My standard members include Einstein, just because he was so smart. I can only hope to emulate his thinking process. Liz Taylor is on my list because she is gorgeous no matter what her size, very loyal to her friends, not afraid to speak out on difficult or unpopular issues, and is one classy lady. I just wish I had her violet eyes.

Marti Burns is a composite character, a combination of two cognitive therapists: David Burns, who wrote Feeling Good: The New Mood Therapy, the best book on combating depression I have read and recommended, and Martin Seligman, a psychologist whose pioneering work includes Learned Optimism and What You Can Change… and What You Can’t. Together these two men, in my embodiment of Marti Burns, help me deal with my bouts of feeling bad and help me confront myself when I get into irrational thinking. I also check in with them when I’m faced with clients who present difficult interpersonal issues.

Jane Johnson is another composite member, taken from two friends and colleagues who are the best technical manager and human resources manager I’ve been privileged to work with. Their high ethical and moral stance, willingness to do the hard work, and clarity in thought and action challenge me to meet their level of expertise. I ask them how they would handle the hard situations I face in corporate consulting challenges. Then I listen.

For family issues, I look to Fitzhugh Gottman, another composite character. He is a combination of Fitzhugh Dodson, my favorite child rearing expert and John Gottman, known for his solid, experience based work with couples and relationships. No sound bites or stereotypes for these two. They know what works for kids and couples.

The list could go on, but you get the picture. These are people I have known personally, or through their work, or in my image of them. I match their expertise to the challenges I face. If my question involves critical thinking and creativity, Einstein is always the chairman of the board. But I don’t even think to include him for grooming or social questions. Liz gets the honors here. A quick conversation in my head with her, and I know how to solve the problem with dispatch, class, and grace. I wouldn’t use her as my marriage consultant, though. Wedding consultant, yes; marriage consultant, never.

A shadow board of directors complements the real experts you know and rely on. They can get you started with your own research, in your local library, browsing bookstores, and searching the Internet. By going step by step, asking good questions, and thinking through the answers, you’ll get closer to the information you need to help you face your challenges. Start building your own Shadow Board today.

c) 2004, Pat Wiklund. All rights in all media reserved. This article may be reprinted so long as it is kept intact with the copyright and by-line.

Repairing Your Screen Lanais

Screen lanais can be a wonderful and convenient addition to any home. Unfortunately, due to the material, it is probable that your lanais will need to be repaired at some point in time. Repairing a screen is not a project that is suited for a first time DIYer. More than the standard household tools are required to replace even a single screen panel or repair a screen door handle, and the money you spend at the hardware store could wind up wasted should you decide the project is too much for you.

However, if you consider yourself handy, and are used to completing projects around the house by yourself, then you should be able to manage the replacement of single panels, or replacing the hardware on a screen door. If you are very handy, or have had previous construction experience, you may even be able to rescreen entire patio or porch enclosures, replacing panels on the roof or ceiling of a pool cage, or even the installation of a brand new screen.

Please note that large projects are decidedly difficult to accomplish alone, and more often than not the repairs should be completed only by a trained professional.

Tips for Repairing your Screen Lanais

If you have decided to go through with the repairs to your lanais yourself, then here are a few tips that can help facilitate the job:

If your only problem is the replacement of one screen, then the first thing you will need to do is remove the original screen mesh. After this you should carefully measure the opening, and then purchase the new screen mesh.

Prior to the installation of the new screen, it is important that you clear away all debris from the opening as well as removing any and all obstacles from the area you are working in.

If you have more than one panel that needs to be repaired, the only changes are the amount of materials that you will require and the amount of time needed to complete the job. However, it is recommended that you remove old mesh and install new mesh one panel at a time. This way you can finish the project at a later date, should something come up.

If you are rescreening an entire enclosure, then it is easiest to keep your work contained to large stages. For instance; gathering all the new material, then removing all of the old screens, followed by prepping and cleaning the enclosure, and finally installing the new screens.

If this is your first time repairing a screen, you should expect even a small patio covering to take about 4 to 6 hours to complete.

Repairing your lanais is not an easy project to complete yourself. But with the right amount of experience in DIY undertakings, you should be able to refurbish any missing or damaged panels with only a small amount of effort and materials. If the job seems to be too much for you to handle, then don’t hesitate to call a professional to complete the job for you.

Choosing a Good Roofing Or Siding Contractor

Choosing a good roofing or siding contractor can be a easy thing, but you need to do your research on them first. You need to know the look your going for with your new roof or siding, and the type of roofing contractor or siding contractor you are looking for to meet your needs. Roofing is a common service for the general population to require, so there should be a variety of roofing and siding contractors in your area. You will need to choose the roofing contractor who best meets your needs so that you will be happy with the roofer who puts your new roof over your head.

Consider what sort of roofing shingles you are looking for. Depending on your area and the general architecture of your house most likely will help determine the roofing materials may be the best option for your roof. For a roof replacement, you may want to investigate to see what roofing material was originally used to construct your roof and maybe upgrade from there. TPO membrane and EPDM rubber membrane are two of the most common choices for a new flat roof. There are a variety of differences between TPO and EPDM roofs. TPO has become popular with roofing contractors in the recent past, and many believe that TPO roofs are more durable and withstand building movements better than EPDM roofing materials. On the other hand, EPDM roofs have been in use for a long time, and few people have any complaints with them. Architectural shingles are a common type of roof for sloped roofs. You will want to choose a roof contractor who is amenable to the type of roof you are looking for.

You should definitely look at some other houses on your street, neighborhood, or friends in the area and if you like they way it looks, ask them about their experience with the roofing contractor that installed it. Follow up on their recommendations. If no friends have recommendations for roofers, or if, for instance, you can not find a roofer who specializes in flat roofs, you can take your roofing contractor search to the internet. If you find your roofing contractor online be sure to ask for references and discuss possible prices. Talk to the roofing or siding contractors who interest you on the phone to get a feel for their methods of replacement or any questions or concerns you may have before even asking them to come out to give you and estimate. This way you are not wasting your time or theirs. A good feel is to see how high pressure their selling strategy is. If they are high pressure that is a good indication they will be at your house talking for a good hour or more trying to get you to sign right then and there and that their price will be even higher than the norm. Trust yourself with the choice your going to make and be confident that you have made the right decision.

Good luck on your search for the right roofing or siding contractor for you!

Small Business Balance Sheet

Purpose of a Balance Sheet

The balance sheet boldly declares where a business stands at a given moment in time. From the balance sheet, a financially sophisticated reader can learn an immense amount of valuable information about a business and its viability. That is why potential investors and lenders will almost always ask you for a copy of your financial statements, including the balance sheet, income statement, statement of retained earnings, and statement of cash flows. This is also why you, as a savvy entrepreneur, need to understand the information presented on them.

Why It Is Important

The principal reason your business’s balance sheet is so important to you and to any potential investors or lenders is that it is like a photograph of your business. It tells how the business is put together, what its principal resources are and where any potential dangers lie. Like any portrait it is incomplete, in that it only shows one fleeting moment in time, and therefore is most useful in conjunction with the income statement and by comparing several balance sheets over a period of time. Ahh, this is where the real story begins to unfold! The clever entrepreneur becomes the Sherlock Holmes of the balance sheet and astutely looks for trends over time and checks ratios and balances to see which direction the company is headed in and to look for any potential to cut costs or perform more efficiently.

Why Small Businesses Are Different

If you are a small business owner or entrepreneur then you need to be able to read and understand your balance sheet because, first, it is through your financial statements and other numerical data that you collect that you really get to know your business. Michael Gerber, the best selling author of the E-Myth Revisited, says it much better than I ever could as “because without the numbers you can’t possibly know where you are, let alone where you’re going. With the numbers, your business will take on a totally new meaning. It will come alive with possibility.” The very first step you will ever take down that road to really knowing your business is through examining and understanding your own balance sheet.

Second, your balance sheet is how anyone that you will ever want to do business with will understand your business. Think about getting a loan, the first thing your banker wants to see are your financial statements and the first page of your financial statements is your balance sheet. Why is it first? Perhaps because it is the most important. Now think about your situation; you’re applying for a loan or a grant or you want to do business with the federal government or an investor is thinking about either coming on board or buying you out and you present your financial statements to them. They open them up, turn to page one, and there is your company laid bare, open to them. And they ask you questions; “why is this line a negative number, how did you arrive at the valuation of that line, what are the terms of this liability.” Don’t you want to be able to confidently look them in the eye and answer those questions?

What Makes Up a Balance Sheet

Hopefully, you have been exposed to some basic accounting and understand the concepts that some numbers in accounting are recorded as debits and some numbers as credits. These numbers are often represented as positive and negative numbers and the balance sheet, as its name suggests, must balance, i.e. the negative and the positive numbers must total zero. In addition, the basic formula for accounting is Assets = Liabilities + Equity, and any US balance sheet will be organized into exactly three sections with at least two subtotals, for assets and for liabilities and equity. Using the basic algebra that we learned in Ms. Arithmatic’s 6th grade class, we can shrewdly deduce that the two subtotals must be exactly equal. So far no problem, because if your balance sheet doesn’t balance then you have much bigger problems then simply worrying about understanding your financial records.

How Assets Are Valued

Great! you’re thinking, let’s start with the assets! Well, I love an enthusiastic learner and so I will oblige. To put it very briefly, assets are the total of everything your business has that has some sort of value to the business. This could be cash or real estate or stocks and bonds or machinery and equipment or accounts receivable or other moneys due to you. It could also include inventory, which is product that you have produced but not yet sold. So to summarize assets are usually either cash, something that you have bought, something that you have made and that you expect to sell, or something that is owed to you.

Clearly then, if you want to make your balance sheet you must have a list of your assets and how much each is worth. The rub lies in the worth, or valuation of the assets. “Hmm, you think, I bought this asset ten years ago at 10 grand, I added 5 grand in improvements to it, it would cost me 20 grand to replace it and I could get about 18 grand on the open market for it, so what value should I put down for it?” Clever question, my dear reader! Well, as you may have assumed, we accountants have put a great deal of thought into these issues and we continue to think about and tweak the ways we value things to this very day. If you want the exact answer to just about every accounting question then it is there for you, for free but in techno-accountant babble, at However, most of you don’t want to do all that work, you want a quick and easy rule of thumb that works 90% of the time without you having to leave this article, and that is exactly what you will get. The key here is conservatism, we are much more worried about overvaluing an asset then we are at undervaluing. Therefore, the rule of thumb is that assets are valued at the lessor of cost (what you paid for it) or fair market value (what you could get if you sold it right now). Now, there are additional considerations, like depreciation for buildings, machinery, and equipment, and the value of receivables and other moneys owed to you, but that is the general rule.

How Liabilities Are Valued

The next step is to make a list of items that your business owes or obligations that it has. This could be money that you owe to your suppliers for products and services or money that you owe to your employees for services performed or money that you owe to the government for taxes or or money that you owe to the bank or another lender. It could even be money that the business owes to you, as an owner.

Remember what I said before about conservatism? Well, this counts for liabilities as well, only in this case the concern is that liabilities are undervalued or, even worse, unrecognized and unrecorded. The general rule of liabilities is that they are included at amortized cost which should be equal to the amount owed on them at that moment in time. This usually presents less of a challenge than the valuation of assets because most long term assets, like loans, have explicit terms that spell out exactly how much you owe on them at any given moment in time.

How Equity Is Valued

Depending upon the type on entity (Corporation, S-Corp, LLC. etc.) that you use the equity portion of the balance sheet can use different terms, but really there are two kinds of equity: capital that you put into the company (stock, contributed capital, etc.) and the earnings of the company (retained earnings). The capital that you contribute is usually pretty straightforward. If you contributed something other than cash, such as real estate, machinery, or your interest in another business then use the rules for the valuation of assets, the lessor of cost or fair market value.

Retained earnings is a whole different ball game. Remember what I said back in the beginning about the formula for the balance sheet? That Assets = Liabilites + Equity? Well, if you’ve filled everything else out you only have retained earnings left, and, using a little bit of algebra and adding some detail to the preceding formula, retained earnings absolutely must equal Assets – Liabilities – Contributed Capital.

Now, it’s fine to do the math and plug the number to get started, but as you go forward your retained earnings will develop a new relationship, with the income statement (also commonly called the profit and loss statement). Basically, the relationship is net income + any contributions to capital – any distributions of capital (dividends) = the change in retained earnings for the period. So retained earnings becomes the bridge between the balance sheet over two consecutive time periods (usually a year). For more information on calculating retained earnings see the link to my blog below.

What the CPA or Auditor Does

You’ve done a fantastic job getting your balance sheet set up and keeping it going, but at some point you’re going to show it to someone, a banker, a supplier, a potential business partner, and they are going to take one look at the work that you have so proudly and lovingly put your heart into and they will say, “what the Hell is this crap?” Don’t take it personally (you need their money, after all) just understand that there are standard ways to present present financial statements and set rules to follow. In order to make your statements comply with these rules and to give them an air of authority you will have to hire a Certified Public Accountant, or C.P.A., and have them compile, review, or audit your financial statements. What this means is that the C.P.A. takes your statements and then makes some cosmetic changes in order to present them in the form proscribed by US Generally Accepted Accounting Principles or, if appropriate, one of a number of alternate forms, and then issues an opinion on them. The opinion will vary depending upon the type of engagement you hired them to do. The standard opinion for a compilation is “we took this pile of crap and made it pretty, but we’re not saying that it makes any sense” while the standard opinion for an audit is “sure, we took a look and everything seems OK, but please don’t sue us if we’re wrong!” while a review falls between the two.


If you’ve watched the news at all over the past five years then you are aware that not all balance sheets are what they are painted to be. Enron and WorldCom are the biggest examples of out-and-out fraud, but more recently the big Wall Street firms, like Lehman Brothers, have come under fire for inadequate or questionable accounting practices. How does this all happen? Well, let’s go back and revisit the assets and liabilities sections of this article and rethink what I said about conservatism. If assets are valued at higher than they should be, or liabilities lower, the difference must come through retained earnings in the form of income. So, most accounting frauds are a resulting of overstating assets, usually inventory for industrial firms or investments for banking and Wall Street firms, or by not including certain liabilities on the balance sheet.

Parent Phone Calls – First Time Teacher Tips

The one skill you'll want to master as a first time teacher is the call home to the parents. Used correctly this is your secret weapon for solving most problems you'll experience in the class. Once you know the common ways parents will react to your calls, and you feel comfortable making the calls, you will have learned a valuable lesson that will be available to you for your entire teaching career. Most parents appreciate the opportunity to learn about problems their child is having, and be able to address these concerns with the student, before things get more heated and the principal gets involved.

Introduce the situation. When you're making the call this is the first time the parent has heard of the problem. They may not even know who you are yet, and they have no idea that you're about to call. Identify yourself and where you're calling from right away. Do not dilly dally with small talk after you tell them your a school employee. Get right to the heart of the problem because that's what the parent is wondering about. Do not give their imagination a chance to run away, tell them what's wrong so they can stop guessing. If you talk to a secretary of the parent just give your name if asked and do not hint that you're their child's teacher or that there's a problem.

Explain the main problem. Start off general and then drill down. If you say something general like you noticed their child is distracted lately, and ask them if they've noticed any changes at home, you'd be surprised with what you uncover. Get more specific as you need to until you eventually get to the actual reason for the call. You do not want to start with "Your child threw an eraser at me and hit me in the back of the head." This will only put all of the focus on the one incident, and the parent will probably want to skip right to punishment. You want to find the root cause of the problem first.

Offer solutions. The best way to fix the problem is to discipline the child as a united front. They should not get mixed messages from home and school. If they are spending detention with you and are going out for ice cream at home to soften your punishment, you will not see any change in behavior. Instead, you'll likely see problems escalate. Make sure you've got the parents on board with you, and that you all keep your end of the deal.

Follow up on the situation. Parents need feedback on if what they are doing at home is having any effect on the student's behavior in the classroom. Most teacher's do not do any sort of following up. You need to do it no matter how tedious it seems.

Floor Steam Cleaner for Maintaining Vinyl and Linoleum Floors

Vinyl and linoleum floorings are very popularly used in residential and commercial settings due to their durability and the availability of an exciting range of colors. To maintain the appealing look of these floorings, it is best to ignore traditional cleaning methods and instead invest in a quality floor steam cleaner. Steam based floor cleaners simplify the cleaning process and offer better results than ever before. While making a purchase, make sure that you buy only from reputable suppliers. These steam cleaning machines score high on efficiency, durability, user safety and versatility.

Powerful and Versatile Floor Cleaners
Floor steam cleaner machines utilize the power of hot steam to produce excellent cleaning results. Look for steam cleaning equipment that comes with a unique and patented technology designed to offer simultaneous cleaning and extraction functions with the help of a motorized spinning head. You will be pleased to note that this powerful cleaning technology produces unmatched results by consuming just one-third of the volume of water used up by traditional steam cleaning systems.

To ensure exceptionally good cleaning results, floor steam cleaner equipment comes with numerous attachments such as burnishers, scrubbers and floor buffers. These steam cleaning machines also feature other accessories designed to help maintain hardwood floors, vinyl and linoleum. These attachments also simplify jobs like eliminating grimy deposits, stains, and other stubborn deposits from floors. Did you know that floor steam cleaning systems also help deodorize floors in addition to cleaning them? The hot steam effectively cleans off organic deposits such as food particles or pet discharge that may lead to foul odors. Since odors are eliminated at the source, the odors do not resurface.

The advanced cleaning technologies in commercial steam cleaning machines make them ideal for maintaining floors in commercial and industrial settings. A portable floor steam cleaner can actually be several cleaning machines assembled into one. It can function as a carpet cleaner, a multi surface spinning cleaner, commercial wall cleaner and a pressure washer.

Tile cleaners may feature a 19 inch head that can make rotations of 1000 rpm and attain pressure levels of 1500 psi. Unlike traditional tile cleaners that only help clean floors, a reputable floor cleaner can clean and extract simultaneously so that your job is easier and finishes faster. Since these commercial steam cleaners emit very low noise levels – as low as 58 decibels – it is a great choice for use in hospitals, schools and religious institutions.

Portable steam cleaning machines are versatile versions capable of spot cleaning carpets, upholstery and rugs. In addition to vinyl and linoleum, these steam cleaning equipment also help maintain a range of floor types such as tile, grout, marble, concrete and stone. For more information on the latest versions of advanced floor steam cleaner units, look for a reputable supplier.

Aluminium Ladders Review: The Lyte 2 Section Domestic Ladder

Many of the most basic household tasks often require a ladder. Whether you're washing windows or changing the paint colour, it's likely you're going to need a ladder to get the job done right. Aluminium ladders are very popular with homeowners because they're light in weight, easy to transport, and can be stored outdoors without deteriorating. Remember, though, that aluminium conducts electricity, so do not use a ladder made from this metal around electrical sources. Choose a ladder made from wood or fibreglass instead. With that being said, here's some information about a ladder that's a great choice for everyday use around the home by avid DIYers: the Lyte 2 section domestic ladder.

About the Lyte 2 Section Domestic Ladder

This affordable aluminium ladder is a great value for the money, yet it has features found on more expensive ladders. The rungs are comfortably "D" shaped, which means the flat of the "D" provides a stable surface to stand on. Also, the rungs are angled, making them much more comfortable to stand on. Like more expensive types, this ladder features box section stiles with wide, rigid construction to keep the ladder stable and prevent it from twisting. The box section stiles also decrease the amount of bounce in the ladder, increasing stability whilst climbing. With a generous 12 month warranty, this ladder is certified to BS2037 Class 3 for domestic use only. This means that the ladder should not be used in arduous environments, such as in trade or industrial settings, where a ladder certified to conform to the BS EN131 is a better choice. Please note that using this ladder in an industrial or trade environment may invalidate your insurance, if you are a tradesman. In addition, such use will contravene the Health and Safety Regulations.

Features of the Lyte 2 Section Domestic Ladder

The ladder also has extruded hooks and guides. Extrusion is an industrial process of shaping a material, aluminium, for example. It occurs when a material is forced through a shaped opening in a die. The extruded piece exits the die in the form of an elongated piece with the same diameter as the opening in the die. Ladders made from aluminium will not rust. They also will not rot like wood, and so can be stored outdoors for extended periods. Although some minor pitting may develop, this in no way affects the ladder's performance. Aluminium requires no maintenance, and will not shatter under heavy stress the way fibreglass sometimes does.

A Few Specifications of the Lyte 2 Section Domestic Ladder

This ladder has highly visible red, non-slip feet that are securely riveted in place. It has a closed height of 2.20 metres and an open height of 3.70 metres. It has 7 rungs per section and weighs 6.5kgs. The Lyte 2 section ladder has a duty rating of 95kgs (15.0st) and a maximum load rating of 125kg (19.5st).

Aluminium laddersare durable and affordable pieces of DIY gear.

What Is The Purpose Of Stair Nosing?

Many people often wonder why they need to install stair nosing in their homes or businesses – what is the point of it? It actually performs a number of functions – apart from the fact that it works to make your staircase safe, the nosing is very aesthetically pleasing. If you still cannot see the benefit in installing these sorts of strips on your stairs and see it as a waste of money, we hope that, by the end of this article, you have been convinced.

These days, most staircases are fitted with a stair nosing. You will actually find it extremely difficult to find one that hasn’t been fitted with 1 inch wide strips of material that are designed to provide your feet with more grip as you traverse between the floors of a building. In many commercial applications, it is actually required that you have a nosing, otherwise the stairs will not comply with codes and regulations.

There is a wide range of materials that can be used for stair nosing, some of the most popular in the home being carpet (which often covers the entire tread, but does work to provide additional grip) and metal. In businesses, you are likely to find metal and even plastic-based nosings that have been designed to provide as much grip as possible. This gives you a wide variety of materials to choose from to ensure that your stairs are safe.

One of the best ways to show you how important stair nosing is to your home or business is to have you walk up and down a staircase that doesn’t have nosing and then to walk up and down one that does. The flights should have the same sort of tread and riser sizes to ensure that you are able to compare the two experiences properly. Do you notice any sort of difference? Does one flight feel a little safer or more stable than the other?

So, whilst stair nosings are required to make your home or business as safe as possible, they are also extremely useful in improving the appearance of the building. If you are having trouble choosing a nosing material that suits your needs (as some are better suited to outdoor applications and others to indoor) make sure that you speak with a stair specialist for advice. Once the material is installed, you’ll wonder why you ever doubted it.

Wheelchair Platform Lifts Advantages

If you are in a wheelchair and you live in a house with stairs, you already know what a challenge you face when it comes to your personal mobility. There are a variety of different solutions to help you have mobility independence in your own home if you are in a wheelchair, and in this article we will discuss three possible solutions for navigating stairways.

There are essentially three different types of stairway mobility lifts to consider if you are in a wheel chair: an elevator lift, a wheelchair platform lift and a stair lift. Wheelchair platform lifts may be preferred over other types of chair lifts for stairs by those in a wheel chair, since they do not require the user to leave the wheelchair when using the lift as a stair chair does, and they also require less structural remodeling than many elevator lifts.

A wheelchair platform lift allows a person to easily move between house levels without having to leave the comfort of their chair. They can be installed directly on any stairway with a wall, and they are quite solid and safe to use when properly sized, installed and maintained. Most wheel chair stair lifts can fold away when not in use, so they do not create any obstacles or blockage on the staircase they are installed on. Of course, local building codes and safety considerations need to be taken fully into account before installation, and you will generally need a professional contractor with experience in stair lifts to make sure that it is installed correctly and safely.

There are several different manufacturers of wheelchair platform lifts, and you should do careful comparison shopping before selecting your final model. However, given the advantages they create in terms of mobility and freedom for those in wheelchairs, they can be a quite valuable addition to your home.

More Than Just Mirror Effect – Language Reflects Culture

In different parts of the globe there are different languages. Not only are languages different but the world views of different cultures are also reflected in the languages. Put simply, Japanese culture has a word for “death by overwork” or karoshi which may not be present in other languages. This reflects the Japanese culture and their perspective on hard work to support the family. In Japan, the first incident of karoshi was reported in 1969.

There is a close and intimate connection between culture and language. It does not only mirror each other, but also enrich and develop each other. Culture began when speech started (Kroeber, 1923). There are experts who say that you cannot fully understand the culture without understanding or having direct access to the language.

It is a characteristic of culture to be socially transmitted through language. Culture is transmitted to one generation to another through language, whether it is verbal or non-verbal, through gestures and signs, orally or in writing. Overall, we could see that communication was actually a manifestation of culture. Children learn language based on what they see in their community. For example, it is difficult for Africans or Koreans to fully grasp the concept of Santa Claus since it is not that significant in their culture and community.

In 1931, Edward Sapir wrote his perception of language. In his articles, Sapir mentioned the man’s perception and cognitive faculties can be seen and understood in the language. According to his study, it mentions that there are no two languages exactly similar. Because there are different social relationship evolving around the language and this would manifest on the language, itself.

Another thing to ponder on is that in a national culture, there are also subcultures. Subcultures are smaller groups that also have norms, values, beliefs and special languages which make them distinct or different form the national culture and broader society. Subcultures may be based on the age, social class, occupation, politics, education or religious affiliations. An example would be military language. In this case, understanding the subculture’s language would help us understand the organization structure.

Second language learners are even encouraged to immerse on the culture of the language they are learning. Linguists like Krasner (1999) stated that for second language learners it is not enough to be learn the liguistics, but it is also important to know the behaviour and patterns in the community which can be significant in the language. For example, how to address the elderly and show respect. Another concrete example would be using “You there, come here.” This is grammatically and linguistically correct. However, it is inappropriate to use to talk to elder or authoritative figures.

There are teachers that would incorporate culture while teaching second language. For example, to teach about eating utensils, vegetables, fruits or meat, then it would be better to teach about the food culture. In this way, the students will be able to understand the concept behind the words and vocabulary being taught. Not only will the student learnt he language quicker, but they would also be able to relate it to their own culture. This understanding would help the, appreciate and understand, on a higher level the other people’s culture.

It is impossible for a culture to exist without languages and languages to exist without having a culture. How we perceive the world and life would be represented on how we speak of it. These two do not just reflect each other, but feeds each others existence.

Best Laminate Flooring

Best laminate flooring is the one that satisfies all the needs of individuals. Best flooring requires low maintenance, and easy installation. It lasts for longer periods without losing its luster and beauty.

Best laminate flooring comes in a wide variety of plank widths and square tile sizes to match the dimensions of different floors. It is available in wood, ceramic tiles, and stone designs in varying colors and patterns. Some of the best laminate flooring does not need glue to keep planks or tiles in position. Some other best flooring requires glue to hold planks and tiles. There is also pre-glued flooring that needs less moisture to activate the glue.

For best laminate flooring in bathrooms and kitchens, it is important to check the quality and thickness of the core while purchasing. As thickness increases, core becomes more stable and less vulnerable. Laminate cores of better quality come with water repellent features. Laminates with paraffin wax impregnated joints are good on bathroom surfaces. The paraffin wax protects the core from water that may cause damage to the flooring.

Other factors such as prices, design choices, ratings, and brands are to be considered while buying the best laminate flooring that suits the individual's life style and budget. The price of good quality flooring can vary from 1.50 to 3 dollars per square foot. Price can go above 6 dollars a square foot also. This great variation in price is because of the fact that most individuals can not afford the best available flooring.

Best laminate flooring can be bought from online stores or home improvement stores. One has to select the best flooring without sacrificing quality. Most stores have warranty options. For the best flooring, individuals can even ask for protection against staining, fading, and moisture damage during warranty period.