How To Stop Your Dog Digging Under The Fence

You have to admit that digging is natural thing to do for a dog. They do it do bury their stuff like bones and other items that can be quite important or fascinating for them. Digging also makes dogs healthy and fit. However, you should control your dog when they start digging under fences.

When dogs dig under the fence, it can cause trouble for people in the neighborhood. Controlling your dog from digging protects not only your neighbors but the dogs themselves. When they do this, they can learn that they can escape from your yard and then wander around in the neighborhood and try to have fun.

So how do you go about stopping the dig that your pet is doing?

Of course, it is very hard to stop a dog from digging but there are certain ways that you can do to be able to minimize it.

  • Regular exercise – One reason why dogs dig is because they get bored and want something to do. Have daily walks or runs with your dog or any activity that can tire them. This will not only help your canine friend but it will help you as well.
  • Toys – Giving them toys can divert their attention from the ground to something they can play with.
  • Provide space for digging – If you can not stop them from digging, just allot a space where they can do the digging. Make sure that they understand that the place you provided is the only spot where they can dig.
  • Minimize time outdoors – Spend more time with your dog indoors. Just limit the time when your dog is outside and never leave them alone outside.

Let us take a look at your fence. If it has become impossible for you to stop your dog from digging under the fence, you will just have to do something about that fence of yours.

One way is to put chicken wires or mesh on the ground around your fence. This way, your pet would have a hard time digging under the fence and may just simply give up.

Another way is to make your fence concrete especially the part under it. This will help in preventing the dog from smelling the other side of the fence. The smell is usually the cause why your dog wanted to dig in the first place. They would like to see what they are smelling on the other side.

Make sure to tell your neighbor first before concreting your fence as they may not approve of your changing the fences.

In the end, it is all about the protection of your beloved pet. In the end, your goal should be to protect both your dog and your neighbors. If you have to keep your dog inside most of the time jut to protect him and the neighbors, then so be it. But do not get too upset – usually dogs just need regular exercise to reduce their digging.

Also, do not forget to have your dog checked up so that it can stay healthy.

Space Saving Cheap Ideas For Dorm Room Living

Dorm room space is limited, use these cheap inventive ideas to keep your room space maximized, organized and decluttered.

Under The Bed

Add up to 24 square feet of usable storage area by keeping stuff under the bed. Measure the height of the floor to base of the bed frame height to know your storage units size limits. Use thin and cheap cardboard boxes or buy designer storage trays that come with easy rolling wheels to store shoes, seasonal clothing, bedding etc. Be creative to match your creative budget, but don’t waste that space!

There are colleges that provide beds that can easily be stacked into bunks. Depending on the unit’s design, you can take advantage of this cheap space saving bunk bed option, which will greatly increase your living space.  Use the bottom area to put your dresser and/ or create a work station.

Behind The Door

Hanging cheap shoe bags are designed to attach easily by using over the door hooks. These will create no permanent damage to the door and will use that wasted space behind the door to keep smaller items organized. Use these cheap hanging systems behind the bathroom door or the dorm room access door. You can store extra shoes, class room supplies, mail, bathroom supplies, whatever. There are plenty of pockets to accommodate your every small item need.

Look Up

Look up and notice how much space can be used for storage and display items. Install a cheap shelf approximately 2 feet down from the ceiling around the circumference of the room. Display your nick knacks and photo’s. Get cheap small boxes to keep the little things off the floor and keep those lower horizontal spaces needed for immediate access items.

Be Tech Savvy

Instead of hauling boxes of CD’s and records, download and record them all on your iPod type system or computer. Today’s technology is perfect for portable and small space living. If you don’t have a condensing record system, remove the sleeves off of your Cd’s and DVDs and store them in a cheap vertical stacking protective storage case.

What’s In The Closet

Just like the behind the door systems you should also invest in a cheap closet extender. These products provide extra shelving in the form of canvas shelves that hang from your clothing rod in the closet. This cheap option comes in 10, 16 to 18 shelve pockets with the average width being 12″ to 24″. Still allowing for plenty of clothes hanging space. The accordion style design makes for quick and easy take down.

A closet door that is either a bi-fold or hinge takes up area just for opening the closet. You can turn that space, up to 3″, by removing the door and replacing it with a cheap pressure rod and curtain system. Be sure to store the door and it’s associated parts in a safe place to rehang before moving out of the dorm.

The Cupboards

The average dorm room usually has some sort of conveniently built in shelving and cupboard units. Take advantage of the space behind the cabinet doors to hang jewelry, towels, technology cord organization. Once again, you can find cheap and simple hang over the door rods and racks to make this often neglected space a functional storage and delcuttering system.

Finally, look around the dorm room to see what other cheap bits of creative space you can exploit. We have not even touched on the bathroom. If you have your own bathroom, use plenty of cheap stacking baskets under the sink to keep this organized.

Hotels in Bali Can Fit Any Budget

Bali is one of the most exotic, breathtaking and legendary destinations in the entire world. With its pristine beaches, turquoise waters, volcanic mountains and lush tropical backdrop, many holidaymakers falsely believe a stay here is out of financial reach. This is just not the case. Hotels in Bali can fit a wide variety of budgeting ranges without sacrificing comfort or style in the process.

When a vacation to this tropical island paradise is on tap, holidaymakers will discover choices that will amaze. From upscale Bali resorts in Kuta to family style lodging in Ubud, travellers do have access to a wide variety of accommodations meant to fulfill any need. Considering Bali's reputation as an island of peace and tranquility, it should not surprise too terribly much that finding the right style of lodging here is a breeze.

Those considering a trip to this legendary stop in the Indonesian archipelago will find such options at their disposal as:

* Traditional hotels – Holidaymakers who would rather spend as little money as possible on Bali hotels, but demand comfort nonetheless, will find a number of traditional options available to meet their needs. From Seminyak hotels to accommodations in Nusa Dua, basic, clean, comfortable and affordable lodging can be found here. When standard hotels are selected, holidaymakers will find themselves with more spending money in their pockets to take Bali tours and see all the island has to offer, but they can rest assured they will have a comfortable place to retreat to at the end of the day .

* Resorts – Bali resorts are among the finest in the world. Vacationers here will revel in the red-carpet treatment they receive at resorts that were created solely to pamper guests and make their stays even more memorable. Bali resorts include those that boast beachfront, mountain and lakeside views. Whilst the pricing on resorts will be higher than some other choices, the experience can be well worth the expense.

* Private villas – When nothing less than the best, most luxurious accommodations will do, Bali villas are sure to please. The island is home to a number of private villas, complete with on-site staff, that can be rented to make holiday memories truly distinct. Ideal for large families and even large parties, these rentals add distinction to Bali holidays.

* Apartments – This option can blend luxury with practicality for holidaymakers that prefer to have access to their own kitchen quarters and homier accommodations. Whether the vacation is for a Bali honeymoon or a family stay, apartments provide the perfect blend of privacy, distinction and comfort. In some cases, this type of lodging can even help vacationers keep more money in their pockets for taking in the sights of Bali.

The beautiful island of Bali is one of the most exotic destinations in the world. Holidaymakers with a desire to explore this unusual location, take in its sights, experience its culture and marvel at its natural splendour do not have to fear that a trip here will be beyond reach. Hotels in Bali can fit any budget.

The Critical Pricing Factors of an LED Light

In a supermarket, the customers may be confused when they find big price differences on some similar LED light products. For example, the appearances of two LED tube products look almost the same, but there is a 40% price difference on them. By comparing the features, people may find little difference on two LED bulb products, but one bulb is actually much more expensive than the other one.

For the buyers of the LED lighting products, they are always trying to find the best prices for their purchases, as every dollar counts for the success of their business. However, the lowest price for a product is not always the best price. A reasonable price to meet the needs of the premise is considered to be the best price.

One purchasing goal of the buyers is to find the right products at the lowest cost, as this is a critical step to achieve the substantial profits. At the first step of the souring circle, the buyers need to know the details of the products, to see whether the low-cost goods can meet their requirements, especially when they place big orders for the wholesale LED light products.

So how to know whether a proposed price is at a reasonable level? Before making any judgment on the question, the buyers should fully understand what they actually need. Take buying a tablet PC for example. Currently there are lots of brands available in the market, no matter for similar features or different features. The consumers will need to compare the different brands, different prices and different functions. The prices of the tablet PC will vary greatly according to these fields. In making a decision, the consumers usually choose the right features and functions according to their own budgets, and finally buy the correct ones. This practice is very similar to the LED lighting product. The different conformations and materials of an LED tube will result in different prices. Therefore, the buyers are supposed to know the details of the critical cost factors before making the purchases of the LED bulb products.

The cost of an LED light is determined by many factors. Normally, three critical factors can decide the cost. These three key factors are the LED chip, the LED driver and the LED housing.

1. The LED chip.

The LED chip is an important component of a light. It accounts for the highest percentage of the total cost. There are many models available in the market and the prices can vary greatly in accordance with the packages bracket and the wafer. It is normal to find two chips of the same wafer but the price difference can range from 10% to 20%. This price gap can kill a business in the bulk purchases. However, with the technology developing in the past several years, the cost of the LED chip is decreasing continuously, which results in the total cost decline in the finished products.

2. The LED driver.

The LED driver plays a very important part of the LED tube product. It can heavily affect the lifetime of the finished product. Due to the different circuit schematics, the cost of the drivers varies greatly. It is applied to change the input AC or DC to DC power to drive the LED chips. This mode can be achieved in three ways, namely, non-isolated linear mode, non-isolated switch mode and isolated switch-mode.

The non-isolated linear mode is cheap, but has some disadvantages. It puts an LED bulb product at high security risk with poor reliability. The worst is that its working efficiency is low, and cannot maximize the energy-saving purpose. The non-isolated switch mode of the LED driver costs relatively low. It works with great efficiency and it is highly reliable when delivering the light. However, this mode is still at high security risk. The isolated switch mode is the perfect mode for a driver, as it at low security risk. This mode can work in great efficiency and reliability when delivering the light. The only disadvantage is that the cost is very high.

The non-isolated linear mode and the non-isolated switch mode cost less but the reliability is poor, which may cause trouble during the customer’s usage. This situation will increase the cost of the after-sales. While the isolated switch mode of the LED driver does not have this problem, but it hurts at the high cost.

3. The LED housing.

The LED housing is simply the outer appearance of the finished product. Its cost varies according to the structures and the materials. In general practice, the simpler of the structure, the lower is the cost. This is also true to the size. The smaller size can achieve to the lower cost. In terms of the materials, the aluminum LED housing is much more expensive than the plastic ones.

In summary, the prices of the LED lighting products can vary greatly though they really look almost the same. A wise buyer should pay attention to the major components and know how they affect the total cost. The lowest cost is never the only consideration for a purchase. The Buyers are supposed to pay more attention to the necessary factors.

How to Pour Concrete Like a Professional Tradesman

Pouring a concrete slab is a complex enough home improvement that most do-it-yourselfers will back off and seek the help of professional tradesmen or concrete contractors. Many homeowners just do not want to risk making a mistake with their home improvements and having it set in stone.

Like most things, pouring a concrete slab is actually not too difficult. You just need to break the job down into smaller parts. That said, if the job is large and you have not done some work with concrete recently, consider hiring a handyman or tradesman who has recently poured concrete slabs. Most contractors with home repair, remodeling or renovation experience have poured concrete slabs for their home remodel clients.

The going rate for a straightforward 16×20 concrete slab five inches thick is $3000 to $4000. About half your costs are going to be in materials. Most home services materials suppliers will have all the tools and equipment you will need. If there is a significant slope or there are drainage issues, that estimate should go up. Those situations will require excavation equipment.

If all goes well, the work should take about three and a half days. The job will not be finished for five to seven days due to curing. The first day is to prep the site. The second day is to create the forms. The third day you pour the slab. The last day is to confirm that the slab has cured properly, and for cleanup. Again, if you have a slope to deal with, or any other complexities, the work can reach into five days. Consider telling your client that it will take a full week to finish the job. Small slabs can be done in a day or two, plus time for curing.

Step 1… Prepare the Site…

Call your local building department and confirm that you do not need a permit. If you are anywhere near another owner’s lot line, also ask the building department about how close you can build to lot lines. Call 811 to have them come and mark any buried utility lines.

Next, set stakes in the ground to define where the slab is going to be. Have your client around while you do this. Now, get out your line level and mason’s string and find out how much of a slope you have to deal with. If you have a significant slope, you have two options: build up the low side, or excavate into the high side and add a retaining wall.

Consider the drainage. Does water sit in this area after rain? If it does, consider digging an extra six inches down and adding gravel backfill. If you are building on a site that is practically a pond after a rainfall, you will need a more elaborate drainage system.

Most concrete contractors use 2×12 straight form boards to build forms for large jobs. You will also need 16d duplex nails. If you need to splice a few boards together to cover the length of the slab, get a couple of four foot 2×12 cleats for the seams. Also get enough 2×4 stakes and 2×4 kickers to place one every two feet along the edge of the form. Get enough mason’s line to go around the outside of the forms at least twice.

If you are working with a small slab, consider making the form away from where the slab will be. This will give you room to maneuver, and it is much easier to build a form on solid, even ground than in the dirt. You will still have to do your leveling and staking in place, of course. Large forms, like for a garage, have to be built in place.

Cut the forms so that there is at least a three inch overhang on every corner. Add the stakes first, pounding them at least eight inches into the ground, and then drive the nails through the stakes and the form boards. Put the kickers in last – these keep the stakes in place.

Consider adding 1/2 rebar to the edges of your slab. Most home remodeling jobs do not need this much reinforcement, but if the slab is large or if it will bear weight, putting in some rebar is a good idea. It takes less time than you would think, and it will make the job a true home improvement.

For little jobs, the 40 pound bags of concrete mix are fine. A three foot square slab will use about five 40 lb bags. For larger jobs, calculate how many yards of concrete you will need. Do to this, figure out how many cubic feet of concrete you will need, then divide by 27 and add five percent. A typical garage requires about seven yards. If you can get it, air-entrained concrete is worth the extra price. It is less likely to crack as it ages.

If you are mixing small amounts of concrete in a bucket, get a mixer extension for a power drill to make the job easier. Upgrade to a concrete mixer if you are mixing much more than half a yard of concrete.

Get one or two screed boards to spread the concrete out after it has been poured. A screed board about two feet wider than the short edge of your form is good. You will also need a floater for finishing work, and an edge tool if you want a nice curved edge on the lip of the slab.

Let the slab cure for at least five days. Seven days is better. If your client is willing, ask them to lightly spray the slab a couple of times a day. Spraying the concrete morning, noon, mid-afternoon and evening is good enough. If they are not willing to spray this often, it is worth having an assistant go over and spray for you. The slower concrete cures, the stronger it is. Concrete also cures best when the temperature never falls below 50 degrees.

There are curing products available as well; see what is available and how much it will add to your costs. Proper curing is critical to how the concrete will look and hold up over the years. Do not think that the job is done just because the concrete is poured and set.

Paper Quilling For Beginners

There are a lot of shapes that one can create out of strips of paper. In paper quilling, using a quilling tool, paper strips are rolled, coiled, fringed, crimped, pinched, and then glued that is put together to create a design, figure or a completely amazing artwork!

Starter Kits

The great thing with paper quilling is does not cost much to start the craft or you can simply improvise! Although there are many cute and quality starter kits that are being sold online or out there in paper craft stores, all you need to begin a project is strips of colored papers or paper sheets (these you can cut on your own although it takes a long time at first), quick drying glue (in a fine tipped container or use a toothpick), and a quilling tool (you can purchase or just use an old long needle and attach it a wooden dowel pin.

Basic Techniques


• Tight coil / circle: Roll the paper strip and glue the loose end to the side of the roll. Make sure that it does not unfurl even a little.

• Loose coil / circle: Roll the paper strip and allow the coil to loosen up to desired size after removing the quilling tool. Then glue the loose end.

• Teardrop: Make a loose circle. Pinch one side of the circle to a point, literally making a teardrop shape.

• Marquise / Eye: Make a loose circle, and then pinch it on opposite sides. End product is a shaped like an eye.

• Square: Make a marquise. Then turn it ninety degrees and pinch it again on two opposite

sides, exactly making a square.

• Triangle: Make a teardrop. In one hand, hold the teardrop between your index finger and thumb. With the other hand, press the rounded end inward to form three points.

• Rectangle: Make a marquise. Then turn it slightly and pinch two more points on opposite sides. There should be two short sides and two long sides forming a rectangle.


The strips of paper are folded and the ends are formed into rolls to create the desired shape. Unlike the rolls, scrolls' ends are not glued. It helps create a light "feel and look" in the design.

Basic scroll shapes are scroll, heart, v scroll, c scroll, and s scroll.


• Spirals are formed by slowly pulling the paper off while firmly holding the other end that is still attached to the quilling tool. Spirals are usually used for bird beaks, bird feet, springs, and zig-zags.

Very Useful Tips

• Cut your own strips so that you can easily plan and customize your own design.

• To help hold the strip when rolling it, you can lightly moisten the tip of the paper strip.

• A quick drying glue is best suited to close off the end of the paper strip after you've rolled up the paper.

• To substitute for the circle template board, use a corkboard and cloth pins to hold or shape your rolls.

• Tearing the ends, before gluing is better that cutting. This way it does not leave a hard edge.

The secret to being a successful and expert quiller is to master these basic techniques.

Making Customized Knitting Needles Using a Dowel

One of the most rewarding things to do is to create in order to create. Knitting is a craft that results in many thoughtful and useful items – baby socks, shawls, or blankets, just to name a few. These items can be made especially for those we love or, equally as endearing, for those whom we may or may not know, but for whom we care enough about to make a difference. Perhaps the baby socks are made for babies born prematurely who remain in a local NICU; or shawls are made for elderly ladies in a local nursing home; or blankets are made for the local homeless population. But what if your creativity also shined before the knitting begins? What if you are able to use your love of woodworking to make simple knitting needles? Using a wooden dowel and a few other supplies, you can!

First, secure the appropriately sized dowel with which you would like to knit. Although you can certainly use manufactured knitting needles as a reference to gauge size, the wonder of making your own knitting needles is that they can be made according to your personal preferences of comfort and functionality. This is true of both dowel diameter and length.

Once the preferred length is determined, use a pencil to mark the dowel at the appropriate length plus about 1/2 an inch. Use a saw to cut the dowel at the mark. Then, using at least 200 grade sandpaper, sand the cut end until smooth. Additional 1/2 inch The Allotted before the wood Dowel was cut Allows for the Desired length in in spite of the Potential or for loss due to the Necessary sanding.

To make the needle, chisel the opposite end of the dowel into a point, much like that of a pencil. Once the point is clearly identifiable from chiseling, use the sandpaper to smooth it well. You may choose to use a higher grade to be certain that the needle is smooth enough to avoid snagging the yarn while knitting.

Once the above steps have been completed, so have your knitting needles. However, consider customizing them by applying wooden dowel caps to the rounded, non-pointed end of the dowel. Simply purchase caps that will fit the diameter of the hardwood dowel you're using, apply a drop or two of wood glue or use a hot glue gun, and insert the dowel into the hole of the cap. Allow a few moments for the glue to dry. Also, if you so desire, consider staining the knitting needles. Or leave them as is for a more natural, earthy quality.

This craft is just one of many that proves that dowels are perhaps one of the easiest, most versatile woodworking supplies with which to work and produce some of the most creative crafts.

Stack-On Gun Safes

When you own multiple firearms of all different shapes and sizes it is important to keep them stored away in a gun safe to avoid accidental injury, mishandling, or theft. There are a ton of different gun safe brands out there on the market today and it becomes a challenge to sift through all the garbage and find a brand that works best for you. This article will attempt to shed some light on one of the more popular gun safe brands: Stack On.

The Stack On Products Company is one of the top producers of tool storage systems. What are tool storage systems you ask? Well, they are the closets, shelving units, and safes that allow you to better organize your vast tool collection in the garage, basement, or patio. Stack On considers a gun to be just another tool; the hunter's weapon is his tool to catch the wild beasts after all.

The centrally located Chicago warehouse offers a product line that has a bunch of different steel and plastic hand boxes, storage products, steel tool chests, and other security products but today we're discussing the quality of their gun safes. You can find Stack On products at many tool wholesalers and distributors, I found my Stack On gun safe at a Dick's Sporting Goods store.

I'm of the opinion that when judging a company's product line you can look at one of their products and get a feel for their entire work ethic. Here we'll be discussing the Stack-On Total Defense 28 Gun Safe. This safe is best used for storing ammunition, handguns, rifles, and shotguns. It boasts a fire-resistant frame with an organized padded interior.

The safe comes in at a great value. For a little under $ 800 USD you're getting a really secure piece of equipment for your guns. This is a heavy safe even though the walls are a bit thin for my taste. It's big enough to store a wide range of weaponry comfortably and it looks nice too. It has a black body and a gun metal silver front door. This safe is fantastic for keeping the children away from your guns and if you store your ammunition in here too you will not have any accidental injuries.

Over all, this is a good safe. Stack-On could thicken the walls a little bit but for the price of the safe the way it is you're getting a lot for your money. I would recommend this safe if you're on a medium budget, you could do a lot worse than a Stack-On safe.

A Pre-Boomer’s Thoughts on Climate Change

If politics and ideology were not part of the issue, I believe pre-boomers (the New Seniors) could come together and find a practical, common-sense solution for dealing with climate change, greenhouse gases and preserving our planet for the health and well-being of our grand children and the generations to follow.

We grew up in an era when factories belching out black soot from their smoke stacks were a sign that America was producing products to be purchased here and abroad. At the same time we were warned not to pollute, not to liter and to do our part to keep our country clean. Yet over the years, more and more of the conveniences promoted via TV commercials either added toxic waste to our rivers and streams or were made from plastics and other non-biodegradable materials destined to crowd our landfills forever.

In recent years, controls over manufacturing plant emissions and the introduction of environmentally friendly products for the home and office have helped the situation, somewhat. Concurrently, cars have been made to burn cleaner and drive further on a tank of gas while the fuel itself no longer contributes the amount of pollutants it once did. Progress has been made to where the US is not the culprit it once was. However, we use so much more energy per capita that the environmentalist, here and in Europe, continue to point their fingers at us even though the emerging countries such as China and India and the dozens of developing ones around the world have a long way to go before they began to approach the standards we have set for ourselves.

Now there’s a movement to place a carbon charge on energy usage worldwide. If this succeeds, US companies producing products in this country and employing American workers will be at a disadvantage. They will, however, be able to purchase unused energy allotments from other firms or countries for a fee. Either way, the consumer will pay more for goods and more for their own energy consumption. The only ones profiting from this will be the federal government via taxes and the energy traders through their commissions made on both buying and selling carbon credits. Isn’t this the same government that is spending us into bankruptcy? Aren’t these the same commodity brokers and Wall Street opportunists cited for driving up the price of oil not long ago? They were responsible for pushing junk bonds, risky derivatives and hedge funds that helped lead to the bubble bursting in our once booming economy? Why would we trust these institutions to do anything in our best interest?

If we haven’t learned from the health care reform debacle, then when are the American people going to finally say, “Enough is enough?” Yes, we need to do our part to improve the world’s environment; but, no, we can’t derail the economic engine that has made this country great – otherwise, we lose the strength to affect change. It’s up to pre-boomers to lead the way, as we tried to do on health care, and make the American public aware that actions have consequences.

Arc De Triomphe Facts and History

Though less artistic than its older cousin of Porte Saint-Denis, the Arc de Triomphe de l'Etoile is the more famous and far larger. Set atop the hill of Chaillot it forms the center from which radiates a dozen busy Parisian avenues.

There are in fact several "Arc de Triomphe's" in Paris. A large arch with two thick towers surmounted by a large horizontal section has been a popular architectural feature since the time of Louis XIV (the '14th') in the late 17th century.

But the one located at the intersection of the Champs-Elysées and the Avenue de la Grande Armée (along with 10 other streets) is the one sought out by most visitors.

Its elaborate carvings and friezes make the work an artistic delight, but the monument's sheer size – unimaginable merely from photographs – turns it into an architectural marvel. The Arc is 50m (164 ft) high, 45m (148ft) long, and 22m (72ft) wide. The vaulted passageway is 30m (98ft) tall.

As you stand underneath the structure (though given the traffic in Paris, never in the center, unfortunately) you're overwhelmed by the massive stone. Here it's easy to imagine Napoleon's armies marching triumphantly down the boulevard and through the opening.

Commissioned in 1806 and completed in 1836, it was constructed for the purpose of celebrating Napoleon's victories. Ironically, Napoleon never had the chance to do so. Wellington defeated his army at Waterloo in 1815 bringing an end to Napoleon's self-glorifying monument construction projects.

The monument can be seen from several different sections of Paris far away, in part thanks to the Parisian zoning restrictions forbidding the construction of tall buildings.

But the structure can be seen not only from far away or under the arch, but underneath and inside as well. There's a tunnel under the street from one side to the other and a spiral staircase in the interior.

At the base are four large relief sculptures set on the bases of four pillars. Engraved around the top are names of major victories of the period. Along the sides are the names of 558 generals – those underlined died in action.

The end of Since WWI the Arc has held the Tomb of the Unknown soldier View , commemorating the by dead Killed Between 1914 and 1918. The permanently burning Flame of Remembrance forms a touching part of the impressive monument.

Inside the arch ( 'arc' is French for 'arch') there's a small museum with displays pertaining to its history. (Admission covers the museum and access to the top.)

From the top the views, as they are anywhere above Paris, are awe-inspiring. Not for nothing is it known as the 'City of Lights'. From there the visitor can see the Louvre and the Place de la Concorde and other well-known sights.

The Arc de Triomphe is most easily reached via the Metro (subway). Exit at the Charles de Gaulle – Etoile station. Or simply stroll down the Champs-Elysées, you can not miss it.

Images: via Wikipedia
Map directions
To get directions to and from the Arc de Triomphe click the marker point on the map, then click 'Directions'. Choose to get directions by car (driving), walking, or bicycling.
Check the 'Traffic' option to see realtime traffic conditions.

The History of the Violin Bow

The bow is one of the most important tools ever invented in musical history because it made possible some of the most important instruments such as the violin, viola and cello.

Historians agree that stringed instruments existed long before the bow except that these instruments were plucked not bowed. Bowing can be traced back to central Asia where it is thought to have originated and then spread throughout the world. Wall paintings of bowed instruments have been found in places such as Tajikistan in central Asia.

Other evidence is that central Asia is a society of horse peoples such as the Huns and the Mongols. These people would use horse hair for their military bows. It is agreed that the bow was probably discovered when some Mongol warrior decided to try out his horse hair bow on a harp or lyre. This is the most likely origin of the bow.

Once the bow was invented it spread very quickly, the central Asian horse peoples lived along the Silk Road on which goods and innovations would travel for thousands of miles. Because of this the bow would soon appear in many locations throughout the world.

The modern bow

The bow caused a sensation after it was introduced into France in the early 19th century. Francois Tourte is given credit for honing the bow to perfection in the same way that Antonia Stradivari mastered the art of violin making. He was trained as a watchmaker and started out making bows along with his father and brother. After much painstaking research he came to the conclusion that Brazil Wood was the ultimate material for violin bows because of its strength, weight and elasticity.

Modern bow making reached its pinnacle in Paris between the mid 19th and 20th centuries, when bow makers would travel from all over the world to learn from the French masters.

Today violin bows are generally made by specialist bow makers although some violin makers have made their own bows as well.

Underground Drainage Systems

Home maintenance repair can be quite tricky and demanding at times and every house owner who has gone through this will understand the hassle and the headache involved in trying to repair a house. Repairs will not be so costly though and certainly will not even be time-consuming if people would just take the short time to invest in services that would help them conserve their precious homes. Home is where the heart is and we need to take care of it. After all, it is one of the major investments people make in their lifetime.

One of the most important parts every house owner should keep well-maintained is their drainage systems. A home's underground system acts as a means for it to expel the dirty water out so it can maintain a sturdy foundation. There are many types of underground systems out there and each is developed to suit a particular need. Yard drainage systems, lawn drainage solutions or whatever fancy name it is called means one thing, underground drainage systems.

Underground drainage system is a type of water drainage where the water is channeled under the ground instead of along the surface. Underground drainage systems need to be installed by people with proper training. Having a proper and working drainage will always be a priority to house owners because if water is not properly handled and be left unattended, it could seep through the house's foundation causing huge damage in the long run. This could get very frustrating especially to home owners that have basements as part of their homes, as it is usually the first place to experience extensive damage. If you notice that the soil has a "pool" of water after it rains or it's too soggy, chances are you have a drainage problem already.

The aesthetics of your house and garden would also be compromised. Too much water can also cause damage to your house plants. Once your home's foundation crumbles and even your plants slowly die, you'd end up with a terrible looking house and low property value.

Installing an underground system will help address the problems of poor drainage while making sure that your property looks neat and tidy. With an underground water drainage system, pipes and a series of collection sites will channel the water underground but away from your house and its foundation which will then be dumped into a downhill location. This simple principle will actually help you save a lot on home maintenance and upkeep in the long run.

The Brain Drain Debate

Why is it bad for the home country ?

Brain Drain simply refers to the emigration of individuals with technical skills, good educational qualifications and knowledge, to other countries. Although residing in a country other than the home country may seem harmless, brain drain is a much debated serious issue. Otherwise known as 'human capital flight', prime reasons such as political unrest, lack of good opportunities, health risks and poor living conditions are the most common reasons for emigrating to another country. An influx of highly skilled individuals may be great news for the country of emigration, but the same can not be said for the home country.

Brain Drain is actually a very high economic cost for the home country to bear, since it is unable to capitalize on the knowledge of its own citizens. If one was to analyze the trend over the past few years, it would become evident that in Brain Drain, skilled individuals move away from poor or developing countries to other richer countries. In very poor countries like Ethiopia, Brain Drain only worsens the existing conditions of the state, since thousands of its people prefer to reside elsewhere and implement their knowledge there. Such families are unlikely to return to their home country again and many of them apply for citizenship in their new home country.

Brain Drain in History

Throughout history and even today in the modern world, political unrests and policies have also contributed to many instances of forced Brain Drain, where emigrating to another country was often the only means of survival. For instance, in the early 1930's; many educated Jews left Europe due to a huge surge in anti Semitic emotions and protests. This resulted in famous personalities and thinkers like Einstein and Niels Bohr emigrating to the United States, in an attempt to continue their research and save their lives. Similarly, Saddam Hussein's reign in Iraq for years not only sparked off mass violence, but also forced many ethnic Iraqis to flee their motherland.

For many years, the United States and the United Kingdom were hot destinations for emigrants from all over the world; mainly due to the fact that immigrants in both countries form a considerable size of the population. However, in what is now being called 'reverse brain drain', these countries are actually losing highly skilled people to competitive jobs and better opportunities overseas; especially in sectors like science, research, technology and IT.

Best tactics to tackle Brain Drain

What are the different measures that a country can adopt to tackle this growing concern?

  • Good governance, peaceful conditions and good living conditions directly contribute to the economy itself, which could prevent people from relocating permanently.
  • Recognizing talent and educational qualifications by offering better pay is a strong reason for citizens to stay on in a home country. China, for instance, is taking many steps to ensure that citizens, who go abroad to study, come back and work in their home country.
  • Giving citizens first preference according to their qualifications and favoring them over expatriates and foreigners, is also an effective tactic. It makes a citizen feel more valued in his own country.
  • Establishing a world class education system empowers people to explore job opportunities at home itself.
  • Delaying the emigration of highly skilled individuals by asking them to contribute to society for a few years may not only help reduce Brain Drain but may also encourage them to earn more certifications.

Poor countries in continents like Africa need to devise a more challenging set of emigration procedures which will make citizens think twice about leaving the home country. If countries like India and China have succeeded in building a thriving economy for their people, it may not be long before poor states in Africa follow in their footsteps.

What is a Cordless Power Drill?

We all know what a Drill is. A Drill is a motor tool which can be fitted with various rotating drill bits based on our usage. It can used to drill holes, fix screws, etc. Advanced Drills can also perform functions other than Drilling like Countersinking, Boring, Tapering and Reaming. Most of the advanced Drilling machines are used only for Industrial purposes. But for our day to day household work a small drilling machine would suffice.

The moment we speak about Drills, we think of the bulkiness and risk involved in handling them. But recently, Drills have become so compact that they can be used like normal screw driver with only little effort. With the invention of cordless drills which has no bulky wires attached to it, the safety factor has been taken care of. These wireless drills run with a battery and easy to handle anywhere and anytime.

Whenever we buy a product we always think of the questions, When? Where? Why? If the answers to these questions are satisfactory, you can go ahead and buy that product. Now let us apply these questions to our Cordless Power Drill.

When it can be used?

It can be used at any time. It is a 24X7 tool which does not require any AC power supply as it runs on batteries. Day or Night, you can use it whenever you want it. The only thing you need to make sure is whether the batteries have the enough charge. For important works it is advisable to have some extra batteries so that you save your precious time when one battery runs out. Waiting time to charge the battery can be saved.

Where it can be used?

The Cordless Power Drill have become so handy that it can be used anywhere, be it a Woodwork or Metalwork. Under the Table or above your head, it can used in all places with ease. You don’t have to be a body builder to carry this Drills, their weight is optimally designed in a way that most of us can use it even for overhead applications.

Why should it be used?As we discussed, it is a flexible tool which allows you to setup your woodwork, drill holes, etc. When you shift your house or when you want to assemble/reassemble your wardrobe, its use is most appreciable. Without this tool, the entire work becomes very cumbersome and it is almost impossible to do without someone’s help. With our Cordless Power Drills, we can finish our entire days work in few hours. Not only this, it is a great tool for all our day to day maintenance activities in our garage, garden or storehouse.

Days are gone when Drillers are used only by Engineers and Carpenters. In this flat world, we have emerged from being a “Depend on others” era to “Do it yourself” era.

Advantages of Building a Timber Frame House

People have been using timber to build their homes for centuries. Timber frame houses have always been popular because of their strength and reliability. They also allow you to design your dream home with ease. You can now build these houses in various designs and styles at very affordable rates. You can find a number of construction contractors and designers who will come up with great ideas for your houses. Another great place to do some research is online. You will find plenty of designs and styles to choose from on home building websites. Though timber is not the only material used to build homes these days I am going to discuss a few advantages of using timber frames to build your home. I am also going give a few tips if you are thinking of building on of these homes soon.

It's very important you hire the right people to get the job done. This is why I strongly advise that you do some research before you start building your new home. You need to get some recommendations and talk to professionals who have experience with the timber building system. They will be able to answer all your questions and will help you understand the benefits of using timber frames. You need to get quotes from at least 5 different building companies or contractors. Make sure you get recommendations from family members and friends. You can ask local architects and designers as well. It's also a good idea to read a few design books and magazines. The internet is also a great place to look for more information. We live in an internet age which allows us to literally find anything online. I am sure you will find tons of helpful information on the internet.

So now that you know where to look for information lets discuss the advantages of building timber frame houses.

1. Faster to build – Timber frame houses take much less time to build. This is because they require fewer wooden pieces to build the house frame. This means your frame can be built very quickly. For larger homes the time taken is usually between 4 to 8 days. And for medium to small homes the time taken is 2 to 3 days. This way you will save lots of money on labor costs.

2. Easy to heat or cold – Because there are less pieces of wood used to make the frame it becomes easier for heating engineers to install heating and cooling systems. These homes also have great insulation properties. This is because these houses have insulated exterior sheathing.

3. Strong and durable – These houses are very strong and durable. They can withstand the worst of weather conditions and will last longer than most other wooden houses. People often save money by using old timbers which are also very strong and durable.

4. Cost – The biggest advantage I can think of is money. Building it is far cheaper than building traditional wooden houses. Though the wood is strong but sometimes hard to find, you save a whole lot of money on labor and heating and cooling.

So if you are thinking of building a new home soon do consider timber frames as an option.