Car Air Conditioning Systems

The air conditioners found in the car works similarly as like as the air conditioners present in the houses and offices. In simple words, the air conditioning system of a car is the small unit of window air conditioning system. With the passage of time, the air conditions found in the car have got changes, and now the latest models are available, which provide more and comfortable cooling.

In order to understand, how the car air conditioning system operates, it is required to know various parts of this unit. First of all, the most important component which is present in this system is the compressor. The compressor is the central component which emits hoses of both high and low pressures. When these hoses come out, they go inside the condenser and finally to the evaporator. In this system, there are two types of valves like expansion and dryer valves, which are required for the proper functioning of this system. The function of expansion valves is to regulate the internal temperature of air, and it controls the refrigerant flow inside the system. There are certain anti-freezing agents as well like coolant or condensed gases, which pass through these valves.

The mechanism of a car air conditioning system is quite different from the conventional air conditioners. The car system instead of making the air cool, take out the heat, which is already found in the air. The Freon gas is used in the car air conditioning system which possesses a high temperature. When this gas passes through the compressor, the pressure channels mix it with the fresh air. The total gas mixture due to compression becomes liquid, and then it comes to the dryer. This chamber purifies the gas and sends to the evaporator through an expansion valve. The liquid gas absorbs the heat of the car which is then evaporated from here by the help of a blower or fan. This phenomenon repeats several times in order to make the environment cooler.

If you got certain problems in the car air conditioning system then you need to call a mechanic, since the fixing of this system is not a simple job. However; you can avoid the development of various problems in this system and hence can escape from big hassles. It is better to check the leakage of the car air conditioning system on a regular basis. Leakage takes out all the gas present inside the air conditioner and hence with the passage of time, the system becomes useless. It is also good to check the compressor regularly. It could be done by turning on the car followed by switching on the air conditioner. After that, lift up the bonnet and identify the compressor. If there is no movement in the compressor, it means there is some problem in the switching system. Sometimes refrigerant creates problems like the cooling does not happen in the opened system. If such types of problems are identified, call immediately to an electrician or a mechanic.

Amazing Alice

Alice Springs is one of Australia’s most well known outback towns. It is almost in the centre of the Territory and lies between the West and East MacDonnell Ranges, and can be reached in a day’s drive from Darwin.

Most of the year you can enjoy sunny days, and wide, blue skies. The winter nights get very cold, so don’t forget your socks, and in summer the temperatures can soar to over 40 degrees. The best time to travel is spring and autumn, where the temperatures are not as extreme.

There is so much in this diverse town, which is the second largest in the Territory next to Darwin. You will find history in every corner, as the town was forged by brave pioneers and flying doctors who put Alice on the map. Make sure you visit the old telegraph station, which also offers bushwalking and pretty picnic spots. The Royal Flying Doctor service is known and loved by all Australians, and a visit to the original base is worthwhile to see the museum and enjoy the interactive tours.

The Alice Springs Reptile Centre also has to be seen, especially if you have boys with you (of any age!). You will be amazed at the large range of reptiles on show, including the frilly neck lizards, thorny devils, goannas, pythons and venomous snakes.

One of the highlights of your stay at Alice would have to be the ‘Spirit of the Night sky’, held at the Milky Way Café and Observatory in town. This educational and entertaining presentation, featuring powerful telescopes and displays will give you a greater insight into the heavenly realms.

The MacDonnell Range Holiday Park is recommended if you intend to stay here for a while. Set in an excellent, central location it has excellent amenities and there is plenty of room for the family.

Beyond the ranges surrounding Alice Springs are the Simpson and Tanami deserts. The Simpson is famous for its vast mesmerising dunes that go on forever, and although you can venture close should not be crossed unless you are with an experienced guide. Camel treks and four wheel drive expeditions are possible, although you won’t see many other people in this part of the world.

There are plenty of day trips not far from town which are just as fascinating. One popular natural attraction is the Rainbow Valley, located in the James ranges. You can also visit Chambers Pillar on the way which features rock carvings and is steeped in history.

Travel north from town and you will be awestruck by the natural beauty of the bush, with camping, bushwalking, gem fossicking all popular activities. Visit the Gemtree, where you can visit the gem fields on organised tours and actually find something to take home. They also offer a large camping ground if you are not in a hurry to head home. Spend some time out here and enjoy the wonders of the starlit skies. Nothing beats an open campfire in the outback, with a majestic sunrise waiting to greet you at dawn.

Heading south just over 100 kilometres, you will be rewarded by some of the most stunning scenery at Finke Gorge National Park. There are camping facilities at Palm Valley, known for its bountiful cabbage palms, if you prefer to stay longer.

If you can allow an extra few days, make sure you plan to visit the famous MacDonnell Ranges, which surround Alice Springs. The West MacDonnell ranges are easier to reach, with swimming holes and bushwalks winding through the spectacular gorges. Take your time and camp overnight, or leave at dusk and enjoy a picnic at a swimming hole. The East MacDonnell ranges are also incredibly beautiful, featuring the stunning Trephina Gorge.

Alice Springs is surrounded by the most incredible rugged Australian outback in the world. It is the ideal base to visit those hidden natural wonders that beg to be appreciated and enjoyed. Your hire car will give you all the flexibility you need to make the most of your holiday in the territory.

Difference Between Journal and Ledger


1. Is the book of prime entry.

2. As soon as transaction originates it is recorded in journal

3. Transactions are recorded in order of occurrence i.e. strictly in order of dates.

4. Narration (brief description) is written for each entry.

5. Ledger folio is written

6. Relevant information cannot be ascertained readily e.g. cash in hand can’t be found out easily.

7. Final accounts can’t be prepared directly from journal.

8. Accuracy of the books can’t be tested.

9. Debit and credit amounts of a transaction are recorded in adjacent columns.

10. Journal has two columns one for debit amount another for credit amount.

11. Journal is not balanced.

12. With the computerization of accounting journal may not be used for routine transactions like receipts, purchases, sales etc


1. Is the book of final entry.

2. Transactions are posted in the ledger after the same have been recorded in the journal.

3. Transactions are classified according to the nature and are grouped in the concerned accounts.

4. Narration is not required.

5. Folio of the journal or sub-journal is written.

6. Since transactions of particular nature are grouped at one place therefore relevant information can be ascertained.

7. Ledger is the basis of preparing final accounts.

8. Accuracy of the books is tested by means of list of balances.

9. Debit and credit amounts of a transaction are recorded in two different sides of two different accounts.

10. Ledger has two sides: left side is debit side right side is credit side.

11. Every account in the ledger is balanced at appropriate time.

12. Ledger cannot be avoided. However it may be loose leaf ledger or a computerized ledger. But ledger is a must.

DDR Dance Mats – Deciding Which Dance Dance Revolution Mat is Right For You

If you really enjoy playing Dance Dance Revolution at home, then you know what a difference the DDR Dance Mat makes in the game. There are literally dozens of different types of pads and mats available for you to use, and finding the right one for you depends on several personal factors.

  • Space available to play the game – One of the more important items to consider is how much gaming space you have in your home to play. The larger DDR Dance pads can take up a significant amount of space in your living room, and can be difficult to store. However, if space is not a problem, then your options become much greater in scope.
  • Number of DDR Dance Mats to Purchase – Another factor many do not think about goes hand in hand with the space requirement. Playing DDR is very fun to do by yourself, but the real enjoyment is challenging others in a side by side dance dual. When getting your mat, consider the space and budget requirements accordingly.
  • Lining up Budget vs. Enjoyment – The price ranges on the DDR dance mats range from $ 20 to $ 1200, so how much you spend can also be tied in with how much you enjoy playing the game. Do not overspend now, as you can always upgrade later if you decide too.

Finding the right Dance Dance Revolution dance mat for you or your family may seem difficult at first with all the options available. However, doing a little planning ahead, and considering the above factors into the decision can narrow your focus on get you dancing away in no time at all.

The Serious Dangers of Mold and Mildew in Your House

Two years of severe hurricane hits along the Gulf Coast and heavy rains and flooding this spring in the Northeast are providing a nationwide breeding ground for indoor mold and mildew growth (some deadly) now that summer heat is here. What is the solution?

The subject is surrounded by controversy. The Centers for Disease Control, Institute of Medicine, as well as scientists and doctors at Harvard University, Mayo Clinic, Mt. Sinai School of Medicine, and several State Health Agencies have all looked at the problem. There have been several studies conducted by medical researchers over the past few years looking for any linkages between various respiratory and physical ailments and deaths and the presence of molds in our living space. While some say there is a linkage, others say the facts do not support that.

Here are the facts. Mold is everywhere; inside and outside. Some molds are good (penicillin), some are very toxic and emit gases that can be inhaled (Stachybotrys "black mold"). Although some people apparently are not bothered by mold, all varieties have the potential to cause illness. Mold reproduces by generating spores that are released into the air, where they land on moist surfaces. They can grow on any organic surface such as wallpaper, ceiling tiles, carpeting, wallboard and wood. They thrive in dark, warm, moist locations, like under carpets, inside walls and ceilings. They will also contaminate items that come in contact with those surfaces.

Mold can trigger allergic reactions and asthma attacks in many. Complaints of flu-like symptoms, chronic fatigue syndrome, memory impairment, migraines, sick building syndrome, dizziness and nosebleeds are common. These are the mild symptoms. Many researchers claim that mold can attack several main body systems, including the brain, central nervous and immune systems and have been the direct cause of some deaths. Regardless of where you stand on this issue, who wants to smell mold / mildew and inhale spores from household fungus? They can lodge in your lungs (remember dark, warm and moist). Asthmatics, infants and individuals suffering immune system deficiencies are particularly susceptible.

So, what should you do if you think that your home might have a mold / mildew problem? Here's a suggested 5 step process:

• Mold Inspection- retain a qualified, certified mold inspection firm to evaluate your home and determine cause of mold and severity of infestation.

• Isolation of the Area- if there is a mold problem, you will want to isolate the area carefully to prevent carryover into non infested areas during clean up.

• Clean Up / Remediation- care should be taken to not stir up the mold; if it is severe, or in the walls, a specialized remediation firm (in space suits) may have to be used and materials removed in hazardous waste containers.

• Repair of the Cause- if there is structural damage or leaky plumbing causing a moisture problem, fix it.

• Maintenance / Prevention- an ongoing program to ensure no recurrence of the cause and use of proven purification technology to maintain a clean environment and kill mold growth.

On this last point, emphasis is placed on use of technology that has a proven track record of mold abatement. HEPA filters and electrostatic filters that are called purifiers are not effective on mold / mildew. There is, however, affordable, proprietary and safe technology currently available that has a demonstrated ability to sanitize surfaces from a variety of microbials and to stop mold / mildew growth. This effective technology has become widely accepted since it's use by the government during the 9/11 Pentagon cleanup, is currently in use in several government facilities and is available to the general public through an authorized dealer network. For more information visit []

How House Colors Affect Emotions

Have you ever observed that the atmosphere of the rooms in your house have an effect on your mood, energy level or feelings? One of the most major variables in a room that will determine its overall effect is its colors. Let's take a look at what colors have what affects:

Red is a powerful color that can grab attention, and has even been found to stimulate brain activity and raise heart rate. Feng Shui says that Front doors that are painted red are lucky. Red while the color of passion and desire (red roses, fire, blood, lipstick), can also signal danger or warning (think stop signs or red lights) and is also associated with feelings of anger. Traditional Movie theaters used red curtains, seats and carpets to capture a sense of drama. Red is a color that should be avoid as the main color of a room. However, red is a fantastic color to use as accent.A great way to accent with Red is to use it to draw attention to your homes strongest features. A red accessory on the fireplace mantel or a vase of red flowers on the granite countertops can direct the eye's focus to the most pleasing elements of the home.

Blue is known to sooth and relax, which makes it a great color for bedrooms. Blue is the color of the sea and the sky. Spending time in a blue room is a great way to de-stress. Blue is also associated with cleanliness and freshness, so it is a good color for bathrooms. Be careful of Dark Blues as they can be perceived as cold or unfriendly or depressing.

Yellow is a happy color (Smiley Faces). Yellow is a great color to use to brighten up a dark room like a basement which tends to depressing. Yellow also works great with rooms with lots of nature light, especially with lots of greens like Plants either from a terrace with potted plants or French doors leading to an outside garden.

Yellow is a great color which I recommend for kitchens, hallways, living rooms, play rooms and offices but avoid bedrooms as it may prove too energetic and intense.

Green is the color of life and balance. Green stimulates peace and calmness and is located at the center of the color spectrum. Green rooms will seem alive (plants). Green works in harmony with water, so it is a great color for bathrooms. Green is works well for bedrooms, which is where you set your balance for the day when waking up and reset when going to sleep. Green works well for studying environments.

Whit is associated with purity, order, cleanliness. White is the brightest color and bounces a ton of light. White is the "Modern" color, you will see most of the contemporary achitechture style homes are white. White also can heighten perception of space, so it may make rooms appear more spacious. Be careful with too much white or it might make a room seem clinical. Hospitals use white to create a sense of sterility.

Orange evokes excitement, enthusiasm and is an energetic color (orange juice, sunrise). While not a good idea for bedrooms this color is great for an exercise room or dining room or any other space you receive visitors and entertain. Orange is thought of as the color of creativity.

Purple is a spiritual and royal color. Many psychics use purple in their reading rooms. Purple encourages introspection and is a great color for bedrooms, and bathrooms

Black absorbs light. Black provides a striking backdrop for accent colors and creates depth. Black can be perceived as bold, mysterious, and independent. Black also represents death, and is very dark- use with care.

The color of earth, Brown can create a feeling of grounding, familiarity, and comfort. Leather sofas and wood flooring are two common sources of brown in homes. I always think of Ski Lodges when I think brown, they have so much natural wood and browns in their design, that they feel very cozy. Brown is a masculine color- think cowboys.

Wise, neutral, flexible. Grey is a great color to use if you want to make a room look more mature, or bring it closer to neutral. Everything goes with gray.

How to Remove and Replace a Drill Press Chuck

Needless to say, changing the chuck on your drill press it quite a bit different than changing the chuck on, say, your drill-driver. With the right tools and just a few more steps, though, the procedure is no more complicated.

To begin, drill press chucks, mostly due to their specialized taper, are a little bit different than your average drill chuck. The specifically tapered shaft of a drill press chuck is designed to fit firmly into the drill press spindle, which, of course, has an identical taper. This taper, one shared by almost all drill presses and their chuck counterparts, is known as Morse taper which, despite its simplicity, is incredibly efficient maintaining an always firm grip and allowing fast drill bit removal and fitting in a huge array of sizes.

NOTE: Generally, a drill press without Morse taper is a good indication of a bad drill press.

HINT: Remove drill bits from your chuck before attempting to remove it.


If your drill press chuck wobbles, won’t firmly grip a bit at a perfect vertical, has a bent shaft, or is in some other fashion defective, it needs to be replaced. Using the chuck key or chuck removal tool is the simplest and safest way to remove the chuck. If, though, for one reason or another, fate has separated you from your chuck key, you can usually purchase one separately, or you can simply cotton to a different, slightly more cave-mannish but equally effective method of removal. This more rudimentary method consists, essentially, of carefully striking the chuck with a piece of scrap wood (or other such soft-ish material that won’t damage the chuck or spindle) and a mallet.

But first – to the chuck key! Lower the quill, or the piece of the press that the chuck attaches to, until you have revealed the entirety of a length-wise access window. This window, in effect, is a key-hole in the spindle of the machine. Insert the chuck key into the window and carefully give it a few whacks with a mallet. This will force the chuck to fall out of the press.

NOTE: Before forcing the chuck out, ensure the height of your drill press table. The table should be raised high enough to catch the chuck before it falls completely out of your spindle while still being low enough to allow the chuck to completely release.

Now, if you don’t have access to your chuck key – let’s get a little cave-man. Place a strong section of scrap wood above the chuck and position it, the wood, at sharp, downward angle. Using a mallet or hammer, simply whack that wood-scrap with a swift downward strike.

NOTE: The wood-scrap need only be thick and wide enough to handle the blow, and long enough to give you sufficient space to whack it – something like ten-inches should be adequate. Additionally, the downward force of the whack ensures you don’t bend or damage the chuck shaft or spindle. As such, it is important your angle is as downward as possible.

The blow should release the chuck on contact. If not, simply ensure the angle and position of your wood-scrap and strike again.


If a drill press chuck becomes excessively dirty with sawdust, grease, or etc, is not uncommon for it to simply fall right out of your drill press. In this event, and assuming the chuck hasn’t been significantly damaged in the fall, you need to clean your chuck before reinserting it. In fact, any time you install a chuck into your machine, new or old, the chuck and press spindle should be thoroughly cleaned.

Using a clean, dry shop-rag, rub a degreasing solution such as acetone or paint thinner around the spindle, or shaft, of the drill chuck. Also clean the inside of the spindle of the drill press to ensure optimal grip and performance.

NOTE: After cleaning, it is important to allow the chuck and spindle to dry before installing.

HINT: After the chuck is clean and dry, you may also want to apply a small amount talcum powder to the chuck’s spindle. Especially if the chuck to be reinstalled is older, this will provide a bit of extra gripping power.


After cleaning the chuck and spindle, the time has now come to install that sparkling chuck. So, with as much concentrated thrust as you can muster, insert the chuck shaft into the spindle. The chuck should remain in the spindle without your help. Retract the chuck’s jaws and lower the press’ table to allow space for some mallet-swinging action. Using your trusty wood (or rubber) mallet, swiftly and forcefully pound the bottom of the chuck deeper into the spindle. Two good whacks should be sufficient force to keep you chuck stuck tight.

If you happen to be a pacifist and find whacking the drill chuck distasteful or otherwise can not complete this step, you may also stack a few pieces of scrap-wood on the drill press table and forcefully, though not aggressively, raise it into the chuck. The upward force of the raised table should push the chuck into place.

HINT: Retracting the chuck’s jaws before pounding or jamming ensures you apply pressure only to the stronger body of the chuck rather than to the more delicate and damageable jaws of the chuck. Of course, this also contributes to the overall longevity and performance of your chuck.

Brick Paver Patio Maintenance Tips

Brick paver walks and patios are becoming more and more popular each year. Our customers like the appearance, texture and charm of the many styles and colors offered in brick.

As with almost everything, brick pavers do require some maintenance to stay looking nice. Each year we suggest our customers sand the joints in their brick. Sanding the joints will help prevent erosion between bricks. Erosion between joints exposes the compacted base material and can lead to settling. Without sufficient joint sand, they can and will settle over time. The expansion of ice and snow as it freezes during a Michigan winter is enough to cause movement in brick pavers. Remember, moisture and water can be detrimental to a brick paver walk or patio. If you keep the joints sufficiently sanded you can help prevent brick movement and settling.

If settling does occur in your brick pavers – do not get overly concerned. They are designed to be reset and re-leveled as necessary. This is why bricks were so popular in road building years ago. If you do not want to tackle a project like re-leveling, we suggest you get serviced by a professional.

There are a few different types of brick sand on the market. Standard sweep sand is the most popular. All you need to do is pour the dry sand over your pavers and sweep it in place. If you are going to seal the brick, be sure to sweep any remaining sand off the brick faces.

Another sand that was very popular for a few years is called polysand or polymeric sand. Polysand has a binding agent (polymer) in it that helps keep it in place and offers resistance to moisture. As a quality control manager for a landscaping company, polysand can be a great product if it is properly installed. If improperly installed, it can leave a haze or film on the pavers. Polysanded bricks must be gently flooded with water to thoroughly hydrate the joints and to rinse the fine powder off of the brick faces. It is very important to remove any hazing before the brick is sealed.

Brick paver sealer or joint stabilizing brick sealer is highly recommended on all brick paver applications. A quality brick sealer will protect the brick from weathering and help retain its color longer. Brick sealer comes in gloss and matte finishes. Joint stabilizing sealer will seal and protect the brick while hardening standard sweep sand between the joints, locking the bricks in place.

Austin Apartment Ratings

Set amidst the backdrop of hills and rivers, Austin is rich in natural beauty and history. Austin, the capital city of Texas, is a popular destination for both business and education and is an ideal place to stay. The city offers a wide range of comfortable apartments including condos, town homes, and duplexes. Austin apartments are available for both rent and sale. One of the important factors that must be considered while selecting an apartment is its rating. Most apartment ratings are based on the experience of the renters who have lived in these apartments. Austin apartment ratings also help apartment owners to improve the quality of their properties.

Apartment management is a key factor in Austin apartment ratings, and proper management will keep an apartment fully functional. Apartment management has to look into factors such as cleaning, repair, and renovation, as well as the maintenance of swimming pools, gardens, and clubs. For a comfortable stay in an apartment, proper and effective management is a must. A high management rating gives confidence to a prospective buyer.

Some of the other basic factors that are considered by tenants when determining ratings are parking space, safety, appearance, maintenance, unit condition, and noise. An apartment with good unit condition rating will have safe and habitable units, and it will also have a good appearance. As the crime rate in the city has considerably increased, the security and safety of the residents are major problems. So, it becomes the responsibility of the apartment owner to provide proper security and safety to the people residing in the apartment.

Today, one of the main issues faced by the apartment dwellers is the maintenance problem. In most of the apartments, maintenances are included in the rent; it is the duty of the apartment owner to provide appropriate maintenance to each unit. Nowadays, there are many online sites that provide information about Austin apartment ratings. However, be cautious of the sites as some sites provide incorrect ratings.

A Potted Guide To Installing A Flat Roof

Flat roofing offers several benefits to homes and businesses alike. They are cheap to construct. They last longer than a traditional pitched roof. And, thanks to their energy efficient design, they can offer reduced heating and electricity bills.

However, whether you are building a new system on a new property or having repairs made to an existing one, before you get started there are plenty of things to think about – from the structure and insulation through to the waterproofing and finishing.

By fully understanding these things you can prepare a surface that, in addition to the benefits mentioned above, also looks great and adds value to a property.

1. Flat roofs are not actually flat
First, it's important to know that flat roofs are not actually completely flat. They should always have a slope to allow for water run-off.

2. Access and usage
If the sole purpose of the surface is simply to protect the building and everything in it from the elements then the build is going to be relatively straightforward. However, one major benefit of a flat roof is that it can also be used as a raised terrace, patio or decking area but will require second floor access from the interior or an external stairway. Even if it the covering is simply going to be just that, a roof, then you'll still need to make sure you can access the roof easily for maintenance.

3. Weight load
If the roof is intended to be used for access or recreational purposes then find out exactly what additional weight the roof can support. A professional roofer, architect or surveyor will be able to help you with this.

4. Warm or cold
In a cold roof system, the insulation sits under the deck between the joists which means ventilation will need to be included to stop condensation forming. With this method there will be some heat loss. In a warm system the insulation sits above the deck but below the weather-proofing, meaning there's no risk of condensation and so there's no need for ventilation.

5. Waterproofing
Waterproofing your roof is probably the most important part of the whole project. For obvious reasons flat roofs are more prone to leaks than pitched ones. There are a number of products and materials you could use to keep your surface area dry including GRP (Glass Reinforced Plastic), liquid coatings, single ply, bitumen, asphalt and paint – all of which have varying degrees of cost and difficulty to install.

6. Compatibility
If you are applying new waterproofing over an existing membrane it is important to check the new product is compatible as you might need a primer. One final reminder – the roof must be thoroughly clean and completely dry before you begin.

Flat roofs may not be the simplest roofs to install but thanks to improved materials and installation techniques they are some of the most durable and easy to maintain and repair if something goes wrong.

The Bicycle Helmet Myth – True and Not

Apparently there is a popular myth that city cyclists have been bandying about for years – that they are more likely to be hit by a car if they wear a helmet than if they don’t. This myth so intrigued Ian Walker, a psychologist at the University of Bath, that he decided to put it to the test. Walker fitted his bike with a special ultrasonic sensor that would measure how close cars came to him as he cycled to and from work. To complete the experiment he wore a helmet every second day and rode bare-headed every other day for two months.

His findings may surprise drivers, but they won’t surprise anyone who has ever had cause to ride a bicycle on busy city streets: on average, when wearing a helmet, cars came 8.5 cm (3.35 inches) closer to him and his bike than when he left his helmet at home. Helmet-haters are vindicated and everyone can throw their uncool and annoying helmets away.

Except that they can’t, because the results are misleading. Bicycle helmets aren’t worn to reduce the occurrence of accidents, they’re worn to reduce the impact of accidents and to prevent irreparable brain damage.

According to statistics from, bicycle helmets reduce the risk of head injury by about 85% and the risk of brain injury by 88%. They also provide a significant measure of protection for the face and forehead. In addition, studies have shown that bare-headed cyclists are 14 times more likely to die in a crash than their helmeted counterparts.

Before buying a helmet, cyclists need to consider their cycling habits and needs. For instance, are they road cyclists or off-road cyclists, do they cycle mountain trails or city streets? Road helmets can be distinguished from off-road helmets by their longer, sleeker and more aerodynamic design with narrow air vents. The vents on off-road helmets are wider because it’s assumed that cooling off takes precedence over speed.

It’s very important that helmets fit properly. Helmets should be snug on top of riders’ heads; they should be level and shouldn’t tilt to the back or to the front. The helmet should fit about two finger widths above the eyebrows to achieve maximum protection and a clear line of sight. Helmets shouldn’t be loose on cyclists’ heads, they shouldn’t swivel or fall forwards or backwards, but they shouldn’t pinch and be too tight either. Helmets usually come with extra sponges for cyclists who need to make the helmet smaller. The sponges that are already in the helmet can be removed to make extra space should it be needed.

Studies have shown that children are more likely to wear bicycle helmets regularly if their parents set a helmeted example. About 98% of children wear helmets if their parents do, but that figure drops to just 30% when their parents cycle bare-headed. Given the fact that children aged 10 – 14 have the highest figures for serious brain-related injuries sustained in bicycle accidents, parents have good incentive to strap up.

Helmets have a lifespan of around 4,500 miles (7242km), which translates into roughly 5 years (for average recreational cyclists, not professionals). Beyond that, the materials start to break down and the effectiveness of the helmet is compromised. Helmets should also be thrown away after an accident, because no matter how light the damage appears to be, cracks in the plastic and dents in the protective foam will reduce the helmet’s protective ability.

Walker’s experiment, far from giving cyclists license to feel the wind in their hair, underlines the importance of wearing a helmet at all times. While conducting his study, Walker was knocked off his bike twice, once by a truck and once by a bus, both times he was wearing his helmet, and both times he got up with skull and brains intact. Who needs more incentive than that?

Recommended sites:

Bad Awareness on Food Labelling on the Dispatches Program

Dispatches a few nights ago touched on the cereal manufacturers in Britain. This program touched on a similar topic as did the Supersize Me film in 2004.

The topic of program was regarding cereal manufacturers in Britain who refuse to accept the long proposed traffic light system for labeling the 3 essential ingredients, salt, sugar and fat.

Currently, there has to be labeling on the outside of the packaging listing the full ingredients, but a survey by the Dispatches team showed that most people on the high street when asked to decipher a standard box, the majority could not understand the information being given to them and subsequently purchased on the 'perception' of what may be conceived as healthy.

As the Daily Mail confirms also;

Revealed: The breakfast cereals saltier than crisps and with more sugar than a doughnut.

Read this to see if you would have expected the following;


Sugar per 30g bowl

Kellogg's Frosties

– 11.1g

Nestle Cookie Crisp

– 10.59g

Nestle Honey Cheerios

– 10.53g

Nestle Nesquik

– 10.5g

Sugar Puffs

– 10.5g

Kellogg's Coco Pops

– 10.2g

Kellogg's Honey Loops

– 10.2g

Why write about this on a Blackpool Hotel blog? We'll for one politics, as for many people enrages me, and where the system fails is when common sense does not prevail. There is a fine connection though in this topic in that I was interested in watching this program and comparing it to a good old fashion Blackpool hotel cooked breakfast.

Well according to the Food Standards Agency, they were asked the question and said;

Can a traditional cooked breakfast ever be a healthy choice?

Yes – If you grill lean bacon, poach the eggs and include reduced sugar / salt baked beans, grilled tomatoes and mushrooms cooked without fat, and serve it all up with thick crusty granary bread, you'll be giving your customers a delicious cooked breakfast that is also healthy and balanced.

OK we do not have stats and figures here to provide for you, but taking into account the ingredients, surely you could only agree with them?

It's not all bad though, Kellogg 's have released a very detailed press release following the airing of the Dispatches program. Some of the information listed on the site sounds convincing and all adds to a case on their defense. However one of the main points in Dispatches was the 'traffic light system' which Kellogg's answers with the following;

If labels are to help shoppers make informed choices they need to be based on what people actually eat in a serving. That's why we use GDA's, not traffic lights, which judge a food based on 100g portion.

They have NOT addressed the research of Dispatches in which they highlighted that the average consumer of these products does not either read or understand the GDA labeling, hence buying as said on 'perception'. How many parents would buy a cereal if it contained 3 red stars for fat, sugar and salt?

It's ironic really that the producers of Kellogg's Common Sense (main sponsors of the Olympics) do not seem to apply any Common Sense in helping inform parents the best choice for their children.

I suspect with a little peer pressure and more publicising Kellogg's would possibly introduce this method. However they have to be wary of turning children off their products in the process of producing real healthier options. It would be a start in trying to reduce the growing obesity problem that is plaguing this country!

Power Tool Safety Advice

Many contractors and do-it-yourself handymen need to use power tools on a regular basis. The tools they use can make their job go a lot quicker and the outcome of the product can look and be a lot more professional. But with the plethora of tools available comes their safety and being able to work around these tools comfortably without bringing yourself or anyone around you harm. Certain tools are extremely powerful and can do a lot of harm to a person if the tool is not used right or is left lying around for others to play with. That's why anyone who owns any type of power tool needs to follow the right safety measures in order to ensure a safe environment and home.

One safety tip would include wearing protective clothing and accessories. For instance, a lot of power tools involve cutting or drilling into wood, metal, and plastic. In turn, the shavings of these materials can fly back and hurt the person who is using the power tool. You want to make sure that you and anyone near you is wearing protective work goggles. These goggles are not ordinary glasses and are completely enclosed to ensure that no wood or metal shavings fly into the person's eyes. It's a good idea to fit the goggles to your face specifically so that they do not fall off while working on a project and in order to ensure a snug fit.

A lot of power tools are also very noisy and can damage the delicate intricacy of a person's ears. If you're working with loud equipment, make sure to wear ear plugs. These particular items can be purchased in any department store or pharmacy. They are often made of foam and fit snugly in a person's ear canal. They work by blocking out external noise, which will allow you to work with your power tools for as long as you want without having to worry about your ears being damaged because of it.

Yet another tip to follow would be to tie back long hair and to wear clothing that does not hang or dangle. If you happen to have long hair and are planning to work with a particular type of power tool, it's essential that you tie back your hair in order to ensure that it does not get tangled within the mechanisms of the tool in question. Likewise, clothing that hangs and can get tangled in the tool should also be avoided. Instead, wear clothing that is either snugly fit or try to wear short sleeves so that you do not have to worry about the sleeves getting caught in the tool. If you are working with metal, wearing long sleeves may act as protection against shards that may fly back. Remember to take all things into consideration.

One of the most beneficial safety measures that you can take is to unplug your tools and store them away after every use. If you are working from home and you have small children, you want to make sure that they can not use the power tools to play with. This can also be a beneficial step to take if you have curious pets who may accidentally switch a tool on by stepping on the button or hitting it with their paw. When using power tools, keep in mind the basic safety tips and you are sure to have a worthwhile experience with your equipment.

CAD Professional Versus Professional Engineer

Do you sometimes find it difficult to see the difference between a CAD Designer and a Professional Engineer? Each plays a vital role on the design team. They both use similar skills sets to design the product, but their responsibilities are quite different. A very experienced CAD Operator or Designer may indeed ask the question what is the difference between themselves and an Engineer.

In many situations the Designer is far more experienced than the engineer. Why is the engineer necessary, if the designer draws the plans, and the engineer only checks off? Ever had a designer ask why he needs a license to practice as an engineer. He knows everything and more than any engineer. But once they know the difference many would say that they do not want the responsibility of the engineer.

One of the important management skills in the business of engineering is to have a sufficient number of engineers and CAD professionals on a project or projects meeting a prescribed ratio to maintain a competitive advantage over the competition. Large companies can reach this ratio much easier than smaller business. Larger firms can shuffle individuals from various departments to form new design teams or to strengthen existing design teams. Smaller firms general rely on the utilization of multiple skill sets from their staff, which assists the company in taking on several different types of jobs.

The ratio of Professional Engineer and CAD Professionals is directly related to the salary and benefits of each job position and the type of project. The average salary for a CAD Operator is roughly $44K, a CAD Designer is about $60K, and a Project Engineer is about $68K. A design team of 10 individuals normally consist of one Project Engineer, 2-3 CAD Designers, and 6 to 7 CAD Operators with various levels of skills and experiences.

Professional Engineer

The role of the engineer is well defined for designs that require a state registered Professional Engineer to stamp and sign a set of plans. In this case engineer is in a responsible role and supervises the design process. They are responsible to check all calculations and designs whether done by hand or by software, and not only the work they have done but all of the work that others have done on the design. With a few exceptions no one can use the title of engineer without having graduated from and engineering college. In cases were you are stamping and signing design plans only an individual registered as a Professional Engineer in that state can us the title.

The Professional Engineer performs two major roles on the Design Team; manager and engineer. There are situations were the team manager is a non-engineer, but this requires a highly skilled manager that is able to manage without making design decisions. A Professional Engineer is required by State law to supervise all designs that he stamps and signs. This why in most cases the Project Manager, leader of the design team, also holds a Professional Engineering license.

Large design teams may actually have both a Project Manager and a Project Engineer. The Project Manager is responsible for all actions and work products of the team, and is responsible for all managerial actions. The Project Engineer is responsible for all designs, CAD work, and calculations that they may have done or the team has done. A good Project Engineer will duple check all work product and CAD Work of the team. The team may several Project Engineers each responsible for their own projects.

In smaller teams the Professional Engineer is called upon to perform two roles; the Project Engineer and the Project Manager. The teams are usually 5 or less individuals. In these situations, the engineer is not only responsible for the design and all work product produced by the team, but also he has a supervisory role over the entire team.

Most engineers have excellent technical skills, but not necessarily the same level of expertise in management. It is responsibility of the engineer to develop these management skills through continuing education. This continuing education can be obtained through Community Colleges, Universities, Professional Training Programs, Professional Organizations, and online training courses. In most states these continuing education courses qualify for continuing education units (CEU) or Professional Development Hours (PDH).

CAD Professional

CAD professional is often referred to as a CAD drafter or designer. A CAD Professional does not assume the responsibility of a state registered Professional Engineer. Although subject to company policies and industry reputation, CAD Professionals do not carry a state license that is subject to a State Board review or disciplinary action, or are they liable in a lawsuit. Yet any experienced CAD Designer is indispensable in engineering design firm. Their knowledge of the CAD software speeds up the design process, allowing the firm to perform more work in less time. Their year of design experience in various aspects of engineering enhances the design firm expertise in dealing with unusual designs.

It takes many years to become a good CAD Designer for and engineering firm. The transition from CAD operator to Designer can be too difficult for many. The designer knows the CAD software inside and out and has a big tool box of solutions for almost any design problem. Their years of experience make them invaluable in any engineering form. Usually the designer takes on several roles training and over seeing the CAD Operators, and handling the brunt of the major computer aided design options. Basic CAD work and plan revisions are generally handled by the CAD Operators.

Typically a Designer does have a technical degree from a Community College, and may even be certified by an official organization as an expert CAD Designer. CAD Designers have opportunities in a vast array of professions not only engineering. Some of the other fields that require their services are architecture, product design, graphic design, 3D animation, and game design.

So, is there a real difference between Designers and Professional Engineers? Well of course there is. Both are an important of the design team, yet their roles and responsibilities are quite different.

Manifesting a Miracle With Peaceful Detachment

What are the Higher Selves doing while all this is going on? Are they just busy manifesting miracles on other planets while Earth goes to Cosmic Doo-Doo?

Higher Self phone home! This is the number …. I'm waiting!

I just got the Doctors Without Borders brochure yesterday about their upcoming exhibition here. Oh my gosh after seeing that, can I bear to go and see more? What do I have to give them? And please do not even talk to me about Darfur.

This is BIG. If the billionaires do not stay that way, if the bankers do not manage the zillions properly, what the – can I do?

Breeeeeeathe deeeeply ….. dial 1-HIG-HER-SELF, FAST. I forgot to put it in speed dial and now my fingers are tripping. Get it on speaker – gasp -what is the Word? Oh yeah – I AM.

Okay, everything just got quiet for a second.

What are the therapists and healers doing or saying while I write this? Are they trembling over their 401K reports?

First tip – do not get paralyzed. Read those reports later. Things change and things get better.

Things just did get better for some bankers who will get a bonus off the recent US bailout – I do not know how they regulate it in other countries. I, like many, do not understand how CEO's walk away from dying companies with tens of millions. How is that legal? What are their Higher CEO's thinking? It is a mean puzzle to contemplate.

So here's a new start. "I too can benefit from any situation, for the good of all and harm to no one".

Reality manifests from things we have thought and felt previously. So do more, now, of any Law of Attraction process you have, than you did yesterday. Schedule a couple of extra breaks, sneak into a stairwell and look at your kids' photos for a minute. Or your new puppy's, or look out the window at some trees for 2 minutes. I know the trees are rooting for us.

It can get worse – but has anything actually changed for you in your immediate surroundings in the past 2 weeks? For many, if they did not come into contact with any media, they would not know.

If the human drama and emotional energy overtakes you now, what will happen next? Something to the vibration of the fear and uncertainty that is ricocheting now. So go for peaceful detachment.

Whatever has ever worked for you in practicing deliberate conscious creation, right now is the time to do it double. You can take intelligent precautions by knowing what could happen next without poisoning your nervous system.

If the people at the gym are talking about how bad it is right now say "is not it great that the gym is still open?"

Whatever situation you are in, keep creating and vibrating with the idea of ​​having all the help you need. Keep saying thank you for every little thing. Get back to your envisioning and other reality creations.

Probably a lot of those women over there in the refugee camps in Darfur who have to manage food and water rations every day, (when they have them) could run a better banking system for the world. They know what really matters.

Check on what you mean by miraculous in your mind. Edit, cut / paste as needed, and remember THE POWER that has created all you have now, and while some things may leave your life, maybe room is needed for something you prefer.

Getting a little peaceful detachment now IS manifesting a miracle. And will create more of same.