Keep the Bed Bugs Off

Bed bugs are a nuisance at all costs. They interfere with your sleep. The bites cause skin irritation. Once they attack you they are extremely hard to get rid of. The process of elimination may also be very costly. The best way to avoid them is prevention.

Prevention is the cheapest way and the key to prevent the bed bugs. Bed bugs prevention can spare your family the agony of sleepless nights. You only need to know how to adhere to the following guidelines:

How do you go about Prevention?

Have you traveled out of home lately to a place that has high risk infestation of bed bugs; it is wise to take the prompt steps to keep the persistent pest off before the pests overtake you.

Before learning how to prevent them it is important to know how to detect them in case you are traveling.

• If your pillow has red marks where you lodge beware
• If you notice any black trail marks in the mattress especially when the bed is being that is a red flag
• Any sweet sickly smell from a small red insect you come across in case you crush it watch out
• Irritating bite marks like mosquito bites and yet there are no mosquitoes begin to isolate your staff from the rest in the room

If you are convinced where you were lodging was a danger zone for the bugs do not panic, stay calm but take appropriate measures to keep them off.

There are many ways of being proactive to avoid the process of declaring war on the pests. They are:

• Use hot water to wash suspicious clothes or bags used while on the journey
• Avoid putting your bugs on the floor
• Limit travel bugs to one room to minimize in case one was picked and has not been killed by using hot water to get rid of them from your paraphernalia
• Do not put the bags or clothes after travel on the beds
• Be selective on the kind of hotel or lodging you reside in
• Armed with knowledge on how to spot bed bugs try to detect them in your room
• Try to keep clothes you have carried away from the hotel bedding in case you suspect the place

Buying Home Items

Another source that can bring bed bugs home are items especially furniture particularly second hand furniture.

1. Restrict your buying of furniture to new items
2. If you must buy second thoroughly disinfect them and use hot water before mixing them up with other furniture in the home
3. Never pick a mattress that has been used however new it may look.

Have you moved to a new premise?

It is fine to move to a new home, however to keep yourself safe from tiny insects take the necessary precautions.

• Knowing that it is hard to detect the bed bugs prevention the best remedy is to be pro active. In case you notice cracked walls seal them immediately
• Identify the areas the bugs are likely to hard are hidden in places
• Use mattress covers to minimize the bed bugs from penetrating into the mattress they can live for a year without sucking your blood but eventually they will die.

Take charge of your comfort by taking all the measures available to keep the bed bugs from stressing you. Have a sound sleep and reduce the spread to others.

Different Kinds of Property

When you say property, it refers for a broad kind of thing because property is really a general word that needs to be very specific.

A property includes the following:

a. It might be a land

b. A house

c. A resort

d. Jewelries

e. Car

f. Buildings

g. Farm

h. Business entity

Or for so many things, property only notes that it is your belongings that are still on hand. That is why there is a real estate property that is very willing to buy and sell those items.

The different kinds of properties should always be made important, so that it will not be neglected nor rejected. It is also very important that you take good care of your property because every year the value of each property varies in an increasing value of money. Why do you think so? It is because the demand or the needs of the people every year is really increasing mode or level.

Real estate is something that you really have to take good care of, because in this kind of business, real estate really lasts. It will last forever, that is why the value really speaks a lot. So, why not join those who have really been into real estate business. It has been proven the amount of importance and the value that gives to so many people. So, there is no reason now for you not to make something about it.

Tom has been writing articles for several years now as a hobby. His latest visit Come website over at Http:// Which helps people the find the best Apartment Building For Sale.

Effective Communication – How to Give Constructive Feedback With the Feedback Sandwich Technique

Providing regular, constructive feedback helps to motivate and retain staff. Everyone wants to know how well they are doing, and have opportunities to learn and grow. When you take the time to share some feedback with an individual, it makes them feel valued and will contribute towards retaining them in the long run. Invest in your team by taking the time to prepare and deliver individual feedback.

Negative feedback is never easy to give, but sandwiching criticism between layers of praise makes it more palatable and more effective. It is possible to tell someone what you like and dislike about his or her performance in a constructive way, by serving a “feedback sandwich”.

Use this “feedback sandwich” technique for giving feedback that is more palatable. First, share a quality or characteristic that you appreciate, then give one area for improvement, and finish with some positive words of encouragement or appreciation.

  • Bread: Start with a positive statement.
  • Meat: Put an area that need improvement in the middle.
  • Bread: End with a positive statement of encouragement.

For this feedback sandwich, the “bread” is quite thick (lots of positive encouragement and appreciation) and the “meat” or filling is thin. It’s like an Italian panini with heavy, flavourful bread; not a Smoked Meat Sandwich with thin rye bread and lots of smoked meat!

1. Praise and Acknowledgment

Begin with acknowledgment and praise.

Be generous.

Let the individual know how well they are doing.

Be specific and descriptive.

Be sincere and genuine.

2. Area for Improvement

Be constructive.

Focus on one area at a time.

Focus on concrete behaviour that needs to be reinforced or corrected.

3. Encouragement

Acknowledge areas of strength.

Build on areas of strength.

Explain how strengths will contribute towards further progress.

Communicate belief in individual’s abilities to achieve the goal.

Be specific about actions.

It may take 5 positive statements for the listener to hear 1 piece of negative or constructive feedback. Be generous with the praise and encouragement!

Mortise and Tenon Joints

Mortise and tenon is one of the oldest and simplest joints around, but it is also one of the strongest. When tested against other joints by Wood Magazine, the mortise and tenon joint took two to three times more force to break than any other joint that they tested. It also took the award for hardest joint to pull apart. Over 4,700 pounds of force were used to pull this joint apart, and it still did not budge before the wood broke.

The mortise is the female "receiving" end of the joint. A hole is cut partway or all the way through a piece of wood. The tenon is formed on the other piece of wood. The tenon is the male end. It is a tab cut into a piece of wood that fits perfectly into the mortise. This joint joins two pieces of wood at ninety degrees, like a key in a lock.

An open mortise is the same as a bridle joint. A tenon is cut into the end of a board, and a mortise into the other, just like a regular mortise and tenon joint. However, the tenon is cut to be the full length of the end of the board. So, it is more like the tongue of a tongue and groove joint, only cut on two sides. The mortise is more of a slot than a hole. You can use a router or a circular saw to cut the slot and tenon of the open mortise joint.

A stub mortise is a mortise that does not go all the way through the board. It is a hole of a specific depth and the tenon is cut to fit into the hole. A through mortise is one that has a mortise that completely goes through the board.

One of the oldest types of mortise and tenon joints is the dovetail joint. This joint is known for its tensile strength and is often used in furniture that will be put through a lot of pushing and pulling. You will most likely see a dovetail joint if you open your dresser drawer and take a look where the front connects with the sides. For this joint, pins are cut in the end of one board. Then tails, or slots, are cut in the end of the other board. The pins and tails are usually cut into a trapezoid shape and glued. No other hardware is needed once the dovetails are glued into place.

There are many types of joints that you can use depending on what you are building. Mortise and tenon joints are great for projects that will need to endure a lot of wear and tear. You can also use dowels for joining boards together. A Dowel rod creates the a strong joint and can sometimes be Easier than some Mortise and Tenon joints. Consult a woodworking professional or follow professional advice when choosing the best kind of joints for your woodworking projects.

Incorporating Dowels In Bathroom Decor

Of all the available woodworking supplies, dowel is perhaps one of the most remarkable. In addition to being quite versatile, it is also equally economical. With this unique and beneficial combination comes the opportunity to craft home decorum or woodwork home improvements. The uses of dowel can be implemented in all areas within the home, even the bathroom. Here are some ideas for using dowel to improve your bathrooms.

Use a sturdy wooden dowel to hang a shower drape. Often the fabrics used for shower drapes are quite bulky and enhance the aesthetics of perhaps one of the typically more mundane rooms of a house. A shower drape adds beauty to a shower and the overall decor of a bathroom, while also providing additional privacy. The same concept is applicable to curtains or valances in the bathroom. Depending upon the weight of the fabric, a dowel can be used to add both beauty and privacy within the bathroom. With little more than the purchase of the necessary fabric, a dowel, and some mounting supplies, an improvement can be made quickly and relatively inexpensively.

Consider using wood dowels for storage as well. In a similar fashion, a free-standing towel storage rack can be made much like a quilt rack. If doing laundry is off by several days or is delayed, this nifty contraption provides a great way to allow wet, freshly used towels to dry, thereby avoiding a mildew mess.

Avoid the clutter that comes from using the back of a toilet as a means of storage. Use wood dowel to craft a small magazine, book, or newspaper rack. For bathrooms with limited space, consider adding the rack to the bottom of the towel storage rack. Such a contraption serves a dual function, saves already limited space, and allows the craftsman to explore many creative options that result in the finished item.

Again for bathrooms with limited space or for those whose storage or linen closets may be housed outside of the bathroom itself, consider a novice craft for storage by creating a toilet paper dispenser. A dowel can be used as a free-standing towel paper dispenser. Mount the dowel to a wooden base and place extra rolls of toilet paper one on top of the other on a nine to 12 inch piece of dowel. The crafter is able to determine the size best suited to his or her family’s needs and bathroom decor. Consider woodworking a back that is attached to the wooden base and runs vertically parallel to the dowel itself. The back can be ornate or simply carved, painted or stained.

Another simple means by which to provide some storage is by crafting an over- the-door hanger. Use wood dowel as pegs on which to hang bathrobes, pajamas, or a change of clothes. A pegged over-the-door hanger can also be made and used as an alternative for, or in addition to, a free-standing towel rack for hanging towels.

These are just a few simple ideas for using hardwood dowel to improve one’s bathroom decor or storage. However, so many more creative possibilities exist. Using dowel, your imagination, and your woodworking skills, great things can happen!

Bodybuilding Stacks

Bodybuilding Supplements have become an unavoidable pert of the bodybuilding process these days. It can be divided into two categories consisting of dietary and exercise supplements These supplements are widely used by the bodybuilders for different purposes that include speedier muscle mass expansion and to prevention of muscle destruction. Stacking of various supplements that compliment with each other is also a common practice among the bodybuilders.

Stacking supplements is something that should be done carefully by a bodybuilder. If you are a beginner it is always better not to attempt to combine supplements to make bodybuilding stacks and never attempt to experiment with illegal or banned body building supplements when you stack supplements Always remember that they are banned for a reason and ignoring this aspect may drag you to serious health problems.

Always do research on the health and side effects of supplements that are going to be used by you as bodybuilding stacks. Do not use supplements that may risk your health to make bodybuilding stacks. Bodybuilding stacks using unhealthy supplements may cause serious health problems. When it comes to bodybuilding supplements it is always good to go for trusted brand names with which you can assure the quality of the product.

Choose supplements that compliment with each other when you go for bodybuilding stacks. It may be difficult to find out the right combination for your bodybuilding stacks. Sometimes stacking supplements more than the recommended serving may attract serious health problems that include heart attack, stroke or seizure. So it is always advisable to follow the exact serving or consult an expert can advice in stacking various supplements.

If you are a beginner in bodybuilding sing supplements individually will help you to find out what works for you. Supplements like Creatine, Glutamine, ZMA and Whey can be used by a beginner to stack.

A person who thinks of stacking supplement to accelerate the process of bodybuilding should give priority to be stay healthy than sacrificing his health for getting some muscles expanded by using dangerous combinations of supplements.

Fat building supplements that a bodybuilder can stack to reduce the fat include E / C / A (Ephedrine / Caffeine / Aspirin) and Guggulesterones. It is known as one of the best legally approved bodybuilding stack which can be used by a bodybuilder without worrying about the side effects. Combinations of potent stimulants and non stimulants like this can be stacked to use by a bodybuilder.

While using stacks you should strictly follow the directions to keep it safe and to get maximum results from the stacks you consume.

Chimney Cleaning and Maintenance

In winter, fireplace is a place that may really be your and your family’s favorite place. There is nothing more comforting than sitting by the fireplace in a cold winter day. A chimney is a tube like hollow structure that serves to safely draw the smoke and gases out of your home.

Chimneys are mostly situated above the burning chamber in factories, kitchen of houses, ships and furnaces to vent the smoke or hot flue gases out in the open atmosphere. These are usually vertical and are situated high above the roof of home or building to release the pollutants at higher attitude. It helps to ease down the influence of pollutants on surroundings.

In the early ages, Romans used chimneys for their bakeries, but the real chimney with a factory exhaustion purpose was found in England as early as 1185 AD. At that time the chimneys were mostly built from bricks as you see in cartoons. But nowadays chimneys are built with steel lining inside the flue with different structures of chimney caps at the top of the flue.

The height of smokestack depends on the kind of place it is working for. For factories, chimneys are usually built very high above the roof to lower down the effects of chemical smokes and pollutants. This is very important because some of these gases like carbon monoxide are very dangerous for those living nearby or the workers of the factory emitting such gases.

You need to clean and maintain your chimney correctly for your and your family’s safety. If the chimney is not cleaned properly the deposits inside the flue will form a thick lining and a major fire is likely to occur.

Cleaning and Maintenance of a Chimney

Here are some chimney cleaning and maintenance tips which can be helpful for you:

The right time to clean a chimney is at the start and end of winters. You need to closely monitor your chimney for any leakage or breakage in the flue. Liner insulation will make your job easier so it is advisable to insulate the flue before winter starts.

A chimney seems to be a nice place for birds and squirrels to make nests inside the flue, that’s why it is good to place an appropriate size chimney cap on the smokestack. The cap prevents rain, animals and dirt from getting inside the pipe. Make sure you use high quality burning woods for better ventilation.

Small Business Grants Vs ARC Loans

Small businesses are an important part of the American economy. According to the National Federation of Independent Business (NFIB), they supply roughly 55 percent of all jobs in the private sector, and they generate about half of all privately generated Gross Domestic Products (GDP), according to some estimates. There are over 27 million small businesses in the United States. They can be self-employed, home-based, Internet-based, and owned by men, women, and minorities, producing a very broad range of innovative products and services. Yet they continue to struggle in securing financing to start or grow their businesses.

Small businesses have always relied on commercial banks for business loans. The increase in bank consolidations has resulted in larger banks, making it more difficult for the small business owner to secure funding for their business. Since more than 60% of small businesses rely on credit lines and loans, and the bulk of this financing comes from the banking sector, small businesses are increasingly looking for more sources to fund their businesses.

The good news is that there are many other sources available for small business owners, including government-backed loans, and grants. The major difference between the two is that loans need to be repaid; grants do not. However, the U.S. government, recognizing the important role that small businesses play in our national economy, recently announced the availability of interest-free ARC loans. Grants and ARC loans offer two additional sources for small business funding that are worth investigating.

Business Grants

Grants are not loans. Grants are free money that does not have to be repaid. Government grants are offered only to local and state, educational, and public housing organizations, and non-profits, and do not apply to start-ups. In addition, the government may offer some specialized grants to companies engaged in environmental efforts like energy efficiency and recycling, as well as businesses that train youth and senior citizens on the latest technology. That’s why they are referred to as “special purpose grants.” So, where do other small businesses go for grant money?

Grants are available from local government agencies and private corporations and organizations. Some of the private sources include trusts and foundations such as the Gates Foundation, the Lilly Endowment, Ford Foundation, Hasbro Industries Charitable Trust, W. K. Kellogg Foundation, the Kipling Foundation, Clorox Company, Allstate Foundation, and International Paper Company. Each source has their guidelines on what type of business will qualify for grant money, and the business owner must meet the criteria. Grant money can be as small as $500 or as large as $5 million. The application process is long and tedious, requiring the applicant to present a solid business plan. The competition for grants is keen with no guarantee that the applicant will receive the money. But for small businesses who qualify and are willing to tough it out in order to get free money, it is worth it.

ARC Loans

Business loans in general differ from grants in that they need to be repaid, with interest. In addition, grants are based on the presentation of a well-written business plan, while loans are based on credit scores and often require collateral.

Recently, however, the U.S. government announced a new program of interest-free loans called ARC (America’s Recovery Capital) loans, an extension of the 2009 Recovery Act, offered through the U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA). ARC loans provide up to $35,000 (one time only) of interest-free money specifically to small business owners to help them pay down debt on other loans. In essence, it buys them time to get back on their feet. The loans are available until September 30, 2010, or until the funds are depleted (only 10,000 loans are available), and are offered through SBA lenders only. SBA pays the fee to the lenders; the borrower pays back only the principal. Other specifics on ARC loans include:

* Only private, for-profit enterprises up to 500 employees are eligible; non-profits are not eligible

* Business must be at least two years old

* Business must demonstrate an immediate financial hardship

* Loan money can only be used to pay off existing outstanding small business debt

* Loan money is paid out to the borrower over a six month period

* Repayment of the principal begins after the last loan disbursement is received

* Borrower has up to five years to repay the loan principal

The new ARC loans offer both advantages and disadvantages. The advantages include instant cash flow improvement, more money to re-invest in the business, and more time to restructure the business and position it for future success. For some small businesses, it is just what they need to survive. For others, the disadvantages include the strict criteria for qualification and use of ARC loan money. In addition, unlike grant money that does not have to be repaid, ARC loans need to be repaid. So, a small business owner who meets the qualifications must present a solid business plan that convinces the SBA lender they will be in a position to repay the loan within the time period allotted. That is the risk for the borrower, the lender, and the SBA who is guaranteeing the new ARC loans.

ARC loans are not for everyone. However, they may be just the solution needed to save some small business owners.

Archery Bow Making

If you plan on living in the wild, want to pick up an interesting hobby, or pretend you're Robin Hood without the merry men, you can always take up archery bow making. It takes some degree of skill to make a good bow, but archery bow making can be very rewarding as well. Imagine taking down a deer or other game using a bow you constructed yourself.

You can use many materials when constructing your bow. For instance you can use ash, yew or bamboo wood. The material is up to you, and some will work better than others, but for the purpose of this article we will use yew wood. Here are the steps you need to take in order to construct a bow.

First off, you will need a sharp knife and axe, a piece o straight, unflawed yew wood and some kind of string that is not to stretchy.

Carve the wood so that it looks slightly like a boomerang. Next take the string (rawhide works well) and wax it. This is to protect it from the elements more than anything.

Now make some arrows. They have to fit the bow itself, and the arrows usually have fire hardened tips. The arrows should be short enough that they will not break on contact.

Next carve two notches on the end of your finished bow, and loop the string around each end. The string should be tight enough to give it enough power to shoot an arrow a goodly distance. If the string is too loose, or stretchy, it will not shoot well.

You can also devise some kind of handle and nock system, if you so wish.

Some people also make composite bows. This is done using more than one type of material and a lot of glue. People usually use horn to reinforce the wood of the bow. A composite bow that is made properly is infinitely better than a normal wooden bow. It is tougher and usually has more power. It also takes a lot more practice and time.

Archery bow making is not for everyone. Hell, you can go buy a bow for a couple of hundred bucks instead of sweating to make your own. Pre-made ones are usually better too, having been constructed by a corporation.

But for people who enjoy a challenge, archery bow making can be a lot of fun, and a good way to pass the time. It might come in handy too, if you ever find yourself trapped in the wild.

Drainage System And Its Importance

Drainage is the disposal of excess water on land (either used or in form of storm water). It must be distinguished from flood control which is the prevention of damage as a result of overflow from river. There are two type of system adopted for waste water collection. Separate sanitary and combined system. In separate sanitary system, there is a separate sewer that collects the household, commercial and industrial waste water and disposes them while a separate sewer collects the storm water and disposes it separately. In the combined system, both the storm water and domestic water are conveyed through the same pipe network.

Sanitary sewers should have a self cleansing velocity of (.6-1

m/s). This self cleansing velocity is achieved by laying the drain on a steep slope. Manholes should be placed at interval of 100-120m for the purpose of maintaining and servicing of the sewer. It should be noted that waste water in the sewer are usually transported by gravitational force rather than mechanical means (pumping) for convenient sake. This is why in laying sewer pipes; the topography of the area should be well understood.

The storm water flow can be estimated by .278CIA where C is the coefficient of runoff, I is the rainfall intensity and A is the catchment area. C is usually got from table which is a function of factors that affect infiltration. From rainfall data I can be estimated.

A can be estimated by using planimeter or superimposing scaled grid paper on the map and note the grid that fall within the boundary of the map . The waste water from industry, commercial centers and domestic uses are usually estimated by knowing the quantity of waste water the users’ discharges through the use of questionnaire and personal interview. The population of people and number of industries should be noted for this estimation.

The overall steps in layout sewers include:

  • Establish comprehensive map of the area including road contour, topography and utilities
  • Drains are shown with a single line with arrows for direction
  • Manholes are shown with a dot at all its necessary locations as the junctions and its intermediate point of 100-120m interval
  • Sewers are design to follow natural topography
  • Sewers are mostly branch network
  • Sewers or drains are usually located along the road
  • Design approach for sewers is as follows;
  • Estimate manning constant and select slope
  • Compute the section factor
  • Get the best hydraulic section either rectangle or trapezoid
  • Check the satisfaction of minimum velocity
  • Addition of adequate freeboard to avoid overflowing

The disposal of the waste water could be treated or not treated. However, the treatment is usually by biological method. The disposal of waste water is of immerse important for economic growth. The treated or untreated waste could be used as a source of irrigation, supplement stream or river flow and could be used as a source of recharge for ground water.

It is obvious in the cities of the developing countries that the most of construction industries do not take note of all the above mentioned process. As a result storm water follows drains that are not specified for them or overflows the drains there by causing erosions. On the other hand, some of the storm water are stagnant in the drains there by becoming a breeding place for mosquitoes and toads. This could result in increase of malaria and water related disease in the vicinity. All this is because; most government in such cities have not yet understand the important of drainage systems and the role it plays in social- economic development.

Plumbing Solutions: How To Unclog A Drain

Whenever a drain is clogged up and fails to let water pass without a fight, it can be frustrating especially when a plumber is not available. While it does seem like a huge task to undertake, it does not actually have to be a challenge to free a clogged drainage. This can be done even without having super skills in plumbing.

There are several methods and simple repairs that can be done to address a clogged drain. Since it is messy and inconvenient, corrective actions must be made immediately. Good thing there are some homemade remedies that can be done in a jiffy.

Solution 1: Drain cleaner for moderately clogged drains.

First thing to do is to pour 1/2 cup baking soda down the drainage. Then, pour 1/2 cup vinegar. When done, you should now let the drain cover loose. This is important because the reaction of the vinegar and baking soda results in fumes and foam and sometimes undesirable aroma. After which, let the mix set in the drain for at least 3 hours before running the tap.

Solution 2: Drain cleaner for grease- induced clogged drains.

Pour 1/2 cup baking soda down the drain, and then pour 1/2 cup salt. Next, pour at least a teakettle-full of boiling water. Finally, allow the mix to sit overnight before using it again.

Solution 3: Maintenance and keeping drains clog free using noncorrosive drain cleaner to be used weekly.

Combine 1 cup table salt, 1 cup baking soda, 1/4 cup cream of tartar. And then mix all the ingredients. Store the solution in a clean and covered jar. Pour 1/4 of the mixture into the drain. Then, add 1 cup of boiling water immediately. Allow it to sit for only 10 seconds. And finally, flush the mixture with cold water.

The said solutions allow home owners to save a little without having to call a plumber every time the drain gets clogged. It would be wise to at least know how to solve simple plumbing problems without having to be helpless whenever problems such as these come up. However, in case you will be dealing with more serious clogging problems, hiring trained professionals, like plumbing Atlanta or plumbing Houston is the best move to make.

Milwaukee 3107-6 Right Angle Drill

Milwaukee 3107-6 Right Angle Drill-Specifications

The Milwaukee 3107-6 is a powerful right angle drill used for drilling between joists and studs where space is limited ruling out drilling holes with a normal drill.

This powerful drill has a seven amp heavy duty motor and has an all ball bearing drive for extended life an excellent durability. The drill chuck can rotate a full 360 degrees and can be locked in any position to facilitate drilling at awkward angles in very tight locations.

It can drill holes in wood of up to 4 5/8 "using self feed auger bits and speed can be varied form 0 to 750 revs per minute (RPM)

This Milwaukee drill comes in an impact resistant plastic case with a quick lock cord and all the accessories to facilitate ease of operation of the tool including chuck removal.

Technical Details: Powerful 7-amp motor, Use with up to 4-5 / 8-inch self feed bits, Trigger speed control, Head and handle swivel 360 degrees for easy drilling in tough spots, Limited warranty, 30-day no-risk trial.

Right Angle Drill-Operation

This drill is one of the primary tools for electricians and plumbers working new residential construction. Its sturdiness and reliability allow the user to drill holes all day long in tight positions and awkward angles.

Because of its design the body being at right angles to the chuck this drill is relatively easy to control and hold onto in the event that a nail eater drill bit hits a large nail and locks. This occurrence with a straight drill can cost the operative some skin or even a broken wrist.

The right angle drill also drills at lower speeds compared to regular drills but with much more torque allowing ease of drilling for large holes and ease of control over the drill itself.

Besides being a far better drill for drilling holes in joists and studs regardless of position a right angle drill is a far safer tool to use when drilling large holes in tight positions than a regular straight drill which is harder to hold onto and is operating at much faster speeds.

Timber Selection For Bar and Restaurant Furniture Applications

At this time the market for contract restaurant furniture in the United Kingdom is primarily driven by price. The trend is for new owners of restaurants, bars and pubs to choose a theme, whether modern or traditional and presenting their style to their intended clients. Often however the new owner is unwilling to make a huge investment because there is always the possibility that their chosen style will not be as popular as they had anticipated and it is not unusual for the owner to change the interior look of the premises every two or three years to keep the clients interested and to attract new ones. In this way, the owners are unwilling to make a big initial expenditure on pub chairs and while they will seek attractive design, cost is the factor that is foremost in their minds.

For the restaurant and pub trades, traditional wooden pub chairs and tables are still the most popular. The 'Mates' and 'Captains' chairs and wooden bar stools still being recognised as giving the instantly recognisable English pub look. For many years these pub chairs have been made from beechwood (Fagus Sylvatica) species in European Countries, for example, Czech republic or Slovakia, Hungary, Poland and Romania. Beechwood is a hardwood with good shock resistant characteristics and is easy to stain to any finish. Recently however these Countries have been invited to join the European Union and while this has given them many benefits – for example much easier trading terms with the other Countries in the EU – it has also seen a rapid increase in their costs. This has been due to increased wage costs as labour mobility makes it very easy for their skilled workers to move to other European Countries and more costly working practices as they must meet the stricter EU legislation for health and safety law and environmental protection. Many of the factories making wooden restaurant chairs and bar chairs have needed to invest heavily in new machinery that is CNC controlled to reduce the wage costs. One factory in Romania has spent several tens of thousands of pounds on such machinery and a system to filter the wood dust particles and use this waste and other off cut timber to heat the premises. Another cost has been the rising price of beechwood and ashwood timbers as the demand from economically advancing Countries in the Far East for higher quality furniture draw away their home produced supply.

As these factories have seen their costs rise, they have inevitably had to increase their prices. In the last year alone prices have risen more than 20% for pub furniture that for many years have been rising by no more than 2% per annum. The owners of the factories have raised concerns that they are very concerned for the future of their businesses as they realise that the pub furniture that they make is available in many other parts of the world and they are becoming less and less competitive.

The effect on pub furniture suppliers in the UK has been either to accept that these rises are a reality and raise prices or to move to suppliers in other parts of the world, primarily Malaysia and China where cheaper wood species are used. The most popular species of timber used for making restaurant chairs in these Countries is rubberwood (Hevea Brasiliensis) which is a hardwood of the Maple family. Often praised for its ecological credentials because in Malaysia the timber has been harvested from latex making plantations, although now due to it's popularity as a furniture making wood, it is often grown for this use alone. While rubberwood has many useful characteristics such as cheapness and resistance to warping or cracking in most conditions, I do not consider it a suitable wood for making chairs. The problem is that the joints of rubberwood chairs are just not nearly as strong in the long term as those of beechwood made chairs. Conventional PVA glues are much less effective on rubberwood joints than on beechwood and many Malaysian manufacturers of rubberwood chairs supply their chairs with unglued joints, relying on threaded inserts with flat headed bolts to secure the joints.

Rubberwood is an excellent choice for restaurant table or pub table tops and frames however, as the qualities of rubberwood are ideal for this application. Table tops made from rubberwood are unlikely to bend of split, even in the very variable heat and moisture conditions found in a pub setting.

How to Build a House in Ten Steps

Ever wonder how your house was built? In this article, I am going to explain how a one story house is built in ten steps. These steps are not including all of the details that go into a house, but it will give you a general knowledge of how your house is built.


The very first thing that is done, is excavation. This includes making sure the lot is free of debris, and digging a hole in the ground for the basement of the house. To dig the right sized hole the workers use a site plan which is included with the house blueprints. Once they have laid out the size and shape of the house, a back-hoe digs a hole big enough to pour the concrete footings and foundation.

2.Concrete Footings

The footings are the main support for the house and they help distribute the weight of the house into the soil. The size of a footing can vary depending on soil conditions and the size of house. The footings are typically made out of poured concrete. Wood is used to create a mold so the desired size of footing can be made. Lumber on its side is normally laid out according to a foundation plan which is provided with the house blueprints. Once the mold is ready, the concrete is poured into it, and then leveled off off on the top. By making the top smooth, it gives a solid area for the foundation to be poured.

3. Concrete Foundation

The foundation walls are what provide alternate support for the house. They are also made out of poured concrete which is created by using formwork. Formwork are sections which are normally made out of metal and wood which can be put in place to create the desired shape of concrete. A foundation is the concrete walls you can see in an unfinished basement. Once the foundation walls are poured and dried, they fill extra space outside of the walls with backfill. The floor system is now ready to be built.

4. Floor System

A floor system is made out of wood, unlike the concrete footings and concrete foundation. The lumber used is normally a 2×12 or a 2×10. The lumber is put on it’s side and run across the foundation walls parallel to each other. These are called floor joists. They are spaced out a certain distance from each other to provide even floor support. To keep them in place they are nailed to a header which is the same sized lumber but put perpendicular on the outside edges. If the basement is too large then posts and beams are put in to help support the floor.

5.Floor Sheathing

The floor system provides good support but the only problem is all the holes in between the lumber. This is where the floor sheathing comes in. It is made out of sheets of wood which are drilled into the floor joist to keep it secure. They are installed perpendicular to the joists so they can support more weight. When the house is complete, the owners floor of choice will be installed on top of the floor sheathing. Now the workers are ready to install the walls.


When talking about the location of walls in a house there are two types; exterior walls and interior walls. The exterior walls run along the outside of the house and are normally thicker to resist wind and allow more insulation to be installed. The interior walls are on the inside and are not required to be as thick. When talking about the structural strength of walls there again two types. Load-bearing walls and Non-load-bearing walls. Load bearing walls are reinforced because they have to hold up anything above the wall whether it is a roof or another floor (in this case it is a roof). Non-load-bearing wall provide no structural support for the house because they are typically just used to separate walls.

When they install the walls, they look at the house blueprints and layout where the walls are going to be placed. To build the walls they first construct them on the ground. They have lumber which is spaced apart (these are called wall studs) and then drilled into a top and bottom plate. The top and bottom plate could be compared to the headers on a floor system. They both help keep the lumber in place and provide strength for the wall. Once they are built, the workers then lift the walls into place and it is drilled into the floor system. The wall cavities then have to be stuffed with insulation and covered with a vapor barrier to keep out moisture. But, the insulation can not be installed until the wall sheathing is applied.

7. Wall Sheathing

Wall sheathing is similar to floor sheathing and roof sheathing (which you will see later). The same material is typically used for wall sheathing and floor sheathing. Sometimes the sheathing is put on before the wall is erected, and sometimes it is put on after. They only difference is that lifting a wall with sheathing on it is a lot heavier and can sometimes require a crane. When they put on the sheathing, it has to be installed perpendicular to the wall studs. The sheathing provides some shelter from the wind, but it also has to be covered with an air barrier. When the air barrier on the wall sheathing and the vapor barrier on the walls are combined, it provides shelter from both wind and rain.

8. Roof Trusses

The next step in construction is the roof. Most houses that are built, have roofs that are pre-manufactured in a warehouse and are shipped to the building site. When they order a roof, the project manager will send in the house plans to a roof truss company and they will build all the parts needed. Depending on the style of the roof, there are many different shaped trusses that could arrive on site. To install the roof they follow a roof plan which is provided by the company and install each truss over the exterior walls. The plans have a specific distance to space the trusses to provide a level roof. Roofs can also be constructed on site from lumber. The only difference is that the trusses have to be constructed by hand, and this is less time effective. Now we have a skeleton of a roof, so what is next?

9. Roof Sheathing

The roof sheathing is installed the same way as all of the other sheathing. The only difference between any sheathing is that a different type of wood might be used for different conditions. If a house is built in an area with lots of snow fall, then the strength and thickness would have to be increased. The roof sheathing is the last structural element of a house. All that is left now is to add some curb appeal.

10. Aesthetics

If you can picture what the house looks like right now, it looks like one big plywood house. There are more details that have to be added. One of those are the roof shingles. These are not only for looks but they protect the house from water and help direct it away. There are many different types of shingle available but the most common are made from asphalt. The walls also have to decorated. The most cost effective way of doing this is with plastic siding or wood siding. A more expensive way is to use brick. To save money, houses in the suburbs normally have brick on the front, and have plastic siding on the other sides. The exterior of the house is now complete and all that is left to do it decorate the interior.

If you have an unfinished basement, you should be able to see some of the structural elements on your house such as the foundation walls, the floor system, beams, and posts. I hope this helps you understand how your house is put together and how the house blueprints help the house come alive.

Board Member Recruitment – 11 Creative Ways to Find Exceptional Candidates

Many nonprofit boards are so busy that they neglect to do a professional job recruiting new members. This critical task is not as difficult as you may think if you assign the task to your Board Development Committee, focus on the skills you need to round out your board, and start your search early.

Here are eleven creative ways to look for new board members for your organization:

1. Post your board openings on volunteer web sites.

2. Post your board openings on your organization’s web site.

3. Talk to ex-board members and ask them to suggest candidates.

4. Put an ad in the newspaper – or in your newsletter.

5. Create a continuous pool of board candidates from your volunteers and committee members who are not already on your board. These two groups can become your feeder team for new board members.

6. Post a sign in your lobby and give your Board Development Chairperson’s contact information.

7. Send out an e-mail to your members with the qualifications you are seeking.

8. Contact the Human Resources Department of local lawyer and accounting offices asking if any of their partners or employees have a particular interest in your clients or the programs you offer.

9. Contact a college or university department that is related to your organization’s mission. Ask the department administrator to e-mail your request for new board members to members of the department or post it in department offices.

10. Create a system to follow-up on every promising lead.

11. Ask your major donors to attend a coffee or lunch meeting to brainstorm with you to create a list of possible board members who meet this year’s search criteria.

Remember, not everyone is interested in being on a board. If your search turns up people who could become enthusiastic advocates of your organization but they don’t want to join a board, perhaps they could join a board committee, be on an advisory board, or work on one of your events.