Civil Engineering – Four Amazing Reasons To Become a Civil Engineer

Civil engineers are responsible for designing, building, maintaining and managing the whole process of constructing private and public facilities. These include pipelines, roads, highways, dams, bridges, tunnels, water treatment systems, airports and subdivisions. It is also the responsibility of these engineers to oversee the activities and overall performance of the people involved in the projects. While these professionals have tremendous responsibilities to keep, there are so many other good reasons to become a civil engineer.

Continuous Demand for Engineering Graduates

According to the US Bureau of Labor Statistics, there were around 287,400 civil engineering jobs as of 2008. Almost half of these engineers were employed in companies that specialize in engineering, architecture and other related work. One fourth of this figure belonged to those engineers working in government facilities, while the rest were in the construction industry.

One of the most significant benefits of having an engineering job is the continuous and rising demand for the maintenance and construction of new facilities. As a result, there is also a growing demand for civil engineering graduates to supervise the projects. It is also worth mentioning that there will always be government funded projects that these engineers can take on if ever private firms start cutting back on their own projects.

Various Job Specialization Options

The field of civil engineering is so huge that there are also a lot of options for students in terms of specialization. As a civil student, you may choose among various specialty areas depending on your personal interest. The main areas focused on by these engineers are construction, structural engineering, water resources, geotechnical engineering and transportation. Aside from working in the field, a person with an engineering degree can choose to have administrative positions or work as researchers and teachers.

Rapid Growth of the Engineering Industry

The demand for people who graduated from engineering schools is not only steady, but is actually on the rise. Because of the steady increase in civil jobs in the infrastructure and construction industry in particular, engineering is not just a stable job, but a rapidly expanding one as well.

Civil Engineers Receive Competitive Wages

It is not difficult to imagine how the demand for this job affects salary of a civil engineer. Of course, as the relevance of a profession increases, the salary range it comes with also goes up. The US Bureau of Labor Statistics revealed that a person who has a bachelor’s degree in this type engineering has the potential to earn at least $52,048 a year. This salary average is considered as among the highest ones of all college degrees.

Before choosing to take up civil engineering in college, it is important that you first consider if you actually have what it takes to be a successful engineer. While the benefits of having this job are simply irresistible, the process of becoming an engineer is not at all easy and simple. But with the right resources and the right choice of an engineering school, you will certainly reach your goal of becoming a famous and successful civil engineer.

Passion Vs. Detachment

As a student of success for many years, I’ve become familiar with the idea that we need to generate a passion for our goals, a burning desire to see them brought to fruition. Yet, as a student of spirituality, I’ve spent a lot of time embracing the idea that desire is the root of all suffering. With desire, says the Buddha, comes clinging and aversion, the two seeds of discontent which imprison our souls and keep us striving for yet never achieving real happiness. Similarly, success trainers tell us we must live in the future, drawing clear and vivid pictures of the reality we want to create, while spiritual teachers tell us we must live in the present moment, for that’s all there is. How do we resolve this dilemma and find a path that leads us to happiness and contentment?

One way is to choose camps, that is to decide that you’re an advocate of one or the other philosophy and accept the inherent dictates of that view.

If you’ve chosen Buddhism as your path, you’ll guard against any flowering of desire within you, witnessing each desire with detachment, affirming its transience, and ultimately letting it go. Your desires will not cause you to react by taking action towards their attainment, since your path is one of extrication from the whims and wills of the mind, and your happiness will be derived from the conquering of desire inherent in your renunciation of the object of that desire. You’ll seek happiness in the here and now.

If you’re a student of success strategies, you’ll actively seek a clearer connection with the part of you that has desire. You’ll then draw vivid pictures of your future happiness, including the objects of your desire in the pictures. You’ll develop a passionate, almost obsessive intention to accomplish your aims, reasoning that it’s the acquisition of your goals that brings about happiness. You’ll work diligently towards the attainment of your objectives and won’t allow yourself to be content until you’ve achieved your aims.

I believe there’s a third way to proceed. It’s a synthesis of the two extremes. Let me explain. In my view, cultivating inner peace is a high priority, and experiencing happiness unconditional upon the absence or presence of a particular circumstance is essential to mental health. Therefore, I practice detachment and observe my desires without feeling that they demand attention or acquisition. I imagine myself to be a kindergarten teacher, and my desires are the desires of the little kids in the class. I watch them get excited and enjoy their passion, but I’m not caught up in it myself. Still, I want to have fun, so sometimes I’ll decide to play with the kids. I’ll get just as passionate and excited as they are, and I’ll play the game completely, hoping to win. That means that, at times, I’ll take on a goal and get passionate about its attainment. I’ll commit to its completion, work diligently, and dream of the day I’ve manifested it. I’ll become a bit obsessive and driven and look for all the ways that the universe becomes involved in helping me achieve my goal.

Since I’ve been practicing detachment and present time consciousness, however, I won’t lose sight of how I’m feeling right now. I’ll check in with myself and notice whether or not I’m getting out of balance. If I’m far out into the future and becoming intent on a particular result as a condition of happiness, I’ll pull back and stop or slow the game. If I find that I’m developing an addiction to certain conditions being met, I’ll meditate, pray, walk, or do anything but pursue the goal. I’ll remind myself that it’s just a game, and that the outcome has no more significance than that which I give it.

I practice spirituality because it reminds me that there are no conditions necessary for my happiness, and that this moment is perfect, exactly as it is. I set goals because it offers me the chance to create. Creation is part of our birthright. Plus, in setting goals, I have a structure within which I can live, love, and play. I find that very comforting.

Myths Regarding Home Insulation

Home insulation is the money consuming process. Despite of the fact that home insulation is done to maintain a moderate climate within the house and reduces the electric bill, people are still hesitate to implement home insulation because of some misconceptions and myths. Home wall insulation is not needed in the moderate climatic region, but it is essential in hot and cold regions where atmospheric temperature is much below or above the body temperature. Some of the myths regarding attic insulation or home insulation are listed below:

Energy efficient equipments: people have a false belief that energy efficient equipments will restrict the loss of energy and thereby reduces the electric bill. They also believe that investing in buying such equipment is much better than investing in insulation implementation.

This is utterly a false belief, because no such equipment will reduce the energy consumption. If so, energy consumption will be reduced to the sparse level. Moreover, such equipments require more installation cost and improper installation of such equipments leads to more power consumption

The ceiling fan and The thermostat: some people had fake belief that making the fan to run even in the absence of people will automatically cool the house and turning on the thermostat will automatically heat the house. People blindly believe in it without any research and analysis

But to break this myth, there are many studies which tell that fan works on mechanical force. The energy produced by mechanical force most probably heats energy which produces heat to the atmosphere. In addition to that, another fact says that the fan has the ability to cool the skin not the room. Coming to thoughts on the thermostat, they make the furnace to heat up soon based on their adjustment but they don’t heat up the room. The furnace is designed to heat to the particular level. They don’t heat above certain limit, even if the thermostat is kept at high.

Turn off the equipments: this is the myth popular among both literate and illiterate. People believe that turning off the electric equipments when not in use will cut off the power flow which in turn reduces power consumption. People with this thought think that “keeping such easy and beneficial idea in hand, why should we go for insulation to reduce energy bills?”

The fact obtained from basic study on electronics tells that, some products consume energy even if it is switched off. There are equipments like generator, air conditioner, fridge which needs a constant power supply to get the expected result. Thus turning off doesn’t reduces electric bill.

These are some of the myths regarding the home insulation process. Energy consumption is reduced to the maximum through the insulation process, moreover the comfortable climate within the house is also possible through the insulation process.

The Dangers of Tap Water

Clean, safe water is one of the most important elements of a healthy body. It is essential to life Water is a universal solvent. It carries nutrients to every cell in our body. Water flushes out harmful toxins from our body. We are a water-based lifeform. The first step in getting the body chemistry in proper order is to become well hydrated with the best water ever. Being well-hydrated increases the strength of our immune system. Proper hydration keeps our skin and organs healthy. Hydration is essential in keeping us clear, bright and beautiful. Hydration is the main factor that keeps one’s tissues “juicy.”

It is a sad fact that finding a pure water source in today’s polluted environment is almost impossible. Unsafe water is not just a third world problem. Finding water that is safe to drink is even harder in industrially developed countries such as the U.S. Research shows that most tap and well water in the U.S. now are not safe for drinking due to heavy industrial and environmental pollution. We have created a situation where all sources of our drinking water, including municipal water systems, rivers, lakes, streams, wells, and even glaciers, contain some level of contamination.

Although many of the contaminants that are found in our drinking water do not exist at levels high enough to cause immediate illness, research has found that low-level exposure to many of these contaminants will cause severe illnesses including cancer, over time. The chemicals commonly used to treat municipal water supplies such as chlorine and fluoride are toxic and are known to have negative effects on the human body.

How bad is it?

The General Accounting Office reports that 20% of the nation’s 65,000 community systems are unable to meet minimum standards set by the Safe Drinking Water Act. A recent government study found that more than 25% of all large U.S. public water systems contain traces of one or more toxic substances.

According to the EPA, tap water contains more than seven hundred organic chemicals that are suspected cancer causing agents. Other common pollutants in our tap water are:



Organo-phosphate residues











In Dr. Howard Fisher’s book Extreme Toxic Times: How to Escape on Your Own Two Feet, he states that government sources have four categories of drinking water pollution:

1. natural pathogens

2. organic, inorganic or radioactive chemicals

3. disinfectants and coagulants (that are left over from treating the pathogen load present in the water)

4. chemical byproducts (that are present due to the reaction of the disinfectants with organic or inorganic materials in the water)

Public water systems do not test for the carcinogens and other dangerous chemicals that are being found.

Not only are we drinking from contaminated water sources, but we are also bathing in them. Do you have a water filter on your shower or bathtub? If you don’t, then your skin, which is the largest eliminative organ in your body, is soaking up all those poisonous chemicals. All the toxicity that is present in the tap water is being delivered directly into your cells.

Don’t EVER drink tap water again. It is undermining our health. We are remaining dehydrated and toxic. We’re not flushing anything out, we are adding to the problem and not the solution. Now don’t despair, Nature has a solution. It is easy, fun, and free! We get ourselves so deep into a hole, but Nature is always there to pull us out. The solution to this problem is fresh spring water from the source. Fresh spring water is the quintessential product of the Earth’s natural hydrological cycle. Bottled spring water in glass is a great choice for drinking water.

When we drink spring water collected fresh from the source, it is absorbed directly into the body. The cells absorb all of the hydrogen ions present in the water (remember, water = H2O + ORMUS), so the water hardly even reaches the stomach. So instead of sloshing around inside, it feels as if the water is converted right into light. When we drink water that feels heavy inside our bodies, that means that the water is of a poor quality, as it did not directly absorb into our system.

Victor Schauberger was the first person to focus my attention on the idea that water can be “ennobled”, and how all of life is about ennobling water in a dynamic interaction between the “heavens” and the Earth. I started to see that what is going on inside of every tree, every plant, every amoeba, is, ultimately, an ennobling of water. That organism is taking water into it’s own biology, it’s own consciousness, and is ennobling the water to it’s view of the world. For example, a flower’s perspective of the world is different than ours, and so the “consciousness” of the water gets to go through a wide range of life and collect infinite information.

When any living thing takes in water, whether it be a tree or ourselves, the water gets to experience its perspective of the world. This is an interesting angle to approach life on earth from. When we look at water as a living thing that’s having experiences just like we are, it helps us come into a relationship with water where we don’t pollute our rivers, we don’t pollute the aquifers, and we actually produce pure drinking water and spring water consciously bottled in glass.

At my house the water comes from a spring that is about a thousand yards away. When I am not at home I am always on the lookout for fresh spring water sources to fill up at. It is such a gift to be able to drink fresh, naturally filtered water, the way the earth does it. When one has this kind of living water, it becomes much easier to fast and eat less in general, for the water nourishes you.

Charging Water

Charging water means giving a “life-pattern” or structure to the water at a microscopic level. The hydrogen molecules in water are closer together if the water is charged. This makes the water more polar (strongly electrical).

The Best Ways to charge water:

Squeeze fresh juices into the water. Squeezing lemons and/or limes into your water are excellent choices because they have incredible cleansing and mucus-dissolving properties.

Add a blade of grass or a few green herbs and leaves into the water

Add some green superfood powders into the water (you can add some agave, honey, yacon, or stevia to sweeten up the taste)

Add a few pinches of Celtic Grey Mineral Sea Salt or Himalayan Pink Salt. These are some of the best choices for non-vegetable sources of salt. These salts each contain over 80 different minerals in similar ratios as they appear in sea water. They are “raw” salts, thus they differ from coagulated table salt and most “kiln-dried” sea salts that have had their minerals oxidized away through heating.

Add Dr. Patrick Flanagan’s Crystal Energy

Add MSM Powder Crystals

Place a crystal inside your glass of water

Put water in a glass jar outside under moonlight for the night (especially the full moon). Water reacts to moonlight.

Run water through a vortex, water spinner/vitalizer, or vortrap (the tornado effect) to improve its quality.

Dr. Emoto has shown in his books The Message from Water, that water responds to loving thoughts and even words written on a water bottle. Water quality seems to always reflect our actions and intentions. Try it for yourself!

How Much Water Should we Drink?

We should ideally drink when our stomach is empty of food. Drinking water with food can dilute digestive fluids leading to poor absorption and constipation. The best time to drink water is upon rising in the morning. Drink at least 1/2 liter (16 fluid ounces) or more at that time.

The typical recommendation to drink “8-10 twelve-ounce glasses of water” each day is excessive if one eats 80%+ juicy raw plant foods. Even if one eats 100% raw foods, however, drinking water each day is still very important. Plain water has its own flushing abilities that simply are not found in coconut water, fruits, and vegetable juices. If one eats 80%+ raw foods, I recommend drinking enough water based on the following ratio: Total weight (in pounds) divided by 4 = # (in ounces)

Take one’s total weight (in pounds) and divide it by four. This will give a number. This number is then the number of fluid ounces of water one should drink in a day. For example, if one weighs 170 pounds and eats primarily raw plant foods, 170 divided by 4 is 42.5. A good daily intake of water for this person would be 42.5 ounces (this is a little more than a 32-ounce quart). (One fluid ounce is equivalent to approximately 30 milliliters).

Be aware that dehydration can happen rapidly. An hour of intense exercise can cause us to lose a quart (liter) of water. A four-hour airline flight can cause us to lose up to a quart (liter) of water.

When buying bottled water, always choose glass over plastic. Plastic leaches into the water (this is often detectable by taste), and is detrimental because it mimics hormones in our body, causing glandular imbalances. Distilled water is not natural. It is an unnatural form of water that should be avoided.

When You Find a Baby Squirrel – Remember WHAM

If you find a baby squirrel, you only need to remember the acronym W.H.A.M. to function like a pro in providing care!

W.H.A.M. is a four step process to insure that you cover all the bases in providing a systematic approach to insure that a baby squirrel is provided every opportunity to survive.

“W” stands for Warm.

Baby squirrels lose body heat very rapidly, especially during the time when they are born, usually in early March. Ideally, you’d like to have the mother come retrieve it, but it’s tough to leave a nearly naked body lay out in the cold of early March waiting for its mother. I’ve found that a small cardboard box with a cloth rice bag heated in a microwave and tacked to the tree, keeps the baby comfortable and up away from predators while it waits for its mother to find it. If she doesn’t come get it, the box and rice bag make an excellent incubator to house the baby during early care, especially during the first five weeks when its eyes are closed. A baby squirrel should always feel warmer than your hand when you pick it up!

“H” stands for Hydrate.

A baby squirrel can get dehydrated very quickly. Their bodies are so small that it does not take long for them to develop an electrolyte imbalance. If it gets bad enough, it can cause the heart to beat irregularly or even stop. If the baby looks very dry and wrinkled and its skin doesn’t return to its normal flat appearance when you pinch it up, or the baby is very sluggish to respond, even after being warmed, you need to get it re-hydrated!

Many rehabilitators and Veterinarians will tell you to give unflavored Pedialyte electrolyte replacement fluid. This is fine, just warm it and give small amounts with an eye dropper or small syringe. My only question is; where does a mother squirrel get Pedialyte when she picks up her baby and it’s dehydrated? I’ve never lost a dehydrated baby squirrel by going straight to formula. So, you do whatever you want, just get the baby hydrated.

“A” Stands for Accommodate.

If you’ve reached this point in the W.H.A.M. process, you’re going to need to make a decision about the future care of this critter. Are you going to keep it and try to raise and release it? Or, are you going to take it to a rehabilitation facility?

A part of accommodating it is to take a second, closer look at it. You’ve warmed it and hydrated it, now look it over and check for other problems. If it has hair, look closely for vermin. Fleas and lice may be present. I use Hartz kitten flea spray on a cotton ball to kill any bugs and pick them off with tweezers.

Look for any bruising or open wounds. Check its legs for possible fractures. I treat wounds with raw coconut oil. You can wash them with soap and water and apply antibiotic ointment.

Look for any signs of labored breathing. A baby squirrel should not have to use more than chest muscles to breathe. If it is struggling to breathe, and its skin does not appear pink, it may have internal injuries. Look at its abdomen for bruising or discoloration. This can be a sign of internal injuries. If you have any questions, seek out a Veterinarian with experience in exotic pets or wild animals.

A baby squirrel can be accommodated very nicely in a box until its eyes open. Then, you’re going to need a cage. A small cage is fine initially, but a larger cage will be necessary as the baby matures physically. My last cage before release is a large walk-in size in my back yard. It allows my squirrels to acclimate to outside living, while allowing them to observe how other squirrels behave. It also allows them to room to get the exercise and climbing skills they will need when released.

“M” Stands for Maintain.

Maintain simply means to keep doing the things that need done to insure that the squirrel has everything it needs to grow to be a healthy adult squirrel. Keeping it warm and fed when it’s a baby. Allowing it to nurse until it weans itself off of formula, then providing it the right kinds of food and calcium support to prevent metabolic bone disease.

Maintaining a squirrel until it is ready to release is not hard, and it does not have to be expensive, but it does require diligence and desire. My wife and I have a passion for raising healthy and disease resistant squirrels and are always willing to help others do the same! It’s a labor of love for us, and that makes all the difference in the world!

The "Green" Life of Polished Concrete

Nowadays more and more architects, interior designers, building contractors and of the general public get involved with environmentally friendly projects, which are supported by: the Canadian government, Ontario rebate programs, non-for profit organizations and media coverage. Polished concrete floors are one of such projects.

The latest diamond technology that gets the concrete surface naturally polished is appealing to people looking for an aesthetically pleasing, minimum maintenance and ecologically sound flooring solution.

Polished concrete systems are designed to grind, cure and polish concrete floors to eliminate the need for environment-damaging chemicals and constant resurfacing with paint or resin. It creates floors with a high gloss, contemporary looking finish.

How ecologically friendly is the POLISHED concrete? Is it really so “Green”?

“Green” approval is interlaced with Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design, (LEED) certification. LEED addresses the major concerns of green building including: the use of resource-friendly materials, energy saving design, and providing healthy indoor environmental quality (IEQ).

Lets evaluate how polished concrete responds to LEED requirements.

Nature of Concrete

Concrete consists of crushed stone, sand, cement and water. All ingredients are perfectly natural, therefore have a very low carbon footprint. No plastic, no glue, no by-product. 5* ECO rating!

Material Production

Concrete is always produced within the short distance to the job site therefore utilizes regional materials, resources and local labor supply. There is no need to ship concrete over long distances, which can result in wasted energy. Transportation costs and carbon emissions are reasonably low. Locally produced – locally consumed. No China made – Go Canadian!

Installation of Polished Concrete

Specifically designed refinishing machines use thermo-resistant diamond bits to progressively smooth the concrete floor. As a result, the surface gets polished, highly reflecting sheen by pressurized heated mechanical abrasion, which obviously does not produce harmful Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), chemical fumes or like. A concrete floor will not require the use of adhesives or sealers, in contrast with carpet, wood, stone, tile, and especially VCT. The densifier-hardener does not produce any fumes. The lithium silicate creates a hardening reaction with the calcium hydroxide occurring naturally in concrete. Therefore, the installation of polished concrete is indeed, a pollution-free “Green” process.

Grinded concrete dust is a valuable material and can be safely reuses or recycled.

Use this dust for your next housing project!

Energy Factor

Finished concrete dramatically saves energy. During summer, the concrete slab draws the ground’s natural cooling abilities into the building. In the winter, if a building has been designed to expose the slab to natural sunlight, it will soak up this radiant heat. Then at night, the slab will slowly release the heat into the building to provide thermal comfort and a warmer interior. Some smart folks install radiant heated polished concrete and really enjoy the “King” life.

As a result, the energy bill for heating and cooling goes down considerably. Good for you, good for our Earth!

Indoor Air Quality

Our everyday life is mostly indoors; therefore, good air quality is a crucial factor for the health. Mold, dust, allergens from animals, fungal contaminants and unpleasant smell affect our life daily. Vinyl tiles absorb fumes and tobacco odor, dust mites like to reside in carpets and mold blooms in the grouts.

On the contrary, a polished and sealed concrete surface can greatly reduce the penetration of moisture and hence, the growth of bacteria. Polished concrete is the best covering option where an allergy free, VOC free and fumes free environment is required. Remember, 40% of North Americans have various allergies, and this number is growing!

Lifespan of Concrete Floor

Polished concrete is a long-lasting solution due to its unique durability. This long-lasting floor will not need to be refinished, disposed or replaced. It is a lifetime solution; therefore it eliminates waste, without using a vast amount of resources that it takes to install new flooring, like VCT, laminate or epoxy.

A concrete floor destined to outlast its owner. And is it “Green” feature? Probably.

How “Eco-Friendly” is the Maintenance?

Unlike painted or resinous floors, polished concrete also requires no further treatment or coating. No waxing / stripping cycles, no steam cleaning and no solvent sealers, like other coverings, needed. In the long term, this will GREATLY save costs since no labor, resurfacing or expensive cleaning materials are required, nor is there a loss of productivity while the floor is repainted or re-coated. Cleaning the polished surface requires only stone soap and water; kind to both the environment and the floor.

Therefore, from a maintenance prospective, the polished concrete has one of the highest ratings in the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design, (LEED) program. In result, your hired maintenance company, building superintendent or even your homeland “Boss-Lady” will love to clean the polished concrete floor!

So, the answer is obvious; we save the Planet. – In XXI century we vote “Green” with polished concrete floors, where ecological and economical solutions meet durability and aesthetics!

Black Soil and Soils High in Fines

Endurazyme / Lime / Rice husk ash blend.

Black laterite soils in Indonesia.

Much research has been done to into the problem of soils high in fines and plastic index in areas that have no gravels available within reasonable reach.

Over the years waste materials such as fly ash or pozzolanic materials have been used for soil improvement. Recent research, based on pozzolanic activity, found that rice husk ash was a potential material to be utilized for soil improvement.

When the mechanical stability of a soil cannot be obtained by combining materials as in proportional mix design, it may be advisable to order stabilisation by the addition of cement, lime, bituminous material or special additives [Endurazyme]. Cement treatment is most applied to road stabilisation especially when the moisture content of the sub-grade is very high. Lime or waste is also sometimes applied for stabilisation.

Calcium hydroxide (slaked lime) is most widely used for stabilization. Calcium oxide (quick lime) may be more effective in some cases, however. The quick lime will corrosively attack equipment and may cause severe skin burns to personnel. Ingles (1972) recommended.

Rice husk ash (RHA) is a pozzolanic material that could be potentially used in Indonesia, considering it is sufficiently produced and is widespread. When rice husk is allowed to burn under controlled temperature, higher pozzolanic properties than other leaf plants were observed. Silica is a main mineral of RHA. When reacted with lime, it will form a bonded gel [Ca(SiO3)]. Silica fume can used as a cement replacement with great success.

By using a mix of Endurazyme / Lime / Rice husk ash [RHA] it is feasible that large increases in strength will be achieved plus Endurazyme will increase the impermeability ensuring that the Lime does not leach out. The lime and RHA will help in dewatering wet soils and sub-bases and decrease the curing time for the total pavement or embankment this is especially important in Indonesia and most Asian countries.

Lime reacts with any other fine pozzolanic component (such as hydrous silica and RHA minerals) to form calcium-silicate cement with soil particles. This reaction is also water insoluble. The cementing agents are exactly the same for ordinary Portland cement. The difference is that the calcium silicate gel is formed from the hydration of anhydrous calcium silicate (cement), whereas with the lime, the gel is formed only by the removal of silica from the clay minerals of the soil. Therefore, it can be concluded that Endurazyme, lime and rice husk ash (ELRHA) can improve the engineering properties of soils. Practically, the effective lime content should be blended in the range of 2% to 6%Lime and 4% to 10% Rice Husk Ash.

Results From Research By Agus Setyo Mantohar and Gendut Hantoro .

The results from the LHRA (lime-rice husk ash) blend confirmed that the blend would diminish swell behaviour of clayey soils. Their PI (plasticity index) would decrease from 41.25% to 0.96% when subjected to a LHRA blend of 12-12.5%. Their swell potential would decrease from 19.23% to 0.019% when subjected to the same blending as well. Their CBR (California Bearing Ratio) value would increase from 3.03% to 16.3% at a LHRA blend of 6-12.5%.

Their internal friction angle concerning shear strength parameters would enhance from 5.36 to 23.85. Soil cohesion increased as well from 54.32 kN/m2 to 157.19 kN/m2. Increasing the shear parameter caused bearing capacity to be 4131 kN/m2 from 391.12 kN/m2. At LHRA 6-10%, consolidation settlement was lowered from 0.03 to 0.006. All of these factors can be summarized to say that by blending lime-rice husk ash together, you may enhance the engineering properties of clayey soils. This is advantageous for work construction in the civil engineering field.


Lime stabilization is commonly used for clayey soil. This research shows: 1. Physical properties such as consistency limits and swell potential exhibit improvements when mixed with the appropriate ELHRA blend.

2. LRHA stabilization is more advantageous when moisture content of soil in the field is very high or applied in the optimum condition.

3. The engineering properties of soil improve:

a. CBR, and shear strength of soil improve at a lime range of 6 – 10%

b. Consolidation settlement diminishes

c. Rate of consolidation enhances by increasing of ELRHA.

4. Economically, utilization of ELRHA for geotechnical applications is cheaper.

5. Physical properties such as consistency limits and swell potential exhibit improvements when mixed with the appropriate ELHRA blend.

6. ELRHA stabilization is more advantageous when moisture content of soil in the field is very high or applied in the optimum condition.

7. The engineering properties of soil improve:

a. CBR, and shear strength of soil improve at a lime range of 6 – 10%

b. Consolidation settlement diminishes

c. Rate of consolidation enhances by increasing of ELRHA.

8. The engineering properties of soil improve:

a. CBR, and shear strength of soil improve at a lime range of 6 – 10%

b. Consolidation settlement diminishes

c. Rate of consolidation enhances by increasing of ELRHA.

Add to this the efficacy of Endurazyme and we have a working model for high swell high fines soils, including wet soils.

Candy Bar Cards – How to Make Them

Making a candy bar card to mark a special occasion can be a novel and memorable way to make someone's day. All it takes is a little thought and a few simple materials, plus a few chocolates of course. This way your project winds up being a sweet gift as well as a greeting card.

Here is How to Make Your Card

First think about the reason you want to make the card. Is it to mark a special birthday or anniversary? Has someone achieved a goal? Do you want to mark the beginning (a wedding?) Or an end (retirement?) Of something?

With your occasion in mind, the next step is to take a trip to the local supermarket and to browse the confectionery aisles. Look for candy bars with names that suit your theme or message. Purchase your chocolates. You may choose small candy bars or individually wrapped chocolates, for example. You just need to be able to read the name of the treat and the sweet needs to be a suitable size for attaching to your card with pins or adhesive.

Now look for some cardboard or thin Styrofoam to make the backing for your card. The bigger the backing, the easier it will be for a group of people to read your message, and the more chocolates you can fit into your message. Make sure your backing is strong enough to support the weight of your chocolates as well.

The next step is to head home to lay out the chocolates in front of the computer. I spend some time brainstorming ways to make a message for my friend or family member, using the chocolates to help spell out my message.

When I have a message in mind, I type it into a word document. Then I format the font (I like Verdana) to be about the same size as the words on my chocolates. I leave some space between my lines of text so I can cut the words of the message apart when I print them out. If you would rather write out your message by hand or spell it out with alphas, paint or even words cut from magazines, of course you can.

After printing my message and cutting out the phrases or words, I start pinning the message to the board or backing sheet.

Work out the middle of your message and lay the words on the middle of the backing sheet. Do they fit where you want them? Can you fit your chocolate words in too? If everything fits, start pinning or adhering the words and chocolates to your backing sheet.

It should not take long to finish making the candy bar card once you know what you want to say.

A Message Idea for Your Candy Bar Card :

To get you started, here is a message I made up for a Father's Day candy bar card:

I would have to go to MARS to find a Dad like you. Ever since I was a BABE (Ruth ) you always TAKE 5 to BOOST me up when I am down. You are a TOP DECK kind of Dad !

I trust you will be inspired to make your own special candy bar card now, but be warned. If you are anything like me, there is a hazard involved in making this type of card. It is the temptation to eat the chocolates before they reach their intended recipient!

Things That Can Go Wrong With Your Cockatiel’s Health

Although cockatiels are generally healthy birds, they can succumb to health problems. In this article I will discuss some of them. Most of these illnesses can be avoided by feeding your cockatiel a healthy diet in the first place.

1. Giardia

Giardia is caused by a protozoan called Giardia Psittaci. Signs of Giardia include weight loss, loose droppings, picking of the feathers (mostly under the wings), depression and loss of appetite. Giardia is a difficult infection for a vet to diagnose. Giardia is spread through contaminated food and water. If Giardia is left untreated, it can lead to other symptoms such as weak jaw muscles, slow eye blinks, poor digestion and overall decreased fertility.

To treat this condition, antiprotozoal therapy and supplemental vitiman E/Selenium are used.

2. Conjuctivitis

Conjuctivitis is seen more in the Lutino cockatiels than in the greys. The eyelids of your cockatiel will look swollen, and there will be a discharge from the eyes. This condition is treated with topical ointments, but is usually recurring. This is usually a genetic thing, so avoid breeding with cockatiels that get conjunctivitis.

3. Candida

Candida is caused by the yeast Candida Albicans. Young cockatiels are particularly susceptible to this, especially when the diet is low in vitamin A. Symptoms of candida are usually white growths in the mouth and throat. Your cockatiel will show signs of regurgitation, vomiting and loss of appetite. Often candida can go unnoticed, and also be spread in an aviary. To avoid this, it is best to make sure the cockatiels diet provides adequate amounts of vitamin A. A vet will prescribe antifungal drugs to clear candida infections.

4. Round Worms

Round worms are normally contracted from dirt or sand. They are two to five inches long and look like spaghetti. Mild infestations will result in loss of appetite, growth abnormalities and diarrhea. Heavy infestations will result in bowel blockage and eventually death.

Your vet will be able to diagnose round worms in the cockatiel’s droppings and prescribe a course of treatments to clear the infestation.

5. Sarcocystis

Sarcocystis is a parasitic disease, and is normally found in countries such as North America where there is a large opposum population. Sarcocystis is more prevailent in the winter months, and male cockatiels seem more susceptible to this condition than female birds. There are usually no symptoms, as the cockatiel will appear healthy one minute and dead the next. The best thing to do is prevent opposums from entering your avairies. Cockroaches can also carry this disease, by eating opposum feces, and then getting eaten by a cockatiel.

6. Papillomas

Papillomas are benign growths that can occur anywhere on a birds skin. These are not normally a problem, but if they get picked at by your cockatiel, it is perhaps best to have your vet remove them.

For more information on cockatiels, visit:

I'm Moving – Simple Steps to Follow

There is a vast list of organisations that you need to inform. It therefore makes sense to send them a standard letter with a gap for you to add relevant reference and account details.

As well as all the organisations and people listed opposite, tell the post office so that mail will be redirected. You'll need a form available by phone or from a post office branch. It takes up to ten days to come into effect. Prepare change of address cards for friends and family.

If you are changing your phone number, you can also arrange for your telephone company to inform callers of your new number for few weeks following the switch-over date.

Transferring services

Ten days ahead of your projected move, make sure all utility services, such as water, gas and electricity, are informed that you will be moving. Ask them to arrange to read the meters on the move day. Ring to check this will happen. If they can not, ask a qualified electrician to do a reading so that you have an independent record or take a date-stamper digital photograph of your meter reading. Moving house is a good time to review your arrangements with utilities. You can transfer your landline phone number to your new address for a charge.

Most companies will have a special telephone number to call to advise that you are moving or you can contact them in writing and, more frequently, by the internet. Make sure you have a receipt or record of them being notified by you as the utility companies can make mistakes and if they do, you are still liable for the bill unless you can prove you notified them and they have received it.

Information for the new owner

It is very helpful if you prepare a briefing sheet for the new owner. This should include how to operate the boiler and alarm, the location of the meters, fuse box and stopcock, and any other useful information. You could either label all keys or leave them in the lock that they operate. Do not forget shed and garage keys, or those for the window locks.

And do not forget to ask – or have it as part of your purchase agreement – that the person you are buying from does the same.

On the day

If you can take it, have a big breakfast as mealtimes are likely to be disrupted today. Put down sheets to protect the floor as people traipse in and out. The removals men are likely to turn up early and they work very fast, so if you are dismantling furniture or disconnecting appliances, do it before they arrive. Check the foreman knows the brief, get his mobile phone number in case of emergencies, because you will be travelling separately.

Strip the beds. Get the electricity and gas meters read, set aside the vacuum cleaner and cleaning equipment for your last-minute clear up.

If you have young children, take them to whoever is caring for them until you move. Do the same with any pets. If you know where you are in the chain, you will have some ideas of when you are likely to hear you have completed, as it will work up from the bottom. So if you are a first-time buyer at the end of the chain, you should be able to move as early as 12 noon. And if you are selling to first-time buyers, be out by by then! The poor people further along the line will have to wait.

As soon as the house is empty, zoom around it for a last-minute clean up Do not leave the house until your legal firm advises you to, and drop off the keys with the agent.

It will help your whole family to settle in if the new place feels like home. One way to help with this is to set aside a small stock of pictures, other familiar objects and, if possible, curtains. Take these in your car as you are likely to arrive before the removals lorry. When you get into the new property, put them in places as soon as you can: the surroundings will feel more like your home, which can lift everyone's spirits at a time when you are most likely feeling tired and drained.

Your new home

When you get in, label or colour code each room so the removals men know what will go where. Be clear about where you want any heavy furniture put. Do not expect to unpack anything but the bare essentials: bedding and a meal, you might prefer a takeaway. You may realise you need to clean items such as kitchen cupboards or shelves before stacking anything in them. Take readings of any gas and electricity meters as a record in case of any dispute with the supplier. As with leaving your sold property, if possible, photograph the figures, or write them down and get someone to witness your writing.

Your removals team will expect a tip, and you will most likely feel they've earned it. If there is a problem their work, tell the foreman. You may be asked to sign to confirm the job is completed and if you have not yet inspected your belongings, note that they are unexamined. This will help if there is a dispute later.

Be prepared to feel tired and maybe a bit let down: you probably have not seen the property empty or noticed blemishes on walls that were hidden behind furniture. Try to stay positive and remember what it is that attracted you to the property in the first place.

Different Types of Clay and Their Uses

Clay modeling is a fun and enjoyable hobby for many. Kneading, squashing and shaping the soft clay into different shapes and forms is quite easy. It comes as ready to use and you can make almost anything you wish with this malleable and putty like substance. In fact, it must be about the most versatile and handy to use art material!

But when you shop for clay in the market, you will find yourself feeling inundated by the various types of clay that are on offer. The shopkeeper will most likely ask you if you want oil based clay, water based clay, polymer clay or dough clay.

Updating yourself with the different types of clay will enable you to choose the right one to suit your specific purpose. Let’s take a look:

Dough clay -This is a simple, safe, cheap and reusable. It is non toxic and therefore, considered safe to use even by children. In fact, PlayDoh is extremely popular with kids and can be easily made at home as well. However, it tends to dry quickly and should be stored in air tight containers after use. The craftwork will crack after some time and is not long lasting.

Water based clay -This is the versatile that is very popular in animatronics. It is smooth, flexible, but will dry slowly as the water evaporates when exposed to air. Sculptors often favor water based clays but they need to keep it moist during use.

Polymer modeling clay – This is also soft It should be baked in an oven for proper curing and finishing.

Ceramic clay – This material comes in various types and is commonly regular by potters for making pots, stoneware and other glazed items.

Oil based clay -This type of material is made by mixing certain oils or waxes with clay. It is non-drying and will never harden or crack even after being exposed to the air. It can even be reused many times by heating. In fact, heating and cooling enables the artist to control the pliability of the clay.

This is why oil material can suit almost any application and are particularly appropriate for clay modeling and casting works. It is commonly used as a mold making material for mask making, special effects, and resin or metal casts.Some variants are used for making automobile prototypes and even as a backing material for testing body armor.

Also known as Plasticine clay, Roma, Chavant and DeMilano are the popular brands of oil based clay available in the market. However, you need to keep in mind that the sulfur content of this clay can inhibit the setting of some silicone mold rubbers. It is better to use sulfur free plasticine is such situations.

In sum, while there are various types of clay, oil based ones are most popular and useful for clay modeling!

If Your Heart’s Not In It

What single trait fuels a child that rivets a nation to their talent, an athlete to rush past all boundaries, a war to be won against all odds, or even a single glance we witness between two people that becomes unforgettable… legendary? Their heart’s in it; when the heart is engaged, the fuel of the life force is operating at a capacity we can’t fully understand. Impossible no longer exists; we can all really soar when our heart is engaged.

How can you tell when your heart’s not in it? Look within and around yourself and your choices; you can easily identify when this has happened. If you are in a relationship and find yourself making choices where you expect your partner to understand or ‘get over it’ your heart’s not in it. If you are no longer enthusiastic about getting to work or any place that used to excite you, your heart is not in it. When practicing to achieve a greater potential in any pursuit becomes drudgery or no longer stimulates you, your heart is not in it.

When you begin to feel uneasy in your relationship or a friendship, your antennae has picked up a change; this causes us to doubt that someone’s heart is not in our relationship or friendship any longer or is drifting away. It’s rarely wrong; we begin to sense that drifting away through those same emotions engaged through our heart. It is the ‘sensing’ brain within us. It is emotion driven and highly intuitive as it connects with the innate or smart body that exists within every person. It seeks and identifies truth.

Where do we go when our heart’s not in it? We have to disconnect momentarily from that part of us and switch to the brain that functions without emotion. It is time to look closely at what was driving us before and why it no longer seems important. If it is a lack of attention, it is reparable so long as we still have the desire that fueled it in the beginning. If it is a loss of interest, you may be heading down the long stretch of detachment of your emotions, better known as ‘the end.’

We are emotion driven, visual creatures, regardless of gender. Whatever we are looking at or envisioning is the reality we are already creating for our future. Even if you are not consciously doing this, it is happening. Pay attention to what result you are envisioning and you will have a clear and concise image of what is about to become your future. Why is this true? Until you can ‘see’ it you cannot accept it as your reality; when you focus your energy and attention on anything, your heart is in it. Once that happens your foot is on the emotional accelerator that propels you to achieve that dream.

Putting your heart into anything or anyone is the greatest commitment of energy you can offer; choose wisely, make it meaningful!

Estate Fencing: Beauty and Function

The art of estate fencing involves keeping your property protected from trespassers while maintaining its beauty. The goal is to find fencing materials and design that add appeal to your estate while keeping it secure. The most common type of estate fencing is wrought iron railings. The fence is made from metal bars that are galvanized. This type of estate fencing is easy to shape and it works well on uneven ground. This adds beauty and charm to any estate. It gives it a classic look that is appealing without being over whelming.

You can find estate fencing that is made of iron but is it round instead of flat. This makes it lighter and more flexible, but this type of estate fencing is not as durable. This type of fencing works well when you have to move it for cattle grazing or other types of projects. It has a powder coating to prevent it from rusting over time.

Some estate fencing is very high while others are standard height. It depends on the look you want to give your estate. Adding a very high estate fence with large doors that open up to drive into the estate are very beautiful. They also help keep people and animals from getting into your yard.

Estate fencing can be purchased from farm and ranch supply stores, home improvement stores, and on the internet. If you are not sure which type of estate fencing to purchase take a look at the various styles and designs on the internet. You will want to find out the best type of material to use for your fencing needs as well as compare the prices. Most estate fencing is quite easy to install. If you are not interested in doing it yourself, the internet is also a great way to find an estate fencing installer.

How NOT To Fall At The Last Fence

As Independent Professionals we generate attention and interest by focusing on results and benefits, not on the process. But that's not enough to actually make the sale. The initial reaction we get from our marketing message is key. We've put in the work on our audio logo … it's powerful. We have the attention of an ideal client … they're interested. But then they start to get analytical and ask themselves questions. For many self-employed professionals this is where it can all start to fall apart.

Your prospect begins to wonder: "How does this work?" "Will this work for me?" "How long will it take?" "Is that really possible?" "Who else has done it?" "Can they prove it?"

If you do not answer these questions, you're going to fall at the last fence.

When marketing your services, the biggest challenge for you should not be finding your ideal clients and getting their attention. If you take the right steps to create a powerful personal marketing message and get it seen and heard by those in your target market; that's relatively easy. The biggest challenge is to prove that you can produce the results you promise.

And when most Self-employed Professionals are asked to prove that they can deliver results guess what happens? Believe it or not, they start to talk about the process. They talk about how they do what they do.

"You can reduce costs by 27%?" … "Great, how do you do that?" "Well we gather all your information together and then we use this great new piece of software called Ezymaster that
collates and analyzes …. blah blah.

Is not that interesting … No it's not

I promise you, a prospect for your services is not looking for that kind of answer – almost never! That's not proof. In fact, it sounds a bit like you're hot on how, but cool on results.

What your prospect is probably wondering is:

What companies have you reduced costs by 27% or more?

Were these companies similar to my company?

Was the process relatively easy or long and involved?

Did it take up much of the owner's time?

How long did it take to get results?

How did they measure the actual results?

If you can not answer questions like these , as far as your prospect is concerned, you have no proof that you can deliver and they've lost interest.

You must answer questions like "How do you do that?" by giving an answer that persuades. The easiest and most powerful way to do this is through "Success Stories" which will make a solid case for your services.

You could say something like:

"The best way to answer that question is by telling you about a client we worked with recently. They were in the same industry as you and were frustrated with rising costs and were looking to make savings so that they did not need to put up prices to their customers. We did some assessments (they're not interested how) and then helped them make some changes that would make then significant savings ".

"Within six months by conservative estimates, we'd saved the company 27% on their overall running costs compared to the previous six month period".

Whatever the results, facts or figures for your particular business, if I were you, I'd spend a lot of time developing and practicing these Success Stories until you can tell them with confidence and clarity. Your success as an Independent Professional might just depend upon it.

Copyright Anne Duncan 2006

Hotels Today

Today hotels are much more than just a place to stay over when traveling. The hospitality industry has witnessed a tremendous transformation in the past two decades. The hospitality segment is witnessing heavy investments with rising consumer demand for business cum luxury hotels. This had created a healthy competition in the market and the hotels are continuously coming up with innovative stratagems to tempt the business travelers.

One would think that spacious rooms aesthetically designed with luxurious décor are an attraction in themselves. Especially when they come equipped with electronic safes, mini-bars, direct dial telephones and additional outlets for fax / modem. But wait, there are yet more services and facilities to lure the guest, ranging from airport pick-ups, express check-ins and checkouts, wireless internet connectivity, interactive televisions, smart meeting and conference facilities, state-of-the-art gyms and spa treatments, complementary breakfast and first pressing of garments – hotels are offering all this and still more for corporate clients like special discounts event management services, etc. Each hotel strives to offer something distinctive to distinguish itself from the multitude. Today, the business traveler is spoiled for choice, with an abundance of luxury hotels competing for business.

The more expensive hotel suites also come with a butler service, complimentary limousine pick up and drop from the airport, cocktail hour with complimentary canapés and snacks or other such offers. Some of the most popular services among hi-flying guest are exclusive check-in and check-out, exclusive meeting room available on complimentary basis subject to availability and a business centre with all modern amenities like fax, photocopier, multimedia workstation with internet and secretarial services.

Add to all the above the convenience of instant online reservations without having to deal with travel agents, not to mention getting attractive deals for hosting conferences, events and intimate family occasions in the hotel itself. The business traveler has never before been pampered as in today's hotels. What more could a guest ask for?

You would think the list of facilities has been exhausted, but wait, there is still more being offered. The hotels have a number of choices for entertaining the guests, ranging from discotheques, live entertainment lounges, outdoor pools, Italian, Indian, Thai and many more specialized restaurants, bakeries and delis and last but not the least 24-hour coffee shops. Another facility is real time downloading of international newspapers in its original format .. Yet another strategy to woo guests are loyalty programmes, most hotel groups have reward programmes for regular guests. The extra attention strengthens brand loyalty among guests and also promotes public relations. Loyalty rewards can influence a guest's choice of hotel. Benefits of such schemes might include; priority booking, free upgrades subject to availability and early check-in or late checkouts. Some hotels even offer selected branded merchandise, free weekend stays, fine dining and even free flights, if you get lucky.