How to Move a Steel Building

Depending on the size and design of the steel building there are two options for moving it. Larger steel buildings sealed to a foundation will need to be disassembled and reassembled, while smaller steel buildings may be able to be moved short distances in one piece. Either way, moving a steel building 50 feet or 500 miles requires a lift and a skilled lift operator; if it’s being moved any significant distance an 18-wheeler will be required.

It is possible to move smaller steel buildings like sheds or small garages without disassembling it. If a smaller building is being moved a short distance, say from one end of a property to another it can actually be slid. The process begins by carefully raising the front of the steel building with a lift and sliding wood under it to act like a stand and then again repeating this process on the back to the building. Then, by attaching a towrope to the wood beneath the building, the steel structure can be towed from one place to another.

While this method is much less costly than disassembly and reassembly it’s also more risky. Uneven movement can cause bending and warping that can damage or destroy the structural integrity of a steel building. An advisable, but not surefire method of preventing flexing is to reinforce the skids by attaching 2×4’s cut to the width the building to the skids creating a sort of frame. In the end the building can be towed on the skids by a truck; much like a child being slid through the snow on a sled by his parents.

If the building needs to be moved further then it can be raised up by the lift from the 2 until a truck is able to move below it at which point the lift can lower the steel building or shed onto the bed of the truck. The truck can then relocate the building and then again a lift and raise and lower the steel building onto its new property.

Moving a larger building is much more complex because it involved breaking down a building into its basic components, transporting the components, and then reassembling them back together. The most important part of breaking down a building is organization. Improper deconstruction can create costly expenses in the form of lost or damaged parts. It’s highly highly recommended that skilled laborers be hired to ensure the structural integrity of the steel building is protected through all phases of the moving process.

Breaking down a building is essentially done in the reverse order of constructing one. Remove the trim and accessories, then the roof and wall sheeting, then the framing. A new foundation with the appropriate anchor bolts will need to be prepared at the new location. Once all of the components are moved from the original location to the new location the reconstruction process can begin as if it were a brand new building. High-quality buildings will be easier to move because their components will be able to better withstand the wear and tear of being taken apart and put back together. Also, pre-welded clips on buildings will speed up the entire process and prevent the loss of loose bolted clips during the move.

Factors Affecting the Labor Market – Determination of Wages and The Activities of Trade Unions

Determination of wages

Wages can be determined through the following: the forces of demand and supply in a market economy; government activities and policies and the activities of trade union. A very comprehensive understanding about these factors gives a clear picture on how determination of wages greatly influences the labor market.

The forces of demand and supply in a market economy: The wages of labor in a market economy can be determined through the forces of demand and supply. In a competitive labor market, there are so many employers and unorganized employees resulting in a situation where a single employer or employee cannot influence the wage rate either by refusing to be employed or to employ. Wage rate in a competitive labor market can be determined in the following manner:

1. When the supply of labor exceeds the demand, wage rate will fall.

2. When the demand for labor exceeds the supply, wage rate will rise.

When the demand, for labor equals the supply, wage rate will be favorable to both employer and the employee.

Government activities and policies: Government institutions and wage commissions set up by government help in determining wages, especially in the public services. In fixing wages, the government agency or wage commission takes the following factors into consideration.

1. Cost of living: The higher the cost of living, the higher wages are likely to be. If workers spend so much to get the essentials of life, then there is need to pay workers higher wages to enable them meet up. Imagine when you do the opposite-how would the labor market be affected?

2. Level of productivity: The greater the level of production in the country, the higher the wage rate. Definitely, you do not expect staff of an industry to play cool with you when they work an average of 8 hours for 6 days of the week bringing an annual returns of billion of US dollars and yet you pay them a ‘summer-job’ wages.

3. Type of occupation: The wage structure varies from one occupation to another. The wage structure for each category of labor is based on degree of scarcity of labor, the risks involved, etc. So various salary grade levels are fixed for different categories of labor in the civil service.

The activities of trade Unions

A trade union is association of workers formed to enable the members to take collective, rather than individual, action against their employers in matters relating to their welfare and conditions of work. They are formed by workers who seek protection and promotion of their interests. Examples of trade unions are

1. Air Line Pilots Association (ALPA)

2. Associated Actors and Artistes of America (4As)

3. American Federation of Teachers (AFT)

4. American Federation of Musicians of the United States and Canada (AFM)

5. California Nurses Association/ National Nurses Organizing Committee (CAN/NNOC)

6. Farm Labor Organizing Committee (FLOC)

7. nternational Association of Bridge, Structural, Ornamental and Reinforcing Iron Workers

8. International Union of Elevator Constructors (IUEC)

9. International Union of Police Associations (IUPA)

10. Marine Engineers Beneficial Association (MEBA)

11. Sheet Metal Workers International Association (SMWIA)

12. United Association of Journeymen and Apprentices of the Plumbing, Pipefitting and Sprinkler Fitting Industry of the United States and Canada (UA)

13. United Transportation Union (UTU)

14. Writers Guild of America, East (WGAE)

15. United Food and Commercial Workers (UFCW)

16. Aircraft Mechanics Fraternal Association (AMFA)

17. Major League Baseball Players Association (MLBPA)

18. United Electrical, Radio and Machine Workers of America (UE)

19. Writers Guild of America, west (WGAw)

20. Bakery, Confectionery, Tobacco Workers and Grain Millers’ International Union (BCTGM)

These are just a few to the thousands of trade unions in America.

Objectives of trade Unions

To secure good wages for members; to participate in policy formulation of their respective organizations; to secure employment for those members who have no jobs; Trade unions also make it their responsibility to safeguard the interests of members and they also regulate the entry qualifications into the various professions.

Weapons that can be used by Trade Union during a trade dispute

trade unions can insist on achieving their objectives during trade dispute by using the following weapons or methods.

1. Collective bargaining: In this method, representatives of the union and employees will meet to negotiate or deliberate on issues affecting the workers.

2. Work to rule: This involves the slowing down of rate of work by the worker. They will come to work but the rate of work will be slowed down by the workers.

3. Picket lines: This involves the workers staying at the entrance of the factory and refusing to work.

4. Threat to strike: The workers’ union gives ultimatum to the employer that they will embark on strike if their demands are not met on time.

5. Strike: The workers will stay away completely from work. This is the ultimate weapon and sincerely will greatly affect the labor market and hence production.

Employers’ Association

Employers’ association is formed to enable members adopt a common policy in labor negotiations. A good example of employers association in the United Kingdom are Confederation of British Industry (CBI) and Federation of Small Businesses. While trade Unions are usually interested in negotiations about wages increases and improving the working conditions of workers, employers’ associations are normally interested in discussing ways of increasing productivity. Through collective bargaining on these matters, mutual agreements are reached by both the trade union and employers’ association.

Weapons used by employers’ association during a trade dispute

Employers’ association can insit on achieving their objectives in trad dispute by using the following weapons or methods.

1. Collective bargaining: In this case both the employers’ association and the trade union representatives will meet to discuss the workers’ demand.

2. Strike breakers: In this method, the employer will use some workers to operate the plant during the period of strike

3. Blacklist: All workers who participate in strike action will be dismissed.

4. Lock-out: This involves the closing down of the factory by the employer until the dispute is resolved.

Do you have any doubt to how the Labor can be greatly influenced or affected through these afore-mentioned factors?

How to Improve Hitting in Baseball – Developing a Sweet Swing

There are several matters a coach or player must understand about hitting.

1. It’s the most difficult task in sports, making solid contact between two round objects which are moving in opposite directions.

2. Hitting involves every part of the body from the top, and inside, of the head to the bottom of your feet.

3. Practice is the only method to improve.

These 3 issues are but the tip of the iceberg in developing a good hitter, but as they say “A journey of a 1000 miles begins with the first step.”

We’ll exam a few steps in how to develop a “Sweet Swing,” and a drill which you can perform to increase bat speed and power.


Most people don’t realize there is a proper and improper way to grip the baseball bat, and I’m not referring to whether or not to choke the bat, but the actual holding of the handle.

Your two hands should butt against one another as you grip the bat, the fingers of each hand should wrap around the handle of the bat with the knuckles aligning with one another forming a “door knocking” fist.

Some people attempt to grasp the bat handle like they would a club, with the handle being deep in the hand against the palms. There is No strength in the palms of the hands, which illustrates why this is an incorrect method, only the fingers have the strength to firmly grip the bat.


Every suggestion is an approximation, as stances vary somewhat depending on the players’ physical characteristics, take this into consideration, but stick to the basics as close as possible as they are a proven method to success.

Stand in the batters box, feet shoulder width apart, straddling home plate, knees slightly bent, weight evenly distributed. Be sure you can reach the outside portion of the plate by tapping it with the end of your bat. If you can’t touch the other side of the plate, or if you have to lean forward to reach it, move closer to the plate.

Position your hands chest high, holding the bat cocked behind your ear and slightly over your rear shoulder. Never rest the bat on your shoulder when hitting, it’ll produce a lazy swing and throw your timing completely off.

Starting Mechanism:

A hitter must have a starting mechanism which initiates the body’s hitting motion. There are various starting mechanisms, but most and the easiest methods involve the hitter’s front foot. As the pitch approaches:

1. Lift the front foot @ 2″ – 3″ off the ground and move it forward as if taking a step. This begins the lower body movement, which in turn creates the explosive hip motion, which accelerates the shoulders, arms and hands through the hitting zone.

2. Exactly the same as number #1 except, lift the front foot @ 2″ – 3″ off the ground and set it back down in the same place, without taking the step forward. Albert Pujos is famous for this method.

3. Moving the hands up or down will initiate body movement which will begin the swinging motion. I hesitate to teach this method, because the slightest difference in hand movement up or down, could negatively affect the level of your swing.

It’s a proven fact, Bat Speed, not muscle strength, creates the type of power which is required to send towering home runs over the fence. One drill you can perform to increase bat speed is what I call “Hit through the ball” drill.

Items required:

1. 1 good quality batting tee.

2. 1 plumbers plunger.

3. 1 soccer or basketball partially deflated.

Insert the plumbers plunger upside down into the batting tee, forming a cup which will hold the partially deflated soccer or basketball. Notice I say “partially”, you want to take the firmness and bounce out of the ball, but not deflated to the point the ball wraps around the bat when struck.

Place the ball on the tee, take your regular batting stance and hit the ball. There will be a strong hesitation when the bat makes contact with the ball, which is quite normal. The key for you to remember is “Don’t Hit the Ball… Hit Through the Ball.”

As you continue to perform this drill, which will take several days, the hesitation upon contact will lessen, until it becomes hardly noticeable. This exercise will increase bat speed as well as upper body strength for more powerful contact with the ball.

***Always remember to firmly grip the bat as you swing in order to avoid wrist injury from the sudden stopping or hesitation of your swing upon contact.

Best Chili Recipes – 5 Tips For Cooking Great Chili!

Chili is a metaphysical thing in the world of cooking. There are major competitions all over the United States, and believe me they can get really cutthroat. People take their chili seriously! Chili is a creation that is highly personal to the person that has created the dish. Lots of folks can work a lifetime to perfect a chili recipe and that is no joke. Just ask anyone that has ever competed in a chili cook off. If you are a newbie to the world of chili and want to get out of “the canned stuff,” then welcome! Even if you are an old hat at making chili, welcome! The tips herein will do no harm and only enhance your chili experience! Lets get some tips!

Tip 1. What if your chili is too thick? What kind of chili is it? White?, Red? Beef? Chicken? If your chili is too thick do not use water to thin it out that is what everyone in the world does. Use broth instead! Water will “kill” the hard worked for flavor of your chili creation. Broth adds the liquid that you need and unlike water it also adds flavor and depth to your chili recipe!

Tip 2. What if your chili is way to thin? You could add some tomato paste to it as one way to thicken it. Try it a little bit by little bit until you achieve the consistency that you are looking for! What if the tomato paste does not make your chili thick the way you want it to? Then the next step is to try to use something like cornstarch or corn flour commonly called masa flour! You can also try the old school use of cornmeal. I like this one myself. Cornmeal gives a good texture. Some people I know in the Southern United States say to just use good old fashioned instant mashed potatoes. Not bad! It works and adds texture as well. Then the is the no calorie way to do it by using arrow root mixed with a bit of water and then added to the chili and stirred. As you can see there are many way to make your chili thicker. The choice is yours and you should experiment.

Tip 3. Most people that I know of that make chili at home just use plain old boring everyday Jalapeno’s. This is fine in most cases and they do bring the “heat!” But the fact of the matter is that there is a world of different chilies out there. Anaheim, Poblano, Serrano, Sante Fe Chilies, Ancho Chilies, The very popular these days Chipotle in Adobo sauce or Chipotle powder, Cayenne, Tabascos, Thai Chili, Habanera, and Scotch Bonnets! The list can go on and on from country to country. So why not try to use more than one type of chili pepper in your chili? Change the flavor, do not settle for the mundane! Have fun!

Tip 4. first thing is first! Cook the meat! Any meat that you are using should be cooked first. Brown the meat way before you have to add the liquids to the recipe. Browning the meat aids in locking in the flavor of the meat. You do not want your meat to get soggy with the liquids from the chili recipe. I prefer to sear cook my meat. That is turn the flame up high and putting the meat in the pan of my fave the cast iron skillet and so it sizzles quick and stir it around a bit and then turn the heat down. This is a classic searing technique that locks the flavor into the meat.

Tip 5. The better the meat the better the meal! It is a fact that the better the quality of any meat or main component for a meal the better the meal. Remember that is it quality over quantity! Just because you can get some meats cheap and get lot’s of it does not mean that it is quality meat and that you will get a quality meal. If you have to use a cheaper meat that is less tender then expect to cook your chili longer to soften it up and consider using a meat tenderizer on it to aid in the softening of the cheaper cuts and cook the chili longer and you should be OK. In the long run if you can afford to get the better cuts then I always day do it!

Introduction to Computer Monitors

A monitor is the primary output device for a computer. The two main types of monitors currently in use are Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) also known as flat panel display, and the Cathode Ray Tube (CRT), which is an older technology. Each has advantages and disadvantages.

Most older monitors today use cathode ray tube technology, which was first developed for use in television sets. The cathode is a negatively charged electrode that shoots a beam of electrons towards a positively charged electrode, known as an anode. The cathode ray tube is a vacuum tube containing one or more electron guns (cathodes) at one end, which fire a stream of electrons at a screen at the other end. The inside of the screen is covered with a matrix of dots composed of phosphorescent material, known as phosphors. When the phosphors are struck by electrons, they emit light. Phosphors are organized in groups of three, known as a pixel. Each pixel contains a dot that emits one of the three basic colors: red, green, and blue. Magnetic coils in the tube control the direction of the electron stream, and a control grid determines the color combination on the screen. The electron stream starts at the top of the screen moving from left to right, line by line to build an image.

An LCD monitor on the other hand uses a layer of liquid crystal material sandwiched between two grids of electrodes, one arranged in columns, the other in rows. These grids in turn are enclosed by a layer of polarizing material made out of plastic or glass. These polarizing layers are aligned so as to prevent light from passing through when the electrodes are not activated.

To generate an image, light is passed through the first polarized layer. As the light passes through liquid crystal material, the polarity is changed to allow it to pass through the second polarized layer. This is done by manipulating the electrode grids. The pixels are formed by liquid crystal cells that change the direction of light passing through them in response to an electrode grid.

LCD monitors today most commonly used what is known as thin film transistor technology (TFT), in which a transistor is placed at each intersection of the electrode grids, enhancing the signal and therefore the picture quality. This is also known as active matrix display, as opposed to the older technology known as passive matrix display.

There are many features to be considered when choosing a monitor. Some of the more important ones are: screen size, resolution, dot pitch, refresh rate, and response time. Screen size refers to the diagonal length of the screen surface. Resolution refers to the number of pixels that the monitor can display, for example 640 x 480, which indicates 640 pixels horizontally by 480 pixels vertically. The more pixels displayed, the sharper the image. Dot pitch is the distance between dots, expressed in millimeters, such as.25mm, with the smaller the number the better the image. The refresh rate for CRT monitors, or response time for LCD monitors, is the speed at which a monitor builds an image. The quicker the response time or refresh rate, the better the image.

Generally speaking, LCD monitors take up considerably less space than a CRT monitor and are lighter. In addition, LCD monitors use less electricity. However, they are usually more expensive, although this may be partially offset in the long run by the reduced electricity usage.

CRTs usually have higher refresh rates than the response times of LCD monitors, which reduces eyestrain and may be preferable for those who spend a great deal of time in front of a computer. CRT monitors can display at several resolution settings, while LCD monitors use only one resolution, called the native resolution. This can present a problem for high end gaming and graphics displays.

While LCD monitors were initially higher in price and lower in quality versus CRT monitors when they first came out years ago, the technology has improved drastically and LCD monitors now compare favorably in price and display quality to CRT monitors. LCD monitors are the monitors of the future and will eventually make CRT monitors obsolete. For more information about which are the best monitors to buy, click on Computer Monitors There you will find a comparison of the five best all purpose LCD computer monitors.

The Importance of Circuit Breakers

A circuit breaker is a very important part of electrical wiring in a home because it is a very essential safety feature. Without circuit breakers, household electricity would not even be practical because of the potential danger of a fire and other hazards. It is an automatically, operated electrical switch that is especially designed to protect electrical circuits from any kind of damage, if there is a short circuit or overload. The main function of the circuit breaker is to detect any fault condition and stop continuity in order to discontinue the flow of electricity. Majority of the households, short circuits are responsible for the outbreaks of fire.

About Short Circuit and the Importance of a Breaker

A short circuit is generally an abnormal low-resistance current, in between two nodes of an electrical circuit that are usually meant to have different voltages. This ends up having an excess flow of electric current and causes circuit damage that can lead to a fire, overheating and even explosion. Short circuit mainly occurs due to overloading or mostly due to fire breakout. To avoid this, a good circuit breaker is important to protect your home. It is also necessary to get the electrical appliances checked by licensed and professional electrician.

The breakers are generally more expensive than fuses. But most homeowners prefer breakers than fuses because of the safety factor associated with them. Plus, most electricians and electrical wiring experts prefer these breakers instead of old fashioned fuses.

The Variety

Circuit breakers come in different shapes and sizes and a person should choose the one that suits the electric equipment at home. But before installing a breaker, one must be aware if there is enough space in the house to accommodate the device. Different people have various requirements with some opting for living room, some for kitchen while others for their bedrooms. This is nothing but a kind of protection for the house and the people living there more specifically.

Importance and the Repair Team

Circuit breakers are very important for the safety of a house and all residential electric specialists know that. Without them, a house can face many potential hazards, so for any kind of problem with circuit breaker you need to consult a team that specialize in circuit panel repair, replacement and upgrades. They must specialize in replacement, updating and repairing a breaker panel. Their licensed and bonded technicians must offer smart solutions for backdated circuit breakers, fuse boxes and even panels installed before 1974. These specialists must offer new installation and help to maintain them.

The 10 Most Common Swimming Pool Dangers

In the back of their minds, all swimming pool owners know the risk of having a silent, lurking body of water in the back yard. Even more so for families with children, a swimming pool can be a silent killer. Consider this top ten list of the most common, and most dangerous swimming pool deficiencies:

10) Electrical

Proper electrical wiring for a swimming pool and all its components is critical since water, electricity and people are a dangerous mix. Swimming pools, and all metal components within one meter of the water line should be bonded with a heavy ground wire loop. Additionally all electrical devices that come into close contact with water such as pumps and lights must be properly connected with a GFIC or ground fault interrupter.

9) Slippery Decks

As swimming pool deck surfaces age and weather they will develop algae and become very slippery, especially in wet conditions. To reduce the likelihood of falling or slipping on a pool deck, you should pressure wash your deck yearly. Additionally a silica sand can be added to your concrete sealer to provide a more textured and slip resistant surface.

8) Ladders & Stairs

Stairs and ladders are a very common place for injury in a swimming pool. Coloured nosing tile is used to accentuate step edges in many pools, which helps to define the step edges under the moving water. The likelihood for a fall or injury increases at night, and also even more so if there is no underwater swimming pool light to illuminate the water. Ladders often have hand rails installed into the pool deck which can become loose over time. If the ladder rails shift as you are climbing out of the water, this will greatly increase the risk of a fall.

7) Water Quality

Do not underestimate your green swimming pool. Harmful bacteria can reside in poorly maintained water. It is critical to ensure that the water quality is suitable for swimming to prevent infections and staph infections of the eyes, ears, nose and throat. Chemical levels in the water can also affect those prone to skin reactions.

6) Chemical Storage

Your swimming pool chemicals are a potent mix of strong acids, alkalines and poisons. Even worse is that many of these chemicals specifically react with one another, yet they are often stored in the same location with little effort to keep them safe. Chemicals should be researched and stored in a controlled, dry and locked location at all times.

5) Pool Winter Covers

Winterization covers are often just large tarps stretched over the pool with sand or water bags pinning them down at the edges. These are not strong enough to support the weight of a medium pet or small child without pulling into the pool. They can look tempting to walk on, but any person or animal that walks out onto a swimming pool winter cover is in serious jeopardy.

4) Suction Lines

The swimming pool suction points, most commonly the skimmer and the main drain are directly connected to the front of powerful swimming pool pumps. The power of a pool pump is more than enough the cause sever and life threatening injury. The warning label that comes on new main drains, skimmers and pool pumps states that the pool pump has enough force to trap, drown and disembowel you should you unwittingly cover the suction point with any part of your body. Tragically every year more children are killed this way from single suction main drains which are now illegal. Dual suction main drains spaced apart are now required so that you can not cover both suction points at the same time. Proper use of main drain lids is critical to ensure the safety of your swimmers.

3) Pool Toys

A surprisingly common source for swimming pool related accidents is a result of swimming pool toys which are not suitable for use in a pool. Some floatation devices can cause young swimmers to flip over and get trapped upside down under the water. Large innertubes or inflatable boats are prime examples of items better suited for the beach.

2) Pool Slides

Swimming pool slides seem like a good idea when you consider children playing in the pool. At the same time, a pool slide is literally like letting your children play on a 9 foot tall ladder overtop of concrete. Pool slides are less and less common these days, and for good reason as they are the second most common cause of serious injury in a swimming pool.

1) Diving Boards

By far the most dangerous element to your swimming pool is the diving board. The vast majority of swimming pools are not deep enough for a diving board. The risk of spinal and head trauma are extremely high in pools less than nine feet deep, which most are. Even a moderately steep dive will cause a collision at the bottom for the swimmer, and the long slope of the pool shallow end is a tricky obstacle to avoid when pulling up from the dive. Removing the diving board from your pool and encouraging a no diving policy will decrease the likelihood of a swimming pool accident or injury by as much as 50%.

Remember – these swimming pool dangers relate to the average swimmer, but an unused pool can be just as deadly. Be sure to install an automatic swimming pool safety cover to take the single most proactive step towards increasing the safety of your swimming pool.

Painful and Itchy Penis – It Could Be a Latex Allergy

Condoms are an integral tool in the fight against sexually transmitted diseases and unwanted pregnancies. When a condom is used right, that barrier can keep diseases out and can keep fertile eggs from meeting up with willing sperm. Unfortunately, most condoms are made of latex, and experts suggest that about 6 percent of the population is allergic to this substance. Proper penis care can help ease a latex reaction, and buying less inflammatory products in the future can keep new outbreaks from taking place.

A Natural Product

Latex is made from the milky fluids produced by a rubber tree. Particles in latex are packed together so tightly that even tiny germ particles can’t pass through, and the material is so strong that it rarely breaks, even when it’s pulled or pinched. It’s easy to see why this material would be idea for condom production, and it’s similarly understandable that medical experts would consider latex the gold standard when it comes to protecting men and women from the consequences of sex.

Latex allergies can crop up in almost anyone, but people who have a history of allergies or asthma are typically at greater risk. Their immune systems are just primed to react to signals from the outside world. People who wear rubber gloves at work or who make rubber products might be at increased risk as well, since allergies thrive on repeat exposure.

Common Symptoms

People who have latex allergies typically experience reactions about 48 hours after they’ve been exposed to the substance, although some people can experience their symptoms up to 96 hours later. Common symptoms of a latex condom allergy in men include:

  • Rings of rashes near the base of the penis
  • A swollen, red penis tip
  • Itchy, raised blisters on the penis
  • Swollen lips or tongue, if the condom came into contact with the mouth

In extreme cases, people with latex allergies can develop sneezing fits, as well as stinging eyes and a runny nose. These symptoms can appear almost immediately, as soon as the latex touches the skin, and they can progress to a life-threatening state. Highly sensitive people can find it difficult to breathe, and they might lose consciousness. People who develop breathing problems should go to a hospital right away. Medications can be used to halt the attack, and soothing therapies can keep inflamed and sore skin from getting worse.

Finding the Cause

Latex is the likely culprit when people at risk develop sensitivity after using condoms. But some people react to the lubricants in condoms, not the latex, and other people have rashes that seem like allergic reactions that are really symptoms of another problem, such as genital herpes. A doctor can run in-office tests to determine exactly what is causing symptoms a man might have.

If a latex allergy is to blame, there are alternate materials that could provide an effective barrier without triggering a reaction. Polyurethane condoms contain no latex at all, and some users report that they conduct heat a little better and provide a more pleasurable experience. Polyisoprene condoms, which are made of a synthetic form of latex which has the allergenic components removed, is suitable for people with mild or moderate latex allergies, and they could be a good choice for some.

Healing Up

A latex allergy can leave the skin of the penis feeling dry, itchy and inflamed. A good penis health crème (health experts recommend Man 1 Man Oil) can help to soften this skin and allow it to heal. Avoiding sexual contact until the penis has completely healed might be another excellent step to take, just to ensure that newly formed skin isn’t abraded and healing steps aren’t lost in the process.

Why is MMA Training the Best Way to Increase Your Fitness?

MMA (Mixed Martial Arts) style workouts train your body like a real fighter and you will be in top shape, lean, muscular and really have a “hot” body on the beach.

I’m not talking about the typical gym classes like Boxercise or Tae Bo which is great for cardio but to really change your body shape you need to take it up a level.

If you were training as if for a fight event you need to do a lot of high repetition exercises with weights, this method will greatly increase your Power Endurance, an important component in MMA.

Doing super-sets (i.e 2 exercises straight after each other) or giant sets ( 3 exercises straight after each other) on multiple machines or free weights will challenge your body like no other type of exercise.

Super setting and Giant Setting will bring you to your knees – in a good bad way!

Split the days into an upper body day and lower body the next, your goal is to achieve an intensely progressive workout but don’t over-train.

You could do slow cardio five times a week, but better would be High Intensity Interval Training (Hiit) 2-3 times per week and the weight training 3 times a week and I will guarantee you will be lean and toned as you have ever been.

We are strictly working on for muscle conditioning that is increasing your force out put over a long time which again is Power.

Fitness Adaptation

Varying your routine is must to stop adaptation. You’d be surprised on how good your body is adapting to exercise.

For instance: Ever try running on a treadmill and the first months you probably lose a lot of weight quickly!

Then the treadmill running starts to get easier as you get fitter but then your weight loss starts to plateau… hey you are adapting very well!

The answer is change the routine to sprinting, intervals, slow steep incline walking etc etc. i.e cycle your workouts.

For MMA fighting its all naturally inbuilt in the program: it incorporates everything Boxing, Kickboxing, Wrestling, Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu.

Find that balance during the week to get everything in without burning your body out.

Leg Workouts

Exercise your legs with a lot of sprints, hill climbs or hill charges. Have a look at all the Olympic sprinters to see how their training makes them look!!

Do a lot of stretch kicks, which is swinging legs straight up some call it an Axe Kick.

Kicking techniques also include front kicks and roundhouse kicks.

Again superset you leg exercises like leg extensions, and as soon as you’ve done about 25-30 repetitions, get off and do some stretch kicks.

Do squats then stop to do side kicks — do things like that to try and confuse the muscle and get the best results that burns fat and increase muscles.

Domestic Violence No Contact Orders in Washington State

In Washington State, there is no crime of Domestic Violence. Rather, Domestic Violence is a tag that is put on other crimes indicating that there is a family or household relationship between the parties involved. Most jurisdictions will impose a No Contact Order that prohibits the defendant in a Domestic Violence (“DV”) case from having contact with the alleged victim of the crime. The order will often prohibit contact with the victim’s children, residence and place of work too.

Family or household relationship

According to RCW 10.99.020(3), family or household members is defined as:

[S]pouses, former spouses, persons who have a child in common regardless of whether they have been married or have lived together at any time, adult persons related by blood or marriage, adult persons who are presently residing together or who have resided together in the past, persons sixteen years of age or older who are presently residing together or who have resided together in the past and who have or have had a dating relationship, persons sixteen years of age or older with whom a person sixteen years of age or older has or has had a dating relationship, and persons who have a biological or legal parent-child relationship, including stepparents and stepchildren and grandparents and grandchildren.

As you can see, this definition is extremely broad. It is far more inclusive then what most people would expect it to be. The same is true for the types of crimes that are labeled “Domestic Violence.” Most people only think of Assault when it comes to domestic violence, however there are many other crimes that can carry the DV tag.

Mandatory Arrest

According to RCW 10.31.100(2)(c), an officer must make an arrest if: The person is sixteen years or older and within the preceding four hours has assaulted a family or household member as defined in RCW 10.99.020 and the officer believes:

(i) A felonious assault has occurred;

(ii) an assault has occurred which has resulted in bodily injury to the victim, whether the injury is observable by the responding officer or not; or

(iii) that any physical action has occurred which was intended to cause another person reasonably to fear imminent serious bodily injury or death. Bodily injury means physical pain, illness, or an impairment of physical condition. When the officer has probable cause to believe that family or household members have assaulted each other, the officer is not required to arrest both persons. The officer shall arrest the person whom the officer believes to be the primary physical aggressor. In making this determination, the officer shall make every reasonable effort to consider:

(i) The intent to protect victims of domestic violence under RCW 10.99.010;

(ii) the comparative extent of injuries inflicted or serious threats creating fear of physical injury; and

(iii) the history of domestic violence between the persons involved.

If you get arrested for a crime involving domestic violence, a No Contact Order will slam into place almost immediately.

No Contact Orders

There are two types of No Contact Orders in Washington State: Pre-Trial and Post Conviction. Both types of orders prevent the defendant from having contact with the alleged victim. However, neither type prevents the victim from trying to have contact with the defendant, since only the defendant goes to jail if the order is violated. In other words, the No Contact Orders limit only the defendant’s behavior.


Pre-Trial Orders are issued against the defendant (sometimes called a Respondent) before he or she is convicted of having done anything wrong. These orders can preclude contact between the Respondent and the alleged victim of the crime, the victim’s children (even if they are the Respondent’s children too), the victim’s place of work and the victim’s home (even if it’s the Respondent’s home too).

In other words, these orders can force you away from your home and your kids before you have even been convicted of a crime. This is true even if the victim says that nothing happened or that whatever did happen was blown all out of proportion.

Pre-trial orders stay in place until there is a resolution to the criminal case or until a Judge lifts it.


A No Contact Order issued after conviction can carry the same types of restrictions that a Pre-Trial order does. Post-Conviction Orders are generally good for a year, however a Judge can extend that if he or she feels that the facts warrant it.

Civil Standby

Since a No Contact Order can preclude you from going to your own home, the Courts will generally allow you one trip home to get clothes and a few personal items. However, you must be accompanied by a Law Enforcement Officer. This process is called a “Civil Standby.” You must contact the law enforcement agency and schedule a time for the Civil Standby. Be aware, however, that this is a low priority action for most law enforcement agencies, so the civil standby will only be done when they have the time to spare.

Violating a No Contact Order

A willful violation of a No Contact Order is a gross misdemeanor; which means that you can get up to a year in jail and a $5,000 fine. Since violating a Domestic Violence No Contact Order is itself labeled a crime of domestic violence, your rights to own or possess firearms will be forfeited upon conviction – even if no gun was used, possessed, mentioned or in any other way used or contemplated. This is true even where the underlying criminal case, which caused the No Contact Order to be issued, is dismissed.

Being in a public place, even the courthouse, is not a defense to violating the order. This means that if an order is issued against you and you see the protected person at a grocery store then you must leave. Inadvertent contact may technically not violate the order, but you may well have to go in front of a Judge to defend yourself. Besides the stress involved, you may have to spend more money in order to hire an attorney.

Even if the victim invites the contact, the respondent can face jail time if the order is violated. What I see most often in my cases, is the following scenario:

Two people have a relationship. Something happens and the police are called. Because of everyone’s sensitivity to “Domestic Violence” the police err on the side of charging someone. A No Contact Order then slams into place, precluding the two people from having contact with one another. It may also make one of them unexpectedly homeless – but that is a different issue. People, being people, want to work the problem out and the alleged victim contacts the defendant and says something to the effect of “I’m so sorry that all of this is happening. Come home and I’ll make it worth your while.” The problem, of course, is that the defendant takes the alleged victim up on the offer. Generally, legal problems multiply for the defendant shortly thereafter as the happy couple go out to celebrate their rekindled relationship only to pull a “slow and go” at a stop sign – or some other minor traffic infraction. They then get stopped by the police. When the officer runs the occupants’ information, up jumps the No Contact Order and the defendant is arrested then taken to jail where he is now facing an additional charge.

Removing the Order

It is very difficult to remove a Pre-Trial No Contact order once it is in place. Even if the victim comes in and testifies before the Judge that the order is not needed, most Judges will leave the order in place.

One strategy is to have the defendant evaluated by a Domestic Violence Treatment Agency. If a counselor is willing to tell the Judge that the defendant would not pose a danger to the victim if the order is removed, then the Judge can eliminate the order. The Treatment Agency may want to get the defendant into classes before agreeing to make a recommendation to the Judge.

Another strategy is to ask the Court to modify the No C0ontact Order to allow marriage counseling. Some Judges will require that contact only be allowed while monitored by a third party from the treatment agency.

Once a No Contact Order has been modified to allow conditional contact, a Judge is more likely to remove the order later, unless there is a new problem.

Victim Rights

Most Prosecutors’ Offices have a Domestic Violence Advocate. It is this person’s job to help the victim of a domestic violence offense understand what services are available to them and help keep them informed as the court process moves along.

I have seen numerous cases where the victim does not want the No Contact Order to be in effect. Going through the victims advocate person can sometimes be helpful.

Most courts have a form that the alleged victim can fill out requesting that the Judge drop the No Contact Order. In my experience, most Judges will maintain the order even after the victim asks to have it dropped. Even though the order remains in place, having the victim ask for it to be removed is still valuable, since it may be useful on a later attempt to remove the order.

Gun Rights

Conviction for a crime labeled Domestic Violence will cause you to loose your right to own or possess firearms. This is a lifelong ban.


In one case I had, the husband was arrested for a Domestic Violence charge when, during an argument, he threw a bowl into their kitchen sink, chipping it. The argument was overheard by a nearby neighbor who called the police. The police arrived and when they looked in the sink, they found the chipped bowl and arrested the husband for domestic violence malicious mischief. There was no allegation that the husband threw the bowl at, or even near, his wife. Since Washington is a Community Property state, both the husband and the wife had an ownership interest in the bowl, thus by chipping his bowl, the husband damaged property belonging to another (i.e. his wife) and was therefore liable under Malicious Mischief. Without counsel, the husband (who had no prior criminal history) pled guilty at arraignment. He was given a one year No Contact Order which prevented him from going home for a year or having any contact with his wife.

Had the husband contacted an attorney prior to pleading guilty, he may not have had a conviction at all. Even if there was a conviction, an attorney could have helped him avoid such a long No Contact Order.

Copyright (c) 2007 The Cahoon Law Office – All rights reserved.

How to Find the Best BOB Stroller Sale Online

Are you looking for a BOB stroller sale? Well, apparently you’re not the only one!

Busy parents all over are looking for baby gear that will help them bond with their child while still keeping up with their hectic schedule. As a result, a growing number of moms are looking for a BOB stroller sale so they can get a stroller with a combination of quality, durability and aesthetic appeal that allows them to keep up with their active lifestyles.

Whether you are a stay at home mom, a working mom or a mom that is heavily involved in her community, you need a stroller that can keep up with you. And BOB strollers will do just that.

BOB Revolution Strollers

Although there are many different brands and styles of jogging strollers on the market, BOB Revolution strollers are one of the most popular choices for moms on the go.

BOB Revolution strollers have been specifically designed to be used by busy parents, no matter where they go. The swiveling front wheel on the stroller makes it easier for it to navigate around corners, making it easy to use when strolling down neighborhood streets, when getting in elevators and when shopping down crowed aisles. It can also be locked for light jogging.

BOB Revolution strollers are on sale from time to time. Keep reading to find out more about those sales.

Other BOB Strollers

The BOB line of strollers also includes Sport Utility Strollers, which are specifically designed for durable “off road” adventures. These strollers feature knobby wheels and rugged suspension that provides for a smooth ride for baby as well as an easy push for mom. For moms that want to run with their babies, on the other hand, the Ironman BOB stroller features a larger wheels and a lightweight frame that makes it easy to push without losing your stride. Regardless of your needs, BOB likely has a stroller that will meet them.

Finding a BOB Stroller Sale

BOB Strollers can be purchased from a variety of dealers, but its important to know that the company sets its prices and does not allow dealers to go below that price. Some dealers do get approval to run 10% discounts from time to time, however, and you will rarely even see 20% discounts.

Since you are a busy parent, you don’t want to spend a great deal of time bargain hunting for a BOB stroller sale, instead – StrollersPlace will do it for you.

If there is no BOB stroller sale today, simply sign up to be notified when the next sale will take place.

By using a site like StrollersPlace, busy moms can spend less time looking for great deals and spend more time with their new bundles of joy.

A Short History of Sports Photography

The history of sports photography is tightly related to the trends of sport gaining popularity throughout human history. The technology of photography from the early 1800s onward leaped forward in bounds and aided an emerging media, sporting journalism.

The inspiration of athletics and sport in art can certainly be seen in the work of the ancient Greek masters of sculpture, however this type of expression was not as prevalent in modern sporting venues until the invention of wet-collodion and dry-plate photographic processes. These processes allowed for posed studio images on glass plates and tin-types, but were just not ‘fast’ enough for the ‘stop-action’ images we are used to seeing today.

As the 19th Century was coming to a close, in the 1880s scientific motion studies of athletes in action were produced in the United States and Germany, the technology was still not considered on the sporting field. This all changed with the advancement of photography and sports journals in the last part of the century. As the first sports journals began to appear around 1900, the public became more and more interested in the sports image, which often would include images of players on the tennis green, golfling or on the hunt for wild game.

In the history of sports photography the earliest of contributors were more concerned with the activities of the country elite, but by the end of World War I, readers of sporting journals were becoming interested in the professional athletes of American baseball and tennis. The majority of these early images were of prominent players in posed situations, giving te sense of action. Baseball players were posed with bat in hand at the plate, teams were lined up for group shots and so forth, however the ‘action’ shot was still not widely seen.

With the 1930s more and more images of athletes in action were appearing in magazines, assisted in their growth through camera systems allowing photographers shutter speeds up to 1/1000th of a second. This gave way to styles highlighting blurred subjects suggesting movement and ‘stop-action’ images of the athlete in activity. Photographers began adopting signature styles and the popularity of the genre began to grow rapidly as the public began to expect the excitement of seeing their favored athletes in ‘action.’

In 1954, Sports Illustrated – the vaunted digest of sports and athletics – premiered and suddenly the position of being a sports photographer became even more engrained in the public eye. The magazine highlighted the exploits and professional and amateur athletes the world over, increasing the need for the art form and those who practiced it. By this point, technology had more or less caught up with demand, with the advent of small, compact single lens reflex (SLR) cameras and the fast shutter speeds offered in the models. The history of sports photography is strongly tied to lens technology, as well, had advanced to offer the photographer a wide choice of methods to compress perspective and using depth of field for dramatic effect.

Glass Industry Terms – Everything You’ve Always Wanted to Know About Glass But Were Afraid to Ask

What is frit? Frit is an industry term for the paint that is applied around the perimeter of the automotive glass parts. One of the key ingredients in frit is a glass ceramic particle that fuses to the glass surface making it a very durable and scratch resistant surface.

Why is frit (paint) on the glass? Frit serves two roles on the glass. First, it is a cosmetic feature that is used to hide interior trim and pinchweld details. Early model vehicles used wide moldings to obscure what would otherwise be exposed areas. As moldings became smaller to the point of nonexistence on several current models, the frit had a greater role in covering unfinished areas of the vehicle. Secondly, the frit inhibits UV degradation of urethane adhesives. While the frit will not completely block the UV rays from passing through the glass, it does significantly reduce UV light transmission. Most urethanes are not UV stable. If urethane is left exposed to sunlight for prolonged periods of time, it will yellow and turn chalky. Presence of the frit will extend the lifetime of the urethane adhesive system.

How many types of frit are there? There are hundreds of types of frits developed for automotive glass applications. The most common automotive glass frits we use are black, gray and white although other colors are available. Frit pastes are developed to work in combination with the processing requirements needed for a specific part. Each paste is developed for the specific furnace time and temperature parameters used to fabricate parts at a manufacturing location. It is not uncommon for a glass manufacturing facility to work with a dozen different frit pastes.

How is frit applied to the glass? Frit is applied to the glass utilizing a silk screen method. It is very similar to the method used to silk screen T-shirts. An image of the frit design is developed for the glass in the bent or curved shape. Then the image is unwrapped and flattened. A silk screen is made to allow the frit to pass through openings in the screen. The openings correspond to the final design image. The frit is a thick paste that is put onto the screen. Squeegees are used to push the frit paste through the screen openings and onto the glass. Frit is applied to the glass while it is in the flat position before it is processed through the furnace. The furnace helps to cure the frit and to fuse it to the glass surface. Every part with each different design has a unique silk screen. Silk screens are constantly being maintained throughout the life of a part. Because of the fragile nature of the screens, they will wear out and commonly need to be remade throughout the lifetime of a part in production.

What is Batch glass? Batch is a glass reference term that identifies a part of the manufacturing process. The raw components of glass are properly proportioned and mixed in batches for delivery to the furnace. Even though glass is made in a continual process that runs 24 hours a day, every day of the year, the raw materials are added as needed in batches. To state that a glass is batch glass, it implies that there is not any post manufacturing materials, i.e. a film or coating, applied to the glass. Batch glass gets all its characteristics from the raw materials that are used to make the glass. In the case of privacy or solar batch glass, the dark colorants and UV inhibitors are mixed in with the original ingredients in the batch to make the glass.

What is Float glass? Float glass refers to the glass manufacturing process. The raw components of glass are melted in a furnace between a temperature range of 240OF to 2850 F. A continual process is established as the molten glass is moved from the furnace to the tin bath where it is supported on molten tin until the glass cools from the slurry state to a temperature where the glass becomes solid. The float process was developed by Pilkington during 1950’s and is now considered the primary state of the art process for manufacturing automotive and architectural glass.

What is the tin side and what is the air side of glass? As mentioned earlier, the float glass process involves floating molten glass on.molten tin. The molten tin is smooth enough to give glass its flat surfaces. The tin and glass are like oil and water, they don’t mix. However, the side of glass that is in contact with tin during the float process does pick up a microscopic layer of tin. This is considered the tin side of float glass. The top side of glass is called the air or atmosphere side. To detect the tin side of glass, hold an UV light at an angle to the glass surface. The tin side will glow and the air side will not.

What is Soft-Ray and what is Solar-Ray’? Soft-Ray and Solar-Ray are GM Trademarks for the glass used in their vehicles. It identifies the TYPE of glass used for construction and can appear on either laminated or tempered glass. LOF uses E-Z-Eye glass for the production of Soft-Ray parts and EZKool solar control glass for Solar-Ray parts. PPG uses Solex and Solar Green respectively. Deep Tint Solar-Ray is another GM trademark that appears on dark colored solar control parts.

What is a monogram? A monogram is often referred to as the bug or trademark. Every automotive piece of glass is required by law to have an identifying mark on the glass that will be visible once that glass is in the correctly installed position in the vehicle. These marks are usually painted on the glass, but they can also be sand blasted or acid etched into the surface.

What is in a monogram? For automotive applications, there are certain governmental items that must be in the monogram including a department of transportation (DOT) number, the model (M) number and the glass type (AS-1, AS-2, AS-3 etc.) Monograms can also include information such as the brand name of the glass, the company name that made the glass, the company logo, the country of origin and a date code identifying when the glass was manufactured.

Is there anyway to determine what a part is by the monogram on the glass? Unfortunately, the majority of monograms do not have any information in it to help determine what an unmarked part is. However, we are starting to see more parts marked with the NAGS number in the Monogram. As more of this is done, it will be easier to correctly identify unknown parts.

2-What is the difference between AS-1, AS-2 and AS-3 glasses codes? For automotive applications, the three most common types of glass are AS-1, AS-2, and AS-3. All windshields must be marked with the AS-1 code which is on laminated glass having light transmission greater than 70%. All tempered glass that has light transmission above 70% is marked with an AS-2 code. All glass, laminated or tempered, that has less then 70% light transmission will have an AS-3 Code.

What is a DOT code? The DOT number identifies the glass manufacturer. The acronym DOT stands for Department of Transportation. Each glazing manufacture must apply for a DOT number in order to sell glazings for vehicles in the United States of America. Each DOT number is assigned by the government and is unique for every manufacturer. Every piece of glass that is made must contain that DOT code if it is to be sold in the automotive market.

What is an M number? The M number is a model number that is assigned by all glass manufacturing companies. Each company establishes their own M number system that is unique to that organization. The M number identifies the specific glass construction. It can identify the glass details used to manufacture a part such as glass color and thickness. One Model number might apply to 50 different part numbers. Each Model number is tested every year for compliance with the governmental regulations. Most of the time, a part number cannot be determined by the M number.

How can I determine whether the glass in a car is original or a replacement? If you don’t know the history of the car, one-way to identify a piece of glass is to check the monogram on the glass. If you, knew the manufacturer of the original glass, check the DOT (Department of Transportation) number on the glass in the car. If the DOT number doesn’t belong to the OE glass supplier, then the part was a replacement. If the number does match, then check the date code on the glass. Most manufacturers mark the monogram with a means of identifying the month and year of glass production, sometimes even the date and shift! Since each company does it differently, you’ll have to contact the appropriate manufacturer for their date code conventions, which can include combinations of letters, numbers or even dots over various letters. By comparing the date of the glass with the date of the car assembly, you can determine if they are the same vintage. If the glass date closely matches the vehicle assembly date, chances are the glass is original.

Which side of the vehicle is the right hand side? The RIGHT hand side of the vehicle is the PASSENGER’S side of the vehicle. The DRIVER’S side of the vehicle would be the LEFT-hand side. Rule of thumb, right and left sides are determined by picturing yourself sifting in the car.

When should a non-conductive adhesive be used? If the adhesive will contact the antenna or defroster lines when the part is installed, use a non-conductive adhesive. Non-conductive adhesives prevent interference with antenna systems and heated defroster systems that are contained in the glass. Many new glass parts have the antenna, defroster connections or buss bars around the edge of the glass in the same area that the adhesive is applied to install a glass part. Using a conductive adhesive will affect the performance of the electrical system. Several adhesive manufacturers offer a non-conductive product for these glass applications. Be sure to follow the manufacturers specific instructions for the adhesive system you use.

How do installation methods cause stress cracks? Installation related cracks usually result from a short cut out method, where all of the old urethane bed is not removed prior to installation. If the shape and form of the new glass is not identical to the old urethane bed, the glass could have spots of interference on the adhesive that lead to breaking. Installation related stress could also be formed by using adhesives that are too rigid and don’t offer the compression and flexibility required of the adhesive system. Usually, installation related stress cracks would develop over time after the adhesive has been allowed to fully cure.

What is tempered glass? Tempered glass is a single piece of glass that is strengthened through a rapid cooling process. This cooling process tempers the glass by blasting both the top and bottom surfaces with air. The outside surfaces of the glass cool faster than the core of the glass. This action sets up a balance of strains between the surfaces and the core which adds considerable strength to the glass. Tempered glass is difficult to break, but if broken it breaks into small granular pieces.

How are tempered parts made? Glass of the specified thickness is cut to the desired size. Any artwork or paint design is applied to the glass while it is in the flat position. This includes any heated grid lines or antenna lines required on the final part. The glass is loaded into a furnace and is heated to temperatures of 12,000 F. There are multiple processes that could be used to bend the glass as it exits the furnace including roll.

How much force is required to break a tempered backlite? While the strength of tempered glass can seem very high, it is important to recognize that the manner in which tempered glass is broken will affect the strength. Tempered glass is extremely difficult to break with dull, blunt objects. Tempered glass can have a rupture strength of up to 24,000 pounds per square inch. Recall that tempered glass is produced by rapid cooling of the outside glass surfaces which sets up a stress / strain balance.

Why do the heated grid lines on heated backlites sometimes have a redbrown color and other times have a yellow color? The color of the grid lines is predominately determined by the surface of glass that they are printed on. The lines will have a dark appearance when printed on the tin side of glass. The lines will have a brighter yellow or amber color when printed on the air side of glass. Other colors, such as white or light gray, may indicate a potential manufacturing problem with the heated grid lines such as an under fired condition or too much silver. These can result in a heated backlite that does not function correctly.

Is it a defect to see discolored spot patterns on tempered glass? No, the discolored spot patterns on a piece of glass are actually a phenomenon of the tempering process. During tempering, air is forced onto the glass through hundreds of nozzles. The spots are areas where the cool air contacts the glass. The temper spot pattern can indicate how well a piece of glass is tempered. The size and consistency of the discolored areas will vary with the exact process used, but they are present on all tempered parts. The ability to see these patterns is dependent on the angle ‘ of installation and the lighting conditions. For example, it is easier to see the patterns on a sloping piece of glass at dusk than it is to see them on a vertical piece in bright sunlight.

What is an Innershield? The innershield is a layer of plastic on the innermost piece of glass which was most commonly used on the windshield. The innershield prevented lacerations on an occupant’s head and face if they came in contact with the windshield in the event of an accident. The innershield was a popular option on deluxe vehicles about ten years ago.

How is a shadeband put into a windshield? The shadeband is pre-tinted onto the plastic that is placed between the glass plies. The plastic comes in rolls and one end of the roll has the shade color. During processing, it may be required to warp the plastic to curve the shadeband so it will match the curve of the top of, the windshield. After warping, the plastic is cut to size and it is ready to use.

What is delamination? Delamination is the separation of the glass plies and plastic layer in a laminated product such as a windshield. This is also known as an unbonded area (UBA) or an oil blow. Old autoclaving process used hot petroleum to laminate windshields and the oil could seep into the edges causing the windshield to delaminate.

What is bullet proof glass and how is it different from bullet resistant glass? Bullet proof glass is glass that will stop a bullet. Any bullet. To make a glass bullet proof, every type of bullet from every type of gun must be taken into consideration during the design of the glass. Bullet proof glass is actually a composite of glass and plastic layers laminated together to achieve a strong composite that will stop a bullet. Bullet proof glass will be three or more inches thick. Bullet resistant glass is designed for applications with a resistance to a range of specific bullet calibers. Bullet resistance glass can be obtained in a 3/4 inch thick composite of glass and plastics laminated together. On vehicle applications, the environmental end use is considered for the glass design. If a vehicle is outfitted with bullet proof or bullet resistant glazing, all the interior trim must also be reworked to accommodate the thicker glass.

What are stress cracks? Stress cracks are breaks from the edges of laminated glass, such as a windshield, that happen without an impact point or noticeable damaged area. While this phenomenon can occur with seemingly no apparent cause, there are however, two major factors that have a role in creating stress cracks. The stress crack can be caused by a manufacturing defect within the glass or it can be attributed to the installation methods.

How do glass defects cause stress cracks? Stress cracks can occur if the two plies of glass used to make the laminated part are not completely homogenous with each other. Stress cracks can be a condition of tension or compression that exist within the glass. Stress can also be caused by incomplete annealing or temperature difference between the plies. Manufacturing processes include multiple quality checkpoints for every individual part during production to identify and eliminate defective parts. Even so, it can be difficult to predict a stress crack due to manufacturing conditions.

I have often heard of a windshield surface referred to as the number 1, 2, 3 or 4 surface. What do these numbers mean? The windshield surface number refers to the glass surface of the individual glass plies in the laminated composite. A basic windshield construction is composed of two pieces of glass with a plastic layer in between. The surfaces are counted from OUTSIDE the vehicle. Therefore, surface number 1 is the outside surface of the exterior glass piece that would be exposed once installed in the vehicle. Surface number 4 is the innermost surface which would be on the interior of the vehicle once installed. Surface number 4 is the surface that is prepped with primers, cleaners and or activators required for installation. Surface # 2 and 3 are interior surfaces that are in contact with the plastic.

What is laminated glass? Laminated glass is constructed of two pieces of glass with a piece of plastic in between the glass plies. One type of plastic innerlayer used is PVB or polyvinyl butyral. Laminated glass is required to make windshields in the US.

How are windshields made? Two separate pieces of glass are cut to size. While the glass is flat it is printed with the artwork design (frit) that’s required. The glass is put through a furnace to soften the glass and fire the frit to the glass surface. Once the glass reaches the right temperature, it is molded into shape and then cooled. After shaping, the glass/ plastic/ glass sandwich is put in a clean room and then put into an autoclave. An autoclave is like a giant pressure cooker. The high pressure squeezes the glass and plastic together. The higher temperature softens the plastic, which bonds the glass and plastic layers together. Once the glass exits the autoclave, any excess plastic is trimmed and the mirror mount is applied to the glass. The glass is inspected and cleaned several times throughout the entire process to make sure it has been manufactured to the highest quality standards. After a final inspection, the finished part is now ready to ship.

What is the Breakaway Bracket? Several new GM and Ford windshields have a Breakaway Bracket. This refers To the mirror button on the windshield. This style mirror button allows the rearviewmirror to snap off when the passenger air bag is deployed. If the rear view mirror did not snap off, there is a possibility that the mirror could puncture the air bag rendering it ineffective. The accessory tool used to remove these snap off rearview mirrors is the MB-4. TIP: Put Breakaway rearview mirrors back on the glass before installing the windshield. This will prevent moving a newly installed windshield out of place with the force required to snap the mirror on the glass.

How is a windshield glass molded into shape? There are two common practices for shaping a windshield, gravity bending and press bending. Gravity bending has been used longer than press bending. For gravity bending, two pieces flat glass ride through the furnace on a mold contoured like the finished part. As the glass softens, the force of gravity pulls the glass into shape. This pair of gravity bent glass is then kept together throughout the rest of the windshield process. In a press bending operation, the single lites of glass go through a furnace on a flat surface of high temperature resistant rollers. As the glass exits the furnace it is quickly pressed into shape between a male and female mold contoured like the finished product. The glass is then cooled and moved to the next process.

How can I determine if a diversity or non-diversity antenna backlite is needed? The diversity antenna will use a combination of antennas in order to perform efficiently. Most diversity-antennas are offered with vehicle upgrade packages. A standard car model may only have the mast antenna, whereas the deluxe luxury package may incorporate a diversity antenna in the backlite with the mast antenna. How to determine the need for a diversity antenna will differ depending on the vehicle. The current Toyota Camry has extra speakers (6 total) on the vehicle that uses a diversity antenna and only 4 speakers on the vehicle that uses the non-diversity antenna.

Can an antenna or heated backlite clip be reattached to the glass if it has fallen off? Clips, or tabs, can be reattached to the glass. In order to determine if the connection is repairable, the surface of the glass must be evaluated. If there are any chunks of glass (called spalls) missing from the surface, the repair should not be made and the glass should be replaced. Spalls will weaken the glass and could eventually result in glass breakage. Next, select the adhesive to be used to reattach the clips. There are a few companies that manufacture a conductive adhesive system that can be used to reattach the tabs. The adhesive must be conductive so it will allow the electrical current pass between the lines on the glass and the vehicle. Follow the manufacture’s directions for the repair. Regular super glue adhesives will not work because they are non-conductive. HINT: Be sure to clean both the glass surface and the clip surface of old debris. Also, let the repaired part sit for the recommended cure time so the adhesive bond is fully developed.

Will a broken heated grid line on a backlite affect the operation of the antenna? Many new radio and cellular phone antenna designs are incorporated into the heated grid design in the backlite. If a heated grid line is broken it will affect the performance of the antenna. The line break will become more noticeable with the general public as diversity antennas gain popularity and reduce the need for traditional mast antennas. There are aftermarket grid line repair systems available which can restore both the heating and the antenna characteristics of the grid line.

What is a Rain Sensor windshield? Several vehicle manufacturers, including Cadillac, Mercedes Benz and BMW, are now offering Rain Sensor windshields. The rain sensor is actually a small electronic device mounted to the inside surface of the windshield. The device has a lens that will detect the presence of moisture on the outside surface of glass. When moisture is present, a signal is sent to the wiper control that automatically activates the windshield wipers. This a great safety option for those misty periods when a driver is passing trucks and road spray hits the windshield. The windshield wipers will activate without the need for the driver to remove his hands from the wheel or his eyes from the road.

Does the rain sensor module come on the replacement windshield? No. At this time, none of the rain sensor designs require the sensor to be applied by the manufacturer on the replacement windshields. The electronic sensor that is on the existing windshield in the car must be removed and re-mounted onto the replacement windshield.

How is the rain sensor attached to the replacement windshield? There are special re-attachment kits for the replacement industry, available through your local Car dealer, which can be used to re-attach the electronic rain sensor to the new windshield. The Cadillac kit consists of tape, cleaners and primers for replacing the Cadillac module. The Mercedes / BMW kit contains the tape and a new lens. Instructions for application are included in all the kits.

Is it normal for HUD display to appear faded in bright light conditions? Bright sunlight or high glare conditions can result in a dimmer display of the Head’s Up display. It is normal for a HUD to appear brighter at night in darker conditions that during the day under full sun. It is not normal for the HUD to completely disappear. If the display is fading when the car changes momentum, such as when turning a corner or accelerating, then the problem could be a system defect and it’s recommended that a dealer check out the electronics. There is nothing in the windshield to cause the display to fade or appear less intense.

What is a diversity antenna? A diversity antenna combines the reception from several individual antennas on the vehicle that makes it a very efficient antenna system. The definition of diverse means different, therefore a diversity antenna in a backlite is one that could Work with the mast (pillar) antenna mounted to the car. The two different antennas work together to achieve superior AM/FM radio reception. The 1998 Cadillac Seville has a diversity antenna system that consists of an antenna in the windshield and antenna in the backlite that work together.

What is a non-diversity antenna? A non-diversity antenna system relies on only one antenna for radio wave reception. Several examples of non-diversity antenna include 1) a mast antenna mounted to the vehicle 2) an antenna printed on the backlite or 3) a set of wires mounted into the windshield. A non-diversity antenna will not be a combination.

Can a break in a HUD (Heads-Up-Display) windshield be repaired or must it be replaced? A break in the HUD windshield can be repaired like a normal non-HUD windshield. If the repair area is in the HUD image area, a repair may interfere with the image causing a double or distorted image. Therefore, consideration is required to determine if the type and size of break is repairable without HUD interference.

Passivated glass refers to chemically coated glass. Many automotive glass parts are coated to achieve either the solar control characteristics or the privacy features. The coating can usually be detected by the reflective, mirror-like appearance. Sometimes these coatings will also have a color associated with them and can make the glass look blue, pink or amber. The solar coatings are used to filter out the sun’s ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths while the privacy coatings filter out visible light wavelengths. The wavelengths that are filtered out by coated glass, include the wavelength spectrums that CB radios, cellular phones, automated toll readers and radar detectors operate on. Therefore, the chemically coated glass can interfere with the operation of electronic devices that require a glass-mounted antenna.

What type of glass is recommended for a glass-mounted antenna? Glass that is referred to, as BATCH glass is compatible with glass mounted antennas. Solar and privacy batch glass is not coated like the passivated glass. Instead, the raw materials that give the glass its solar or privacy characteristics are added at the time the glass is made. The raw materials are melted right in with the sand and other components that glass are constructed from. Once the glass has been made, it would not need any other treatments prior to fabrication into automotive glass parts. Batch glass is uniform throughout the thickness of the glass. Coated parts are surface treated; the surface has different properties than the core of the glass.

Are there any special hints for re-attaching the rain sensor? Make sure the glass is very clean prior to attaching the sensor. The performance of the sensors depends on the optically clear grades of doublefaced tape used for reattaching the units. These tapes also need to be clean and free of bubbles when applied to the glass. Any impurities that may be present will give a false signal to the rain sensor causing it to activate unnecessarily.

What does the term “Auto-Cancel” refer to in the NAGS catalog? The Auto Cancel notation means the electrical input to the heated backlite design is automatically canceled after a specified time and/or temperature. Most heated backlites made today are for automatic cancellation systems. However, there are a few parts such as the Isuzu Trooper backlites where a different glass heated design is required for the automatic vs. the manual systems. For example, FB4815 is for an automatic cancellation heated grid system whereas FB4816 is for a manual cancellation heated grid system. 8-What is the difference between a heavy-duty heated backglass and a standard heated backglass? The heavy-duty back glass is rated for higher amperage. The Heavy-Duty (HD) designation is predominately used on foreign cars such as Honda and Toyota vehicles. Normal domestic vehicles were rated for 22 amps whereas heated backlites in Asian vehicles were generally rated for 11 amps. Amperage relates to speed of performance. The higher the amperage, the faster the backglass will heat and clear the frost from the glass. To accommodate the US market, many foreign car manufacturers developed the HD back glasses to offer compatible defrosting performance in the US. The heavy-duty backglass are an upgrade, but it does not interchange with the standard design.

Everything You Need to Know About Router Bits


A router bit is a cutting tool used with a router to rout out (or hollow out) spaces in the surface of a generally hard workpiece. Although routers and router bits are more commonly used in woodworking applications like cabinetry and carpentry, these cutting tools can also perform in metals, plastics and various other materials. Essentially, though, these cutters are used to create joinery aids (like a dovetail joint) or to embellish work pieces with decorative or ornate effects (like formed edges, intricate inlays or surface work). With the right router bit, users can cut, trim, and shape workpieces with staggering versatility; these bits are available in numerous profiles and can be custom fabricated to create virtually any profile conceivable.


Of course, there are many different types of router bit and although they all serve the same general purpose, they each do different things and achieve different results. A good router bit, though, should be sharp, should retain its sharp edge, and should be well balanced; this produces a bit that will last longer and will “chatter” or vibrate less during use. Conversely, bits of lesser quality tend to wear faster, chip easier, and chatter more aggressively. The following, then, is a basic breakdown of how router bits are most commonly categorized and their respective routing applications.

Cutter Type:

For the most part, router bits can be divided into three major types: fluted cutters, profile cutters and helical cutters. Fluted cutters are used for edging and trimming, profile cutters are used for trimming and shaping, and helical cutters, while mostly used in more easily machined (softer) materials, are designed for trimming, shaping and drilling. Of course, within these three groups, bits can be (and are) more specifically categorized – this will be reflected in greater detail below.


Similarly, drill bits are usually fabricated with one of three compositions: solid high-speed steel (HSS), carbide tips, or solid carbide. HSS bits are the least expensive; they dull more quickly and, accordingly, are used primarily to trim laminate or for work in softer workpieces. Carbide tipped bits are the most universal bit type as they are more durable and perform (at least) reasonably well in all applications. Of course, these are more expensive than HSS bits, but they are equip to manage harder materials and they retain their sharp edges for longer periods. Solid carbide bits, as one would assume, are the most expensive and highest-performing bit type. While some might argue that their solid carbide construction is superfluous, they are durable and deliver beautiful results. Because of their cost, though, solid carbide bits are generally used by only the most practiced woodworkers.

Router bits can also be classified as edge bits, non-edge bits, or anti-kickback bits. Edge bits include a small wheel bearing which acts as a fence against each workpiece; these wheel bearings can be changed to alter the diameter of the cutting edge. Non-edge bits do not have this wheel bearing and therefore a fence (either attached to the workpiece, the router itself or to the router table) must be used with these bits. Anti-kickback bits, on another hand, feature non-cutting material surrounding the bit’s “shoulders.” This additional girth around the bit limits the material feed rate which, in turn, protects the workpiece from over-eager bit progress. This reduces the risk of kickback which occurs when a bit bites and catches the material it’s cutting. This is usually the result of material feeding too quickly. The girth of ant-kickback bits also allows the bit to stay cooler which reduces the likelihood of burnishing and allows the bit to better retain its sharpness.


Router bits are also differentiated by the diameter of their shank or the portion of the bit that fits into the router collet. Shank sizes commonly range from about 1/2″ to about 3/8.” Although 1/2″ shank bits are typically more expensive, they are also the most popular as the thickness of their shank lends durability (in their stiffness) and also less vibration during use. Bits of a smaller shank diameter tend to be less durable and more chattery. Altogether, a 1/2″ shank bit will usually deliver the smoothest cuts and due to their greater rigidity, many larger profile bits are only available with this 1/2″ shank. Similarly, some smaller or more specialized bits are only available with a 1/4″ shank.

The shank of a router bit and a router collet must have the same diameter to be used together. Of course, collets of different diameters are available for purchase and are frequently included with the router itself. Adapters may also be purchased to help different bit shank sizes fit more comfortably.


In order to cut, trim, and shape efficiently, router bits spin at very high speeds (ranging from approximately 8,000 RPM to 30,000 RPM). Because router bits are shaped and sized differently, though, all router bits can not / should not spin at the same speeds. For example, because larger bits have more girth and weight spinning about, they also have a much greater potential to vibrate or be, in some other capacity, out of control. Larger bits, then, should be used at lower speeds. Similarly, bits that spin too slowly can burnish and damage your materials. Accordingly, manufacturer guidelines should always be reviewed and implemented before engaging a bit.

Although, as a generality, faster speeds are more advantageous while working with router bits (they ordinarily yield a much smoother cut), speed isn’t the only factor that contributes to the quality of your cutting results. The sharpness and composition of any given bit, the material being cut, the type of router being used, feed rate, and various other factors play into the results produced by your bits. Accordingly, it will behoove you to run bits at appropriate speeds before assuming the faster you spin them the smoother your results will be.


As aforementioned, there are numerous bit designs and, according to that profile, each bit has a different specialization. The following, then, briefly sums-up (in alphabetical order) the most common bit types and the things those bits do best.

Ball End Router Bits:

As the name indicates, ball end bits have a ball or sphere shaped formation at their bottom which routs out channels for pipes and cables.

Bullnose Router Bits:

Bullnose bits are designed to create a (convex) rounded edge on the front edge of a workpiece.

Chamfering Router Bits:

Chamfering bits produce a clean angled bevel cut. These are commonly used in joinery for concealed joints and beveled edges in constructions with multiple sides. Chamfer bits are also used to create a decorative (albeit plain) angled edge.

Combination Router Bits:

Combination bits are primarily used in trimming to trim softer materials and, particularly, veneers.

Core Box or Round Nose Router Bits:

Core box or round nose bits produce a half-round groove or a groove or cove with a rounded bottom. They are commonly used for fluting and reeding.

Corner Round Router Bits:

Corner round bits are designed to create a rounded corner on a workpiece (usually furniture).

Drawer Lip Router Bits:

Drawer lip bits are used to create the acting pull-handle on the fronts of pull-handle drawers and cabinets.

Edge Forming Router Bits:

Edge forming bits (like an edge beading bit) are used primarily to create a decorative edge on a workpiece. These bits often include a pilot bearing for guidance and are ordinarily used to create a final decorative feature. Because these bits are almost singularly used for embellishment and can take-on virtually any profile conceivable, there are many different types available. To name a few of the most common edge forming bit types, one will commonly encounter edge beading bits, cove bits, ogee (or Roman ogee) bits and round over bits.

– Bead and Double Bead Router Bits:

Bead bits create a decorative quarter-round convex profile. Double bead bits so this twice with one quarter-round running directly below the other.

– Cove Router Bits:

Cove bits are used to create a concave (or indented) quarter-round into the edge of a material.

– Edge Beading Router Bits:

Edge beading bits are used to cut decorative half-round profiles called “beads” into the edge or corner of a workpiece. This edge typically features a small lip or fillet at the top and bottom of the convex half-circle cut.

– Ogee Router Bits:

Ogee bits have an “S” shaped profile and produce an “S” shaped edge on a workpiece. These decorative edges have one convex hump and one concave cove (like an “S”) and usually have a small fillet at the top and bottom of the cut. This delivers a more traditional or “antique” finish.

– Round Over Router Bits:

Round over bits produce a perfectly rounded edge on a workpiece. These are commonly used in cabinet and furniture making.

Finger Grip Router Bits:

Finger grip bits shape the drawer pull handles on the front edges of some drawers and cabinets.

Flush Trim Router Bits:

As the name implies, flush trim router bits are used to trim the edge of one material to be flush with the edge of another material. They are often used to flush veneers or to produce identical shapes in multiple workpieces. These bits are used with a pilot bearing that may be positioned at the top of the bit or at the base of the cutting edge.

Fluting Router Bits:

Fluting bits are used to carve flutes (or a concave profile) into a workpiece (usually molding).

Joinery Router Bits:

Joinery bits are used to produce a specialized type of groove for a precision joint. These, then, are used in virtually all types of construction where one workpiece must be joined to another. The most popular joinery bits are dovetail bits, drawer lock bits, finger joint bits, lock miter bits and tongue-and-groove bits.

– Dovetail Router Bits:

Dovetail bits are used to create a strong joint between materials and are ordinarily used in cabinetry, frames and shelving. They are available in a huge variety of angles and involve carving interlocking mortises and tenons (usually fan-shaped) into an adjoining workpiece.

– Drawer Lock Router Bits:

Drawer lock bits are designed specifically for the joining of perpendicular pieces (like the joining of drawer sides to drawer fronts) and should always be used with a router table. They create a wedge-shaped tenon.

– Finger Joint Router Bits:

Finger joint bits have a series of thin horizontal cutters that protrude from the bit (like fingers). When this profile is cut into two separate pieces, the grooves/extensions interlock to create a strong end or edge joint with a greater gluing surface area. Some finger joint bits feature adjustable cutters.

– Lock Miter Router Bits:

Lock miter bits have a reputation for being difficult to use but create durable and (when used properly) perfectly aligned miter joints with a large surface area for gluing.

– Tongue-and-Groove Router Bits:

Tongue-and-groove bits are used in pairs to create a tongue-and-groove joint in a workpiece. This joins workpieces together edge-to-edge (where one piece has a thin, deep ridge (tongue) and the other has a slot (groove); these pieces are pushed tightly together to form the joint).

Keyhole Router Bits or Keyhole Slotters:

Keyhole bits are used to cut the keyhole shaped slots found on the backs of hanging workpieces like picture frames. These slots, of course, aide in the hanging of these pieces.

Molding Router Bits:

Molding bits are used to create complex ornamental profiles in architectural and furniture moldings and are usually much larger than a typical edge forming bit. They can incorporate multiple profiles onto one bit and produce ornate edging for molding pieces. As these bits are more substantial, they are almost always used with a router table.

Mortise Router Bits:

Mortise bits are used to carve mortises (or square shaped slots). These are used for joinery and for carving spaces for hardware such as hinges and lock sets.

Rabbeting Router Bit:

Rabbeting bits are used to create rabbets or notches in the edge of a material. These cuts/notches are vertically and horizontally straight and create a step shaped profile. Rabbeting bits utilize a pilot bearing which is positioned at the top of the bit and guides it along the edge of a workpiece. Using pilot bearings of different diameters allows one rabbeting bit to produce cuts (rabbets) in multiple sizes.

Raised Panel Router Bit:

Raised panel bits are available in both vertical and horizontal configurations and are typically used (with a stile and rail bit – see below) to create profiled, decorative edges on a panel (i.e doors). Horizontal raised panel bits cut profiles while the panel being cut is flat (horizontal) on a work table. Vertical raised panel bits cut profiles into a panel while said panel is on its edge, and, because their radius is much smaller, are usually considered safer and simpler to operate.

Spiral Router Bits:

Spiral router bits are designed quite like a spiral drill bit with flutes ground around the body of the bit to form a sharp spiral profile. They are available in up-cut and down-cut configurations and, while ideal for plunge cutting, they are also used for edge forming, cutting, and trimming in a variety of materials.

Stile and Rail Router Bits:

In frame and panel construction, stile and rail bits are designed to create ornamental edges and panel slots in the edge of a workpiece (most commonly in raised panel doors and custom cabinets). These ordinarily come in sets of two matched bits but are also available singularly.

Straight Router Bits:

Straight bits come in a variety of cutting diameters and are designed to make straight cuts into a material to hollow-out an area or to produce a grove or dado in a workpiece (usually for a mortise or inlay). Straight bits are very common and may also be used for dado joining and for general material cutting.

V-Groove Router Bits:

V-groove bits are used to carve a “V” shaped groove into a workpiece. While ideal for miter folds, these bits are commonly used in lettering and sign-making.

Veining Router Bits:

Veining bits are designed to create decorative cut-in designs. They are commonly used for free-hand work and lettering.


To conclude this journey through router bit basics, the following are a few tips to help you optimize your router bits and your experience with them.

First, you should always store your router bits separately from one another (perhaps even in their own individual cubbies). Because router bits are both heavy and fragile, you want to minimize their contact with anything they are not presently cutting. Don’t allow your bits to roll about bumping and knocking into other objects under which circumstance they will most certainly chip.

Second, keep your router bits sharp. Dull bits can damage your materials and will produce generally poor cuts. Like many other cutters, router bits can be sharpened to keep their edge.

Third, be cautious of how you handle your router. Both forcing a bit and moving one too slowly can cause overheating in both the bit and the router. An overheated bit can damage workpieces and can lose temper (which diminishes the integrity of the bit) and an overheated tool can result in internal and sometime irreparable damage. The sound your tool makes as you cut is usually a fairly good indicator of whether or not you are properly paced.

Trailering Older Horses

Long distance transport for the older horse

The details for preparing an older horse for a long trip are pretty much the same to move any horse long-distance, remembering that the recovery time for an older horse is longer than for a younger horse. Here are the steps to keep a horse safe and to make it a good experience. First let’s talk about the things that you should not do before setting off on a long trip. It is never a good idea to trim your horse’s feet or to vaccinate them a couple days before transport. How many times have we seen horses become footsore because of that trim. And of course, older horses have a higher chance of running a temperature after being vaccinated. If your horse requires a rabies certificate or requires new shoes, please do it several days prior to shipping.

The day of shipping, particularly when it is warm outside, to not grain your horse. Even with slight dehydration, a horse can impact colic from undigested grain in their system. Another note here, horses that are not great shippers have a higher incidence of ulcers. Transport can be highly stressful. Many horse vets recommend medications like Gastrogard to reduce the ulcer risk.

We’ll spend some time here talking about you transporting your horse. Later in the article I’ll have some thoughts about what to expect for your older horse by shipping with a commercial carrier. After you have successfully loaded your horse, one of the most important things you can do is to make their journey comfortable. You should not keep them tied. This prevents them from dropping their heads and keeping their sinuses clear, leading to congestion and possible pneumonia. Next, bring a sufficient supply of hay that they have been eating. Just as we are careful to slowly switch our horses from old hay to new hay at the barn, it is also important to be careful here, and not switch hay, if at all possible.

I recently transported a yearling filly The folks where I picked her up went out to the grain store and bought hay to go with her. It was not the hay that she was used to and she had loose poops as a result. It’s also important to have water available for your horse too. Most horses will not drink in the first 12 hours of transit. Particularly when it’s hot it is important to have water in front of them. We hang a Foraflex bucket and fill it half full while we are moving.

I recommend that you carry water that the horse is used to. It is not always possible but like hay it’s important to keep them eating and drinking the same things they used to at home. It’s also important carry water with you when it is hot weather, if for any reason you are delayed in transit. The last two things to consider when moving your horse cross country are blanketing in winter and rest. I encourage my clients to put a sweat sheet beneath the blanket. That way if the horse is a little upset and sweats up, the sweat has a chance to be wicked away from the body and not stay in the blanket and give them a chill. There are many thoughts about resting the horse in transit.

One is to stop for an hour every four hours to let the horse rest. Recently a study done at Texas A&M found that short periods of rest were not effective. Because I transport horses alone I need to stop each day for an eight hour rest period.

This gives the horses a chance to rest and recover and rehydrate. They come off the trailer fresh at the end of the journey. If time is not an issue and you want your horse off the trailer overnight, I recommend websites like that lists horse hotels across the country.

I wanted to take a moment to discuss commercial carriers and how they operate. Most commercial carriers have two drivers, and so equipment really never stops moving. Horses never get a chance to rest and recover. Also many carriers, never give horses their head, but keep them tied. Horses finish their trip often exhausted, dehydrated, and even sick. There are many trucking companies out there that the drivers are just that, drivers not horseman. They’re hauling freight, not horses. The other thing that happens with long-distance commercial carriers is that they don’t take the most direct route. Most recent example I can give you was a transport that I bid on and the person who bought the horse decided to have another hauler to the work, because he was cheaper. What the hauler did not tell him when he picked the horse up in Georgia to go to New York was that he was going via Texas.

Two things occurred here. First, the horse was coming from warmer climate to a winter climate and should have been blanketed for the second half of the trip. And second, the trucker did not tell the client that he was not taking the most direct route. The horse was on the trailer three days longer than necessary, exhausted and sick. So much for saving a couple hundred bucks for the transport. So when you need to use a commercial hauler there a couple of things that you should ask and get answered. First, is it the most direct route possible and second, you need at least three references. I What you horse reaches its destination. It is important to give them at least one day of no work to recover from the trip, and two days with no work is even better. I also suggest that y u give them a full day to rehydrate and not feed to any grain.

That’s it from here. Safe travel.