Caribbean-Style Tilapia with Fresh Lime

Escape from the ordinary, boring fish recipes that call for just butter and a little lemon. This zesty, mouth-watering recipe will make your taste buds come to life as the flavors of the Caribbean combine to create a spicy, healthy meal. Enjoy this easy-to-prepare entree with plantains, black beans and grilled corn on the cob. Yummy!


4 tilapia fillets

2 tablespoon margarine; low-fat

1/4 cup green pepper; chopped

4 tablespoon chopped onion

1/4 cup toasted almonds; chopped

1/2 cup fresh bread crumbs

1/4 teaspoon oregano

4 tablespoon fresh lime juice

1 tablespoon chopped coriander; (or parsley)

1/2 teaspoon salt

2 cup water

2 cloves garlic; crushed

1 bay leaf

1 teaspoon red pepper flakes

1 lime peel

Melt the margarine in hot skillet over medium heat. Do not let the butter turn brown. Add the green pepper and 2 tablespoons of onion. Then sauté the pepper and onion until onion is transparent. Next add the almonds, the bread crumbs, oregano, one tablespoon of lime juice, coriander and salt. Mix well. Spoon the filling down the center of each tilapia fillet. Then roll up each fillet and secure with toothpicks. In a shallow baking pan, combine the remaining 2 tablespoons of onion, water, garlic, bay leaf, red pepper and the remaining 3 tablespoons of lime juice. Place the tilapia fillets in the pan and bake in a 400 degree F. oven for 30 to 35 minutes, basting occasionally until the tilapia flakes easily. Remove the tilapia to a serving platter and garnish with thin strips of lime peel.

Serves 4.

Bar Code Color Selection

Bar codes have been used in some form or another since the first patent application was filed in 1949. The first commercial application was in a Marsh's supermarket in Troy Ohio in 1974. A pack of Wrigley's gum was the first item to be scanned and purchased using a bar coding system.

Today over ten trillion bar codes are printed every year. They are used on everything from packs of gum to a jet airliner. They are even used on ear tags for tracking livestock. Bar coding is an efficient and cost effective way to manage and track inventory throughout the lifespan of the product.

Because of the wide use of bar codes, and the importance of accuracy and speed, it is extremely important to choose your code color carefully. Along with the color of the code, you need to consider the color of the substrate or background the code is being printed on. If you choose the wrong color code, or the wrong color substrate you could render the bar code unreadable. An unreadable bar code means the data will need to be hand entered instead of being automatically read by a scanner. Hand entering bar code data equates to loss of time and productivity.

All bar code scanners are designed to read codes that have a high contrast to the substrate on which they are printed. If the codes are printed with a high contrast, the operator using the scanner will have a much easier time scanning the codes, thus resulting in higher productivity. That is assuming of course that the bar code is printed within specifications for size and other factors. But that is another discussion.

The most preferred color for printing a bar code is black. However, it is not always possible to use black. If black is not available, the next choices would be other dark colors like dark blue or dark green. Never use red for the code if your scanner emits a red beam of light. The red color is invisible to the scanner's optical system because of the red illumination or laser beam. The only time you would ever consider using red would be if you have a custom scanner. I have seen some scanners that do not use red illumination, thus allowing them to read bar codes printed in red. But those scanners are few and far between. Other colors to avoid are light colors, like yellow, orange and pink.

White is the preferred color for the substrate or background that the code is printed on. White has the highest reflectivity available and will result in optimal contrast between the code and the background. If you can not use white, then use another color that is very light or invisible to the scanner. Yellow and red are two good colors to choose as a substrate. Yes – red is a good color. Remember that red is invisible to the scanner because of the scanner's red illumination system.

If you really want to maintain efficiency, accuracy and productivity in your data collection system, ensure you follow these simple rules on color choices for the bar code and the substrate. Choosing high contrast colors will make everyone's job much easier.

Instructions for the Perfect Blow Job

Throughout the years, I have gotten many compliments on my fellatio giving abilities, so I decided to put some tips together for the girls and guys out there that want to improve or perfect their skills.

• The number one thing I cannot stress enough is to enjoy what you’re doing. If you don’t like it, he won’t either. Think of this activity as one of the most passionate gifts you can give to him. So be enthusiastic about it and really savor the moment! It really helps to connect if every once in a while you look at him in the eyes while you’re pleasuring him.

• Rubbing the testicles gently at the same time is also very pleasurable and will be greatly enjoyed by your partner. Cup them, rub them gently, even tug on them a bit. This will surely enhance the experience. However, keep in mind what you are handling. There is a very thin line between being firm and being rough and you should always be mindful that this is a very sensitive area.

• I know you boys and girls have heard, have told or been told this one more than once but it is sooo important: NO TEETH. Teeth serve many other functions but should really be kept out of the picture when performing oral sex..

• Make sure his penis is really wet. So making sure that your tongue is really wet, lick the entire shaft of his penis. Also, remember you can always use a lubricant in addition to your own saliva.

• Breathing on his cock and blowing gently with your hot breath can be a little variation to give him a different sensation. You can use this in addition to the sucking and licking and alternate them.

• Pausing to tease him while he is fully aroused or before he gets completely hard is also a great way to build momentum. You can tease him by licking and kissing his inner thighs, his balls and giving his cock a complete tongue bath to put him right on the edge. Then take his whole penis completely into your mouth. Remember to also use your tongue to stimulate the head while it’s in your mouth.

• Something that invariably will throw him over the edge is to suck on his penis, slowly take the penis out of your mouth out and start a circular hand motion around the head of the penis with your hand before you take him in your mouth again. Satisfaction guaranteed!

• Also, don’t go on mute the whole time you are performing oral sex. It’s good to stop every once in a while to tell him how much you love sucking on his cock, how good he tastes, asking if he likes the way you’re sucking him, etc.

Lastly, it’s a great idea to add oral sex toys to your repertoire to add a little spice. There is a great variety of flavored lubricants, flavored condoms, tongue vibes, tongue teasers, oral vibrators and sex toys like the Sqweel Wheel which, coupled with your skills, will give your partner the Perfect Blow Job.

How to Change a Tap Washer

Cure dripping taps by learning how to change a washer – a simple diy skill that should take minutes. Replacing a tap washer is a quick DIY job, but you will need some tools before you begin. Make sure you have two adjustable pipe wrenches, a slot head screwdriver, some cloths and a pack of washers.

To start, turn off the mains water supply by turning the main stopcock off – a valve normally located under your kitchen sink – until your tap runs dry. If you are changing the washer on hot taps, you must also turn the immersion heater and boiler off.

Note that monobloc taps do not have washers. Instead, they have ceramic discs, which are very hard wearing. To replace a ceramic disc you would need to get a replacement cartridge from your tap manufacturer.

To change a washer, follow our simple guide.

The process of changing a tap washer

Put the plug into the plug-hole of the sink to prevent losing the washer or any tap components when dismantling it. Unscrew the top plate of the tap. If you can’t do this by hand, use a wrench and protect the tap with a cloth first.

Some taps have a body cover, which you will need to remove before you can unscrew the top section (or stem) of the tap to access the washer underneath.

Secure the tap with another wrench while you remove this section. The washer is underneath this and it will either be pressed into place or held in position with a nut. Use a screwdriver to release it then clean the stem before fitting the new washer. Reassemble the tap, take the plug out of the sink and turn on the water supply to test the tap. If your tap continues to drip its valve seating might be eroded. Repair this using a washing and seating set, which you can buy from a plumbers merchant.

Computer Security Cables

Computer security cables are used to ensure the physical security of a computer. Several types of computer security cables are available. There are black, putty and heavy duty computer high strength security cables. Computer security cables are a very effective method of preventing computer losses. A desktop or notebook secured with a lock and cable prevents a thief from walking off with your property and data.

Computer security cables are available in the market at varying prices. A unique black shell design with overlapping seams, coupled with a crimp ferrule strain relief results in both protection against leakage and enhanced mechanical strength. These features ensure a highly reliable cable that will pass the most severe emissions testing, while providing years of trouble free service. It also saves cost and adds an alternative cable entry direction.

A unique stamped steel internal enclosure offers hundred percent shielding and a strong strain relief. Cable assemblies with inline or reverse entry connector orientation can be produced with modest minimum requirements. Computer security cables give the equipment protection from theft.

Steel cables are not the most attractive cables. There are adhesive mount cables. Specially designed plates are affixed to your computer case, your monitor is safe with a strong adhesive compound and the cables are then threaded through loops in the plates and secured with a padlock. Fiber optic cables are also widely used.

Security cables can be chosen from PC security cables, laptop security cables and unique solid mounts using steel security plates with super adhesives. A variety of locking devices include case locks to protect the CPU. It is advisable to choose from computer security cables that let you add security plates to secure all your peripherals on one cable. These systems use straight end cable assembly.

Security cables are available in a variety of lengths. Most security cables are coated with clear vinyl. Laptop security cables are an inexpensive way to protect a laptop from being stolen. Standard, medium sized and thick security cables are available.

Hardy Lightweight Series Fly Reels

I saw my first Hardy fly reel years ago while I was fishing the lower section of Oregon’s Rogue River. The reel was a Hardy Princess and the following year I was the proud owner of a brand new one. The Princess was introduced in the l950’s and 60’s in a stable of seven fly reels that Hardy called their lightweight series. Features included: A right hand crank that could be switched to left hand if needed, similar adjustable drag systems with a clicking sound that is special only to Hardy fly reels, and a machined aluminum “foot” that is dovetailed into a reel frame of cast aluminum and riveted for added strength. All models featured unique but simple chrome line guards a beautiful gray finish and a removable aluminum spool.

The Hardy reels in the lightweight series that are no longer in production include the Princes (1953-2003), Zenith (1960-2003), St Aidan (1964-2003) and the St. Andrew (1961-1964). These models, like many other Hardy reels that are no longer being produced will only increase in value as time passes. This is one reason I believe that if purchased with care on the used market these classic fly reels can be a good investment and a fly-fishing reel you can use and enjoy. The Zenith, Saint Aidan, and the Saint Andrew were all larger fly reels that included all the lightweight series features and were originally designed for Sea Trout fishing in Europe. They have stronger, adjustable drag systems with larger fly spools for heavy fly lines and more fly line backing capacity. Although sometimes difficult to find, these reels make very nice vintage Steelhead fly reels.

There are three lightweight models that are still in production, the Flyweight, the Featherweight, and the LRH lightweight. These updated versions of the classics are now machined from high quality bar stock aluminum but still have all the features of the early models. They can be purchased or ordered from most quality fly shops.

One of the most popular trout fly reels in the lightweight series has to be the LRH lightweight. The “LRH” is the initials of Lawrence Robert Hardy, who, no doubt had some influence in the lightweight series. I believe that the LRH is also the fly reel that is featured on the Federation of Fly Fishers logo. The LRH is just about ideal for most trout fishing applications. It has a nice adjustable click drag system with the distinctive Hardy “click” sound, and it can hold fly lines up to a WF-6 floating fly line or a DT-5 and about 75 yards of fly line backing. Extra reel spools are also available if the angler needs to make use of different types of fly lines during a fishing outing.

The next fly reel to consider in the lightweight series is the Hardy Princess, only available in the used market. The Princess is slightly larger than the LRH and has a spool diameter of 3-1/8″ that will hold a WF-6 or a WF-7 fly line and 100 yards of 20 line backing. This reel also has the same type of adjustable drag system as the LRH and extra spools are also available on the used market The Princess can handle larger fresh water game fish, on rivers and lakes and is also a good “all around” fly reel that can be used when fishing streamers or fishing other types of heavy flies.

High Security Fencing Around Construction Sites

High security fencing is frequently used around construction sites, military establishments, prisons, and other locations where there is a fear that people could wander onto the premises and be injured. You can likely see what a prison has high security fencing around its perimeter. The prison is charged with keeping inmates inside the fenced yards and also with keeping other people from coming onto the premises. This makes sense to us all, but having this level of barricade around a construction site might seem ludicrous to some.

High security fencing is taller than the average barricade. The additional height is supposed to help reduce the number of people that can climb over the materials the enclosure is constructed of and get to the inside perimeter of the property. On prisons and areas that are in charge of extreme security measures the top of this material would have a barbed wire known as razor wire on it. The razor wire would assure the people in charge that should someone be able to climb to the top of the high security fencing they would have a difficult time getting to the other side because of the razor wire. Most construction sites do not have razor wire at the top of the partitions, but they do often have a couple of strands of regular barbed wire placed there.

Construction sites often have equipment that is very expense locked behind their enclosures. This equipment is often a target of vandals when it is left unattended for a few days. Having a way to lock the equipment up to stop the vandals saves the company from a lot of damages that vandals can create.

The enclosure protects people from stumbling over building materials and being injured. Stcks of concrete blocks, red iron, lumber, and other materials will be in different places around a construction site. People who are unfamiliar with these items can actually be seriously injured while they try to maneuver over them. A stack of pipes can be made to shift and fall if the person crossing them is not aware of the exact procedures they should follow. When a stack of pipes falls they can very easily crush a person to death or at the very least amputate their arm or legs.

There is almost always unlevel ground around a site under construction. Walking on unlevel ground is not like walking on city streets and people often trip when they try to walk on an uneven surface. This uneven surface will cause people to fall into holes and pits that may have been dug around the property.

It is more difficult for someone to come onto the job site and steal the tools, materilas, and equipment that the workers use if there is a locked enclosure. Do to the sensitive nature of some construction sites there may also be a guard posted to keep trespassers from gaining access to the property. Most sites that have explosive materials like dynamite on them will have a security guard as well as a high enclosure.

Solo Fencing Training – Physical Work

The average fencer does not have ready access to a training facility in which he or she can practice fencing skills with a training partner on a daily basis. However, with a little thought and planning and some simple tools, the same fencer can work key technical elements on a daily basis between the regular lessons or club practice sessions. This solo practice is a key part of a solo training program and can be included in the weekly training microcycle.

There are two major types of physical training that can be done alone and that require only minimal space and simple equipment. The first is bladework. The second is footwork. The key to both is execution that starts slowly with detailed attention to technically correct action. This means that the fencer must have learned in lessons how to execute an action, and have a real understanding of how his or her execution approaches the model performance, and where it may need correction. To make training productive the coach needs to provide clear standards and frequent feedback on technical execution.

Bladework practice requires space for a complete extension, and enough vertical and horizontal space to permit the normal range of offensive and defensive blade movement. Bladework practice can be used to work on issues as varied as a smooth extension, closing the line on parries and guard positions (a mirror is helpful for this), fingerplay, and sequencing of actions to include compound attacks and parries and ripostes and counterripostes. Virtually any blade technique can be practiced against the open air, although some level of visualization may be required.

Bladework can be improved by the use of simple training aids. A suspended ball (available in softball, baseball, and golf ball sizes) is probably the least expensive, and is a recognized tool for developing point control and accuracy. Several vendors sell wall lunging pads. Several of these pads set at different heights allow work against high and low line targets. An enhanced version of the pad is the combination of a pad with a mechanical arm that can be positioned to hold a blade at different heights and angles. A more advanced version is the spadassin, a target dummy equipped with the arm. And sabre fencers for years have worked against a mask attached to the wall as the target for head and cheek cuts. Blade and footwork combined with timing can be worked with Tyschler’s training device, a beeper that provides stimuli for executing a variety of drills.

Unfortunately, footwork requires more space and a solid surface with no neighbors beneath it. The longer the available space, the wider the variety of footwork practice possible. However, even a short hallway allows practice of advance and retreat and training in change of direction and shifting from one type of step to another.

The ideal situation is if the available space allows a combination of footwork, such as multiple advance- lunge, with bladework against a training target. A garage bay or a long hall or a back porch may provide a training area in which fully coordinated training is possible.

It is important to understand that this training activity is not just a second class substitute for really fencing with a real partner or taking a real lesson with a real coach. Solo work allows the fencer to concentrate on the specific technique being worked in the exercise, to move at slow speed to perfect the movement patterns, to build speed, and to build the number of repetitions need (variously estimated as between 10,000 and 100,000) to fully understand the technique and automate execution. This has to be done, and eliminating distraction may actually provide a better training experience.

Knowledgeable Hotel Booking Service

A hotel is an establishment that provides paid lodging, usually on a short-term basis. Hotels often provide a number of additional guest services such as a restaurant, a swimming pool or childcare. Some hotels have conference services and meeting rooms and encourage groups to hold conventions and meetings at their location. Hotels differ from motels in that most motels have drive-up, exterior entrances to the rooms, while hotels tend to have interior entrances to the rooms, which may increase guests’ safety and present a more upmarket image. Basic accommodation of a room with only a bed, a cupboard, a small table and a washstand has largely been replaced by rooms with en-suite bathrooms and climate control. Other features found may be a telephone, an alarm clock, a TV, and broadband Internet connectivity. Food and drink may be supplied by a mini-bar (which often includes a small refrigerator) containing snacks and drinks (to be paid for on departure), and tea and coffee making facilities (cups, spoons, an electric kettle and sachets containing instant coffee, tea bags, sugar, and creamer or milk).

In the United Kingdom a hotel is required by law to serve food and drinks to all comers within certain stated hours; to avoid this requirement it is not uncommon to come across “private hotels” which are not subject to this requirement. However, in Japan the capsule hotel supplies minimal facilities and room space. The cost and quality of hotels are usually indicative of the range and type of services available. Due to the enormous increase in tourism worldwide during the last decades of the 20th century, standards, especially those of smaller establishments, have improved considerably. For the sake of greater comparability, rating systems have been introduced, with the one to five stars classification being most common.

“Boutique Hotel” is a term originating in North America to describe intimate, usually luxurious or quirky hotel environments. Boutique hotels differentiate themselves from larger chain or branded hotels by providing an exceptional and personalized level of accommodation, services and facilities. Boutique hotels are furnished in a themed, stylish and/or aspirational manner. Although usually considerably smaller than a mainstream hotel (ranging from 3 to 100 guest rooms) boutique hotels are generally fitted with telephone and wi-fi Internet connections, honesty bars and often cable/pay TV. Guest services are attended to by 24 hour hotel staff. Many boutique hotels have on site dining facilities, and the majority offer bars and lounges which may also be open to the general public. Of the total travel market a small percentage are discerning travelers, who place a high importance on privacy, luxury and service delivery.

As this market is typically corporate travelers, the market segment is non-seasonal, high-yielding and repeat, and therefore one which boutique hotel operators target as their primary source of income. A number of hotels have entered the public consciousness through popular culture, such as the Ritz Hotel in London, UK (‘Putting on The Ritz’) and Hotel Chelsea in New York City, subject of a number of songs and also the scene of the alleged stabbing of Nancy Spungen by her boyfriend Sid Vicious. Hotels that enter folklore like these two are also often frequented by celebrities, as is the case both with the Ritz and the Chelsea. Other famous hotels include the Beverly Hills Hotel, the Hotel Bel-Air and the Chateau Marmont, in California, USA, Watergate complex in Washington DC ,the Hotel Astoria in Saint Petersburg, Russia, the Hotel George V and Hôtel Ritz in Paris, Palazzo Versace hotel on the Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia, Hotel Hermitage and Hotel de Paris in Monaco (in the French Riviera) and Hotel Leningradskaya in Moscow. Many hotels can be considered destinations in themselves, by dent of unusual features of the lodging and/or its immediate environment.

Treehouse hotels Some hotels, such as the Costa Rica Tree House in the Gandoca-Manzanillo Wildlife Refuge, Costa Rica, or Treetops Hotel in Aberdare National Park, Kenya, are built with living trees as structural elements, making them treehouses. The Ariau Towers near Manaus, Brazil is in the middle of the Amazon, on the Rio Negro. Bill Gates even invested and had a suite built there with satellite internet/phone. Another hotel with treehouse units is Bayram’s Tree Houses in Olympos, Turkey Cave hotels Desert Cave Hotel in Coober Pedy, South Australia and the Cuevas Pedro Antonio de Alarcón (named after the author) in Guadix, Spain, as well as several hotels in Cappadocia, Turkey, are notable for being built into natural cave formations, some with rooms underground.

Capsule hotels Capsule hotels are a type of economical hotels that are quite common in Japan. Ice hotels, such as the Ice Hotel in Jukkasjärvi, Sweden, melt every spring and are rebuilt out of ice and snow each winter. Snow hotels The Mammut Snow Hotel in Finland is located within the walls of the Kemi snow castle, which is the biggest in the world. It includes The Mammut Snow Hotel, The Castle Courtyard, The Snow Restaurant and a chapel for weddings, etc. Its furnishings and its decorations, such as sculptures, are made of snow and ice. There is snow accommodation also in Lainio Snow Hotel in Lapland (near Ylläs), Finland. Garden hotels Garden hotels, famous for their gardens before they became hotels, includes Gravetye Manor, the home of William Robinson and Cliveden, designed by Charles Barry with a rose garden by Geoffrey Jellicoe.

Underwater hotels As of 2005, the only hotel with an underwater room that can be reached without Scuba diving is Utter Inn in Lake Mälaren, Sweden. It only has one room, however, and Jules’ Undersea Lodge in Key Largo, Florida, which requires scuba diving, is not much bigger. Hydropolis is an ambitious project to build a luxury hotel in Dubai, UAE, with 220 suites, all on the bottom of the Persian Gulf, 20 meters (66 feet) below the surface. Its architecture will feature two domes that break the surface and an underwater train tunnel, all made of transparent materials such as glass and acrylic. Other unusual hotels The Library Hotel in New York City is unique in that its ten floors are arranged according to the Dewey Decimal System. The Rogers Centre, formerly SkyDome, in Toronto, Canada is the only stadium to have a hotel connected to it, with 70 rooms overlooking the field. The Burj al-Arab hotel in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, built on an artificial island, is structured in the shape of a sail of a boat.

All About A Teen Snowboard Camp

The snowboard camps especially for young adults and teenage boys and girls are of great advantage to them as the camps help not only to learn skiing skills, but also act as exciting trip organizers with lots of entertainments. Most of these ski camps offer less number of openings, which ensures better coaching and supervising. Apart from coaching, these camps also offer plenty of opportunities for other kind of activities along with meals, lodging and transportation.

A teen snowboarding or ski camp generally takes in girls and boys in the age group of 13 to 18 years. The camps offer a lot of activities for teens starting right from early morning till late evening. Apart from snowboarding and skiing, teens can take part in activities like hiking, whitewater rafting, paragliding, wake boarding, biking, water skiing and swimming. The camps not only teach various skiing skills but also help to build self-esteem and confidence in teenagers. For lodging, the camps offer three-star hotels and the package generally includes apart from staying, ground transportation, three meals a day, camp activities, videos as well as a camper jacket.

The main intention of these camps is to bring together teen skiers who can explore the various terrains and mountains as well as the excellent snow conditions. In most of the camps, the prices generally include:

– Indoor video assessment

– Freeride skiing techniques and tactics

– Guided skiing and coaching on the best mountain slopes

– Lunch

– Daily video of freeride skiing

What teens learn

The teens learn to ski on an entire line without any kind of interruptions, they learn to use the ski in various kinds of snow types, to read the terrains as well as conditions to select the perfect line as well as learn how to use shapes to attack the hill while maintaining the speed.

Teen snowboard camps at Cerro Catedral region

The Cerro Catedral region is South America offers the best snowboarding camps for teens. With snows up to 10 feet, the Cerro Catedral region offers excellent riding. Here, skiers and snowboarders can experience something unique like skiing in neck-deep pow for many days, shredding a 3000 feet couloir or launching cliffs or landing the very first backflip.

Teens belonging to the age group of 16 and older can take a lot of advantage of the program which is associated with the Sierra Nevada College, by earning college credits in photography, Spanish, videography as well as ski business management. Some of the Programs offer up to 12 college credits in one month while snowboarding or skiing on the slopes of Cerro Catedral.

Other than skiing and snowboarding, you can also take part in other activities like exploring the culture of San Carlos de Bariloche. So, if you are a teenager and want to enjoy your summers, then hit the snow of North America with lots of skiing and snowboarding in a teen snowboard camp.

Relief Provided During the Great Depression

The National Youth Administration, or NYA, and the Civilian Conservation Corps, or CCC, provided relief for the American youth, both black and white American. The out-of-school programs of the NYA taught various different trades that were beneficial to the war and 13 percent of the students in these programs were black. Roughly 10 percent of the student work program was African American. The NYA provided African Americans with a way to continue their education as far as graduate school. The CCC, however, kept a strict segregation policy but it employed 200,000 blacks in working camps. The CCC provided education which ended a large amount of illiteracy among African Americans.

Blacks benefited from the New Deal housing programs in two ways. Firstly, they were provided with better housing but the construction of these housing projects provided employment as well. The Home Owners Loan Corporation provided some African Americans with loans to pay their mortgages during the depression years while the Federal Housing Authority provided some with loans to build homes. Blacks were also adversely effected by banks in this system as well. Many lenders would not loan money to blacks because it was thought to be a bad credit risk and because they were not sure what would happen to the value of African American homes over time.

The Federal Public Housing Authority also provided local governments with money to build low cost housing projects which also benefited many African Americans. In some of these southern projects segregation was strict but nearly one-third of the houses constructed were eventually occupied by African Americans. The contracts these local governments would have would call for a proportionate amount of African Americans to be hired in the construction process. This was sometimes ignored, often times employing not only a disproportionate amount of whites but sometimes hiring no blacks at all.

The Works Progress Administration, or WPA, provided food and clothing and also jobs. Blacks were more often provided with food and clothing rather than jobs, leaving those for the white Americans. In some cities blacks found professional positions for example, writer, artist, or actor, however in other cities it was difficult for unskilled blacks find employment or receive any benefits of these government agencies. The Social Security Board provided assistance to aged Americans and unemployed Americans alike. This program excluded certain occupations including agriculture and domestic jobs, which were largely held by blacks. The Social Security Board would often times, more likely in the south, provide less benefits for older blacks than older white Americans.

Although many of these programs were outright racist, holding their segregationist ideals progress was made in breaking traditional discrimination. The NYA and the CCC educated hundreds of thousands of African Americans and also helped place many blacks in local governmental positions. The Depression also helped usher in the movement of African Americans from the Republican party to the Democratic party. Many blacks favored the policies of the New Deal and moved away from the Republican party. They also however took a more active interest and participation in politics.

How to Build a House in Ten Steps

Ever wonder how your house was built? In this article, I am going to explain how a one story house is built in ten steps. These steps are not including all of the details that go into a house, but it will give you a general knowledge of how your house is built.


The very first thing that is done, is excavation. This includes making sure the lot is free of debris, and digging a hole in the ground for the basement of the house. To dig the right sized hole the workers use a site plan which is included with the house blueprints. Once they have laid out the size and shape of the house, a back-hoe digs a hole big enough to pour the concrete footings and foundation.

2.Concrete Footings

The footings are the main support for the house and they help distribute the weight of the house into the soil. The size of a footing can vary depending on soil conditions and the size of house. The footings are typically made out of poured concrete. Wood is used to create a mold so the desired size of footing can be made. Lumber on its side is normally laid out according to a foundation plan which is provided with the house blueprints. Once the mold is ready, the concrete is poured into it, and then leveled off off on the top. By making the top smooth, it gives a solid area for the foundation to be poured.

3. Concrete Foundation

The foundation walls are what provide alternate support for the house. They are also made out of poured concrete which is created by using formwork. Formwork are sections which are normally made out of metal and wood which can be put in place to create the desired shape of concrete. A foundation is the concrete walls you can see in an unfinished basement. Once the foundation walls are poured and dried, they fill extra space outside of the walls with backfill. The floor system is now ready to be built.

4. Floor System

A floor system is made out of wood, unlike the concrete footings and concrete foundation. The lumber used is normally a 2×12 or a 2×10. The lumber is put on it’s side and run across the foundation walls parallel to each other. These are called floor joists. They are spaced out a certain distance from each other to provide even floor support. To keep them in place they are nailed to a header which is the same sized lumber but put perpendicular on the outside edges. If the basement is too large then posts and beams are put in to help support the floor.

5.Floor Sheathing

The floor system provides good support but the only problem is all the holes in between the lumber. This is where the floor sheathing comes in. It is made out of sheets of wood which are drilled into the floor joist to keep it secure. They are installed perpendicular to the joists so they can support more weight. When the house is complete, the owners floor of choice will be installed on top of the floor sheathing. Now the workers are ready to install the walls.


When talking about the location of walls in a house there are two types; exterior walls and interior walls. The exterior walls run along the outside of the house and are normally thicker to resist wind and allow more insulation to be installed. The interior walls are on the inside and are not required to be as thick. When talking about the structural strength of walls there again two types. Load-bearing walls and Non-load-bearing walls. Load bearing walls are reinforced because they have to hold up anything above the wall whether it is a roof or another floor (in this case it is a roof). Non-load-bearing wall provide no structural support for the house because they are typically just used to separate walls.

When they install the walls, they look at the house blueprints and layout where the walls are going to be placed. To build the walls they first construct them on the ground. They have lumber which is spaced apart (these are called wall studs) and then drilled into a top and bottom plate. The top and bottom plate could be compared to the headers on a floor system. They both help keep the lumber in place and provide strength for the wall. Once they are built, the workers then lift the walls into place and it is drilled into the floor system. The wall cavities then have to be stuffed with insulation and covered with a vapor barrier to keep out moisture. But, the insulation can not be installed until the wall sheathing is applied.

7. Wall Sheathing

Wall sheathing is similar to floor sheathing and roof sheathing (which you will see later). The same material is typically used for wall sheathing and floor sheathing. Sometimes the sheathing is put on before the wall is erected, and sometimes it is put on after. They only difference is that lifting a wall with sheathing on it is a lot heavier and can sometimes require a crane. When they put on the sheathing, it has to be installed perpendicular to the wall studs. The sheathing provides some shelter from the wind, but it also has to be covered with an air barrier. When the air barrier on the wall sheathing and the vapor barrier on the walls are combined, it provides shelter from both wind and rain.

8. Roof Trusses

The next step in construction is the roof. Most houses that are built, have roofs that are pre-manufactured in a warehouse and are shipped to the building site. When they order a roof, the project manager will send in the house plans to a roof truss company and they will build all the parts needed. Depending on the style of the roof, there are many different shaped trusses that could arrive on site. To install the roof they follow a roof plan which is provided by the company and install each truss over the exterior walls. The plans have a specific distance to space the trusses to provide a level roof. Roofs can also be constructed on site from lumber. The only difference is that the trusses have to be constructed by hand, and this is less time effective. Now we have a skeleton of a roof, so what is next?

9. Roof Sheathing

The roof sheathing is installed the same way as all of the other sheathing. The only difference between any sheathing is that a different type of wood might be used for different conditions. If a house is built in an area with lots of snow fall, then the strength and thickness would have to be increased. The roof sheathing is the last structural element of a house. All that is left now is to add some curb appeal.

10. Aesthetics

If you can picture what the house looks like right now, it looks like one big plywood house. There are more details that have to be added. One of those are the roof shingles. These are not only for looks but they protect the house from water and help direct it away. There are many different types of shingle available but the most common are made from asphalt. The walls also have to decorated. The most cost effective way of doing this is with plastic siding or wood siding. A more expensive way is to use brick. To save money, houses in the suburbs normally have brick on the front, and have plastic siding on the other sides. The exterior of the house is now complete and all that is left to do it decorate the interior.

If you have an unfinished basement, you should be able to see some of the structural elements on your house such as the foundation walls, the floor system, beams, and posts. I hope this helps you understand how your house is put together and how the house blueprints help the house come alive.

Selecting Outdoor Benches

Outdoor benches are an excellent way to enhance a garden, create additional seating in a backyard or add a resting spot for a business. With outdoor benches, you will discover a huge selection of materials such as stone, wood, concrete, brick, etc. Keep in mind that one type of material is not necessarily better than another with a few exceptions. As an example, if you choose something like granite, marble, stone, or concrete, the seats will be hard so if you are looking to provide a comfortable resting area, cushions would be required. In addition, some types of wood do better than others. Teak, redwood, beech, birch, cherry, ash, maple, oak, mahogany, poplar, walnut, pecan, and cedar are excellent choices for outdoors.

Since wood outdoor benches are the most popular, we will address those in particular for this article. First, wood is easy to work with, offers a warm, rich, and inviting appearance, and is very durable. Depending on the design of the outdoor bench, it may or may not be made with a combination of solid wood and veneer. Regardless of the type of wood being used, the quality of construction for the outdoor bench is crucial. First, the outdoor bench needs to be made using the best joint method and second, the outdoor bench must be stable and sturdy.

For the joints, manufacturers use a number of methods. The tongue and groove method is very popular in that it looks nice and neat while providing the needed stability. Another method is known as mortise and tenon, which involves a socket and two pieces of projecting wood. Other options for the joints include a doweled joint where a wood pin fits tightly into a drilled out hole, rabbeted and butted joint that has two pieces of wood placed at angles, glued, and stapled, bolted or corner blocked if rigidity is a concern, and finally, the least expensive method for outdoor bench joints is with stapling. The downside to this is that as people sit down and get up from the outdoor bench, the staples can eventually work free.

The second factor for selecting wooden outdoor benches is the stability and sturdiness. Since people of all sizes will be sitting down, you obviously want a bench that will accommodate various weights. To ensure sturdiness, you would need to make sure the bench meets certain criteria. If the bench has a back, then the outside posts or rungs on either side will need to go all the way through the bench seat to the underside, making the posts and rungs less likely to break. In addition, the legs of the outdoor bench need to be solid and large enough to handle weight.

One way to tell if the bench is not sturdy enough is to sit on it. If you hear a creaking noise, then you should be concerned. While sitting, move your weight back and forth a little to see if the bench feels secure or wobbly. You can also do a push / pull test with your hands, pressing on the bench's legs to see if they feel solid or loose. Most manufacturers will provide specifications on the various types of outdoor benches so you will know exactly the weight limitations, type of wood used, the joint process, and so on. Use this information to your advantage when selecting an outdoor bench so you end up with the type that best suits your needs.

The Invisible Power of the Wooden Dowel

They are tiny, wooden, rod shaped, and you probably hardly ever see or think about them. Despite that, they have had an unmistakable impact on your life and many of the things in it, from the house you live in to the desk you sit at. They are wood dowels, and while they might be small and easily ignored they are hardly insignificant.

Every day, the wood dowel is used for a diverse range of applications ranging from wall plugs and shelf supports to axles in toy trucks and joints in just about any kind of wood product imaginable. However, it goes a bit deeper than that. Without wood dowels, our worlds would actually be much different. Why? Because iron and steel haven’t always been used in construction. Nails haven’t always existed. Naturally, another solution was required, and that solution continues to be used prominently today. Without the wood dowel, many products and tools would have been drastically different, if possible at all.

Whether we choose the historical context of artisans making furniture, shipwrights making boats, or woodwork in the present day, wooden dowels were and continue to be the fastening pieces used to keep it all together. In fact, in many applications throughout history where the “product” must stand up against moisture and weather, the wooden joints created with dowels are often preferable to metal screws and nails because they eliminate rust as an issue. When the metal nails rust in a wood product, not only does it look ugly, but the rust can rot the wood. This drastically undermines the quality and dependability of the entire product – whether it’s a chair to be left outside or a large boat.

For an example of how the wood dowel is used a modern-day context, we consider one of the latest sporting trends: stand up paddle boards. Stand up paddle boarding (SUP) is all the rage across the country because of how easy and accessible the sport is. While many of the SUP boards are manufactured with inexpensive foam blanks, which are then fitted with fins and “glassed” with expoxy, some higher quality paddleboards use wood as a more sturdy, beautiful, and durable medium. For both wooden surfboards and paddleboards, a wood skeleton is created which is then used to anchor the various parts of the board, ranging from the deck (on top), the bottom, the rails (the sides), and the tail. To keep all of these pieces in place, many designs call for the use of wooden dowels, which – as explained before – eliminate the need to worry about rust while also weighing less, and contributing to a seamless wooden aesthetic.

In addition to the basic benefits of wood dowels, specialized builders and woodworkers pride themselves on sticking with all-wood construction to this day, producing everything from wooden furniture and cabinetry to log cabins and cottages using nothing but wood. Contrary to the beliefs of many, while this method of doing things is indeed an homage to proud woodworking traditions throughout history, it is also a simple method of joining materials that is as effective and sometimes more effective than using nails and screws.

The Stack and Tilt Golf Swing – A Review

One of the most hotly debated topics in golf circles for the last couple years is whether the Stack and Tilt golf swing will truly revolutionize the game of golf and golf instruction in general. Many proponents of the swing are almost cult like in their selling of the model, while more traditional instructors appear to be equally fanatical in their opposition.

The Stack and Tilt golf swing model first came onto the scene in 2005. It was developed by instructors Andy Plummer and Michael Bennett, who were very interested in working with tour players. Some of the tour players they initially started working with include Steve Elkington, Dean Wilson and Charlie Wi. Other players that have since adopted some or all of the model into their swings include JJ Henry, Troy Matteson and Tommy Armour III. Stars that employed the model but have since abandoned it include Aaron Baddeley and Mike Weir.

The Stack and Tilt golf swing is controversial in a few ways. First is the way it has been marketed as the swing that is “Remaking Golf.” A book and DVD set have been published. The book is highly critical of conventional instruction, but in a somewhat misleading manner. Some of the comparisons between the Stack and Tilt swing and the supposed conventional swing are misleading in that most instructors worth a grain of salt would clearly not teach swing positions similar to those compared to in the book.

The second way that the swing is controversial is that it does away with any type of weight shift in the golf swing from the front foot to the back foot in the back swing. Most weight is kept on the front foot throughout the swing to prevent swaying and to keep the upper body “centered”.” Many golfers have a habit of swaying too much in the back swing, and this idea is meant to counter that issue. A big sway in the back swing tends to lead to inconsistent ball striking among average golfers. On the other hand, some very successful golfers have had a bit of a sway in their swing, as taught by renowned instructor Jimmy Ballard. These players include Curtis Strange, Hal Sutton and Rocco Mediate.

Traditional golf instructors prefer to see a little weight shift to the rear leg in the back swing, particularly for longer shots, as this helps to add swing speed. Most competitors in long drive competitions clearly have a very large weight transfer to the back foot in the back swing. This helps create depth away from the ball, and more room to generate club head speed. However, timing this move is clearly more difficult.

In the Stack and Tilt model, there is a forward thrust in the hips that is offered as a different way to add swing speed. Old guard instructors are quick to point out that this thrust in the hips results in a “Reverse C” position, which puts pressure on the lower back. Anyone with lower back issues will have difficulty with this aspect of the swing.

One other aspect about the controversy surrounding the swing model is that many of the proponents suggest that the book is not meant to be followed to the letter. When describing certain feel positions in the swing, some of the positions illustrated in the book are exaggerated. Furthermore, many of the drills that are associated with the model that may be seen on the internet also exaggerate these positions. When confronted about these positions, particularly the lean of the spine toward the target in the back swing and the severe tilt in the spine away from the target in the follow through position, many proponents suggest that they are simply exaggerations, and only meant for drills. However, the book certainly does NOT make this suggestion.

Generally speaking, the Stack and Tilt model has some merit. For golfers who tend to be less skilled and have difficulty making solid contact, or tend to slice the ball, the Stack and Tilt swing can certainly be helpful. It forces the golfer to strike the ball with a descending blow, which results in the swing bottoming out past where the ball was sitting. This is a critical fundamental to solid ball striking. Most good golfers are already swinging the club in a similar way with their short irons, as there is very little weight shift involved. Furthermore, the model also encourages hitting the ball from a more inside out swing path, which will allow the golfer to learn how to hit a draw. This is done by swinging the arms more behind the body in the back swing while turning the shoulders on a steeper plane than with more conventional instruction.

On the other hand, there does appear to be an issue with ball flight when dealing with longer clubs. Maintaining most weight on the front foot and swinging the arms behind the body more does not allow for traditional shot making. From that position, the player has to come way over the top in the downswing with a big loop in order to a fade. Also, it is more difficult to get the ball high in the air using less lofted clubs with more weight on the front foot in the back swing. A steeper swing plane is then required to compensate and that can lead to other issues.

Overall, the debate regarding the merits of the Stack and Tilt swing versus more conventional golf instruction will likely rage on. Many proponents of the Stack and Tilt swing are now hoping for validation from Tiger Woods, who is now being taught by Sean Foley, a disciple of the swing model. Foley does not employ the entire model in his instruction, but he clearly does apply a good piece of it as evidenced by how Tiger appears to be swinging more recently.

A good instructor will learn to take the best of all models available and apply them in their instruction. The fact is that there is no one swing model that is perfect for every golfer, or for every shot. With that said, Plummer and Bennett have boldly put forth some new concepts and they are to be commended for that. The book is definitely recommended to golfers of all abilities seeking to educate themselves more about the golf swing.