6 Toothache Remedies You Can Use

Most people don’t think about toothaches until they actually get one, and then they will do just about anything to get ride of the toothache pain. Most toothache pain is sharp, throbbing, shooting, or constant. In rare cases if the tooth is not properly treated, it will eventually have to be extracted. So with that being said how can someone treat a toothache at home with natural home remedies?

Below are 6 toothache home remedies you can try.

Remedies for Tooth ache using Garlic

Among the most effective home remedies for toothache is garlic. A clove of garlic with a little rock salt should be placed on the affected tooth. It will relieve the pain and, sometimes, may even cure it. A clove should also be chewed daily in the morning. It will make the cure teeth making it strong and healthy.

Toothache cure using Asafoetida

The use of asafoetida has been found useful in curing toothache. It should be pestled in lemon Juice and slightly heated. A cotton swab should be soaked in this lotion and placed in the cavity of the tooth. It will relieve pain quickly.

Remedies for Tooth ache using Lime

Lime, as a rich source of vitamin C, is useful in maintaining the health of the teeth and other bones of the body. It prevents decay and loosening of the teeth, dental caries, toothache, and bleeding of the gums

Toothache relief using Onion

Latest research has confirmed the bactericidal properties of onion. If a person consumes one raw onion every day by thorough mastication, he will be protected from host of tooth disorders. Chewing raw onion for three minutes is sufficient to kill all the germs in the mouth. Toothache is often allayed by placing a small piece of onion on the bad tooth or gum.

Remedies for Toothache using Pepper

A mixture of a pinch of pepper powder and a quarter teaspoon of common salt is an excellent dentrifice. Its daily use prevents dental cavities, foul breath, bleeding from the gums, painful gums, and toothaches. It cures the increased sensitiveness of the teeth. A pinch of pepper powder mixed with clove oil can be put on the cavities to alleviate the toothache.

Toothache cure using Wheat Grass The juice of wheat grass acts as an excellent mouthwash for tooth decay and cures toothaches. Wheat grass can be chewed with beneficial results. It draws out toxins from the gums and thus checks bacterial growth.

I hope these 6 toothache home remedies give you or someone you know suffering from a toothache some relief from the pain. Please also keep in mind that this is just an article and you should always consult with your medical practitioner before starting any kind of treatment.

Pubs, Bars and Resturants

Pubs, bars and restaurants in Derry.

O’Donnell’s Bar

This Bar is conveniently located along waterloo place in the centre of Derry the City of Culture main pub and bar area.

This is an exceptionally popular traditional Irish bar known throughout the world; it attracts a vast amount of tourists every year.

This bar plays traditional live, vibrant and contemporary Irish music every night and some afternoons. The music is highly entertaining and enjoyable. Close to Derry’s self catered accommodation.

The bar consists of three bars Peadar’s itself, the Gweedore and The Gweedore upstairs.

The Gweedore is more contemporary in the music played by the bands there than that of bands in Peadar’s. This music is more suitable for and geared towards for all ages of people.

The Gweedore upstairs is more of a night club unlike that of the other two bars, it holds discos on selected night and is directed at a mixed age group.

The metro

Situated directly across from Derry City’s famous historic walls, it is the ideal place for a relaxed afternoon enjoying the beautiful scenery and architecture the city has to offer. In a shorting walking distance to Bogside B&B’s.

It is minutes away from the city of culture’s vast array of shopping centres, clothing boutiques, beauty salons and spectacular sites e.g. the guildhall square.

The Metro Bar consists of reasonably priced, finely cooked cuisine, along with cheaply priced drinks. Lunch is served daily.

The bar has a TV in almost every corner which is perfect for watching a football match surrounded by an array of food and drinks all at great competitive prices.

The metro Bar is also great for a night out with the latest chart topping music and classics delivered to you by the well known DJ Smitty and Jim Healy. Accommodation available by Derry’s luxurious self catered apartments after a good night out.

Sugar Night Club

Sugar is one of Derry City’s most popular nightclubs amongst all age groups it is a part of Downey’s bar complex. Open four nights a week.

It is a recently renovated club that has a spectacular modern twist, with two main levels both of which are made up of a large bar and dance floor.

The first floor has a large dance floor and bar with an area where DJ’s from all around come and deliver chart topping party music that will have you dancing all night long, that can be heard all over the club.

The second floor has a smaller dance floor, a seating area and a bar. It extends out into a beer garden which too has a bar this is ideal for sitting and chatting with friends in a calmer more secluded environment with a hint of party atmosphere.

Derry’s B&B available a short distance away.


This bar has a gorgeous modern retro theme, it is made of two main floors the lower floor is a large bar area where one can come in and hang out with friends and drink brilliantly priced beverages.

If you want a more exciting night filled with great music that varies from Jazz to the blues to rock given to you by famous DJ’s from all over

then the second floor of Sandino’s is the place for you it is more of nightclub in nature to the that of Sandino’s lower first floor.

Sandino’s is located right in the heart of Derry’s city, the city of culture it is perfect for a great and enjoyable night out with friends.

Sandino’s is for all age groups there is something for everyone in this bar/nightclub.

This bar is conveniently located close to various taxi stands and take away’s.

It has a great relaxed atmosphere and has a sweet Irish charm to it.

Becketts is a bar for a great and fun night out right in the heart of Derry’s centre.

It offers a place of great music which varies substantially you can be guaranteed that no two nights will be the same.

Tuesday night is salsa night.

Accommodation is available by Derry B&B a walking distance from Becketts.

Browns Restaurant, Bar and Brasserie

Brown’s restaurant has had outstanding reviews from people who have come to eat in it from all over.

The menu is carefully written local and fresh produce offered both the quality and creation of dishes is phenomenal.

The food is reasonably priced for what is offered customers come to Brown’s again and again.

The restaurant is immaculate and beautifully decorated, Brown’s provides meals for lunch and dinner with a great variety of delicious well prepared dishes.

Basic Tips About Badminton

Badminton is an Olympic sport which traces its roots in India. It was first named as battledore but was later called Badminton because of the Duke who played it in a hall named Badminton Hall. Badminton is a fun and exciting activity which can help you maintain a fit and healthy body.

It is one good way to burn excessive fats and calories in your body. You will need to have a racket and a shuttle to play this game. The racket must be light to carry and resembles that of a tennis racket while the shuttle cock must be round shaped and has a rubber base. A court with a 5 feet high net is a must to play this game correctly.


As a beginner you will need to know how to hold a racket the right way. You must learn this to play badminton correctly. You must hold your rocket with the head upward or in vertical position and grip the handle as if you are handshaking with someone. There is another basic grip which is called backhand which is also commonly used by beginners.


You must learn how to approach a shot from the side. You can use your left hand to hold and point the racket and hit the shuttle cock. You can also lift your arm in the side where your opponent is positioned. You must hit it with enough force and precision.


Hitting the shuttle cock is not that easy as you think it is. You must focus on it all the time. You must hold the racket correctly and hit the shuttle cock as it goes near you. It will be good if you move forward as you hit the shuttle cock.


Beginners will definitely have a hard time in serving the shuttle cock. You must focus on where you want the shuttle cock to go. It will be good if you can aim for the far side of the court but you must make sure that it will not go beyond the lines. You can also aim the middle part to make it easier to execute.


Practice is an important thing to do if you want to excel in something. You need to practice badminton basics so that you will be able to master the harder techniques. Practice will help you gain more skills and will make you more confident about yourself.

Badminton is an enjoyable and fun sport to do. You will become healthier and more competitive. It can also make you more active and energetic. But you have to master the basics of badminton in order for you to play the game like a professional player.

Laboratory Glassware Manufacturing Process and Its Various Applications

Laboratory Glassware

Glassware refers to a variety of equipment, traditionally made of glass, used for scientific experiments and many other work in science, mainly in chemistry.

Some of the equipments are now made of plastic for cost, and ruggedness reasons, but glass is still used for most applications because it is relatively inert, transparent and more heat-resistant than plastics up to a point, and relatively easy to customize.

Laboratory glassware is often held in place with clamps made for that purpose, which are likewise attached and held in place by stands or racks.


-> There are many different kinds of laboratory glassware items, Such glassware is used for a wide variety of functions which include volumetric measuring, holding or storing chemicals, mixing or preparing solutions or other mixtures, containing lab processes like chemical reactions, heating, cooling , distillation, separations and containing a full or partial vacuum, and pressure.

-> For pressurized reaction, heavy-wall glass is used for pressure reactor.


Most laboratory glassware is now mass-produced, but many large laboratories employ a glass blower to construct specialized pieces.

This construction forms a specialized field of glassblowing requiring precise control of shape and dimension.In addition to repairing expensive or difficult-to-replace glassware, scientific glassblowing commonly involves fusing together various glass parts such as glass joints and tubing, stopcocks, transition pieces, or other glassware or parts of them to form items of glassware, such as vacuum manifolds, special reaction flasks, etc.

Glassware can be wrapped with Tinfoil or insulated with wool Style to smooth out temperature gradients.

It is common for students and those new to working with glassware to set hotplates to a high value initially to rapidly warm a solution or solid.

Reputed manufacturers make laboratory glassware using quality raw material procured from trusted sources after rigorous quality checks.

Quality & Improvement

Reputed manufacturers are continuously improving the quality of glassware according to the requirement of their customers.

Besides taking full care about the accuracy / Quality in work, equipments are getting tested from the Standard Testing Laboratories.

Good quality manufacturers have earned immense reputation by making advanced and up-to-date lab glassware which is admired by local as well as international honored clients.

3 Reasons to Try Cloud Servers

Thousands of people around the world are now using cloud servers. I recently tried them and was blown away. If you have not tried them yet here are a few reasons why you should.

Cloud servers are flexible allowing you to experiment and try new things. Most vendors allow you to startup a server and run it for as long as you want. This can be as little as a few minutes or much longer even permanent. I recently heard that Centos Linux version 6 was available and wanted to find out what the changes were and check out all the cool new apps. I logged into the online control panel via my Firefox web browser to one of my cloud accounts, clicked on create new server, selected 256 megs of ram, typed in root password, then waited about 3 minutes for the server to load. Then I logged in via my ssh client (putty) and it was play time. I had the option to upgrade to more CPUs and memory, you can do it in small increments to find out what works best for your web application. A few days later I wanted to test samba on a Debian Linux system. Instead of spending an hour loading Debian from DVD, I simply fired up a cloud server saving about 45 minutes. This time I chose a server with copious amounts of memory since that is what I needed, it was great.

Some vendors are now offering load balancing so you can build a whole server farm using cloud servers. This is especially useful during peak time like a special event or shopping season, it can also be useful in the case of a denial of service attack allowing for more capacity as a counter measure. A multi-server system can scale out to hundreds or even thousands of servers. I have not tried this personally but I hear it works pretty good. I read about an online E-commerce web site that was under a Ddos (distributed denial of service) attack who simply added servers to negate the flood of connections, then the attackers went on to pick on someone else.

Have you ever needed to backup a whole system? You are going to love new cloud based method. You can make snapshots of your server so you have an image of all your data at some point in time. It only takes about 30 minutes to copy all data on a 10GB system. You can also make multiple snapshots and even setup automatic snapshots every 4 hours so you always have a recent backup.

Another cool thing you can do is making your own boot image. I fired up a Linux server, then spent an hour loading applications like MySQL database server, Bind name server, Postfix mail, Cpanel, and Apache web server. I configured it with mod security and some complex rewrite rules. I then saved the image as its own image so I can make clone systems anytime. I can also share my image with the public if I choose.

You can use a cloud server for a few cents per hour. There are many vendors that offer smaller size servers for less than ten cents per hour. I am always firing up various servers, everything from Windows 2008 to Linux and my bill has never been more than $ 10 per month because I shut them down when not in use and you only have to pay while they are active. There is a small charge for storage if you are saving snapshots or boot images but disk storage is relatively cheap these days. In case you need a more powerful system for web hosting tomcat with a quad core CPU with 16GB of memory will cost you about $ 2 per hour.

There are many reasons to use cloud based servers. They are flexible, easy to backup using snapshots, and relatively low cost. There is no shortage of cloud vendors. I suggest you surf to your favorite search engine and type in cloud server or cloud hosting where you will find a ton of choices. I do not think cloud servers will ever replace virtual or dedicated servers but they make an excellent compliment.

The History of Jeans and Levi Strauss

Perhaps the most famous clothing brand name in the world, Levi Strauss & Co. were the inventors of blue denim jeans. Here’s how it happened.

In the mid 1800s during the California Gold Rush a young German immigrant travelled to San Francisco with the intention of opening a West Coast branch of his brother’s New York dry goods business.

That young man’s name was Levi Strauss. Upon his arrival he was asked by a gold prospector what he was selling. Upon being told he was selling rough canvas for tents and wagons the prospector said he should be selling pants, as he couldn’t find any that were strong enough to last.

The comment clearly registered with Strauss. Instead of selling his canvas for tent-making, he turned them into waist high overalls. While they proved popular with miners they complained of chafing so Strauss turned to a French twilled cotton cloth called “serge de Nimes” – from which we get the now common term “denim”. That was in 1853 and Levi Strauss & Company was founded.

Twenty years later the company began using a design with stitched pockets. Working with Nevada tailor David Jacobs, Strauss developed the process for putting metal rivets in the ‘jeans’ for strength.

On May 20, 1873, they received U.S.Patent No.139,121 for the process and that date is now considered the official birthday of “blue jeans.”

The company has gone from strength to strength and has several noteworthy landmarks in its history. These include the time they created a denim tuxedo for Bing Crosby after the crooner was almost refused entry to a hotel due to wearing Levi’s jeans and the fact that legendary rodeo star Pancho Villa wore only Levi’s for his somewhat crazy performances with Brahma bulls, in which he was often tossed and gored!

Today the company, which still has its headquarters in San Francisco, California, employs over 11,000 people and boasts revenues of over $4 billion a year, yet are still owned by descendents of Levi Strauss.

As well as the world famous Levi’s brand, Levi Strauss & Co. also has Dockers and Signature by Levi Strauss as brands, selling a range of Levi’s clothing apart from the blue denim jeans.

Levi Strauss & Co is almost as famous for its advertising campaigns as it is its jeans. They have successfully used old, forgotten songs in their television adverts only to see the songs re-popularised and sell again.

Such songs include “When a Man Loves a Woman by Percy Sledge, recorded in 1966 and used in 1987 by Levi Strauss – it made number two in the UK charts that year!

“The Joker” by the Steve Miller band was used in 1990 – 13 years after its original release – to advertise Levi’s clothing and it topped the UK chart!

Apart from Levi Strauss’ own stores, Levi’s clothing, including Dockers and Signature by Levi Strauss, are sold in hundreds of different outlets all over the world, underlining the continued popularity of the humble blue jeans, originally designed in 1853 to be hard wearing clothing for miners.

They’ve come a long way!

Taking Care of Horses – Simple Guide in Grooming Your Equine

Taking care of horses can be a challenging task, but if you love to raise horses, it is important that you know even the most basics of grooming horses. Of course, as a horse owner, it should be your responsibility to make your pets clean, comfortable and well-groomed.

Even before you buy or decide to keep an equine, it is important that you learn the basics of taking care of horses. Here are a few tips that might help you get started.


One of the things that you need to prepare before you get a horse, is to make sure the animal has a shelter and a good place where he can be safe. You may need to have a stable or a barn to house the animals. Of course, you have to ensure they have ample space in the stable and make sure also that you provide them with beddings of straw for them to lie down comfortably. Just remember to clean them regularly as well and make sure to replace them when needed.

Aside from having a stable or a shelter, taking care of horses also mean allowing them to pasture, run around an open space for them to have regular exercise. Keep in mind that your horses will also need exercise regularly.

It is also important that you fence your pasture area. This will help protect the animals and avoid them from getting lost. Find fencing materials that will not also hurt the horses. It is practical of course not to use barbed wires for your fencing as this can injure or hurt the equine.

Good Grooming

Another important thing you have to learn in taking care of horses is good grooming. A well-groomed horse is one that is healthy, in good condition always and of course, can have a good performance. Invest on a grooming tool kit that will make the grooming a little easier. Ensure that you have groomed your horse from head to the hoof and also make sure that you groom your horse every after you ride them.

Among the good practices you can do in good grooming and taking care of horses are cleaning the hoofs, gently brushing their bodies and brushing their mane and tail.

Keeping your equine in good health

To keep your animals in good health, it is a must that you let a veterinarian check it regularly. It is also important that you clean the shelter of the animals to drive them away from diseases. It is also important that you deworm your horse as well. The vet can help you on the kind of deworming that your horse needs. You can however keep a first aid kit in your stable so that you will be ready any time when your horse can sustain injuries or cuts.

These are just a few of the things that you need to learn in taking care of horses. Of course, it is a must to learn the very important ones when it comes to making your horses healthy and comfortable.

Box Gardening Challenge

The construction of a box garden can be a rewarding task for keeping your mind occupied, get some exercise, and mental satisfaction. It can also be created for next to nothing (around $ 60 for a 4 X 6 foot box). I thought I would replace the little hot box in our back yard that allowed only 4 tomato plants with a larger plot that was both inexpensive but produced more vegetables with the least amount of work out in the hot sun here in southern Virginia.

I began with a sketch and went to the local home supply store with the firm conviction that I would leave with all the supplies necessary for the task. An hour or so later, this task was complete. The list consists of a 50 ft. roll or 3 ft. wide fencing. You know, the wire fence with the 2 "X 3" openings. Then I bought 8 of those 6 ft. stockade fence boards in the rough cut lumber section ($ 2 each) along with 4 cheap 1 X 4's, also 6 ft. long. Can you see it? Two of the 6 ft. fence boards stacked horizontally and two of the 6 ft. 1 X 4's nailed vertically at each end. That's one side of the box complete. Do it again and 2 sides are complete. Then cut 2 ft. off the remaining 4 fence boards and the box is nearly complete. Take them outside and nail 2 of the boards to the edges of the 6 ft. boards. You now have a 1 ft. deep box, 4ft. X 6ft. with 4 vertical corner posts.

The wire is then cut in 6 ft. and 4 ft. lengths with wire cutters. By now you can see that there is enough wire to span the entire 20 ft. to wrap around the box perimeter. Each wire fence section can later be folded down for easy access to the plants inside the box. But since the vertical 1 X 4's are 6 ft. high, the wire fencing needs to cover the remaining upper 3 ft. of the box height. So, cut more fencing to cover the upper 20 ft. of the box perimeter. The remainder of the 50 ft. fence will cover the top of the box.

The means of connect the fence sections to each other can be tie tags, twist ties, or those cotter pins that can be easily removed and reinstalled when done weeding or picking vegetables. I used cotter pins for ease of removal. Pin all the fence sections together at the four corners of each section and maybe a couple more along the horizontal lengths.

The remaining task is to locate the box in the optimum sunny location and fill it with some garden quality soil. Then wait until the end of the last frost in March to begin shopping for the tomato plants, peppers, and onions. The only question mark in my mind resides with those "pesky" squirrels. I just know they'll find a way to sneak through that fencing. Maybe the fencing needs to have smaller openings. Tying them together will also be a challenge to eliminate any gaps. Is it legal to shoot squirrels with a BB gun? I hear they're pretty good eating. Taste like chicken. Just kidding.

If enough weekend gardeners do this, we could overflow the farmers' markets all next summer with enough extra to give to our homeless neighbors. And all for less than $ 75 per household.

Cheap Hotels in Goa!

Not only is your hotel and flight to your destination important, you may require certain preparation before you plan out a trip. Booking your hotel before hand, will save you a lot of money and time. You may want to try out an adventure sport and later realize that no such activity is offered by that hotel. Some may even combine a ticket to live music performance along with your other recreations at hotel. A pub or a discotheque, alongside the lounge in hotels, will spice up your night life. IN addition to this, mouth watering dishes will just add up to your happiness.

Never run out of exciting tour deals if you are opting for an online option! Get great travel packages to you at discount rates. Tour packages are designed to suit specific requirements and tastes. Travel packages range in price and differ in included activities. The deluxe package is the best, and also the priciest, but offers a complete holiday experience. Always check individual prices to ensure you're actually getting a discount. From a beautiful country side to a romantic sea side hotel, find it all and experience the best. Exciting range of hotels at beautiful locations, and attractive travel arrangements can be made online, just reach out to online hotel bookings and find the cheap hotels in town. Avail fully inclusive travel arrangements for tours to all tourist attractions of India.

A huge database on cheap hotels online will help you find detailed travel information for your favorite destination, including reviews of hotel facilities and regional attractions as supplied by travelers, for travelers., For those business men, there are special conference rooms for meetings and a board room. You can make your business tour, a memorable one by refreshing your self by opting for a steam bath, sauna bath, hot stone or other de-stressing units after a meeting. Is not it a bliss! Compare online hotel directories and get the best and cheap hotels to your favourite destination.

Business Plan Jump-Start For Artists

Artists, we are now in the month of January, named after the Roman god Janus. Janus had two faces, on to look forward and one to look back. That is what we need to do now!

Looking back. First, start with what you accomplished last year. After what has been such a rotten year economically, a look at all the positive events is in order. Second. Look at how these accomplishments helped you realize or move toward your goals. Look at what you planned to do and did not get done. Did that hinder you or did you end up taking another path toward your goals? Let me explain how I am defining goals in reference to the business side of our art. Making $ 500, $ 5000, $ 50,000 this week, month, year is a goal. Going to six art shows this month would be a step in achieving this goal. While participating in the shows is sort of a goal in itself, it would be a sub-goal to the first goal. In other words, making the money is important, how you do that is secondary. Let's say your goal was to get into such and such a gallery. Did you do it? Yes? Great. The next question is, how much of your work did they sell?

Looking forward What you want to do is look at how what you did or did not do last year moved you toward or away from your desired income. This is what you need to know to be able to plan ahead for 2010. What did you do last year that was not on your plan? Did it help? Did it lead to another way of reaching your goal? Going back to the example of doing art shows, if you sent out a newsletter or called your collectors letting them know that you were participating in such and such a show and ended up selling pieces online because of those calls, but the show itself wasn ' t so great, what did you learn? If you sat at home and called your collectors / potential collectors and made more money than you did by driving 500 miles setting up a tent and display, working a show for 3 days or more than taking it down and driving home, all the while paying for gas, meals and lodging, perhaps you should spend a little more time making direct contact with the people on your list.

Am I saying then that you drop the shows and just stay home making phone calls and sending emails. No, but you might want to spend more time and energy on direct contact. Remember the 80/20 rule. Twenty percent of your effort leads to eighty percent of your results. Look at what worked last year. Build on that. We do want to work smarter not harder. It's hard enough already. If you did not love doing it, you probably would not. Keep you eye on the ultimate goal. Think of it as a destination. Your plan is your mapped out journey. You might get to your destination by a different route than you planned, but if you did not have that map and follow it at first, you would still be sitting in the driveway. Time to get out to the studio and work towards those goals!

Jump Start your Art Marketing Business Plan!

by M Theresa Brown

Mobile Home Prices – How to Find Blue Book Value of Mobile Homes

The blue book value of a mobile home is exactly what it sounds like — a numerical value found in a book. In the past, there were multiple books. Today, there is only one book that contains the blue book value of mobile homes. It is called the N.A.D.A. Manufactured Housing Appraisal Guide. This guide is what the professionals use to determine the value of a mobile or manufactured home. The blue book value of a mobile home is calculated using a variety of criteria. This criteria may include geographic location, make, model, size and age of the home in question.

Even if you can access this manual, it is advisable to have a professional appraiser do the job for you. The formula for calculating the value of your mobile home can be quite complicated. Book value is going to be most accurate for mobile homes and areas that are deemed average in nature. It also depends on the position of the housing market in your area. Because this is such an in-depth process, you must depend on the services of a professional if you want things done right. There are certain reports you can purchase on the Internet that help you determine the market value of your mobile or manufactured home.

When you are buying or selling a mobile home, the blue book value will come into play. The majority of lenders require the book value when it comes to granting financing for people who need a mortgage loan in order to purchase their mobile or manufactured home. If you are not ready to hire a professional appraiser to come to your property, you can order an appraisal on the Internet. You will need to provide detailed information about the property for the online appraisal service to use. These types of services and reports provide you with an accurate idea of your mobile home’s blue book value so you can decide if you want to sell or not. Mobile homes do not usually appreciate in value, but this is not a hard and fast rule but rather a more general one.

A Bird’s Eye View Of Roman Architecture

The Romans fabricated two kinds of houses, the domus and the insula. The first was the privilege of the affluent, the latter was an apartment building for the working class. The domus consisted of a few rooms built around an atrium. Often more rooms were added at the back around a court with columns, the peristyle. The atrium was an oblong room with an open roof. The atrium with the surrounding chambers was purely built in Roman style. The peristyle was drawn up in Greek or Middle Eastern fashion.

The common activities of the family took place in the atrium. The chambers around it were meant for relaxation and conversation. It could be reached from the street through the prothyrum, an entrance with corridor. Between the atrium and the peristyle there was the tablinum, an open living room that could be closed with a curtain. A broad walkway, the fauces, was situated at the side of the tablinum to provide easy access to the peristyle. The peristyle, such as in the domus of Vettii at Pompeji, encompassed the family living room. Around the court of columns were situated the oecus (reception), the cubicula (sleeping rooms), the alae (niches for private conversations), the triclinia (dining rooms). In the domus of Pansa at Pompeji the triclini possess three couches for nine persons to lie on (as was customary for Romans); nine persons being the accepted number of guests for a Roman party. The latter domus also possessed an upper storey built both around the atrium and the peristyle.

The second kind of building, the insula (lit. ‘island’), was the apartment building. The insula provided cheap or affordable housing for workers in places where space was expensive and the population numerous. The insula was fabricated with stones or bricks and covered with concrete and often had five or more stories; despite legislation that stipulated against structures higher than 21 meters, or 18 meters in the time of Trajan. The ground floors were usually reserved for different kinds of stores and craftsmen.

Most insulae were fitted with wooden or concrete balconies. Pumps were used to transport water up, but did not reach above the lower stories. Renters in the higher flats had to make do with public sanitation and water facilities. The insulae were designed for maximum use of space. Light came in from the outside windows and the courtyard. Cheap construction and a shortage of water caused numerous collapses and fires. Excavations at Ostia, practically a suburb of Rome, attest to these things. Moreover mention is made of these buildings by Roman authors.

Romans possessed a tremendous technique in the way of city planning. When a new city was laid out, its function, climate and geographical location were taken into account. Characteristic of a Roman town (probably developed from earlier Italic towns in combination with the occupation of building an army camp) was its square layout. Roads and streets ran on parallels and met in the center, comparable with New York.

In, or close to, the center lay the so-called forum, the hub of Roman culture. Gradually around this other buildings were erected for specific civil, trade and religious activities. In the time of the Caesars it was customary to make the forum as large as possible, to provide space for all sorts of events. In a great and ancient city as Rome itself there were different forums; each with its own objective, such as administration, justice, commerce and finance. Also there were forums especially for the sale of meat or vegetables. For the latter purpose the macellum was developed, a market building with shops all around a pillared court.

Long established communities, which had grown more haphazardly than by plan, in time were influenced by Roman designs as described above. Often, however, also at Rome, the situation hindered a logical application. Usually rows of pillars were made on both sides of important streets. Water was conducted to spectacular fountains and basins for practical use.

Water was transported through aqueducts to large reservoirs (if the climate did not prescribe wells). Sewer systems collected the superfluous water from the streets and from private quarters. One saying about the sewer became famous: pecunia non olet (money does not smell).

Building codes were drawn up and implemented. The design of an entire town can clearly be seen in some places in North Africa, such as at Timgad, Tébessa and Thuburbo Majus. In these towns little or none at all was added and the original planning is still intact..

From about 200 B.C. till 50 A.D. the many encounters with Greek culture, as well as the fact that Rome developed as a republic, caused temples to be constructed conform Greek style. Both sculpture and spatial effects imitated Greek designs. Greek influence on Roman culture was summed up in the saying: Graeca capta Romam cepit (Conquered Greece conquered Rome).

However in the time of Caesar Augustus Roman temples took on a more Italic spatial look. Also new forms, particularly with floral arrangements and detailed friezes, were invented. In this time above all in secular buildings an architectural style was developed totally owned by Roman influences. Also it was in this time that Roman culture started exercising its influence in foreign countries, for instance in the construction of theaters and amphitheaters.

Romans had a predilection for spatial compositions worked out in the organ- ization of lines, surfaces, mass and voluminous parts. In this they differed from their predecessors in those times around the Mediterranean. No matter how much they adopted the elements of previous styles, they did this in their own fashion.

One can distinguish five different Roman styles of building, adopted from Greek culture, but used in their own unique ways. These were the Doric, Ionic, Corinthian, Toscan and mixed architectonic styles. On the average Roman proportional styles were more tempered, but with more flair for detail. Columns and pillars were often smooth, but the architrave, frieze and cornice were embellished.

Towards the end of the republic the so-called balneae (baths) had become a recognized characteristic of the Roman way of life. Particularly during the empire they were very popular. The Stabian Baths at Pompeii have been preserved best.

Imperial thermae were more than baths alone. They were extremely large complexes for all kinds of physical exercise and housed halls where philosophers, poets and orators addressed the public.

Roman theaters differed from those of the Greeks in various ways. The auditorium was not dug out and the walls encompassing both the stage and the seats, were continuous. The entrance to the dancing stage was formed by vaulted passages. The choir did not play a role in Roman theater. The dancing section therefore was part of the auditorium. The wall behind the stage was decorated lavishly.

Amphitheaters were arenas where plays and various shows were staged. The most important one was the Colosseum at Rome, built in about 70-82 A.D. It occupied an area of about two to three hectares and offered seats to fifty thousand spectators. Eighty exits allowed the public to leave quickly. The entire structure was made of concrete; the outside was covered with calcareous sinter and the inside with costly marble.

The circus was mainly a racing track with seats to the sides. One end was round and the other straight to allow access for the wagons. In the middle there was a line of demarcation where arbiters could perform their functions. Since it was the largest facility for viewing a spectacle, it was also used for other activities. The circuses became infamous because of the burning of Christians in the time of Nero.

Arches of triumph were sometimes erected to commemorate an important event or military campagne. Most of the time they sat by themselves and did not serve as a passage. They were decorated with reliefs and fitted out with statues.

Roman temples differed in many important details from their Greek predecessors. Greek temples had three steps round about, but the Roman temple had a high platform, or stage, with a staircase that served as entrance. Greek temples almost always looked out to the East or West, but the position of the Roman temples depended on the surrounding buildings.

The Romans often built round temples, of which the most important one survives as the Pantheon at Rome till today. It consists of a rotunda with a diameter of almost fifty meters and surrounded by concrete walls seven meters thick. A central opening at the top with a nine meter diameter lets the light in. This is called the oculus (eye), situated in the dome. The rotunda and the dome are examples of Roman expertise in working with concrete.

The Roman tomb consisted of a knoll of earth, the tumulus. It was surrounded by a ring of cement usually of considerable height. Only a few of such tombs remain; particularly the tomb of Hadrianus, now called Castel Sant’Ange lo.

The basilica was a large covered hall used by the judiciary and also by bankers and merchants. The largest such basilica was constructed in seven years, begun by Maxentius and completed by Constantine in about 313 A.D. One can still find the vaults of the salient rooms at the North side. They prove the quality of the mixture and durability of Roman reinforced (with stones, not iron) concrete. For after all these years they still hang there without support.

The construction of bridges and aqueducts also belonged to Roman expertise. The most famous examples of surviving aqueducts are the Pont du Gard at Nîmes and at Segovia in Spain. The best example of a bridge is found at Rimini. It was built by Augustus and Tiberius. The most impressive one is perhaps at Alcántara in Spain.

Private homes and even palaces usually were styled with inner courts and gardens instead of an impressive facade. This tradition was maintained, as far as possible, in the settlements in the North of Europe and in England. Also elaborated provisions for heating had to be taken care of there. In the climate of the Mediterranean, however, a tendency towards light and open construction prevailed instead of a compact and imposing one.

Also in the layout of imperial palaces at Rome the emphasis lay on gardening. The buildings themselves, as far as their function was concerned, were not very monumental and they were spread over the Palatine hill as it were randomly. Augustus himself bought and enlarged the home known as the House of Livia, still in existence today. Very little remains of Nero’s famous Golden Palace, occupying once a territory of more than 120 hectares. One can find the baths of Titus there now, the Colosseum and the Basilica of Maxentius.

The Villa of Hadrianus at Tivoli, started in about 123 A.D., was a luxurious residence with parks and gardens laid out on a grand scale. Because of the unequal terrain terraces and staircases were constructed. There still remain enormous stones and concrete fabrications. All the buildings are in Roman style, but with Greek names. The Latin word villa denoted an estate, complete with a home, terrains and precincts and dependent facilities. Around Pompeii relatively simple villa’s were found. Descriptions known in literature, such as of Pliny the Younger who describes his villa at Laurentum, and remains of the Palatial residence at Piazza Armerina in Sicily, represented the upper class. The villa of Hadrianus is too elaborate and detailed to be called a typical villa.

Woodworking Joints – Which Ones Should You Use?

There are many popular woodworking joints. A Woodworking joint’s strength varies, and some are better than others.  Which ones are best for your projects?

1. Butt Joint

The Butt Joint joins two pieces of wood by merely butting them together. The butt joint is the simplest to make. It is the weakest joint, and you must use some type of reinforcement. You have an end grain to long grain gluing surface. The resulting joint is naturally weak. It relies on glue to hold it together; however, glue does not have much lateral strength. You can break this joint with your bare hands.

2. Biscuit Joint

A biscuit joint is nothing more than a reinforced Butt joint. The biscuit is an oval-shaped piece and is made of dried and compressed wood, such as beech. You install it in matching mortises in both pieces of the joint. Most people use a biscuit joiner to make the mortises. You design the biscuit joint to allow flexibility in glue-up. However, you must locate the mortise the correct distance from the face of the joint in both pieces. Since the biscuit is thin, you can move the alignment around. This is the very reason that I do NOT like this joint. It is not in perfect alignment. In addition, you waste your money on the Biscuit Joiner and a lot of time cutting the mortises in each piece of stock. Why bother?

3. Bridle Joint

 A bridle joint is similar to a mortise and tenon. You cut a tenon on the end of one piece and a full width mortise into the other piece to accept it. This is the distinguishing feature of this joint You have only three gluing surfaces.

The corner bridle joint joins two pieces at their ends, forming a corner. You use this joint to house a rail in uprights, such as legs. It provides good strength in compression and is fairly resistant to racking. You must use a mechanical fastener or pin.

4. Dado (joinery)

 A dado is a slot cut into the surface of a piece of wood. When viewed in cross-section, a dado has three sides. You cut a dado perpendicular to the grain. It is different from a groove, which you cut parallel to the grain. A through dado passes all the way through the surface and its ends are open. A stopped dado has one or both of the ends stop before meeting the edge of the surface. You use dadoes to attach shelves to a bookcase carcass. You rabbet the shelves to fit the dado, which makes the rabbet and dado joint.

5. Dovetail Joint 

The dovetail joint, or simply dovetail, is a strong woodworking joint, and is great for tensile strength (resistance from pulling apart). The dovetail joint is used to connect the sides of a drawer to the front. A series of pins cut to extend from the end of one board interlock with a series of tails cut into the end of another board. The pins and tails have a trapezoidal shape. Once glued, the joint is permanent, and requires no mechanical fasteners. Some people use a dovetailed dado, because of the tensile strength.

6. Finger joint

 A finger joint or box joint is used to join two pieces of wood at right angles to each other. It is similar to a dovetail joint except that the pins are square and not angled. The joint relies on glue to hold together. It does not have the mechanical strength of a dovetail.

7. Lap joint

 A half lap joint is made by removing material from each piece so that the resulting joint is the thickness of the thickest piece. Generally, the pieces are of the same thickness. You remove half the thickness of each. This joint is good for making workshop storage items.

8. Mortise and Tenon

One of the strongest woodworking joints is the mortise and tenon joint. This joint is simple and strong. Woodworkers have used it for many years. Normally you use it to join two pieces of wood at 90-degrees. A mortise is a cavity cut into a piece of wood to receive a tenon. A tenon is a projection on the end of a piece of wood to insert into a mortise. You insert one end of a piece into a hole in the other piece. A quality mortise and tenon joint gives perfect registration of the two pieces. This is important when building heirloom pieces.

9. Pocket-Hole Joinery

The Pocket-Hole Joint is nothing more than a Butt joint with Pocket Hole Screws. The pocket holes require two drilling operations. The first is to counterbore the pocket hole itself, which takes the screw head. The second step is to drill a pilot hole whose centerline is the same as the pocket hole. Most people use a pocket-hole jig, such as the Kreg Jig(TM). This jig allows you to drill pocket holes at the correct angle and to the correct depth. Glue should be used to strengthen the joint. Of course, the Kreg Jig(TM) costs from $40 up to $140. To me, that is a lot of money when you can make the mortise & tenon jigs for a fraction of that price. Moreover, the mortise and tenon joint is much stronger.

10. Rabbet

 A rabbet is a recess cut into the edge of a piece of wood. When viewed in cross-section, a rabbet is two-sided and open to the end of the surface. An example of the use of a rabbet is in the back edge of a cabinet. The rabbet allows the back to fit flush with the sides. Another example is the insertion of a glass pane by using a rabbet around the edge of the frame.

11. Tongue and Groove

Tongue and groove is made by cutting a slot (groove) along one edge. The other piece has a tongue cut on the mating edge. As a result, two or more pieces fit together closely. You can use it to make wide tabletops out of solid wood. Some other uses are in wood flooring, parquetry, paneling, etc.

Woodworking Joints Torture Test – Wood Magazine Nov 2006

Are pocket screws stronger than dowels? Which of the woodworking joints give the most strength? Do screws add any strength to a joint?

For the “Wood Joint Torture Test” in WOOD Magazine issue #173, they created and then destroyed more than 100 joints.

Wood Magazine Shear test:

Mortise & Tenon Joint took 1,005 lbs/force, which is over two to three times the force to break compared to other joints.

Wood Magazine Pull Apart test

The breaking force for a Biscuit miter joint is 220 lbs/force; Dado 559 lbs/force and screws did not help.

For a Mortise & Tenon Joint, the wood failed but not the joint. It took 4,733 lbs/force nearly 2½ tons to pull apart.

Clearly, this test shows that the Mortise & Tenon joint is superior to other joints.

For more information on Woodworking Joints, including pictures and the video by WOOD Magazine showing the results of these tests, please visit http://www.provenwoodworking.com/woodworking-joints.html

Copyright 2009 – Jim McCleary of provenwoodworking.com. All Rights Reserved Worldwide. Reprint Rights: You may reprint this article as long as you leave all of the links active, do not edit the article in any way, and give author name credit.

Crafting a Football Banner

Football season is here! Use a dowel and a few other supplies to inexpensively craft a decorative football banner to show support for your favorite college or professional team.

Start with the basic materials for this project, which simply include a tarp (the size of your choosing), a dowel (sized to correspond to the overall dimensions of the tarp), paint (s), including your favorite football team's colors and any complementary colors you desire to add, paintbrush (es), and any extra decorative materials you may desire to use. These may include puff paint, stencils, buttons, ribbons or rhinestones.

Start by sizing both the tarp and the dowels. Be certain the size of the tarp allows for the desired lettering, picture or logo, as well as any additional weight that may result from accessories that are used. Also, be certain that the dowel is halved appropriately so that the banner stands level on both sides. If the banner is meant to decorate the lawn, you will also need to make careful consideration for the portion of the dowel that will need to be driven into the ground and the amount that will need to be used to hold up the banner itself.

Once these determinations are made for both the tarp and the dowel, carefully make the appropriate cuts. Certainly if you'd like to paint the dowel sections, you can, and now would be a great time to do so, as it would allow the paint sufficient time to dry as you begin to work on subsequent steps.

On the size Based of the wood Dowel That is of used for the project, or glue a Sew a pocket on Either side of the tarp, turning it backward – upon – Itself to hide the seam. If you choose to use glue instead of sewing, be certain to not glue the pocket upon itself. In other words, you will need to ensure that there is sufficient space for the dowel, as it will need to slide through the pocket easily enough to fit, but tightly enough to prevent slippage. This is nothing that careful calculations beforehand can not accomplish, but will certainly vary from project to project based on dimensions.

Once the pockets are created (and the glue dried, if glue was used), proceed with decorating your football banner. Certainly, you will want to apply the base color to the tarp first if it is different from the color of the tarp you're working with. How convenient for you if the base color and the color of the tarp are one and the same!

To complete the banner, it is merely a matter of applying paint or logos and allowing sufficient drying time before other accessories are applied.

Once the banner is made, insert the dowel into either of the side pockets you created. If you so desire, you could even use wooden balls at the tops of each dowel to round off the look. Or, in keeping with the football theme, look at local craft supplies shops or online for football shaped wooden cutouts to apply instead. Paint, decorate or use in its natural form. It's completely up to you. Then, apply to the tops of the hardwood dowel sections with hot or wood glue.

For the avid sports fan, this same concept can be applied to other seasonal sports, too, including basketball, baseball, hockey and golf.

Finally, pick the perfect spot in your lawn and adorn it with both your creativity and your team spirit!

Stacked Tire Worm Farm

Have you ever given a thought to what it must be like to be a child sitting in a dusty drab schoolroom, trying desperately to concentrate, while hunger gnaws continually at your belly. This is the daily reality for many African children, both in remote rural communities and also in the ghastly shack-towns that surround the major cities. Jobs are a rarity, families are under stress and there just is never any money, period! Worst of all, this situation is not going to change anytime soon. Probably not in our lifetime!


Concerned people, both local and outsiders realize that international food aid can only go so far and often dries up, just when it is most needed, as in the current international financial crisis. To survive, the communities have to find a way to help themselves. Intervention at a local level is needed. One solution to the problem is to promote food gardens at the schools themselves – run jointly by the community, the parents , the teachers and mostly by the children themselves. Labor is freely available and skills can be taught, but the problem is that what little money that can be collected must go towards buying tools, seeds and fertilizer. The tools would be unsophisticated and can be donated or borrowed. Some seed would have to be bought, but in part it can be collected from the last crop. Fertilizer is always the main problem. In many areas soils are very impoverished and would yield little.


This is where worm composting can lend a hand. Vermiculture produces high quality organic fertilizer that can be 20 times higher in nutriments than natural soil and brings trace elements and beneficial micro organisms to the roots of the crops, while simultaneously improving the disease resistance and moisture retention of poor soils. Crops grown using vermicompost will be fully organic and organic food is far healthier than any commercially grown products.  Providing fodder for the worms is no problem, there are always organic wastes to be collected, in the form of animal dung, crop trash, paper or fallen leaves. Of the many types of vermiculture systems available , the stacked tire worm farm, which costs nothing to set up, is the most appropriate solution . We have described the setting up and operation of this simple system in detail on our web site at  http://www.working-worms.com/


In brief, all the children need to do, is to collect discarded old tires and stack them upon a drainage board, as described in the article, and then begin feeding in organic waste from the top. The compost worms, will naturally migrate upwards towards the food, leaving their faeces (worm castings) behind them. The vermicompost is harvested by pulling out the lower tire from the bottom. The tire is emptied of compost and then it goes back to the top of the stack again and so on.  The beauty of this system is that it costs nothing to set up and can be replicated many times over, to create multiple sets of individual worm farms to whatever scale is appropriate. All that is needed is a small amount of training and a supply of suitable compost worms – usually eisinia fetida (red wigglers), which can be donated from other schools, already on the programme, or from concerned individuals.


Stacked Tire Worm Composting is an appropriate low tech solution to a widespread Third World problem. It is a technology that does not require constant cash injections and can be fully run by the communities themselves. Besides everything else, the children will have a great deal of fun worm farming and will learn something useful. Best of all they will be doing something positive to improve their own lot, without relying on any handouts. This builds up human dignity. “Give a man a fish and you feed him today , teach him to fish and you feed him always”.


Think about it – maybe there is something you can do to help.