What is Sheet Metal Fabrication?

Sheet Metal Fabrication refers to the techniques and processes involve in the shaping and bending of sheet metals for creating various components. By the use of these sheet metals, there are a lot of sections as well complex shapes that can be formed. The things that are produced nowadays which contain any metal component are required to undergo some kind of process in sheet metal fabrication. Take for instance those that are produced in manufacturing fields such as appliance, electronics, medical or computer usually make use of metal fabrication process.

So, the first process in sheet metal fabrication so as to come up with the final product is cutting. Before any fabrication of sheet metals take place, they should be cut into various shapes and the resulting pieces are modeled into corresponding final pieces.

There are various processes that are under cutting big pieces into thinner ones including shear stress and electrical discharge machining (EDM). Shearing is through applying stress to the cutting equipment. Electrical discharge machining involves melting conductive materials which in an electrode spark which is from a small, completely charged electrode bounded by iodized water.

Tin snips and electrical powered shears are some of the different tools which are usually employed in cutting of sheet metals. Computer Numerical Control Lasers or Computer Numerical Control Punch Press are some of the computer based machines can also be utilized in the process. Tin snips is of requisite since it is utilized daily for it is a hand tool. Electrical powered shears is also usually used that functions through the help of an electric motor powered by a battery. It consists of movable cutting blade and crank drive to properly cutting sheet metals. After that the laser light is pressed transversely the exterior of metal sheets so as to cut into Computer Numeric Control lasers pieces. Computer Numerical Control Punch Press is then utilized in cutting metal sheets into various shapes or sizes such that of a circle, hexagon or square. Water jets which make use of high water pressure that ranges from 20,000 up to 60,000 with the intention of properly cutting metals. It does not produce any kind of heat whilst it is being utilized in cutting and is an important factor.

Forming is the one that proceeds to cutting in which metal sheets are modeled into the needed shape. It describes the various ways which are utilized so as to shape the sheet metals into various forms. Ductility is the capability of the metal sheets in allowing it to be maneuvered devoid of fracturing it. It is also the one that is being cared for by forming. Processes that belong in forming are those which include rolling where metal are shaped into flat pieces by using roll stands, welding where it unites together the pieces of metal sheets, punching where metals are punched to create holes, stamping where dyes and tools are employed to create designs on the metal and hardware and clasp creation techniques are employed to put in handles or latches to sheet metal.

Finishing is where rough edges and spots are being polished or eliminated which is also undergone by each one of the metal good. And subsequent to going throughout all of the processes, we will get completed sheet metal merchandise.

Fine Dining Etiquette – A Survival Guide

A quick rundown of who you’ll encounter when dining at a fine restaurant: The Maitre D’, sometimes referred to as the headwaiter, will be standing at the dining room’s entrance. He will be the one to show you to your table and will seat you. He is the man that you will talk to if you would like any sort of special service or have any certain request. He is easily identifiable because he will be the one in a tuxedo. He serves the same function as a captain in a smaller restaurant. If there is food to be prepared at the table, for example Steak Diane, it will be cooked by the captain (maitre d’).

You will notice that the captain will be the one to take your order and will oversee that it was prepared to your requests by the kitchen, and will serve it properly. If you are at a restaurant that has no maitre d’ the captain will perform these responsibilities. He will also be uniformed in a tuxedo. Waiters are the ones that pick up your food and drinks from the kitchen and bar and do the actual serving. Busboys are the ones that are responsible for clearing your table and such tasks as refilling your water glass, and in older days for giving a clean ashtray. The wine steward, also known as a sommelier, will present the list of wines to the host. It is perfectly acceptable for you to ask for a suggestion.

The Menu: Most likely you will receive an a la carte menu which means that everything you see is priced separately. The entree will often include a portion of rice or potatoes, but the vegetable will come at an additional cost. If you receive a menu that is called a table d’hote or prix fixe, the prices you see will be fore the entree and will include your dinner, with an appetizer, and you’ll also get a salad, dessert. Yes!

Giving Your Order: You will see that the captain does not take all of the orders from the man alone. He will first ask each woman for their separate order and then will ask the men for theirs. If you are in a large party, the captain will ask each person one by one for their order and will not go with the default gender-based system. You may find yourself with a menu that is in a foreign language, for example at a French restaurant. Simply let the captain know that you need assistance – he will translate the menu for you. Even if the menu is in English, for some of the specialties you’ll need a bit of interpretation, since they may be named by the chef and not readily understood.

Serving Yourself: There will be times when you will be served your sides in side dishes. It is proper to transfer these sides onto your plate by using a large spoon. You may also choose to share a part of your meal with your dinner guests. Do so with a serving spoon before you begin eating. Likewise, two people with two different entrees should divide up the portions before starting to eat. And finally, if you can’t finish your meal and someone at at your table would like to, serve that person the untouched portion of your plate with a clean serving utensil.

Laying Ceramic Tile Onto Linoleum Flooring

Linoleum is a floor covering which is usually made from renewable materials such as solidified linseed oil, pine rosin, ground cork dust, wood flour, and mineral fillers such as calcium carbonate.

Over time, if you decide on changing things up a bit by laying ceramic tile over your existing linoleum flooring, it is always best to first remove the linoleum and as much glue as you can from the floor. Take note that linoleum is not a good substrate for tiles.

Laying ceramic tile on top of any “soft” floor covering like linoleum is never a good idea. One way to remove the linoleum is to scrape off as much linoleum cement/glue as you can with a metal scraper.

However, if this sounds like a bit too much work, you can just scratch it up with a belt sander once and then use a palm sander another time.

It is also best to vacuum up the loose materials, then just apply the steps explained in our earlier posts for laying ceramic tile and let them dry. If there is a need, you can also apply a waterproof treatment. The key thing is to let each stage dry thoroughly before adding the next item.

It is important to remove the linoleum else when laying ceramic tile, the new tiles will rock/wiggle slightly after the job is done and you will have continual cracking of the applied grout.

Lastly, if removing linoleum is still too much to do; the last option would be to use cement boards as a base. It can be used right over the existing flooring, if you wish. Personally I would remove it when laying ceramic tile, though.

Ladder Stabilizer – Easier Movement Above the Ground

Ladder stabilizer increases the stability of a ladder and improves your reach when working. This is a ladder accessory with arms in wide tubular shape and skid-free pads made of rubber. A stabilizer can be used in any types of extension ladders providing you a better grip on your working surface. Although ladders can greatly help in reaching higher work areas, you must remember that the higher the height of the ladder is, the more unstable it becomes. This is where ladder stabilizers become an essential accessory to keep your workstations steady and sturdy despite any height.

A ladder stabilizer helps you perform risky jobs that are beyond a ladder's limitation. It allows you to access the different sides of a window with not much effort. You only need to position the stabilizer once and you can already efficiently reach all sides of a window. It even allows you to work around all areas of a gutter. Ladders can sometimes be a hindrance for you to see and reach the parts of a gutter that you need to work on. Using stabilizers provide you the flexibility to comfortably reach and work even on deep soffit to hang a gutter.

A ladder stabilizer can definitely provide a lot of ease and safety while working in heights. The following additional information on the types of stabilizers and buying tips can help you decide on what to look for:

Added versatility with adjustable ladder stabilizers

There are two types of ladder stabilizers – fixed depth and adjustable.

Fixed depth stabilizers are installed on your ladders by sliding it over the rungs of your ladders. Then you have to use a safety clip to make sure it is locked in place. This type of stabilizer is usually 45 inches and can hold the ladder about 10 inches away from the walls of your house. This can carry a workload of about 300 lbs. This type can be found in home centers or hardware shops and could only cost around USD 15 to USD 30 each.

Adjustable ladder stabilizers provide additional versatility. Unlike the fixed-depth type, this is installed in the ladder rails using U-bolts. It can still hold the same amount of workload with the fixed depth, however, the positioning of this type can vary. It can be easily converted from a wider to a narrower width, depending on what your work will require. You have the option to rent it for $ 10 a day or purchase it at home centers for only USD 70.

Just A Few Reminders

  • Stabilizers are not to be used with folding ladders.
  • Check for existing overhead power lines in your work area. Not doing so can possibly cause injuries or even death due to electrocution.
  • It is a no-no to stand on the stabilizers.
  • Ladder stabilizers are not used as alternative to work plank hangers in a ladder. It is intended to support and maintain the ladders stability.
  • Always ensure that you are complying to the suggested workload capacity of the ladder and its stabilizer. Ladder stabilizers can not support additional workloads.

While a ladder can help you reach the highest work area, a ladder stabilizer provides you your much needed stability. Ladder stabilizers ensure that you are perfectly safe working even at the highest point that your ladder can take you.

Stair Chair Lift Ratings

Stair chair lifts are giving people back their mobility and their home. But deciding on what is the best stair lift for your needs is not that easy. Not all residential models offer the same features and the price variation between brands can be enormous. What follows are stairlift ratings of the most popular brands.

Summit Stair Lift

The Summit stair lift is for those on a limited budget. It has been designed to offer basic functionality that is reliable. The Summit is still powered by AC mains electricity. Just about every manufacturer uses DC 24 volt rechargeable batteries. Battery powered stair chair lifts are better because they offer smoother starts and stops, are easy to install as there's no wiring, are safer than mains and the lift can still be operated during power outages. The Summit also uses an outmoded cable system to pull the carriage along the track. The cable used in them by Summit is aircraft cable and is rated at 4,200 lbs, so there is no danger of breakage.

The Summit does come with basic safety control. The footrest has a sensor that will immediately stop the chair should it encounter any object on the stairs. You also get a seatbelt. What you will not get with a Summit stair lift are sensors on the actual carriage itself, so an object on the track will not stop the chair. The control panels are not wireless either, they are wall mounted.

The Summit chair lift is a product that will transport the user up and down the stairs – though not in any great style. It is a workhorse and has been proven to be reliable with surprising little maintenance even though it employs old technology.

Rating: 3 out of 5

Acorn Stair Lift

Acorn stair lifts, like Summit, can only be used on a straight staircase. Unlike a Summit lift, the Acorn is a more sophisticated machine. The Acorn Superglide stair lift is a battery powered rack and pinion system. This is the industry norm. The rechargeable battery pack gives a smooth start and stop and the rack and pinion drive ensures a smooth ride overall. The Acorn comes with two wireless remote controls with send / call functionality. There is also a mechanical joystick to control the stair chair lift – the toggle overrides the remote controls.

You can also buy the Acorn Superglide outdoor stair lift. Interestingly, Acorn also makes a perch stair lift for those who find sitting uncomfortable or impossible. The Acorn Perch can also be used on narrower staircases. The Superglide Perch by Acorn comes with a 'wander lead' control which can be positioned to allow maximum comfort and ease of operation.

The Acorn stair lift would suit the requirements of the majority and is an excellent one.

Rating: 4 out of 5

Bruno Stair Lift

Few manufacturers make curved stair lifts. This is because they lack the expertise. Bruno is a company that does have this expertise. Bruno is ISO-9001 certified, which is the most stringent and widely recognized quality standards in the world.

Bruno makes not just one straight stairlift but four; 3 home stair and 1 outdoor lift. Each home from Bruno offers a heap of features that come as standard. The Electra-Ride Elite is its top model. It comes with 5 surfaces fitted with safety sensors, on both the footrest and carriage. It has an overspeed safety brake, retractable seat belts, and wireless remote controls and it can carry up to 400lbs. The seat height can be adjusted from 19 "to 24 1/2" and the footrest can be adjusted too to give maximum comfort. The rail protrudes 5 "from the skirting – the industry norm is about 8".

The Bruno Electra-Ride III Curved Rail can be installed on just about any staircase, no matter how much it curves. It can carry up to 350 lbs and an optional wrap-around "park" position is designed to save room and make using it that much easier.

The Bruno stair lift is one of the best on the market and remains very popular.

Rating: 4.5 out of 5

Stannah Stair Lift

Stannah is a UK stair lift manufacturer that now ships to over 40 countries. In my opinion this is the best stair lift you can buy. They recently released the Stannah 120 with Solia and Solus models. The stair chair lifts were designed in partnership with one of Europe's leading design agencies and it shows. The Solus has a real contemporary look while the Solia appeals to the more traditional user. Not only do these lifts look good but they are probably the most technically advanced on the market. They can be used on stairs with an inclination of 52 degrees – just about everyone else in the industry can only manage 45 degrees. Also, they have developed a unique and innovative twin rack system for the track. Not only does it look stylish but it only protrudes the skirting by 3.7 "making a Stannah ideal for steep or narrow staircases.

The other features that come with it can match and out do anything else on the market. For instance, the Stannah chair lift can be supplied with a motorized swivel chair – fantastic for those will severe mobility problems. No other manufacturer offers this.

The Stannah stair chair lift is the Rolls Royce of the industry.

Rating: I'd like to give it 5 out of 5 but nothing is perfect, so I'll settle for 4.99 out of 5.

The Benefits of Cord Blood Banking

We hope that you finish this article having learned at least a little bit of new information. If so, then we have done our job.

If you could help to ensure the coming vigor of your result with minimum sacrifice and sweat, would you do it? What about if you had the muscle to help your result grows into maturity with a useful well for hostility life-threatening diseases? Any caring mother or grandmother wants to help a precious new element of the family to grow up freely and vigor; and with new innovations in checkup technology, that detail fantasy is seemly increasingly probable. More than ever before, it’s achievable for those with occupied lives, an ordinary proceeds and a mounting family.

One kind of technology in particular is donation fresh mothers a certain stillness of thoughts and the prospect to invest in their family’s coming. Not only does it proposal an impending way to enhance or pleasurement genuine vigor harms in a result, but it could also provide lifesaving pleasurements to other family elements. It’s called cord blood mounding, and it contains the collection and storeroom of state mentions found in the blood provide of a new baby’s umbilical cord, which are gathered at birth with a straightforward and entirely pain minus practice.

Twine blood mounding uses blood from this part of a baby’s body because it’s a loaded well of stem state mentions, which act as ‘structure blocks’, or master state mentions, for the construction of blood, bandannas and the immune procedure. Different other kinds of state mentions, stem state mentions have the ability to transform themselves into suchlike kind of detail state mention is essential by the body at any particular time. Consequently, they act as a biological darn procedure, because they can be worn to regenerate state mentions to reconstruct any spoiled or unhealthful organs or bandannas, when that becomes essential.

The second half of this article will help you to extend upon what you have learned in the first half.

The most generally poetized use of stem state mentions is in bone spirit transplants. In statement, over the last twenty being or so, stem state mention transplants have been revealed to also successfully darn concern bandanna, and to pleasurement many red and ashen blood state mention diseases, as well as cancers such as leukemia. They have also been worn to pleasure bone disorders such as osteoporosis. In the near coming, stem state mention transplants may well become the pleasurement of select for many diseases, in the same way that antibiotics are presently worn to patent up a sort of illnesses.

For this persuade, open funding bodies and checkup examine organizations have invested violently in stem state mention technology. Scientists judge stem state mentions will quickly be a helpful well for pleasuring harms such as several sclerosis; Parkinson’s disease; diabetes (counting result en’s diabetes); Alzheimer’s; stroke; muscle spoil; and concern disease or spoil to the concern’s muscles incurred during a concern strike. They also chance to consume them in the pleasurement of spinal cord injuries.

Twine blood mounding anticipates this checkup development by storing blood for coming use. If you keep a provide of your baby’s stem state mentions, or the blood that contains the stem state mentions, through cord blood mounding, you are donation your result a way to access lifesaving state mentions in the coming, should they want pleasurement for dozens of different kinds of diseases or injuries. In addition, it’s probable that these state mentions will attest to be a rigorous harmonizes for close family elements who may also want them, as stem state mention transplants have been worn to reclusively pleasure both resulted and adults.

Ensuring you have your own provide of vigor stem state mentions through cord blood mounding could mean you will never have to explore for a harmonizing state mention scaffold at an open blood mound. Civic safflowers for cord blood mounding are relatively few and far between; and these sorts of harmonizing practices can be very time-consuming. There is also no ensure that doctors will be able to find a rigorous harmonize for you or your family from open donations when one is most urgently wanted.

It’s particularly important for those from ethnic minorities to donate to open cord blood mounding organizations. That’s because those from particular ethnic backgrounds, and those with certain kinds of ethnically assorted heritage, have an especially tough time ruling a harmonizing scaffold. African-American patients, for example, are greatly minus probable to find a harmonized, unrelated bone spirit scaffold and are thus shrewd to invest in trust a exclusive stem state mention provide. Fortunately, with umbilical cord blood, a part harmonize is acceptable, and if enough non-Caucasians and those of assorted heritage donate, the prospects of ruling a harmonize are greatly elevated.

Twine blood state mentions are not the same as the controversial nascent stem state mentions, and cord blood mounding does not contain the use of nascent state mentions in any way. Budding state mentions, as the name suggests, are full from person seeds that are typically four or five living old. Specifically, they are harvested from seeds urban from eggs that have been fertilized in an in vitro fertilization clinic, and then donated for examine purposes. They can also be full from aborted fetuses, or produced with a certain kind of cloning skill.

Budding stem state mention examine (distinct cord blood mounding and examine) has attracted a good total of controversy because it regularly contains the destruction of the seed from which the state mentions are full. In diverge, cord blood mounding and examine has not attracted denial opacity, because cord stem state mentions can be lonely from the blood of a infant’s umbilical cord lacking any denial realize on mother or result. For this persuade, it has attracted more open scaffold than nascent stem state mention examine, as well as better levels of government funding and a stronger endorsement from most sectors of the scientific district.

Twine blood mounding is patently a helpful well and looks set to become the face of checkup skill in the near coming. It proposals the prospect for decisive action, to those sans relaxed access to a inborn outcome that could help their resulted and other family elements when they are most in want. Put easily, it’s a way to cover the coming vigor of your bordering and darling against ordinary but impedingly life-threatening illness. For that judgment forward, cord blood mounding very is a once-in-a-existence opportunity.

Share the information that you have learned with your friends and family. They will be impressed by your knowledge and happy to learn something new.

Bamboo Laminate Flooring

Bamboos are not really popular in building houses like many trees. Technically bamboos are not classified as trees; they are tall grass that grows in a region with warm climates. The good things about bamboos are they cheap, they are easily to find, they're light and they have many uses. Asia has known to use bamboos in many different ways. It can be food like the bamboo shoot. It is also used as medicine for treating infection and healing. It is also used to make clothes. Even in musical, they make it as instruments like the bamboo organ in Las Pinas, Philippines. Several manufacturers also offers bamboo bicycle for transportation. Some legend and myths in Asia says that warriors use bamboo as a weapon on a fight. In history they also use bamboo as a writing surface. They also use in construction building such as fencing, fountains, grates and gutter. They are also used as decorative piece at home.

And around the world bamboo flooring are used in home. Natural flooring has become popular because of public's awareness on environmental issues. Bamboo laminate flooring has many advantages for home owners.

Bamboo laminate flooring is a good way of saving money because it's not expensive. Not like hardwoods, bamboo flooring is even harder and durable. Some call bamboo the hardest plant known to man. Manufacturers make sure that bamboos are mature enough before furnishing it.

Bamboo laminate flooring is scratch, stain resistant and stays in good condition for a long period of time.

You may say it is intended to use in construction like flooring because you can treat insect and rots by boiling cut bamboo.

It is also easy to install compared by thickness. It is installed on top of a solid floor by glue or nails. But you can also just lay it on the solid floor. It is called "float" flooring.

It is suitable in kitchen and bathrooms. Water from sinks or showers is not a problem. Bamboo laminate flooring can tolerate splashes and spills without damaging it. But you should still be careful of letting water on this spot for too long.

It is sound resistant so it's perfect for apartment use. It can deal with daily wear and very durable.

Bamboo is cultivated and harvested without damaging the environment. If you're an eco-friendly and looking for a way to help the environment, you can try the bamboo laminate flooring. Bamboo grows so fast, it replenish itself much faster than a tree. And it also prevent soil erosion.

There many manufacturer now that service on bamboo laminate flooring. They charge you cheaper than using expensive woods. It is not only cheap, they are beautiful too. It looks expensive without paying so much.

But any other things in the world bamboo laminate flooring have disadvantages too. For those who are accustomed on natural wood feeling, laminate floors can feel artificial.

Sometimes people think that bamboo laminate flooring adds to the resale value of a home not like hardwood that is high cost flooring.
If the flooring is not install properly it may tend to squeak every time you on to it. It will be annoying and noisy.

And one more disadvantages of these bamboo laminate flooring is when there is heavy damage you need to replace the whole floor not like the hardwood that you can replace where the damage is.

However, it provides this kind of flooring a do-it-yourself to install. It is much less expensive to install than hardwood floors. It last long and it is good for environment.

Tips and Hints For Car Re-Spray For Effective Car Modification

The most fantastic way of car modification and to change the appearance of your car is to re-spray it. One way to avoid the problem of scratches scrapes or paint degradation is to apply bare metal spray.

Spray cans are only appropriate when you are repainting at small scale. Repaint at big level will require a professional finish and therefore acceptable arsenal of car repaint equipment which includes filtered booth to avoid emission carcinogens and other environment damaging gases into the atmosphere and a high quality spray gun with different sizes of nozzle depending on the paint and finish required.

Before starting the car repaint jobs please make sure that the area is completely dust free. Performing car repaint is encouraged in a warm environment as it really makes your job easier and really enhances the finish of your paint. If you happen to be in a cold territory then make sure you have an access to a low bake oven.

Make sure you apply the right paint for the right job as varieties of different paints are available in the market all made for different purposes. For instance if you want to apply a flip paint or even want to give a special effect to your car by repainting it then both will require different types of paints. There are variety of effects to choose from which includes metallic, pearlescent, translucent and many more. Obviously the technique to apply these will differ accordingly. However I will presume a regular base paint in this article in order to just make myself clear.

Before you start to repaint your car make sure that you have complied with all the safety measures. The most important safety step before repainting your car is to cover your mouth with good filtration. The paint fumes are believed to be medically injurious to inhale so a normal decorator mask is not going to provide appropriate safety. Furthermore ensure that the area in which you are performing the repaint is well ventilated and there’s a good passage of fresh air.

As explained above spray paint cans are good only for small scale repaint. For large scale repaint you need to acquire a spray gun and good quality paint. Moreover spray paint cans are more expensive on aggregate basis so if you are looking for a cool and stunning car modification through repaint you have to stop relying on spray paint cans. As large scale repaint means that you will be doing 5-6 thin mist coats so it would require at least 18-20 spray paint cans. So you can estimate the overall cost when you are trying to be a miser and avoid spending on spray paint gun and good quality paint.

Now coming to the procedure. For your convenience I have tried to divide the whole procedure into sequential steps so you would feel easier to remember and act as explained in this article. 

Step 1: Wash thoroughly, the area where the paint has to be applied. Make sure that the sanding and filling has been done before you reach this stage. Even the slightest uneven body surface will stand out so keep on watching the car’s body from different angles and ensure that not even a slightest bump remains there. An effective technique to figure out any bump on the car is to wet the surface and use a lamp to inspect for any flaw. All the bumps can be seen if any. 

Just in case you did not replace the old paint using paint remover and protected the metal with rust inhibitor, make sure that all the dust, grit and road film are removed via a good quality car cleaning fluid free of wax additives.

Step 2: Do some clinical cleansing.  Use a paper towel or a screen wipe which is more preferred and any solvent cleaner such as IPA or similar spirit used for cleansing purposes wipe over the surface to a smear free finish.

Step 3: Masking. Be conscious of all the exposed areas which are going to get painted. If you are not able to apply masking even a few mm then you will have to endure some really annoying over-spray lines. The masking proves itself even more significant when you are to change the color of the car. Check for all the seams by opening the car’s doors, bonnets e.t.c. and of course don’t forget to remove the glass. The more plastic you will remove from the car the easier you are making your job.

Step 4: Spraying. Make sure that the spray paint gun you are using ejects a good flow of paint and for this purpose first, test the pressure and flow by applying the paint on the small piece of a card and ensure that blobs and splatters are minimized. A really valuable tip seems to be appropriate here. When spraying paint do not aim to completely cover the metal but just smear the spray gun over the area with an even speed. Do not try to complete the job in just few thick coats. Remember that numbers of thin coats are better than few thick coats. Keep on moving the spray gun over the area with a regular pace. If you moved from right to left at first coat then move up to down in the second one as this will provide more detail. If only a portion of a car is to be painted i.e. a panel, then try to blend the paint with the surrounding panels as the paint is going to fade-off eventually. It is preferred to give a break of one hour between the coats. In majority cases the final touch has to be given through a lacquer coat. The final lacquer coat can be applied in series of thin coats.

Step 5: After applying the lacquer, let it to go off for 2-3 days before waxing. Bring an end to the repaint job by applying fine grit of wet and dry paper then polish off with a cutting paste and then apply a good quality wax. Wax is necessary as it assists and protects the car when refitting the parts and accessories you previously plucked from it.

However, ignore step 5 if you want a Matt (non-reflective finish).

Interesting Facts About Jade

When jade is found it comes inside stones, rocks and even boulders, and the value cannot be seen but only guessed upon and in fact it may not contain jade at all. One method of knowing is to strike the stone with a hammer or sledgehammer since a jade stone will rebound the hammer. Once ascertained that it is indeed jade a small window is cut into the stone and from this the expert dealers have to estimate or even guess at the value and quality within. They don’t always get it right. A Burmese taxi driver bought a jade stone for 23 U.S. dollars. He sold it on for 5000 U.S. dollars to a dealer who resold it for 23,000 U.S dollars. Once a stone is cut and the jade carved into the largest artifact it will allow, the smaller pieces are used for beads and rings and even the tiniest of pieces are ground up and combined with other ingredients to produce building materials said to promote a calm and peaceful environment in which to live or work.

Today Myanmar (Burma) is the largest exporter of jade, with some exports coming from Guatemala, New Zealand, Australia and a growing trade from Canada. Although jade is most commonly associated with China its supply is mostly exhausted and as few or no records are kept it is mostly impossible to tell where a piece of jade comes from.

The largest Jade boulder ever found is in Myanmar, estimated to weigh 3000 tons, it is buried forty feet underground and measures twenty-one meters by five meters by ten meters. There are many claims as to the largest jade carving. In Beijing there is a carving of a ship twenty feet long. In Anshan Temple, China, stands a Buddha eight meters tall weighing 260 tons. It took eighteen months and 120 sculptures to complete and is housed in a Temple building 33 meters high representing the 33 layers of heaven in Buddhism. A piece of gem-stone quality jade stone found in Canada has been carved into a 4 ton, seven feet high Buddha. Currently on display in Florida, it denotes peace and will be displayed around the world before permanently residing in Australia.

Because of its strength Jade, both Nephrite Jade and Jadeite, can be carved into the most intricate and exquisite designs depicting country scenes, dragons, herds of horses, beautiful rings, earrings or necklaces. Because of its antiquity, estimated at being 141-570 million years old, it is rising in value rapidly. Asian dealers are on a huge buy-back scheme very aggressively bidding on pieces turning up in auction rooms around the world. At Sotheby’s Auction House in Hong Kong recently a white jade seal valued at 6.4 million U.S. dollars sold for 12.29 million U.S. dollars. A small green jade elephant that sat in a bank vault for almost seventy years, valued at 150.000 pounds sterling, sold in a small English country auction house for 4.2 million pounds sterling.

What other gem holds such mystique? What other gem can be carved into such a large object and such a tiny artifact. It is valued for its artistic sentiment, its investment appreciation and its health giving benefits, bestowing calm and peace on its wearer. What other gemstone can hold its value when flawed? Some imperfect jade is all the more valuable because of it. Jade, a small piece of heaven bestowed upon mankind by the Gods.

Which Flat Roof Roofing Material Is Best For Your Flat Roof?

The best flat roof roofing material is undoubtedly a single sheet of rubber custom made for weather-proofing flat roofs, such as Firestone’s EPDM product.

This is laid directly onto roof boarding, itself supported by the roof rafters and nagging. Insulating material is normally laid in the space between the two, and if you are renewing your flat roof anyway you may as well take the opportunity of renewing that at the same time.

This will almost certainly be the recommendation you receive from any reputable builder or roofer advising you on replacing your existing flat roof.

Until recently the most popular material for a new flat roof was bituminous felt laid in three layers, the first layer nailed down and the upper two bonded to the one beneath with mastic bitumen. Depending on the material used, this could mean heating a solid bitumen-based compound to make it liquid, and then pouring it onto the underlying felt and spreading it evenly over the whole area of the roof.

Then you had to wait for the compound to cool before applying the next layer, and at the end spreading a layer of stone chippings over the roof and bonding it with a chipping compound, this being to reflect the sun’s rays and prevent the felt and bitumen degrading quickly.

This was altogether a rather messy, complicated and time-consuming job best left to the professionals. In addition, there were several stages where it was very easy to fail to make the roof weather-proof, e.g. where the edge of the felt met the existing tile or slate roofing of the pitch roof.

On top of that, if, or rather when, there developed a leak in the flat roof, it would be very difficult and messy to find out exactly where the rain was getting in. Seldom would the manifestation of the leak on the ceiling of the room below be directly below the source of it. Water could get through a weakness in the bitumen felt and travel along a rafter before descending to the ceiling board below.

The new generation of rubber-based flat roofing systems are far superior. If you have reasonable DIY abilities then you can probably do it yourself, with one other person to assist. You can easily find a local supplier of rubber flat roof roofing material online, and the current price is only around £6.65 per square metre.

Most suppliers cut the material to the exact shape and size that you require so there are no unnecessary joins, meaning no weaknesses and an extremely long-lasting, leak-proof roof.

The vital part of the whole process is to ensure that there are no gaps between the rubber roof and any existing pitch roof where rain could possibly penetrate. To ensure there are no problems it is vital to run the rubber material up and under the tiles or slates of the adjoining pitch roof so that any rain dripping from the lower-most row falls onto the rubber, with no possibility of it over-lapping the edge and getting underneath the pitch roof.

Also, make sure that the existing slope of the flat roof towards the guttering or other means of water escape is maintained. The rubber is simply glued onto the roof boards and sealed where appropriate with metal brackets or bitumen in such a way that rain penetration is impossible. Mind that the glue covers the whole of the underneath of the rubber so as to avoid bumps in the surface that could obstruct the drainage of the water away.

Rubber roofs have been shown to last for well over 50 years under all weathers, so it really is the only flat roof roofing material that you need to consider when deciding on a new flat roof.

Types of Seat Covers

Just like any other seat, car seat cover is one of the mainstreams used in cars. These covers offer a diverse range of texture, color, materials, and even patterns. It is important to choose within a wide range of varieties or by customized specification to match the interior of the car. Since the car is used for transportation, it is significant for us to travel with style and comfort. And the best way is to have a cool and comfort seat cover.

There are several types one can choose from and these include:

• Sheepskin

The quality for this type of seat cover is the comfort you get from it. It goes with three styles, which are the tailor-made, tailor-made with stretch, and custom skin. The good thing about it is that it lasts long, offers pure comfort, and it's washable. It is also very convenient to handle.

• Vinyl

This material is usually used for trucks and heavy equipped construction machineries. It is made with durable material which will last long. Installation is easy and the way you clean it is just to wipe using a damp cloth.

• Neoprene

This US made material is totally worn to perfection. The process of customizing the fit for the seat cover would be fully computerized and the best thing is that it has UV protection, water resistant, and fully breathable.

• Camo

This is barely used for style. It is used to cover up and protects the original cover seat. If you're highly adventurous and into military fashion, then this would suit you best. It is used for various car brands such as Chevy, Toyota, Ford, and Dodge.

• Realtree camo

The material used in this is originally made from a real tree. The durability would definitely last long, and the installation is easy. It is also machine washable and totally earth friendly. There are varieties to choose from this material and is often used by several car brands.

• Condura

For high endurance protection, this one will fit your needs. The good thing about this material is the quantity of protection it gives. Used for heavy industry used, it has long lasting maximum protection and waterproof as well and good to use for pets.

• Aztec

Commonly used and made in the United States, this is made of poly-cotton material and with breathable side pad lining, which offers comfort, durability, and protection compared to an ordinary product.

External Paint

We have all seen them dotted around South Africa, especially in small quaint suburbs that have a lot of history or attract people of the creative orientation. Townhouses, duplexes and cottages lined up in a row along the street, each painted in its own particular colour scheme, according to the owner’s preference.

It’s these houses that separate that particular street or suburb from the rest of its neighbours. In general people have a tendency to just stick to neutral, safe colours for their houses such as beige, white and off white colour schemes.

Occasionally you might find one house in these plain suburbs with a touch of one other colour on the accents of their house, but the basic idea is to keep everything simple. Whether it’s because they are scared their property might not be as easy to sell if it only suits a particular group of people, or whether it’s because making their house stick out from the rest of the crowd is too daunting to contemplate, is uncertain.

However, colourful houses do exist and the amount of people that are flocking to the suburbs is growing by the day. Some historic neighbourhoods in South Africa have colourful houses due to the fact that in the 1900’s technology advanced to the point where many colours of paint could be made and people took advantage of it.

In Cape Town, houses in Woodstock, Oranjezicht, Tambourskloof and Observatory all share at least one magical lane of multi-coloured homes, and it’s these suburbs that have the largest population of alternative families, artistic individuals and out-the box thinkers.

It’s the colour that draws people to buy the house. Exterior visuals play a large part when the house is on show. It’s literally one of those “love at first sight” scenarios. When you paint your house a particular colour on the exterior you are revealing yourself to the world and people respond.

Estate Agent Andre Bottger says that colour is definitely a contributing factor in the property transaction. External colour is the first thing people see and first impressions do count. He says that in his opinion most South Africans are conservative when it comes to exterior house colour.

Estate Agent Arnie Berman says the opposite, in that he generally finds that if the exterior of a house is in colour it has a positive effect on the sales.

Each colour brings its own territory of emotions and atmospheres and while the garden, fencing and structure do add to the ultimate end result, the base colour is the true origin of the over-all theme and feel. This is probably why certain colours work better when it comes to the sale of a house.

Each culture has its own philosophy about what a colour of the rainbow brings to the table of tastes and emotions, but the theme of the house should also be examined when choosing. While your favourite colour might be purple and green, that doesn’t necessarily suit an old Victorian styled house.

Recently earthy colours such as burnt orange and desert yellow have become quite popular in neighbourhoods that previously had reputations of clean white walls and picket fences. If you look at the psychological symbolism behind these two colours in comparison to global issues and where South African is today, it’s not really a surprise that people feel more comfortable coming home to these shades.

Orange is a mix between red and yellow and therefore it’s meaning is a balance between the two. Generally its association shares the same as red, although due to the yellow added, it doesn’t share the intensity. So while red is hot, orange would be warm. It’s the colour of comfort, cheer and activity. Yellow, which is the more popular of the two, is the colour of hope, communication and optimism.

Purple is more specific, as it usually deals with the spirituality of a person, which is why it only attracts certain people. Purple also refers to the mental state of a person. Turquoise is a popular colour for trimmings on a house and this colour has to do with inspiration and calmness, which is why a lot of people use it.

When you paint your house a particular colour it might not be approved of by everyone or attract everyone either, but the fact is that when it does, that person will love it for its colour, just the same as you do.

Be Waste Wise – Know Your Skips

Skips are something that few people outside of the building and waste industries know much about, but we’re all fascinated by the site of a full skip outside a house that is being renovated or emptied. In fact many of us know someone who has gone through a skip in the hope of finding something useful, or it’s something that we’ve done ourselves. But skips are not just an object of intrigue, they are also part of a very large family of waste and disposal and transportation that form the backbone of a few important industries in the country. There is also more than one type of skip available to professionals and the public, depending on their use, so here is a rundown of just some of the most popular types of skip.

The Mortar Skip

One of the more understated skips around, the mortar skip is used for collecting and preparing mortar before it is used. They come in either plastic or galvanised steel, and are often fitted with special attachments so they can be lifted by cranes or forklifts.

The Muck Tipping Skip

A common staple of building sites the world over, the muck tipping skip is generally used for clearing rubbish and aforementioned muck away from the construction site, available in varying sizes from 80 to 2000 litres, this skip is self-tipping, and is fitted with additional safety features to ensure that no one gets hurt whilst handling it.

The 6 Yard Cubic Yard Skip

This is the skip that most people will be familiar with, as it is the one seen most often on the streets, and in builders’ yards. Designed to carry large amount of mixed weight waste, the skip’s size ensures that it can fit all manner of large and awkwardly shaped items, such as mantelpieces, furniture and car parts.

The Geared Rollover Skip

Definitely one for professionals only, the geared rollover skip is used for pouring concrete. It pours on walls, and is also used for general applications as it has a geared gate that allows the user to control the amount of concrete that is discharged. Available in 500 litre to 2000 litre capacities, this skip is not one to be fooled around with.

The Coneflow Skip

The chances are that you will have seen one of these skips at a building site when a new home is being built, this is a general skip that is at a special angle, and is very useful for pouring concrete into hard to reach areas. It also has a small shutter opening and a low loading weight, making it easier to use and move around a site.

These are just a few of the skips available to professionals, and trained members of the public, and while some of them are more suited for specific jobs and tasks, skips like the cubic yard skip are very user friendly and ideal for storing rubbish from home improvements and home sales. You don’t have to buy a skip to experience the full benefits of having one, so look into skip hire, where you can hire a skip for a set length of time, and then give it back once you’re finished with it.

Burberry Check Patterns

Everything changes in this fast paced world however there are things that remain iconic and do not lose their significance even in the course of time. As it is well-known fashion industry is one of the most fast changing and developing one among others. What was in only yesterday is not in vogue any more today. Nevertheless, some trendsetters manage to foster love and admiration for their creations in people for many years ahead and which afterwards become a classic. New generations eagerly wear those pieces that were put on by their grandparents long before the former were born.

One of such trendsetters was Thomas Burberry, a 21-year-old draper’s apprentice, who in 1856 opened his own shop in Basingstoke, Hampshire, England, thereby having made a start of the remarkable history of the luxury brand that continues even today. Tartan pattern and trench coats are two main symbols associated with Burberry. Heymarket check also known as Burberry classic check is a registered trademark. The black, tan and red pattern is applied for creation of various pieces from outerwear to accessories.

The British luxury fashion house today produces upmarket clothes, accessories and perfumes. Its commitment to following traditions has resulted into upscale products sought-after in the whole world. Not without reason have the company been granted Royal Warrants by Queen Elizabeth II and is listed on the London Stock Exchange. Burberry clothes were worn by such prominent figures as Ronald Amundsen, Ernest Shackleton, George Mallory and many others. High standards set by the company from the very start have been kept throughout its history. There’s no doubt that buying Burberry’s products you make a wise investment into a durable piece of clothing that will delight you for many years due to their great classic styles.

Nowadays the company manufactures diversified lines of outerwear and non-apparel including handbags, luggage, shoes, small leather goods and soft accessories. If you are looking for a worthy piece of clothing that would surpass your expectations and satisfy your particular needs for a long time, Burberry is the right choice. Brand’s outerwear and accessories will be a perfect match for any outfit giving it an excellent finishing touch. Burberry’s clothes and accessories have already become an icon of fashion and style gladdening hearts of people who cannot imagine their lives without perfection. Thanks to Burberry’s mix of high-quality fabrics and exclusive designs, you will be able to create you inimitable style and express your individuality. Those who prefer this brand can be sure of their impeccable taste and real flair.

In addition to all that have been said above, this legendary brand has enriched the fashion world with a whole lot of innovations and designer solutions. The industry has undergone a true revolution with the appearance of brand on the arena of haute couture. The Burberry collections are all inspiring, bringing a tremendous lot of positive emotions and happy moments. If you have not owned any Burberry yet, do not lose even a minute and plunge into the world of elegance and style!

How to Increase Explosive Strength

In the Spotlight: Plyometrics

Plyometric exercises are essential for any athlete looking to enhance their explosive strength, and overall speed of movement. They increase your body’s ability to release and absorb forces and, as an added bonus, they help to facilitate weight loss and increase muscle tone.

How Do They Work?

So how do plyometrics work? Let’s take a deeper look.

Plyometric exercises help program your muscles to produce maximum force in a minimum amount of time. This is accomplished by utilizing the Strength-Shortening Cycle (SSC). The SSC is an active stretching of muscles (relaxation phase), followed immediately by a shortening of muscles (contraction phase). Try to imagine the muscle functioning like a rubber band; when the muscle is stretched it will produce additional force. This takes place because of the elastic properties being a source of stored energy.

Examples of Plyometric Exercises

Let’s take a look at a few types of plyometric exercises:

The most important muscles for any athlete to focus on are the legs and hips. All power and stability are deeply rooted in the earth. Exercises like broad jumps, box jumps, knee tuck jumps, and lateral jumps will provide a great base for explosive lower body enhancement. Now for the upper body: exercises such as clapping push-ups and lateral push-ups go a long way toward increasing explosive strength.

On to the last group of exercises we will be going over today: medicine ball throws. With this exercise we are now combining the movements of the lower and upper body together, which will increase full-body coordination and elevate explosive speed while performing synergistic movements. Variations on medicine ball throws are as follows: overhead slams, rotational throws, run and release, and scoop and throw.

Important Tips for Explosive Strength and Maximum Endurance

It’s important to remember to keep plyometrics exercise to 2-4 sets of approximately 5 reps when training for explosive strength. When training for maximum endurance, the ideal format would be 2-4 sets of 10-20 reps. Only add plyometrics in to your training protocol if you are already conditioned – these exercises are not for beginners! If you’re inexperienced with plyometrics, talk to your trainer about getting started with some basic movements that can be easily incorporated into your regular regimen and gradually increased as your level of conditioning improves.

Keeping Your Head in the Game

Before we wrap up our discussion, I’d like to remind you about one of the most important factors in success – your mind! If you want to be faster, stronger, more flexible, or meet any type of goal, you must first visualize yourself doing it. The mind is our strongest muscle, so use it to project your new reality.