An Introduction to Hydraulic Cranes

Hydraulic cranes are heavy equipment used primarily for lifting. There are two basic necessities of their design: they must be able to lift a certain amount of weight and they must be able to do so while remaining stable. While cranes have been used throughout the centuries these days they feature a more technical design and there are several different types available. Each type of crane has its own strong points and weaknesses and as such is best suited towards certain types of applications. It is important to understand things when purchasing them so you have a good chance of making the right choice.

In order to lift such heavy loads, hydraulic cranes make use of three important parts, the lever, the pulley, and the hydraulic cylinder. The lever is basically a horizontal beam that acts as the fulcrum. When a heavy object is loaded onto the smaller end it may be lifted using a relatively small amount of force that is applied to the opposite end and in the opposite direction. Next there is the pulley, also known as a jib, which is a tilted strut that supports a pulley block. This fixed block has cable wrapped around it several times which is either pulled by hand or a machine. This way a force equal to the weight of the load is able to be created by using a mechanical advantage. Finally there is the hydraulic cylinder which lifts the load either directly or indirectly.

There are several different types of hydraulic cranes, and knowing the differences between them can help you to choose the best one for you.

o The railroad crane – is largely used for maintenance work on railroads, as such it has flanged wheels so it may travel upon the tracks. There are simple ones that may be mounted onto a rail car, or more complicated models that must be custom designed.

o The tower crane – is a modern balance crane that can be either fixed on the ground or attached to buildings or other structures. They are typically chosen for their height and lifting capacity and are an essential part of constructing tall buildings.

o The self erecting crane – is a special type of tower crane that can actually lift itself from the ground which allows the next segment of crane to be placed. Thus they can be assembled easily without outside help.

o The telescopic crane – uses a number of tubes fitted one inside the other in its boom. A hydraulic system extends and compresses these tubes so that the overall length of the boom may be altered. These are best for short term rescue or construction jobs.

o The manual crane – is not in use as much since newer models of hydraulic cranes which use electricity are available. However they are still sometimes used when power would not be possible or cost effective.

Make Your Home Affordable With Green Living

There is no single prototype for living green. Lowering energy bills is the best way to increase long-term affordability of home ownership. Some builders create smaller spaces with a luxury feel or rustic Santa Fe style adobe housing. The quest to lower electric bills increases the foreign market for solar and wind energy.

It is not one size fits all. Going green is based on lowering your carbon footprint. It includes a new solar or hybrid car, solar pool heaters, solar hot water heaters, increased attic or wall insulation, and energy-efficient home monitoring systems to reduce energy use.

Installing solar lights along the driveway is easy and affordable. Solar gates are used on ranches for over a decade preventing expensive electric wiring in remote areas.These solar gates work very well with back-up batteries.

Water issues are a key driver in green living. It requires switching out shower heads for those which use less water and replacing old toilets with low-flow toilets. Overhauling older home systems with new solar air conditioning, tank-less hot water heaters, water efficient dishwashers, and solar exterior house lights bring a new hipness to older homes.

California has experienced drought for over a decade. Electronic metering and remote metering systems reduce water usage and lower water bills. Native landscaping often lowers the water bill in many areas of the world.

Green living is centered around living with less waste and higher energy efficiency. Green home are optimized for energy-efficient appliances, solar heating and cooling systems that use less energy and water. Green building materials could be recycled or natural.

Green energy includes windmills, recycled water for lawns, cisterns to collect water, and/or solar energy. It could be lowering water usage and rezoning AC systems to react to smartphone APP. It is possible to use smartphone APPs to lower the thermostat for your home while riding down the office elevator to your car? Many home automation systems control kitchen appliances, light bulbs, hot water heaters, home thermostats, and pool systems. The best systems offer exterior and interior lights, along with home security systems. The smartphone APPs are encrypted and fairly safe. Nothing is perfect and hackers can get past the encryption protecting car computers for navigation. Switch passwords often and never give these to your neighbors.

Windmills and solar farms can seem expensive. These renewable energy systems can be financed. Home owners can sell the excess power to the local utility company. Windmills have few maintenance issues and may last a century or longer.

5F Welding Test – Not Common – And Not Easy

What is a 5f welding test? The American Welding Society has one crazy numbering system for welding positions and welding certification tests.

A 5F welding test means that a pipe is welded to a plate and the axis of the pipe is running horizontal and the plate is vertical.

The reason a 5F welding certification test is even used is because it makes the welder do a fillet weld in the overhead, vertical, and horizontal positions..all with one welding test. This test qualifies for all positions and its kind of hard. You know why? Because it makes the welder reposition his or her body a lot. In order to keep your stick rod angle right, you have to move that body. Old welders with rickety knees have to figure out how to reposition themselves while remaining steady. It sounds easier than it is. The trick is to have as few stops and starts as possible because you never know if your stops and starts will be the cross section that will be cut and inspected. On small diameter pipe, it is even more difficult because rod angle changes so quickly as the welder navigates the pipe. If you are about to take a 5F test, and are serious about passing, pay attention to these tips:

  • remove any mill scale by grinding the weld area to bright metal
  • make your tack welds smaller than the final weld will be and feather the tacks with a grinder before welding
  • keep all your arc strikes where the weld will consume them and none will be visible on the final weld
  • set the amperage to where a tight arc can be held without the rod sticking
  • hold a tight arc
  • try to hold close to a 90 degree rod angle all the time

Good luck welder.

Atkins Diet – Economical Tips

The Atkins diet has a great deal of health reward, but it is not precisely easy on the wallet. Fresh meat is among some of the most costly items in the foodstuff and when you follow Atkins, you’ll need to buy a lot of them. Even so, there are easy steps that you could take to slash costs on this low plan.

Initially, be creative in your meal planning. Don’t forget that most diet books & written to attract readers to attempt new mixture of foods. The recipes in those books have the most costly ingredients. You don’t have to cook like an expert chef in order to be able to feel the advantages of the Atkins diet plan. There are numerous simple recipes that you are capable to make that are within the project and cost less than the ones revealed in the diet books. If you adjust the meal tactics with the books, you could enjoy the low-carb lifestyle with limited funds.

About the most critical measures to take is to purchase your meats in bulk. When you store up on huge packages of chicken, ground beef and fish you reduce your protein costs. You could separate the huge packages into little freezer bags & freeze them in meal sized portions. Two to 4 chicken breasts per bag are easy to defrost & make a great-sized meal. You could also cook ground beef in a few different varieties & freeze the cooked portions. Attempt doing a proportion of the meat with taco spices, an additional portion with hamburger spices & the third piece with Italian spices. That way you will be able to make use of a great deal of hamburger meat & still have variety in your diet.

In addition, look at less tender cut of meat to trim expenses in your grocery money. Whilst fillet mignon can be delicious, it does not fit into all budget. Less tender cut of beef & pork make superb crock-pot meal, and making use of a slow cooker will assist tenderize them.

Look to another protein source like eggs & tofu. Both of them pack a potent protein punch for a little bit of the cost of meats. Peanuts are a good protein source as well, but they can become costly very quickly. Some of the recipes call for costly macadamia nuts & cashews. Peanuts, Walnuts and almonds have just as much protein for a little bit of the cost.

Mixed veggie salads will make a huge part of your day by day Atkins meals. Whilst it may be enticing to purchase bagged salads that are already chopped, you will be repaying $2 to $3 per bag. You can buy three heads of various types of lettuce for the equivalent cost and make the equal of six bags of prepackaged salads. Also, think about investing in a salad spinner. This useful device will make common salads crispy & satisfying.

Be imaginative with your menus and use produce and meat that is on sale. If you’ve got a recipe that demands chicken breasts & turkey happens to be for sale, go ahead and exchange this week. Make certain to carry a suitable food catalog with you the foodstuff so you can spot whether a sale meals are an alright substitution on the Atkins plan.

When you attend the shop, you can likewise cut costs by limiting your purchase of low carbohydrate packaged foods. These things are actually expensive, and occasionally filled with harmful chemicals. They may also comprise hidden carbs which could stall your weight loss hard work. The Atkins plan could be successfully followed without applying any of these goods. Unless it’s a special occasion, skip them all at once.

Lastly, its great to plan your meals & your shopping so you can purchase your groceries in an impressive manner. Visiting the grocery unprepared or, even worse, starving could spell disaster for your financial plan. Plan every week’s menu out ahead & time and then purchase what you ought to make those meals.

Army Officer Interview Questions And Answers

Many people attend the Army Officer interview but only a small percentage succeed. The reason for this is simply because they fail to provide sufficient evidence of their ‘officer’ potential. You are guaranteed to get asked the following question during the Army Officer interview:

Can you tell me why you want to become an Officer?

You must have valid reasons why you want to become an Officer in the Army. This job is entirely different to being a regular soldier. You will have far more responsibilities and the training that you will undergo will be extremely challenging, both mentally and physically. Here are a few positive reasons for wanting to become an Officer:

“An opportunity to become an elite Officer in the Army is an opportunity to be the best that I can be.”

“I believe that I have the potential to become an exceptional Officer and I don’t want to waste my potential.”

“I want to become an Officer simply because I believe I have the skills and attributes to lead, inspire and develop people. If I am not in a leadership position then I believe those skills and attributes will be wasted.”

“I am a confident, professional and enthusiastic person who believes that everyone should be given the opportunity to be there best. As an Officer I would have the chance to make a difference and I would thrive in a position that could help the Army to achieve its organizational goals and objectives.”

“In any organisation that I have worked in so far, I have always held a keen interest in the development of staff and the development of the company as a whole. The experiences that I have gained in life so far and prepared me to become an Officer in the Army and I believe that I could be a excellent member of the Army’s leadership team.”

If you use any of the above reasons for wanting to become an army officer you will have more chances of success.

INTERVIEW TIPS FOR THE ARMY OFFICER INTERVIEW

– When you walk into the interview room stand up straight with your shoulders back. Project an image of confidence;

– Don’t sit down in the interview chair until invited to do so;

– Sit with your hands resting on your knees, palms downwards. It is OK to use your hands expressively but don’t overdo it;

– Don’t slouch in the chair;

– Speak up and be positive;

– Smile, be happy and have a sense of humour;

– Dress as smart as you can and take a pride in your appearance. If you don’t have a suit make sure you wear a shirt and tie at the very least.

– Improve your personal administration. By this I mean your personal hygiene and cleanliness. Make sure you have washed and your hands and nails are clean.

– Make sure you have researched both the Army life and your chosen career/careers. This is very important.

– During the interview do not be negative or disrespectful towards your teachers, parents or people in positions of authority. Remember that you are applying to join a disciplined service.

– Go the extra mile and learn a little bit about the Army’s history if you get time. When the panel asks you ‘What can you tell us about the Army?’ you will be able to demonstrate that you have made an effort to look into their history as well as their modern day activities;

– Be respectful and courteous towards the interview panel. At the end of your response to each question finish off with either ‘Sir’ or ‘Ma’am’ or as otherwise instructed.

– Ask positive questions at the end of the interview. Try not to ask questions such as “How much leave will I get?” or “How often do I get paid?”

– If you are unsure about a question don’t waffle. If you do not know the answer then it is OK to say so. Move on to the next question and put it behind you.

Finally, believe in yourself and be confident. A positive attitude will bring positive results!

The HUGE Advantage of Being a "Shy Guy"

Shyness can be overcome..or said the other way around… confidence can be learned. But shyness isn’t easy to learn isn’t it?

Honestly…have you ever found a guy that has always been “confident” and actually gets what a shy person is going through?

Ok, so what’s my point? Surely nobody has ever tried to be shy right? Here is why the above is important for you if you are a shy guy!

Women love to be understood on a deeper level.

They love it if you “get” them and can intuitively make them feel comfortable. It’s called “empathy”. (in fact I lied: everyone loves to be understood on a deep level…but women especially often find that guys are not “getting” them)

So do you think that there are many women that are shy? Women who are beautiful inside and out? You bet. Millions.

So when those women want a boyfriend…

Do you think those “naturally confident guys” who have never really experienced shyness or introversion.. GET them? Often they don’t.

Often they even overlook them.

They just see a “shy” girl..someone “without a sense of humour” who isn’t “fun” to be around and then they either don’t talk to them or find them difficult to understand..or they get frustrated because all the things they do that sometimes used to work with the extrovert girls don’t work with this girl…

Why? Because those guys are looking at the girl from the outside judging her intuitively as “boring” or “tricky” and don’t have much empathy. They don’t GET them.. because they haven’t shared their experience. Or when they try to “chat them up” they are hitting a brick wall because they never get close to creating any rapport with the girl.

So those girls who are shy or introvert by nature are literally begging to be “found” by someone who “gets” them rather than judges them. And you know what? Still waters run deep. Shy girls can be amazing when they open up. They can be amazing to be in relationships with once they trust you.

So being a shy guy who has learned to be confident enough to be striking up a conversation without bullshit or acting, who is confident enough to have a relaxed conversation on a date and make a girl comfortable and who has empathy will be a gift to those girls! And will have a HUGE advantage over those loud “confident” types.

Only thing is: You have got to be able to deal with your shyness and manage to stay “operational”. With that I mean you have got to be able to stop your nerves or shyness from ruining your dates (and from blocking your natural empathy to express itself)..

If you want to know how to do that visit my website and download the “The Shy Guy’s Guide To Getting Girls Part 1-How to Stop Dating Nerves”, learn the Shy Stop Switch and learn to switch off your nerves and shyness in 1 min. Even if your “inner shy guy” is telling you right now that that isn’t possible. But just trust me. I have been there. And now I am teaching this technique to guys like you and me.

To the power of being a “shy” guy!

I see you over there..

Toulouse – The Red City

Toulouse is one of the most stylish cities of Southern France. Situated between the Mediterranean (150 km away) and the Atlantic (250 km), and just 110 km from the ski resorts of the Pyrenees and 730 km from Paris, Toulouse is the chief city of the huge Midi-Pyrenees Region and the fourth largest city in France. With the second largest student population outside of Paris, Toulouse is among the leading great metropolises of Southern Europe. Dubbed the ‘Ville Rose’ because of its pink brick buildings, Toulouse sits astride the Garonne River and the historic Canal du Midi, midway between the Med and the Atlantic. The heart of town is the vast, arcaded Place du Capitole, where the impressive, grandiose Capitole building is the seat of local government.

Regular scheduled domestic and international flights arrive at Blagnac airport, about 20 minutes from the city, or drive from Paris by taking the A10 to Orleans and the A20 to Toulouse. A very quick and comfortable means of arrival is by train (six hours from Paris) as the train station is almost in the heart of the city.

Old Toulouse is effectively quartered by two nineteenth-century streets, the long shopping street, rue d’Alsace-Lorraine/rue du Languedoc, which runs north-south; and rue de Metz, which runs east-west onto the Pont-Neuf and across the Garonne. It’s all very compact and can easily be walked, although the city does have a metro. In addition to the general pleasure of wandering the streets, there are three very good museums and some real architectural treasures in the churches of St-Sernin and Les Jacobins and in the magnificent Renaissance town houses – hotels particuliers – of the merchants who grew rich on the woad-dye trade.

The main shopping streets are rue La Fayette and rue d’Alsace-Lorraine. Luxury goods are to be found in one of the prettiest streets in Old Toulouse, rue Croix-Baragnon, while the boutiques on rue Saint-Rome offer more accessible priced clothes. Place du Capitole is the centre of gravity for the city’s social life. Its smart caf├ęs throng with people at lunchtime and in the early evening when the dying sun flushes the pink facade of the big town hall opposite. This is the scene of a mammoth Wednesday market for food, clothes and junk and of a smaller organic food market on Tuesday and Saturday mornings. From Place du Capitole, a labyrinth of narrow medieval streets radiates out to the town’s several other squares, such as Place Wilson, the more intimate Place St-Georges, the delightful triangular Place de la Trinite and Place St-etienne in front of the cathedral.

For those so inclined, while in Toulouse take a trip to the worlds largest Marian shrine at Lourdes, just one hour away on the A64, or visit the historic fortified city of Carcassonne, two hours away on the A61.

If you are interested in a different but related subject, please check out this page for a review: http://www.amazon.com/To-Lose-Battle-France-1940/dp/0141030658

Personal Trainer – History of This Practice

The personal trainer career pathway is a new one that has only recently been pioneered. Obviously, the ancient Greeks and other cultures of the past have had their athletic traditions, but most of this athletic training was actually intended to keep people in shape for war. Exercising for the sake of health and going to a professional expert in fitness training is a new practice that has only begun in the 20th century.

There were destination health spas in the late 19th century that were concerned with exercise in a parallel fashion along with overall body health, but these destination health facilities often used questionable health procedures that had little to do with actual fitness. Jack Lalanne is known as the godfather of all fitness and for good reason. Born in California in 1914, Jack was first a sugar addicted child that felt he was “mean and weak” as a result.

After a nutrition lecture he saw as a teenager changed his life, Jack threw himself into a sugar free nutritious diet, exercise and soon played on multiple high school sports teams. In 1936 at the young age of 22, he opened the first health club ever. Opening the club in Oakland, California, he gained a reputation with conservative minded doctors as a “health nut” to be avoided.

He walked the streets to find customers claiming he could recondition their bodies and get them in the best shape of their lives. In the process of opening his club and personally training his customers, he basically invented the personal trainer career. While he continued to shape his method for exercise instruction he also invented a number of exercise machines that are common place today.

The cable pulley weight lifting systems you see in every single gym in the world are his invention as are the smith machines you see everywhere as well. Soon Jack opened more clubs and each one had individuals working at them who could provide instruction in how to use the machines, eat well and get the proper amount of rest. Jack Lalanne eventually sold his chain of exercise clubs which were renamed Bally’s.

In 1954, the American College of Sports Medicine was founded to promote fitness, health and certify fitness professionals. This organization began certifying the first personal trainers, but by the 1980s the personal trainer career became popular and sometimes even lucrative. Fitness celebrities such as John Basedow, Gilad Janklowicz, and Jack Lalanne himself have made millions selling fitness videos since the 1980s.

Today professional training companies are everywhere offering to help you get fit at either the local gym or even your own home. Thanks to pioneers like Jack Lalanne, it’s quite possible for anyone to learn about fitness, get certified and find a job as a personal trainer.

Sterilization Equipment: 2 Types Of Autoclaves

According to reports published in the Pr-Inside.Com, the overall sales of sterilization equipment in the US were approximately $1 billion in 2009. This figure is expected to increase to $1.2 billion by 2014. Health care professionals and patients are increasingly becoming concerned about the spread of deadly diseases and complications caused by the transmission of pathogens via medical instruments. More and more health care providers are focusing their attention on infection control.

Proper sterilization can prevent microbial contamination of medical instruments and protect patients and doctors from various infectious diseases. Instruments can be sterilized with the help of high pressure, heat, irradiation and chemical solutions.

Sterilization Equipment: Different Types of Autoclaves

An autoclave is a type of sterilization equipment that is used to sterilize instruments used in hospitals, clinics, beauty parlors, tattoo parlors and piercing stores. The basic function of the device is to kill pathogenic microorganisms.

Pathogens are killed by applying extreme heat, pressure and steam to the instruments placed inside the sterilization chamber. The pressure maintained inside the chamber is usually 15 pound (lb)/inch2 in excess of the normal atmospheric pressure. However, the total time taken to attain complete sterility depends on the volume of the articles and type of material used in them. The two different types of autoclaves are:

Downward Displacement

The downward displacement autoclave sterilizer is also known as a gravity displacement unit. It uses a heating element to heat up the water and produce steam. The steam, which is lighter than air, forces the air inside the sterilization chamber to move downward. Eventually the air moves out through the drain hole of the sterilization chamber. Once the temperature in the chamber is sufficient, the hole is automatically closed and the sterilization process is started.

Positive Pressure Displacement

This sterilization equipment is an improved version of the downward displacement autoclave. It uses a separate chamber to create and hold steam. Once sufficient amount of steam is accumulated, it is released into the sterilization unit in a pressurized blast. This forces the air to move out through the drain hole and starts the sterilization process.

Other autoclaves available in the market today include the negative pressure displacement, triple vacuum, type “N” unit and type “B” unit autoclaves.

To purchase superior quality sterilization equipment at the most competitive, visit expressmedicalsupplies.com. The company offers a wide range of sterilization supplies including autoclaves, disinfectants, instrument cleaners, lubricants, sterilizing solutions and infectious waste bags.

The Light Bulb: Past, Present and Future

Light is a thing we all humans need to thrive. Take our natural source of light, the sun, or even artificial light, both illuminate the things we do and all the activities we perform. It is very important to note that, without light it would be very difficult or even impossible for the Earth to sustain any form of life. All biological activities in our bodies as well as the activities surrounding us flourish in the light. Electric bulbs are considered one of humanity’s greatest inventions; it has continually evolved since its discovery in the 19th century to today.

Thomas Alva Edison is the inventor of incandescent bulbs. But there were many scientists who had discovered the light bulb before him. Scientists were able to find out that a thin metal strip when heated for a long time could emit light. But, efficiency was a huge concern. Humphry Davy came up with this invention for the first time in the 1802 and raised the eyebrows of many colleagues other scientists of his day. The only problem at that time with incandescent light was the material which produced the light. It was first discovered that a platinum strip was the only material which could hold the light for any period of time. But the atmosphere would not allow the light to last very long. So they decided to create a light bulb which was completely covered and air tight. Edison used a carbon filament and sealed bulb which emitted light longer than using the original platinum filament. Scientists agreed that Edison’s invention was incredible and sustainable, thus dubbing him the “Father of Electricity”.

With advances in lighting technologies CFL bulbs came into picture. Compact fluorescent lamps are smaller in size and last longer when compared to incandescent bulbs. The materials used in CFL bulbs are gas and magnetic. Magnetic material is used to initiate the movement of elements in the gas which emits light. Fluorescent bulbs use mercury, a poisonous toxin to humans, making them extremely dangerous if broken and difficult to dispose of. These bulbs produce less heat thus having better efficiency. They also produce more light compared to the incandescent lights. The heat generated in incandescent lights ends up using more energy. A CFL bulb’s lifetime can last anywhere from 6,000 to 13,000 hours before needing to be replaced, where an incandescent bulb ranges from 750 to 1,000 hours.

The invention of advanced LED (Light Emitting Diodes) bulbs has had a great impact on the market in various aspects. The light emitted by a single diode is small, so most of the time there will be multiple diodes in a bulb which can emit light continuously, even if one of the diodes goes out. LED bulbs can run 22,000 to 25,000 hours. Some LED bulbs even boast a lifetime guarantee. Another important thing to keep in mind in regards to LED lamps is that most bulbs will not emit light in all directions and thus they are designed specifically to give unidirectional light. But with further advances in LED technology bulbs with multi-directional light are making their way out on the market. LED bulbs are versatile and are able to be used for indoor as well as outdoor lighting.

How Does Double Glazing Work?

If you live in an area where winters are particularly long, you will find it advantageous to switch from traditional windows to double glazed units. There are many benefits associated with the latter: Double glazed windows are more energy-efficient and harder to break. They also do a better job of reducing noise.

So, how exactly does double glazing work? Contrary to what many people think, the principle behind the technology is fairly simple – but it’s worth understanding the science to help you to make better decisions about which features are worthwhile, and which are simply marketing gimmicks.

First, two glass panes are held together in a frame. Glass panes used in double glazing are usually tinted although clear varieties are available. The tint helps to absorb solar radiation so that during the warm summer months, your house will not feel like an oven.

The most common tints are bronze, grey, blue and green. Higher-end glass panes may employ a combination of reflective, anti-glare and heat-absorbing technologies.

Second, a barrier of air or gas is maintained between the two window panes. Called a spacer, this gap is key to reducing heat loss and noise. Heat will always move from higher to lower temperature. In solids (like glass), this happens very quickly because the particles are tightly packed.

Heat transfer is much slower in gases (like the air or argon trapped in the spacer) because the particles not only move freely but are also located far apart from each other. The effect is improved insulation. Heat does not escape easily from the window. Your home stays warmer longer.

Sound travels slowest through air and accounts for how double glazing can keep noise levels down. Additionally, some spacers come with foam padding designed to absorb echo and muffle sound. This is a great way to host late-night parties without disturbing the neighbours.

Finally, the barrier is sealed to prevent the entry of outside air and to avert moisture build-up in the inner glass panes. Conventional spacers contain dessicant as an added precaution against condensation.

There are several factors that can affect the overall efficiency of double glazed windows. These include the kind of window frame used, the thickness of the glass and the space between them.

Regardless of the variables, all double glazed windows operate under the same basic principle. Traditional windows utilize only one pane of glass, whereas double glazing uses two. Between the two panes of glass is an air or gas-filled barrier that works to reduce heat loss and regulate heat gain.

Formation Integrity Test (FIT)

Formation Integrity Test (FIT) is the method to test strength of formation and a casing shoe by increasing Bottom Hole Pressure (BHP) to designed pressure. FIT is normally conducted to ensure that formation below the casing show will not be broken while drilling the next section with higher bottom hole pressure. Normally, drilling engineers in town will design how much formation integrity test pressure required and a unit of FIT is normally in pound per gallon unit.

How to Calculate Pressure Required for Formation Integrity Test.

Before forming formation integrity test, you should know pressure required for Formation Integrity Test. The formula showed below demonstrates you how to calculate required FIT pressure.

Pressure required for FIT (psi) = (Required FIT in ppg – Current Mud Weight in ppg) x 0.052 x True Vertical Depth of shoe in feet

Example below demonstrates how to use the formula to calculate pressure required for the test:

Required FIT (ppg) = 14.5

Current mud weight (ppg) = 9.2

True Vertical Depth of shoe (ft) = 4000 TVD

Pressure required for FIT = (14.5-9.2) x 0.052 x 4000 = 1102 psi

Note: The acronyms are listed below;

psi = pound per square inch

ppg = pound per gallon

ft = feet

Formation Integrity Test (FIT) procedures are as follows;

1. Drill out new formation few feet, circulate bottom up and collect formation samples to confirm that new formation is drilled to and then pull a drill string into the casing shoe.

2. Close annular preventer or pipe rams, line up a cement pump, and circulate through an opened choke line to ensure that surface line is fully filled with drilling fluid.

3. Stop the pump and close a choke valve.

4. Gradually pump small amount of drilling fluid into a well with constant pump strokes and recommended pump strokes are 5 to 10 strokes per minute. Record total pump strokes, drill pipe pressure and casing pressure. Pump until casing pressure reaches the pressure required for formation integrity test. Stop pumping and hold pressure for few minutes to confirm pressure stability.

5. Bleed off pressure and open up the well. Then start drilling operation.

Pool Cue Care Tips You Won’t Hear From Mike Massey

Now that you’ve made the leap and found a pool cue that really suites you, it’s a good idea to know just how to take care of your pool cue. You have probably seen the professionals like Mike Massey, Jeanette Lee or Karen Corr take their pool cues from beautiful cases and put them together; you never see them set their cues down and lean them against the wall. A pool cue should never be set on the ground, against a wall or a table. Setting it down and leaning it on something might bend the end of your pool cue and that would ruin it. Set your pool cue down on a flat surface, hanging in a cue rack or preferably in a hard case to keep it straight. Banging your pool cue against a hard surface or the hard floor is also a no-no. This can misalign your cue at the connection points and make it unusable. A professional won’t ever do it and you shouldn’t either.

It’s a good idea to always keep your pool cue away from extreme temperatures as these will also cause damage. High heat may warp the clear finish of your pool cue or warp the inlays.

When you get a new pool cue, or replace the tip, make sure you bed it in. This means that you should only hit gentle shots for as long as possible in order to bed it in. Soft, not hard shots will bed the tip correctly. Ideally your cue should have a stick on tip. You pool cue may have come with a bolted or screwed on tip. Stick on tips are easier to replace when they become worn or if you just feel the need for a new tip. Remove the old tip by carefully sliding a sharp knife between the tip and the cue, then simply clean off the end of your cue with a clean cloth, or use sand paper to make sure it’s really clean. Use a small dab of super glue to gently press the new tip in and then leave it to set overnight to make sure that it’s fully bonded. Using it too soon may put it off center and that won’t help you with your shots. Remember to bed your new tip after it’s bonded with only gentle shots. Use a billiard cue tip scuffing tool to gently loosen the grain of your leather tip and allow it to hold more chalk. Doing so will help your cue connect better and give you better results at the table.

Take care of your cue and it will take care of you.

A History of the Desmond Rebellions in Ireland

The Desmond Rebellions occurred between 1569-1573 and 1579-1583 staged by the Earls of Desmond against Elizabeth I’s attempts to impose her control on the province of Munster. James Fitzmaurice Fitzgerald launched the First Desmond Rebellion in 1569, attacking Cork and laying siege to Kilkenny. Henry Sidney, Lord Deputy of Ireland mobilised troops and began devastating Fitzmaurice’s allies’ lands. This had a terrible effect on Fitzmaurice, breaking up his forces as individual lords had to return to defend their lands.

Fitzmaurice fled into the Kerry mountains from where he conducted a guerrilla campaign against the English forces. However, by 1573 his forces had been completely decimated until less than one hundred were left by his side, he submitted, negotiating a pardon for his life. Arguably, the real winner of the rebellion was the Earl of Ormonde, who established himself as loyal to the English Crown and became the most powerful lord in the south of Ireland. In the aftermath of the rebellion; Gaelic customs, Gaelic dress, Brehon laws and the maintaining of private armies were again outlawed. In addition English colonists continued to arrive into the province threatening the existence of Irish landowners. So when Fitzmaurice returned from Continental Europe with a view to mounting another insurrection, there were plenty of disenfranchised contenders willing to join his ranks, paving the way for the Second Desmond Rebellion.

James Fitzmaurice Fitzgerald had spent his exile on the Continent re-inventing himself as a crusader for the counter-Reformation. He argued that becasie Queen Elizabeth I had been ex-communicated by the Pope Pius V in 1570, Irish Catholics no longer owed their allegiance to the English Crown. The Pope granted troops and supplies to Fitzmaurice for his planned invasion of the province of Munster. He landed at Smerwick, near Dingle, Co. Kerry on July 18, 1579 with a small force of Spanish and Italian troops. He was joined by a number of Gaelic clans and Old English families, however he was killed in a minor skirmish and John Fitzgerald of Desmond assumed leadership of the rebellion. Gerald, the Earl of Desmond joined the rebellion and succeeded in sacking both Youghal and Kinsale.

However by mid-1580, it appeared that the English forces had succeeded in crushing the insurrection, but in July it sparked off in the province of Leinster under the leadership of the Gaelic chieftain Fiach MacHugh O’Byrne and the Old English lord, Viscount Baltinglass. They destroyed a large English force at the Battle of Glenmalure. However, the rebel forces in Munster and Leinster failed to develop a co-ordinated strategy to capitalise on these early advances. In September 1580, six hundred Papal troops landed at Smerwick to support the rebels, however they made little impact, becoming sieged within the confines of a fort at Dun an Oir, they soon surrendered and were massacred. The English forces broke the back of the insurrection with a comprehensive and relentless scorched earth policy. As Fitzmaurice had done during the First Desmond Rebellion, the remaining Geraldines sought sanctuary in the Co. Kerry mountains. The rebellion ended with the killing of the Gerald, the Earl Of Desmond near Tralee, Co. Kerry by the local clan O’Moriarty. After the devastating scorched earth policy, a prolonged famine enveloped the province, it is estimated that by 1589, a third of the province’s population had died.

The Mystery of New Jersey’s Hookerman

Fantastic stories of ghostly lights which frequently appear near railroad tracks and, according to popular imagination, are carried by the spirits of long-deceased conductors have become a permanent and tantalizing feature of American folklore. Commonly referred to as “spook lights,” the phenomenon has captured the imagination of Fortean investigators around the world.

According to recent estimates, there exist more than 60 separate locations throughout the United States alone where this strange phenomenon occurs. The “Maco lights,” of North Carolina, have, by far, received the greatest attention of all, and are said to have been first sighted during the 18th Century.

Others, though less familiar, are equally well-documented, with many of the contemporary sightings having their roots in local Indian legends, such as the Hornet Spook Light, found in the southern midwest region of the country. Here, as in countless other cases, the belief persists that the lights are concrete proof of psychic survival after death, and that the discarnate personalities of dead railroad conductors and ancient tribal leaders are with us today.

Over the last five years, however, many researchers have sought to strip away the thick layers of myth and superstition which surround the spook light mystery, and have begun to employ sophisticated scientific equipment and methods in their research efforts. One such research group, Vestigia, has been concentrating its attention on strange lights observed in northwestern New Jersey, in an area known as Long Valley. Their investigation and findings, along with material gathered from other researchers in the field, have yielded some provocative answers to the spook light mystery.

The spook lights of Long Valley have been actively reported since the turn of the century. One particular section of the High Bridge Railroad is the focus of the activity, a stretch of railroad which is now owned by Con Rail. The spur was originally built in the mid-18th Century, and was, for a time, a bustling link between the iron-rich Long Valley area and the main line of the New Jersey Central Railroad as Chester, N.J. The High Bridge Railroad was built by mine owners for the transfer of ore; the line later carried both passengers and freight until the 1930s. Today the line is an infrequently used freight spur.

The legend of this local spook light is, indeed, colorful, and conforms faithfully to the mythic storyline found in many similar cases. A brakeman of the High Bridge Railroad is supposed to have lost his hand in an accident caused by a mechanical malfunction. Mentally unbalanced by the trauma of the accident, he walked the tracks near the site of the mishap with a lantern swinging from a hook which replaced his lost hand. One night, legend has it, that hapless figure, while searching for his lost limb on the tracks, was struck by an oncoming train, and instantly killed.

It was believed that the lights appearing over the High Bridge Railroad were a psychic re-creation of that tragic night. The “Hookerman’s” lantern sways over the tracks, then, suddenly vanishes as he is once again felled by the approaching locomotive.

The High Bridge legend is almost identical to others across the country, both in reported phenomena and folklore. In almost all cases, the lights appear suddenly and at random, but seldom during heavy rain. The light itself, often a dull yellow, flickers much like a lantern, swinging from side to side like a pendulum. Generally it appears several inches to a few feet above the ground, and seems to move toward the observer in uncanny silence.

In one isolated incident, a young high school student was said to have been severely burned by the bizarre light, though this report ha yet to be confirmed. What is confirmable, however, is that the phenomenon is genuine, and has been reported by hundreds of people since the turn of the century.

At Long Valley, the researchers of Vestigia undertook a preliminary study of the spook lights in 1976, studying the history of the area, the High Bridge Railroad, and any accidents that could be linked to the Hookerman legend. It was learned that Long Valley was rural farmland until 1850, when iron ore began to be mined in the area. The High Bridge Railroad was, at first, a short spur that was used to transport ore from the mines to the foundry, and was actively used until 1885, when the mines began to cut back on operations. Eventually the railroad added several spurs, to the original Chester branch that ran to Long Valley. It was this spur that became the center of Vestigia’s study. By 1899, the railroad was renamed the Delaware, Lackawanna, and Western Railroad, and ran passenger operations until 1934. The line was still in use for freight until 1960. Today, there is little activity on the spur, which is now part of the Jersey Central Railroad owned by Conrail.

The area is incredibly rich in folklore, including several tragedies associated with both mining and railroad operations. Many of these casualties are on record, but nothing in the records parallels the legend of the Hookerman, or gives any hint as to his identity, if he did, in the fact, exist.

Representatives from Vestigia collected background information from local residents about the legend, including several accounts that suggested the Hookerman was hospitalized at a local institution for the insane after his accident. Local hospital records and old railroad documents were carefully examined. The researchers even visited the local mental hospitals in search of the true identity of the Hookerman, but nothing could be found to link the legend of Long valley to reality.

Even if the Hookerman was the product of overactive local imaginations, the spook lights of Long Valley certainly were not. Researchers visited the area several times and each time they were able to see the Hookerman’s infamous “lantern.” Although the size, shape, speed of movement, and color varied from sighting to sighting, one thing was certain – the phenomenon was authentic and repeatedly observable. The directors of Vestigia then began the arduous task of amassing the technical materials, test equipment, and personnel necessary to study the phenomenon properly.

The first studies of the lights were scheduled for the fall of 1976 and the list of necessary equipment was extensive. Included were cameras, Geiger counters, methane gas sniffers devices, oscilloscopes, a Vascar radar unit, recording apparatus, thermometers, walkie-talkies, and assorted auxiliary equipment.

The team, led by Bill Wagner, was working on the theory that, if the lights could be seen, they should be recordable, photogenic and measurable. To that end, the team, 16 in all, amassed their equipment, much of it at their own expense. Next, the researchers selected the location for the study – a one mile stretch of railroad track, a virtual straightaway, intersected at its midpoint by a dirt road and bordered by two major roads.

While team members worked on collecting their gear, other Vestigia investigators secured the necessary releases, and received the cooperation of all authorities involved. Conrail was contacted, and permission was granted to use its right of way for the tests. A local resident whose house was in close proximity to the railroad tracks was contacted, and agreed to make power available from his home to the central post during the experiments.

On the night of November 20, 1976, the first of the field experiments were initiated, with three outposts set up. For the first time in Long Valley, the Hookerman’s light was going to be photographed, measured, and permanently recorded. The team assembled on the night of the initial test was composed of individuals from all disciplines and backgrounds. Within the group were experts in electronics, meteorology, physics, optics, photography, chemistry, and mathematics. What distinguished Vestigia’s study from any other was the quality and amount of technical expertise and equipment amassed from its study. A total of 10,000 man-hours were spent in the search, and the value of the equipment totally over $30,000.

What follows is a brief description of the first night of study into the Long valley spook lights. The investigation continues in the area, and Vestigia is presently collaborating with other research groups and universities in its probe.

On the night of the investigation, 4,000 feet of ground antenna wire was laid between the rails, and attached to an amplifier and oscilloscope which would detect variations in electrical frequency and amplitude. Other cables were attached directly to the rails to act as a capacitance test; anything metallic between or over the rails would register on a readout device in the equipment van. The Geiger counter was positioned at the presumed “hot spot,” and it, too, was wired into a readout in the command post. Other devices included a methane gas detector, and a parabolic listening device.

At Post Two (level with the command post), a group of observers on the track manned the Vascar radar unit as well as cameras which were loaded with infra-red sensitive film, and a motion picture camera containing ultra-fast film. Post One and Post Three observers, located a half-mile to the right and left, respectively, were armed with cameras, binoculars, and radio communicators.

At approximately 10 p.m., researchers at the control van reported drastic fluctuations on their instruments. Researchers at Post Three simultaneously observed a small, distinct light that startled them with its sudden and unanticipated appearance. They described it as yellowish, of low magnitude, and from five to six inches in diameter. It hovered over the tracks, about a foot above the ground, and was positioned between Post One and the control vans. Cameras clicked, and recording devices were quickly activated. One puzzling thing occurred, however. Although Post Three was in visual contact with the object, and Post Two was clearly recording it electronically and had activated its cameras to photograph the phenomenon, observers at Post One had no visual contact with the light.

The oscilloscope, and other electronic measuring devices, recorded changes in the electromagnetic field of the area in which the light appeared, as well as discharges of electrical activity.

During the appearance of the light, the oscilloscope recorded a dramatic reaction for a period of one minute and 50 seconds. Amplitude varied from.5 volts to 2.5 volts, while a normal background signal is only.4 volts at 60 cycles. During this time the normal 60 cycles range swelled to well over 40,000 cycles.

These readings obviously indicated that whatever the observers were seeing, whatever the cameras were recording, were capable of producing a dramatic change in the electrical activity of the area.

Other equipment did not immediately respond to the sighting; no radiation was evident at the time of the incident. Although there were noticeable reactions in the rail capacitance tests, both the test and the radiation indicators became active after the sighting. One thing was certain: for approximately one minute and 50 seconds, the legend of the Hookerman became objective reality, and staged a performance for the most sophisticated audience in its history.

As quickly as the phenomenon occurred, it disappeared, and the team began to run through the tests to find any possible explanation for the incident. The observers at Post One never obtained visual contact with the object between them and the command post, but all tests, with the exception of the rail capacitance test, verified that the phenomenon had, indeed, physically occurred.

Team leaders checked the apparatus responsible for the rail capacitance test and discovered why it had not responded at the time of the sighting. It seems that one of the connections to the track had been knocked loose perhaps by some of the onlookers earlier in the evening.

At approximately 10:45PM, a full ten minutes after the visual sightings of the light had ceased, test equipment used to record radiation began to show active readings from the track area. The Geiger counter recorded these readings for about five seconds before returning to its normal level. This occurred again nearly four minutes later, and persisted for seven seconds. There was a third and final recurrence 15 minutes following the visual sighting, this time lasting over 10 seconds.

The team worked on past midnight, hoping for a possible replay of the phenomenon, but all was quiet. Finally, at one a.m., the team leaders called it a night, yet the most dramatic proof of the evening would not be apparent until the photographs of the light were developed.

Two independent cameras at Post Two, near the control van, photographed an image, using two different types of film. A total of six frames of regular black and white, and seven frames of infrared were taken. Each frame reveals a definite image – a glowing ball of light. The black and white film shows a pinpoint of light, while the infrared shows a more detailed image. The black and white film (Tri-X) which was shot at 1/1250th of a second, shows only a light source, similar to that discerned by the observers’ naked eyes. The infrared film was exposed at 10 seconds per frame, and provides far more detail. This furnished us with important insight into the light range of the object, the film images showing density not discernible in normal black and white photographs.

What, however, does all of this prove? In what way do Vestigia’s findings contribute to an overall understanding of the spook light mystery. Just how have they succeeded in deflating the widespread claims of bodily survival.

To answer these questions, it is necessary to enter the realm of geophysical science.

It is fairly common knowledge that when certain types of quartz-bearing rocks are subjected to stress from within the Earth, an electrical potential results. This principle, referred to as the piezoelectric effect, is applied to telephone receivers as well as microphone transmitters, in which pressure from sound waves produce electrical responses in crystals. Physicists David Finkelstein and J.R Powell, of New York, vigorously explored the phenomenon in 1970, and concluded that stress accumulated in rocks over a period of years may change in intensity very slowly just prior to major earthquake activity. They further hypothesized that such stress may be capable of establishing an electrical field whereby discharges of electricity would ionize the air in the area into visible light.

Intrigued by this curious theory, Vestigia investigators carefully examined geodesic maps of New Jersey, and discovered that a major fault, the Ramapo Border Fault, runs through Peapack in northern New Jersey and passes within a mile of Indian Point, N.Y. It was also learned that since 1962 no fewer than 33 earthquakes have occurred along that fault, with a sizable portion in close proximity to the Long Valley area. After exhaustive study and field investigation, Bill Wagner and his associates within Vestigia became convinced that a definite correlation existed between the appearance of the light and local seismic activity. Through careful observation and documentation, they have succeeded in establishing, beyond any reasonable doubt, that the Long valley lights

persistently and predictably precede reports of local earthquake activity, and are entirely dependent upon natural, physical principles. Many, if not all, of the mysteries associated with the Hookerman have been unraveled.

For instance, the railroad bed at Long Valley is composed of granite, an extremely good conductor of electricity. Wagner has noted that the phenomenon is most prevalent in Long Valley either before or after changes in weather, and he cites barometric pressure as a logical correlative factor. As for the tendency of the light to recede as a human agent approaches, Vestigia believes it is foolish to automatically ascribe intelligent behavior to the light when a more sound and reasonable explanation exists. It is likely, they claim, that either the delicate field within the area is disrupted by the body’s own electrical charge, or merely that the static charge of the light itself seeks the natural ground of the approaching human and harmlessly discharges to the earth. But what about the radioactivity? Wagner and his co-workers suspect that the abnormal radiation recorded during their investigations of the light is associated with the presence of radon, an inert, natural gas, which is apparently bled off during earthquake activity.

The movement of the light across the tracks, though a bit more difficult to explain, has been linked by scientists to subsurface stress forces within a dynamic state of displacement. The spook light, according to informed speculation, is simply following the local fault lines, rift zones, and other rock strata that locally dissipate the stress. Dr. Michael Persinger, in his work, Space-Time Transients and Unusual Events, argues that “since the locus of the subsurface sources exists in a three-dimensional space, any movement of this source would be deflected, like a ‘transformation of axes,’ on the surface by the luminosity.” Persinger maintains that the light’s apparent movement, whether pendulum-like or vertical, is dependent upon the source’s subsurface position.

Wagner and his team members are in full agreement with the findings of Persinger, and are currently refining their research techniques at Long Valley. They are confident that with additional research and investigation, earthquake prediction, based on the observation and the scrutiny of these spook lights, may evolve into a more precise and accurate science.

Due to Vestigia’s pioneering research on the spook light mystery, major universities and governmental agencies have begun to collaborate with the group in its probe of this highly elusive, but natural phenomenon. As for the legend of the “Hookerman,” local residents appear to be accepting the conventional explanations advanced by Vestigia. It would seem as though the colorful story centered around this mythic figure has begun to lose much of its luster, and that superstition, at least for the community of Long Valley, has been firmly replaced by truth.