What to Look For in a Drill Press

A drill press, also known as a pillar drill, is the stationary form of a hand-held drill. The advantage of the drill-press over the hand drill is the tool’s accuracy and power. A drill press is a very valuable tool with several different types and models of drill presses to choose from. Here are a few things to consider when purchasing your own drill press.

Floor vs. Bench-Top Model

A floor model is set directly on the floor while the bench-top model of a drill press is set on a table top. The floor models are typically better buys with more accessories and attachments and are able to handle larger projects than the bench-top models. The floor model is always a good pick unless you are looking for something that is a bit more compact to save space for a smaller shop.

Multiple Spindle Speeds

If you plan on using your drill press for woodwork and metalwork, it is important that your drill press has several speeds to suit the project you are doing. When working with metal you will want to use lower speeds while wood projects need to be in the medium to high range of speeds. For maximum versatility, look for a drill press that can operate between 500-4,000 RPM (a machine that only reaches to 2,000 is suitable if you will only be using it for drilling and not for other projects).


Just like with a car, you want a power tool that has some power. Greater horsepower allows you to drill larger holes through tougher material. You should look for a machine that has at least 3/4 HP.

Drill Press Table

Good drill presses have tables that can be raised, lowered, and swiveled 360 degrees around the column of the drill press. This allows greater flexibility with your work.


The depth-stop manages the depth of the hole being drilled by controlling how far the quill descends into the

material. Depth-Stops are a must for projects with repetitive boring in order to keep consistency. Look for a drill press with the “Easy-to-Stop” drill feature.


If you have two drill presses that are equal in every aspect except for mass, always go for the heavier one. As with most stationary shop tools there is an advantage with weight. The weight absorbs the vibration from the drill press allowing the machine to run more smoothly.

Useful Accessories

There are some accessories and attachments that can improve the use of your drill press. Something to look for is a drill press clamp. This keeps your material firmly in place while you are working. You should always avoid holding the project by hand when you are working with a drill press. Fences are also useful attachments that help keep the project in position during drilling.

A drill press can be used for a lot more than drilling if you have the right attachments and accessories. These

extra uses include sanding, grooving, and mortising. Mortise attachments are very popular, allowing you to drill precise mortises with your drill press.

Ability to Be Serviced

As with all major power tools that are purchased, one should make sure that the tool can be upgraded and serviced. Are there repair parts readily available? It is important that your drill press can be easily serviced when needed.

When making an investment in a drill press, you want to purchase a tool that is suitable for your needs. Do your research and find out what products are available what they have to offer. Make sure to look at the above features of a drill press in order to select one that is right for you.

Wooden Window Timber Species

Timber is the traditional material of choice for window products. Various species of timber are readily available on today’s market for wooden window products. The availability of these species provides the consumer with a wide choice of options to help and create the ultimate product that best suits their needs.

When talking about timber species on wooden windows, you can summarise all available materials into two categories; ‘hardwoods’ and ‘softwoods’. These two categories could be further split into ‘engineered’ and ‘natural’ categories.

Hardwoods such as Sapele and European Oak are commonly used on wooden window products. Their increased weight over softwoods results in a more structural product. Softwoods such as European Redwood and Larch are also widely used for the manufacture of timber windows. Although these timbers weight significantly less than hardwood alternatives, they are able to offer a good durability rating, Engineered timbers are timbers that have been cut and glued together to provide increased durability. Engineered timbers make use of technology to create some of the most durable timbers available today.

For consumers who are concerned about the environment and sustainability, some manufacturers may provide timbers that have been sourced from a certified supplier or supply chain. Certifications such as ‘PEFC’, ‘FSC’ and ‘Verified Progress’ are the most popular and easily recognised by the consumer.

Selecting the appropriate species for your timber windows is not the only step in achieving a highly durable solution. The methods use to finish the timber are highly important and should be researched fully before any investment. Some manufacturers are able to provide a 3 part finishing process which provides a high performance seal across the face and joints of the timber whilst allowing key areas of the timber the ability to breathe. Paints and stains can then be used to provide the aesthetics required on your wooden window products.

The Benefits of Recycling Plastic

Plastic is used for so many products that we use every day. From car bumpers to packaging, plastic is a part of our daily lives. Some of the most common products that contain plastic that we use every day is water bottles and plastic milk jugs. But many of us do not give a second thought to what happens when they are put into the recycling bin and sent off to the recycling plant.

Many of the recycled plastic products such as plastic milk jugs find new life as plastic lumber. These plastic milk jugs are first separated from the other plastics, cleaned and are then ground into small pieces. After the milk jugs are ground, they are then melted down. Once all the pieces have melted, they go through an extruder that molds them into a rectangular oblong shape. The consistency of the recycled plastic when it is coming out of the extruder is somewhat reminiscent of play dough. The dough like substance is then ran through a cooling chamber on a conveyor belt that has hundreds of jets that shoot cool water. By cooling the plastic keeps it from rising like dough and cools it down. The plastic lumber is then air-dried and is run through yet another water-cooling chamber. After the plastic lumber is cooled down, the top layer is heated slightly again and ran through an embosser. The embosser gives it a wood grain stamp. These embossments and colors can also be custom made to order.

Plastic lumber can then be made into many different products. When we visit our local or state park, we do not think much about the bench we are sitting on or the picnic table that we are using. Many of these were once milk jugs sitting in our fridge at one time or another. These plastic milk jugs have taken on a new life as playground equipment, benches and picnic tables.

Not only can recycled plastic lumber be made into benches and tables at the park, it can also be used just like traditional wooden lumber. Homeowners are now realizing that decks and fences last longer when made out of plastic lumber then traditional wooden lumber.

The many benefits of recycling plastic are numerous. By recycling plastics, they can have a new life as other products that we use in and outside of the home. So, next time at the park remember that many of the benches and picnic tables would not be there if plastic milk jugs were not recycled.

Family Board Games – Fun Activities For the Entire Family

Most Americans around the world love family board games. There are so many to chose from and many more keep different ones keep being made. Ages 3 all the way to adults love to play board games. Playing as a family is one of the best ways to do so.

Many stores that you shop at carry tons of different games. Usually when shopping in a store you will notice that there are isles of games that a person can choose from. Games can range from card games to games with dice. You name it companies have basically made it. Monopoly is one of the most popular games ever made. There has been many different versions of this game made all the way down to Masseyopoly which was based off of coal mines being bought and sold. Children learn to love the game early due to the many variations such as Spongebob monopoly. Some companies have brought board games out that are 3-D. That is something that is loved by children of all ages! Something that has never really been thought of as a family board game would be building a puzzle. There are so many varieties, the possibilities are endless.

Family board games have always been one of the funnest things to do. The more people play the more the game is! These types of games have been used in just about every kind of party situation. They have also known to be something fun to do when the lights or electricity has gone out.

There of course has been electronic games made from these family board games that can be played on a computer, but there is no luck when the electricity goes out. The best and most fun way to play is actually playing the board game itself. There has been versions of some of the most popular games made so that they are easy to travel with and can be played while traveling to your destination. The only thing with traveling and playing a game at the same time is you are prone to drop and not be able to find game pieces that you had previously.

Family board games have always made a perfect gift for any occasion especially for children. Christmas is a time when tons of games are bought to give to children as gifts along with birthdays. Some families play board games at family get togethers, Christmas parties, birthday parties you name it there is never a reason not to play a fun game.

Board games have been a favorite family past time for many, many years. The variety and costs of the games makes it enjoyable and affordable for just about every family in the world to own one. Board games are a great way to bring families together to spend that most needed time now days that most families do not have. Every family should own some type of board game. Family board games have been known to create unstoppable laughter!

Allergic to Birds

Bird Allergies can be very frustrating due to the lack of contact with your pet. I have a friend who owns a parrot that she loves dearly and can not get near him without reacting to the bird. She will not part with the parrot, so she keeps him on the porch and looks at him through the sliding glass doors. Every once in a while, she will venture out and play with the bird for about 15 minutes. After that, her face starts to swell up and she has to leave the bird alone again. What a shame that some of us have to live like this.

The problem with a Bird Allergy is when you come in contact with them, the immune system reacts to the allergens found in the birds feathers and skin. My friend also owns a dog but does not react to the dog like she does to the parrot. Strange world is not it. She has a cleaning person that takes care of the mess the bird makes all over the porch so she does not react when she first goes out to the parrots cage. She gets Asthma like symptoms if the porch is not cleaned up before she visits the bird. The porch gets HEPA Vacuumed every week to prevent this from happening. I was surprised to find out that there are more people allergic to dogs and cats than suffer from bird allergies.

Bird Allergies are triggered when the dander and feathers are blown up into the air when bird preens itself or ruffles its feather during their flying around the cage. I guess that's their way of stretching like humans do. I was watching the bird the other day and you could see the dander and feathers flying into the air when they get excited and start flapping their wings. They do make a mess, but they make great pets especially when they start talking to you. This parrot will mimic what you say. Its cool to here it say, Hello, how are you?

They key to keeping a bird if you have Bird Allergies is HEPA Vacuuming the area on a constant basis. It works for my friend, so there is a work around for some individuals with Bird Allergies. I would not recommend all individuals with Bird Allergies to do this unless they consult with their Doctor first.

Some individuals with this allergy suffer from what is called Bird Lung. What a strange name. It basically is hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Symptoms are fatigue, poor energy recovery and a shortness of breath. It is very similar to damage from pneumonia to the lung tissue. This is the serious type of Bird Allergy when the lungs become inflamed.

I would recommend a high quality HEPA Rated Air Cleaner like the Austin Air. It will make a really big difference in the severity and frequency of Bird Allergy attacks. Avoid all forms of Ozone because of the oxidizing nature of ozone. I have several clients who can not tolerate any form of ozone and they have a lung condition.

In conclusion, HEPA Vacuuming and Air Cleaners are important for individuals with Bird Allergies. Keeping the house clean is the number one priority. This way, you will be able to live your life and try to act normal like others.

Useful Tips On Hiring A Roofing Contractor

Your roof is one of the most important parts of your house. It protects the entire structure of your home from the elements. Without your roof, you will not be warm and cosy inside your home when there is a storm outside. Aside from protection, the roof also adds beauty to the house. It is important that the roof of your home is well maintained. Without regular maintenance, it will start to deteriorate. Once it starts to deteriorate, it will no longer be able to give your home the protection that it needs. Rain may begin to seep in and damage other parts of the house.

Doing maintenance checks and repairs on your roofing is not something that you can do yourself. This is a difficult task and the repairs need to be done efficiently and accurately. You need to be able to repair all the damaged areas of the roof to prevent it from deteriorating further. This is not an easy task and hiring a roofing contractor will be so much easier on you. You can be assured that the job is done well.

There are quite a lot of contractors out there and it can be quite difficult to pick the best one to suit your roofing needs. Before you make your choice, call a few contractors to inquire about their services. It is good to have several choices to choose from before making your final choice. You can also ask your friends and relatives for contractors that they can recommend for the job. Hiring a roofing contractor recommended by someone you know helps put your mind at ease.

The budget is the most important consideration in home improvement projects. Call several roofing contractors and ask for a quote of the cost for the entire project. Choose roofing material beforehand and have them base their quotation on that material. You will be able to compare the project cost and choose which roofing contractor can do the project at the lowest cost possible. When hiring a roofing contractor to change your roofing, make sure that the cost of the project includes the removal of your old roofing.

Always ask for references when hiring a roofing contractor. Call clients they have previously worked for and ask about their overall experience with the contractor you are considering. If most of their previous clients are satisfied with their work then their services must be good.

Once you have picked out your roof contractor, always ask for a contract that states the project cost, duration with the list of materials to be used. Everything should be put into paper so that you can be assured that the project will be completed as scheduled at the cost that you have agreed on.

Free Sheet Music On The Net – Truth or Fiction?

Typing "free sheet music" into Google or any other search engine will
have tempted anyone looking for sheet music on the net. And indeed, the
search engines respond by giving us page after page of hits. But what
does the user really get on these pages – and is it legal?

This article has a look at the current state of "free sheet music downloads".

The search "free sheet music" (without the inverted commas) on Google
spews out an impressive 17,300,000 pages. Even the most inexperienced
internet-user will immediately realize that the truth can not be quite
so bountiful. I click on the first hit on Google (results on yahoo and
msn will differ) and am promised thousands of downloadable scores. On
closer inspection this turns out to be a number of Irish tunes at most,
with most of the promised pieces in fact consisting of links to more so
He called "free sites". Funnily enough the owner of the website at one
point even points out not to send him any nasty e-mails about the lack
of free scores on the site.

So let's try the second hit. After navigating round the site promising
me free scores, I always end up on a page telling me that all of these
scores are free to download – for a small fee of 20 Dollars a year. As
a user I am starting to feel confused – I have not seen a single piece
of sheet music. Can I trust this site? What would the quality of the
scores be if I paid the 20 Dollars?

Frustrated, I move on to the next search engine result. This site at
least has the courage to tell me on the main page that the so-called
free scores will cost me 30 dollars a year, yet once again, I fail to
detect a single quaver or treble clef. No scores are available for
preview. This is starting to remind me of the "free DVD" I get with my
Sunday paper. Only that I have to purchase the Sunday paper first.

Yet another site turns out to be just like the first, the promised
pieces of sheet music being links to more so-called free sheet music
sites. I am starting to get bored of being re-directed. Are not there
any sheet music sites out there?

The story of my search continues in similar fashion, until I encounter
a site that does offer sheet music, albeit a limited quantity. I
download a score only to find that the graphics are not quite where they
should be, and this makes me wonder about the general quality of the
scores and the arrangements that are available. Indeed. Why should
anyone create a score and put any effort into the arrangement and
editing, if they are not making any money through direct sales?

Even other hits take me to a site where I am charged $ 1.60 for the
"Privilege" of downloading a badly scanned copy of a Bach composition.

Frighteningly, I also find a site that offers extremely basic versions
of John Lennon's "Imagine" and other music that is in fact still under
copyright. This website is clearly an illegal operation, and one that
might find itself in the crosshairs of the Music Publishers'
Association (MPA). The MPA, as highlighted in a recent article on the
Website BBC ( Http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment/4524086.stm ) is
intending to clamp down on websites selling music still under
copyright, or where the arrangements are still under copyright. In a
way the publishing world is doing what record labels started a few
years ago by actively prosecuting those participating in illegal
download of sheet music.

I eventually find a project similar to the Gutenberg Project where
people contribute scores freely. The quality seems ok, but I am
restricted to pieces by a handful of classical composers, and with
anything relying on donations and free contributions, I doubt there are
regular updates. However, as with Wikipedia, the authenticity of the
product has to come into question. The standard review process that an
encyclopaedia has and Wikipedia and other websites dependent on
volunteers lack will have to be considered when downloading scores (or
any other information for that matter) for free: does the end-user
believe all the notes are accurate? When the founder of Wikipedia
himself was found to manipulate information on the very site how much
can these so-called democratic sites be trusted? Obviously no one would
benefit from changing a note in a score, so no one would deliberately
manipulate a piece of music. But what are the skill levels of those
involved in the creation of these scores? It is highly unlikely that a
trained musician would edit these – he would be destroying his own
industry to a certain extent. Furthermore I will not be able to find
simplified arrangements of a piece, as this is a time-consuming effort,
and anyone engaging in such an operation would clearly charge for the

After many days of searching, I give up in my quest in search of good free

But what is one to make of all this? Why are there so many sites that
do not actually sell anything, and what is the point of them?

The problem is created by advertising. The people who run these sites
own the most obvious url titles (ie the web site address) that one
might type in when looking for free scores. As an example: if you were
looking for free glasses, one might type in [http://www.freeglasses.com]. Hence,
these sites get a lot of direct traffic. Furthermore they have also
done a very good job at search engine optimisation, which makes you
wonder whether Google and Co are actually missing a trick here. Yet as
these sites have nothing to sell they try and get the frustrated user
to click on one of the many adverts, and many of these are so-called
Google ads. Every time someone clicks on one of these ads or paid-for
links, the aforementioned website earns a small amount of money
(So-called click-through). What is even more disconcerting is that some
of these ads lead to legitimate sheet music download sites, making it
even harder for the user to distinguish between the real thing and some
dodgy operation trying to make a buck on click-throughs. This clearly
does not help the industry.

Well, what about those free scores then? Well, there are some out
there, basically a handful to be found on the five or six legitimate
sites that are out there. These sites have the highest quality in terms
of the arrangements, the quality of the score both graphically and in
print-out quality.

So why no free scores?

Think about it: why should anyone go through the effort of either

A) scanning hundreds and thousands of pages of music, and then offering them for
<br> free?


B) creating hundreds and thousands of arrangements for free?

Exactly. If you were to upload loads of tunes, you'd want to make money out of

The Most Attractive Breast Size

The answer to this question has convinced many women into thinking that they need breast implant surgery or some sort of breast enhancement. The quick answer is that all breast sizes are attractive, because the taste of men is so widely varying. What one man says is attractive, another will say is not. Mainstream media would have the world believe that bigger breasts win in any situation. While it may be true that many men prefer larger breasted women, there comes a point when it’s too much. So what is the most attractive breast size.

It varies depending on which era you’re in. For example in the Victorian Era women tied their chest up tight with a heavy-duty corset. They wanted to give the appearance of being flat-chested. In modern times you don’t have to look far to see what Hollywood and advertising executives think is the most attractive breast size.

Biological reasons have even been cited as to why men prefer larger breasts. They say that on a reproductive level males will choose females based on their perceived ability to feed their children. Larger breasts equal larger amounts of breast milk, so that argument would go. And if we use this type of rationale, a survival of the fittest situation would mean that women’s breasts are evolving to be bigger and bigger, as larger breasted women would mate more than smaller breasted women. A quick look around reveals that breasts still come in all shapes and sizes, so this doesn’t hold true.

But the real world usually doesn’t behave according to these biological, evolution-based theories about breast size and men’s preference. There are guys that are “breast men” and guys who are “butt men”. The latter prefer a woman with nicely shaped buttocks and would choose a nice shape on bottom over size on top. So the saying beauty is in the eye of the beholder definitely applies in this instance.

When asked what breast size he likes most, Fred Durst from the alternative rock band Limp Bizkit, simply said “Real.” In this case, he doesn’t care what size they are, just as long as they haven’t been tampered with. This would build a case for not getting any kind of work done to your chest unless you have a very dire need. Many women have developed a complex about their breasts, and even though they look in the mirror and see inadequacy, in reality they have a very nice pair.

Searching online for the most attractive breast size is a futile effort. The most attractive breasts are attached to the most confident women, so rock what you have and you’ll attract the man who loves what you’ve got.

All About Flooring – Carpets, Linoleum and Concrete (Part 3)

Another type of flooring is wall-to-wall carpets and linoleum. Carpets – soft, warm, easy to handle, varying in colors – should be replaced every 10 years. The reason is that plastics used as a base for carpets start to decompose after that period of time.

A very common mistake is to cover stained carpets, that don’t looks that good any more, with linoleum. Underneath the layer of more durable linoleum, the carpet will still decompose, smell and emit harmful for health substances into the air.

Linoleum is very convenient and easy to clean, which makes it the best flooring for schools and hospitals. It wears off fairly quickly, especially in corridors and hallways; the first thing to go is joints. These are the two main components that determine the life cycle of linoleum – its density and the quality of the joints.

Concrete floors are widely used in the parking lots, warehouses, etc. Concrete floors with polymeric coating of epoxy resins can withstand heavy loads and therefore are widely used in industrial buildings. In most cases, to make a concrete floor all one needs is a compacted layer of gravel on the ground, on top of which a reinforced concrete layer 15-20 cm wide is laid.

It happens that geological conditions are such that the concrete floor can’t reside on the ground and needs some sort of foundation. In that case the construction is calculated and executed as a bearer concrete slab.

There are many specific kinds of flooring: raised floors (also called access flooring) for easy access to communication cables, wooden flooring made of 70x70mm beams, mostly used in gymnasiums and for stages (also called deck floors), warm floors – where hot water circulates through pipes laid under the floor. For now, those floors are out of the scope of this article.

Ladder Rack Choices

For some people and professionals it is essential that they have a ladder rack on their vehicle. These racks not only carry ladders, but long pipes, boards, tools and other items as well. Rather than having your ladder, tools and other materials sliding around in the back of your truck, or fastened sloppily with a rope or a bungee cord, you should take a look at the wide selection of ladder rack products on the market today. Even if you already own one you may want to see what the newest innovations are.

As far as features there are many to consider when you are looking at a new rack for your vehicle. You can get it mounted permanently in your truck or you can get a removable model, which is nice when your work truck is also used as your personal vehicle.

Here are some other things to consider when you are choosing what type of ladder rack would be best for your situation:

How many ladders and other types of equipment will you be carrying on your ladder rack? If you are a building contractor, or a professional painter, you may have the need to carry several types of items on your ladder rack. There are racks that basically fill the truck bed with four upright supports, allowing plenty of room for storage underneath as well as above the whole bed of the truck. If you only carry one ladder, you may be able to have the rack mounted on a single side of the truck with two supports or even a single support rack which can mount to any corner of the truck.

Another consideration is the number of clamps that you will need on your ladder rack. Virtually any type of rack will have options for how many clamps it has. If you are carrying lots of equipment you will need more clamps and you may need a few different types of clamps as well.

A ladder rack can also be adjustable for height and length. You can find racks that can be placed in virtually any spot in your truck bed. You can choose the type of mounting device that holds the mount in your truck depending on whether you want a permanent or movable mount. One of the most important choices you can make will be the type of material that the ladder rack is made out of. If you will be moving it, it will need to be light enough to move easily-but strong enough to hold anything that you need to put on it.

If you go shopping online you will find a wide selection of racks to meet nearly every need that you may have in your business or personal life.

Curved Stair Lifts – An Overview

If you are looking to purchase a stair lift and are worried about getting one to fit because you have a curved, odd shaped staircase or multiple landings – don’t be! Curved stair lifts are just what you need.

No matter what the configuration or layout of your staircase, stair lifts can be tailor made to the size and shape of virtually any staircase easily coping with bends, straights and landings.

But of course, this extra flexibility comes at a price generally speaking these types of stair lifts are more expensive than their straight counterparts. Depending upon the configuration of your staircase the price will be based upon several factors: the number of bends, the angle of the bends, the length of the actual staircase, cost of labour etc.

Another design plus with curved stairlifts is their ability to be installed on either the inside or the outside path of your stairs. Basically, this means the stairlift can run along either side of your stairs and the profile of your stairs will ascertain which would be the most suitable option for you.

Although there is a buoyant market for second-hand and used straight stair lifts there is little market for curved stair lifts. And as such they have no real resale value, because they are custom made to fit individual staircases they are not suitable for installing in other properties.

In view of this, if you find that after a few years you have to move out of your home, unless you have an identical staircase, it is best to leave your stair lift in situ.

Again, because they are individually made, be prepared to pay your supplier a substantial deposit when ordering a curved stair lift. This practice does not generally take place with a normal, straight stair lifts but the one you are ordering will only fit in your house and if you pull out of the deal the supplier will not be able to resell it.

These are, of course, just a couple of minor considerations you should bear in mind when deciding to buy a curved stairlift… you may decide that the advantages of being able to access all the floors your existing home far out way these points – especially when compared to the stress and expense of converting your house or moving to a single storey residence.

If you are considering having a stair lift in your home the website below contains free information and impartial advice on this topic.

Led Zeppelin Top Five

This is, quite possibly, the hardest article that I have ever had to write. Having been a hardcore Zeppelin fan since I was fourteen years old, it pains me to try and decide what their finest compositions were. Having come up with several drafts, the finished result still feels incomplete. If this article could have included more songs, “When the Levee Breaks”, “Ten Years Gone”, “Ramble On”, “Trampled Under Foot” and “Dazed and Confused” would almost certainly have been included. In fact, anything from “Led Zeppelin” (1969) to “Physical Graffiti” (1975) represent a consistently high prolific standard that no other band, not even the Beatles, could rival. To compile a list that includes only five songs, therefore, is understandably heartbreaking, but the task has been achieved at a great expense. The chosen songs were chosen out of artistic merit, musical influence and technical brilliance. Led Zeppelin`s five finest songs, therefore, are:

#5 Black Dog (Featured on their untitled fourth album -1971): Written by Jones/Page/Plant.

Inspired in part by “Oh Well (Parts 1 and 2)” by Fleetwood Mac, this rocker features vocalist Robert Plant singing almost operatically over a backlash of duelling guitars. The riff originated with bassist John Paul Jones, who initially boasted that the timing was so irregular that only he could play along to it. Although it may be Jones`s riff, it is Jimmy Page who truly shines on this track. Reverting from scratchy rhythm guitars to melodic lead parts in an effortless manner, the track sounds both psychedelic and bluesy. Plant truly plays the part of a hungry, sexual deviant when singing his a Capella leads. One of Zeppelin`s highlights in concert, it is a rock song that has rarely been rivalled in the forty years since its initial release. Strangely enough, the only reference to a dog in the song is at the beginning when Page creates a barky reverberated sound effect.

#4 No Quarter (Houses of The Holy-1973): Written by Jones/Page/Plant.

The word multi-instrumentalist is over-used these days, but in the case of John Paul Jones, it is justifiable. Capable of playing bass guitar, guitar, piano, mellotron, flutes, recorders, mandolin and other keyboard instruments too numerous to mention, he could have created his own one man band. This song would become one of his staple solo opportunities in concert. Containing an eerie keyboard sound and featuring lyrics that deal with medieval war craft, it features Zeppelin at their proggiest. It is truly a breathtaking piece of work. The highlight of the song is the point in which Page`s distorted guitar arrives as an orchestration for Jones`s keyboard playing. An amazing song and a nice break from their usual guitar orientated work.

#3 Whole Lotta Love (Led Zeppelin 2-1969): Written by Bonham/Jones/Page/Plant/Dixon.

If there was ever a song that defined the band, it was this song. Featuring a metallic hammer on from Page`s guitar playing and an exuberant vocal performance from Robert Plant, the song would become Zeppelin`s first true classic. Utilising the DAGGAD tuning that would be used on successive songs such as the two underneath this column; the song is the type of anthem every band craves. Unfortunately for the band, the aggression in which Page played the riff gave critics the long awaited opportunity to label a band as a heavy metal band. This is an erroneous statement: John Bonham`s loose backbeat drumming and John Paul Jones`s bass playing display a dance groove that James Brown could have used. You would not find that on any Black Sabbath songs! The song is also noted for its risqué bridge. Commonly referred to as “The Orgasm Section”, it features Plant moaning over a bunch of hammers being hit, plus a Theremin being used for windy effect. Before this song, Jimmy Page was an adequate producer. This song showed that he was, in fact, a technical genius. For years, audiences would recognise this song as the opening theme for Top of The Pops, which was ironic considering that the band had no interest in the show!

#2 Kashmir (Physical Grafitti-1975): Written by Bonham/Page/Plant

Mother of God! The sixth track on Zeppelin`s double LP Physical Graffiti is an orchestrated work of genius. A song with an eastern feel, the song has been noted by Robert Plant on many occasions as his personal favourite Zeppelin song. And he has every reason to be proud of the song: Kashmir has the perfect ingredients of a great song. Featuring a drum beat that uses the loud dynamics that would befit a stringed orchestra, a multitude of colourful guitars, lyrics of a mystic nature and an Indian orchestra, the song is a grandiose epic. The only member who does not receive a song writing credit is John Paul Jones, which is harsh considering that his keyboard playing has an awful lot to do with the oriental qualities of the song. Despite the multitude of instruments, each musician can be heard clearly. John Bonham, in particular, is very impressive. His mighty crashes are the stuff of Gods. To date, no drummer has been able to replicate his sound since his death in 1980, making these fantastic drumming moments more precious to saviour.

#1 Stairway to Heaven (Featured on their untitled fourth album -1971): Written by Page/Plant

It is an awful shame that Jimmy Page and Robert Plant are rarely praised as a song writing unit in the same way that John Lennon-Paul McCartney, Mick Jagger-Keith Richards, Burt Bacharach/Hal David and Johnny Marr/Morrissey are. The fact of the matter is that these two complemented each other in many ways. Plant`s lyrical genius was the perfect counterpart to Page`s brilliant melody writing. Over seven albums, they used their brilliant partnership to its greatest potential. But nowhere was it more successful than on Zeppelin`s magnum opus “Stairway to Heaven”. This is a work that procures the usage of a twelve string acoustic guitar, three recorders (performed by John Paul Jones), an electric piano and two electric guitars. Oh, and the greatest guitar solo ever recorded. Jimmy Page must have sold his soul to the devil to come up with a solo that has the greatest tone, tempo and dynamic of any rock song. Then there are the lyrics. On top of Page`s plaintive opening acoustic guitar, Plant sings about a lady who is so snobbish that she thinks all “that glitters is gold”, who can “with a word, get what she came for”. Commencing as a criticism of snobbery (similar to Bob Dylan`s “Like A Rolling Stone”), it turns into an oratorio that talks about the mysteries of life. Containing some fantastic images – “faces of those who stand lonely”, “spirit crying”, “voices of those who stand looking”- Plant rivals Roger Waters and Pete Townshend as rock`s finest lyricist. Jones and Bonham shine also, creating rhythm parts that support, but do not overthrow, the songs melody. The four geniuses within the band (Page, Plant, Jones and Bonham) came up with what is possibly the greatest song of all time. It is unlikely that Queen would have come up with Bohemian Rhapsody had it not been for Stairway, nor would Radiohead have released Paranoid Android either. Stairway has been covered by artists as diverse as Frank Zappa and Rolf Harris. In 1971, Led Zeppelin unveiled a song that could only be described in one way: magical. Forty one years later, it still maintains that spell on its listeners.

9 Common Causes of Construction Accidents

There are many causes of accidents on a construction site. Many are often attributed to some form of negligence and may involve unsafe work areas, misuse of tools and equipment, and failure to use protective equipment. The following discusses the nine most common examples of construction site accidents.

  1. Unsafe Working Areas – Injuries due to slip and falls are among the most common on a construction site. Unsafe conditions include uncovered holes or trenches and exposed stakes and rebars (which implement hazards to those working or walking above them).
  2. Falling Hazards – A common injury that occurs when a worker near an open-sided floor focusing on his work, steps backwards or to the side without looking. Another falling hazard occurs on stairwells with no guardrails. In this kind of accident, workers frequently land on their heads or shoulders.
  3. Misuse of Stepladders – This is one of the leading causes of injury and long-term disability in Washington. An injury can occur when a worker falls from a tipped-over stepladder. Another accident that can occur with stepladders is when tools are left on the top platform. When someone moves the ladder, the tools fall on someone’s head. Using household ladders on a construction site can also lead to accidents, as these types of ladders cannot take the weight and stress of a construction worker with tools.
  4. Roof Construction Falls – The number one cause of death in construction occurs where no fall protection is provided. Falls can occur when anchors (designed to provide fall arrest with an attached lifeline) are not properly attached or more than one lifeline is on a single anchor.
  5. Scaffolding Problems Washington State regulations mandate that a “competent person” must supervise erecting scaffolds. This is someone capable of identifying hazards and who has the authority to take prompt corrective measures. Despite these regulations, scaffolding accidents still occur through unsafe access to scaffolds and tools and other materials falling off scaffolding and injuring workers.
  6. Collapsed Excavation Walls and Trenches – In the state of Washington, collapsed excavation walls or trenches kill an average of two workers each year. The weight of soil (2000-3000 pounds per yard) prevents a trapped worker from breathing, leading to death within minutes.
  7. Power Tool Accidents – These accidents are frequently caused by not using appropriate eye and ear protection. Nail gun injuries have increased each year making eye injuries quite common. It’s not surprising given that a nail comes out of the gun with the equivalent force of a .22 caliber bullet. Also, not having proper guards in place on the power tools can lead to cuts and amputations.
  8. Lifting/Body Straining – The number one cause of injuries, disability claims and medical costs in construction are soft tissue injuries-strains, sprains and chronic injuries. These are a result of lifting with the back instead of using the legs and not using panel lifters when carrying sheets of drywall, plywood, or siding.
  9. Vehicle Accidents – Forklift accidents are responsible for workers’ deaths each year in Washington. A common accident occurs when turning or maneuvering the forklift with the load raised. Another dangerous construction site vehicle is the dump truck. A frequent accident involves the dump truck backing up and hitting a pedestrian.

As you can see, a construction site can be quite dangerous. However, many of these accidents can be avoided through common sense and protective measures. Prevention begins with adequate awareness and a properly maintained working environment that is safe and secure.

Wood Laminate Flooring

Wood laminate flooring is the sure way to add class and style in your home. There has been a boom for this product as people realize the advantages that come with it. First started in Europe, the laminate flooring business has spread its wings and is flying high reaching more and more consumers. You might ask yourself how this is so and the answer is that people are going for a combination of advantages of a product and this one meets all the major requirements. The first thing a flooring should have is the ability to please the eye. The natural wood feel that it comes with give that attractive natural look and you can not help but admire it.

Wood laminate flooring come in very many designs and shades and this variety spices up things and everyone will find all they are looking for. The product also comes with a lot of ease when it comes to cleaning and maintenance. Many people want a product that is affordable and you can rest assured that you will find a great deal that will transform your life. With very many brand options around, you can search for the product that you will find affordable. You need to be very careful so that you do not compromise on quality. You can save a lot of money by installing the flooring for yourself. However, be prepared to task a longer time doing this.

Wood laminate flooring will be bought very comfortably when you have several tips or when you have considered certain factors that will affect you. First, you need to consider the kind of traffic you have in your home. The flooring must be very suitable and the wood flooring is certain to handle it. Other things you need to consider are the costs. You can only acquire what you can afford and therefore, your budget will be key to ensuring that you get the flooring you want. Do not forget that a warranty for the floor means a lot. Find out what the implications of the warranty are and how long the warranty is for. When you are installing the floor, you will save a lot and you need to consider the following factors.

If you want a wood laminate flooring procedure, you can get it from the manufacturer or on the internet. It is vital to know the kind of underlayment that is required. If you want to have your installation done by a professional, you still need to keep in mind several things. The first thing will have to be the cost. Secondly, you must know whether the installers are certified. This will enable you know that you are paying for a service that is going to be done well in the most professional manner. Whichever way of installation you choose, know that you will not be disappointed by wood flooring laminates. Remember, it is pretty easy to maintain their look and you can enjoy comfort in the most elegant way possible.

How To Stain Kitchen Cabinets

Staining kitchen cabinets, and how you prepare to stain depends on what you are starting with.

  • Are you building your own cabinets?
  • Are your cabinets unfinished in your garage waiting to be installed?
  • Are your cabinets new and already installed, but in need of staining?
  • Are you stripping your cabinets and then re-staining and refinishing them?
  • Or are you going to try your hand at re-facing?

You will prepare and stain a bit differently for each of the above situations; however, there are some basic steps and supplies that are universal when you are staining kitchen cabinets.

List of Basic Supplies You Will Need:

  • a good stain (I like a good oil-based stain, like a Sherwin-Williams oil based wiping stain)
  • stirring stick
  • sand paper (150 to 320 grit)
  • saw horses or work bench to stain on
  • drop clothes / cardboard
  • cotton rags
  • carpet pieces or other tool to apply stain (the right carpet really works well to get into those nooks and crannies)
  • clothes / shoes you do not mind getting dirty (the stain will not come out – it's a good idea to invest in a body apron that you do not mind getting ruined)
  • dust mask / respirator face mask
  • latex or rubber gloves
  • lacquer thinner or acetone (to remove stain off of where you do not want it – like hinges or the floor; if you do not have these, you can use finger nail polish remover, most contain acetone)
  • well ventilated area to work in
  • area to set wood to dry

Step # 1 – Remove Doors, Drawers , Hardware and Lay Flat

If you are building your own cabinets, staining them is simply a step in the building process. You can stain everything, and put finish on it too, before you ever put anything together.

If your cabinets are pre-built, try to remove as much hardware as possible (handles and hinges). It is much easier to put the hardware back on than to try and clean it later. If you can take the hardware off, number each piece, then also put that same number on the wood where the hardware sits – making sure it is inconspicuous.

You should also remove the doors and drawer fronts before you begin staining kitchen cabinets, if you can, so you can lay them flat. Again, if you remove hinges, etc., do so and number so it will not show on your finished product.

The advantage of having an item lying flat while you are staining kitchen cabinets is that the stain and finish will not run all over and create a look you do not want – sloppy. Who wants to put a lot of work, time, and effort into staining kitchen cabinets, just to see the finished product look sloppy and completely unprofessional? Learning how to stain kitchen cabinets means ending up with a stain job that looks beautiful and professional and says to the world that you know what you're doing. You want your cabinets to look like you paid a fortune, even if you did not.

Step # 2 – Look Your Pieces Over and Sand If Necessary

When first staining kitchen cabinets, look over the pieces you want to stain. Do they need to be sanded first? Most likely they are already sanded well, and you'll just have to sand out small scuff marks which resulted from handling them or installing the cabinets.

Use a fine grit sandpaper, 150, 220, or even higher. Once you begin staining kitchen cabinets, any marks you've missed in sanding will jump out at you. You can always sand out marks and scuffs after you've stained your kitchen cabinets, but that takes more time and energy, so try to do a good job of sanding initially.

Step # 3 – Setting Up The Area Where You Will Be Staining Kitchen Cabinets – Remember Safety First!

It is a good idea to stain items on saw horses if you have them, or on any sturdy table or bench that is about waist high. As you learn how to stain kitchen cabinets, you will be glad you used a drop cloth or cardboard on your floor or on any area that you do not want stain on. You can use lacquer thinner or acetone to wipe up stain, but it does not always work (like you can almost never get stain out of clothes). Also, lacquer thinner or acetone might melt or ruin what the stain is sitting on. If you do not have lacquer thinner or acetone, use finger nail polish remover. It has acetone in it. Do not inhale the fumes of such products, or get them on your hands.

You'll also need to mask off any parts of the cabinets you do not want stained, such as the interiors.

Wear clothes and shoes you do not mind getting dirty, and / or a full body apron.

You should also wear latex or rubber gloves and safety glasses when you are staining kitchen cabinets. These precautions are not only for when you are learning how to stain your kitchen cabinets, but are necessary even if you become an expert. Safely is of the utmost importance.

ALERT: BEWARE OF DANGEROUS FUMES. Wearing a dust mask will not do any good against fumes. Only wear a dust mask if you are in the sanding process. You will either have to invest in a respirator face mask for your safety, or ensure that you are in an extremely well ventilated area, such as your garage with doors wide open, or both. Fumes from the chemicals used while you are staining your kitchen cabinets are extremely dangerous, not only to breathe in, but, if concentrated enough, they can cause an explosion. And, do not be fooled by water-based products. They can give off fumes and hazardous odors as well. Each product's danger level is different, but error on the side of caution. Knowing how to stain kitchen cabinets means knowing how to do it safely.

Step # 4 – Applying The Stain

Once you know where you are going to be staining kitchen cabinets, and have yourself and your area prepared, open your stain can and stir well. This can not be overstated enough. When the can sits for any length of time, the stain will separate and sediment (color) will sit at the bottom of the can. If you do not stir well, the stain you use from the top of the can will be much lighter than the stain you end up using at the bottom of the can (and at the end of your project). These results will not look good. The things you stain first will be much lighter than the last pieces you stain.

To apply the stain, one of the easiest tools to use are old carpet remnants. Cut them into approximately 4 x 3 inch rectangles. Dip one end of the carpet into your stain, then rub the carpet onto your wood. It does not matter if you go with the grain or against the grain at this point, you just want to make sure that you cover all surfaces. If you are doing intricate work, such as doors with groves or raised panels, be sure to get stain into corners. Over staining at this point is a good idea, because the excess will be wiped off. This is where the drop clothes and wearing an apron come in handy, because it can get pretty messy !!

After you apply stain to your piece, look it over to make sure you did not miss any spots. Areas that are commonly missed in learning how to stain your kitchen cabinets include: grooves, door edges, drawer edges, or any corners – like where the raised panel corners meet the door frame.

Step # 5 – Wiping The Stain Off – A Very Important Multi-Step In Ensuring Your Piece Looks Great

As you are first learning about staining kitchen cabinets, I suggest you wipe the stain off immediately. Most cans of stain suggest leaving the stain sit for 10 minutes, then wiping off the excess. I've found that this does not usually change the color, so why wait? Also, if you are staining kitchen cabinets that are already installed, or already built, and you can not lay pieces flat, your stain will run all over if you let it sit for any length of time. You will want to wipe it up as soon as possible.

If you want a darker piece of wood, purchase a darker stain color. The only time that waiting to wipe excess stain off will actually darken your piece significantly is if you can let it sit for over 30 minutes. This is really a false darkening, and the problem with it is that your stain is usually so dry by then that it's difficult to remove smudges and wipe off the piece properly. The stain ends up sitting on top of the wood, not soaking in. Use your own judgment. If you decide to wait the 10 minutes, do it on every piece to ensure consistency.

Actually wiping the excess stain off in itself is a two step process.

First, have several cotton rags at your disposal. Put a rag in each hand. Never touch your wood with bare or gloved hands alone after it's been stained, as it will leave a smudge mark. Wipe off the bulk of the excess stain. At this point it does not matter if you are going with the grain or not, you just want to get the big spots of stain wiped up.

The second step is a finishing type step in staining kitchen cabinets. Take another clean rag. Go back over your piece of wood, this time with the grain. The second rag takes more stain off, preventing smudge marks. The biggest enemy in staining is leaving smudge marks.

Following these two steps and not being afraid to use rags as needed will ensure that you do not leave any smudges. Look your piece over. If you have left any smudges, wipe off gently and blend color in with your cotton rag.

Step # 6 – The Final Step In Staining – Set Your Pieces Aside To Dry

Now that you've learned how to stain kitchen cabinets, set your pieces aside to dry (or just let them hang there if they are already installed). You can lay your piece on a flat surface if only one side is stained. If your piece has multiple sides that are stained, you can lay it flat on something that allows for air circulation to the back, such as saw horses, or if you do enough staining, purchase a professional staining rack. One caveat: where the saw horses or rack touch the stained piece, smudge marks may be left. Before you finish a piece that has dried on such equipment, you may need to touch up that side.

You can also lean your piece against a wall to dry. When your stain is drying, it is best to let air get to as many sides that you have stained as possible. It's also okay to let fans run in the area where you are drying your piece. This helps it to dry faster and does not hurt the end result; however, never let fans run on aa piece that you've put finish on.

How long your piece has to dry depends on what type of stain you are using. Read the label and act accordingly.


Remember to hang your rags to dry, ensuring air movement around them as well. Too many times, bunched together wet staining rags have caused a tragic explosion resulting in fire and even death. Please be careful !!

You Are Now Ready For The Next Step – Finishing

Congratulations !!! You have learned how to stain kitchen cabinets and have completed your staining project!

After your pieces are completely dry, you are ready for the next step – putting a beautiful, clear finish on your beautifully stained kitchen cabinets!

And remember – HAVE A HAPPY KITCHEN !!!