How to Pick the Right Flow Rate in a Tank

In order to maintain your aquarium at its best possible condition and the health of its inhabitants, you must determine the right flow rate for your tank. Flow rate is typically measured by gallons per hour. Before choosing any fish tank pumps or aquarium powerheads, you must know the ideal rate required by your tank. Consider the type of tank you have, the fish species that inhabit, as well as the existence of live plants in your aquarium to determine the appropriate requirements for your tank.

Using the right fish tank pumps to maintain the ideal flow rate

You must pick the right fish tank pumps for your aquarium. This will ensure that the flow rate within the tank is neither too fast nor too slow. Many filters are also powered by pumps. Since filters keep the water inside the tank cleaner for a longer period of time, installing the right types of aquarium pumps is essential. If the filter is not capable of working properly due to poor flow, then your aquarium will fill up with waste faster, providing an environment that is unfit for your pet fish and other animals, if you have a marine fish tank.

Aquarium powerheads for better water movement

Powerheads are aquarium water pumps that are completely submersible. One of the main advantages in using powerheads is that they are ideal for freshwater tanks and saltwater aquariums. Since they produce a laminar current, they work well for freshwater types of fish. However, powerheads are more ideal for marine tanks, since they are also capable of multi-directional water flow. Perhaps the main benefit from most powerheads nowadays is that water flow customization is always possible.

Determining the right flow rate for your fish tank

Different fish tanks have various flow requirements. This will depend on the size of your tank mostly, but you also have to consider the fish species that inhabit your tank. You also need to take into account if your tank actually has live plants or corals and reefs. Most fish tank pumps have flow rates listed on their labels, but you need to remember that such rates are indicated under the best conditions, which is often not the case with most aquariums. Also, if you use the type of tubing that is smaller than the one required by your water pump, flow rate can get affected.

As much as possible, the aquarium volume turnover should be anywhere between four times or five times per hour. So if you have a 50-gallon tank, the pump and filter should be able produce a flow rate of 200 gallons per hour to 250 gallons per hour. This will serve as the minimum required flow rate for your tank. Thus, you need to find aquarium water pumps or aquarium powerheads that has a GPH rating within this scope.

Looking into your aquarium type to find the fish tank pumps you need

Some aquariums need higher flow rates, while others need a slower rate of water flow. A large-sized tank will need a higher water flow rate, but if you have smaller fish species or baby fish, you might think twice about getting aquarium water pumps with a high GPH rating. Swimming through fast current can cause undue stress to small fish and younger breeds.

Tanks, which contain large fish species, will normally require aquarium powerheads that supply high water flow rate. This is important for the effective removal of organic waste through the filter. In the same way, most reef tanks will also need higher water flow, so that water will move in all areas within the fish tank. In contrast, smaller fish tanks or those that are inhabited by small-sized fish, will need slower water flow rates. If your tank has live plants, a slower water flow rate is recommended, since this will help retain the CO2 required by plants to survive.

When choosing aquarium water pumps or aquarium powerheads, it is important that you determine the right flow rate for your fish tank first. This will help you choose a pump or powerhead that works best for your aquarium and the types of fish that inhabit it.

The purpose of aquarium protein skimmers in saltwater aquariums

Aquarium protein skimmers are one of the most important devices you can use to maintain water quality in a saltwater aquarium. Protein skimming removes organic pollutants before they break down into nitrates and phosphates. The improved water quality is beneficial to fish and corals and may reduce the frequency in which water changes are necessary.

Aquarium protein skimmers are available in a few different styles: units that sit in a sump, units that sit outside of a sump and those which hang on the back or rim of the aquarium. Some skimmers, such as the AquaC EV, can sit in the sump or next to it. We recommend purchasing the best Aquarium Protein Skimmer possible-within your budget, of course-as the higher-end units generally maintain higher water quality.

Six Sigma of a Successful Salsa Class

Are you one of the passionate individuals held sway by the magical spell of salsa? Then the one and only thought that dominates your being is the thought of learning salsa dancing. You would be rearing to go and join a salsa class to bring out the latent potential that has for long been hidden in you. Before venturing to join a class, it is ideal to know if the class possesses the potentials to convert a raw hand into a well-polished artist. How to gauge the success rate of a class before making an attempt to join a class?

A well-organized salsa class comes with inherent features that help decide the success rates, as it also helps enthusiasts to glean the vital aspects of this dance genre to expand their salsa horizons further. The six sigma of a successful salsa class is an effective tool to gauge the potentials pertaining to a class, and with it decide upon the impact produced by the class on the salsa buffs.

Student-centric approach

A class becomes an effective tool to learn the skills and techniques of this dance form if the salsa lesson is constructed with a student-centric approach. Also, the salsa instructor who guides the learners during the learning sessions should embrace the student-centric approach, as he should treat the students at their own levels and help them learn the skills through this devoted approach. In essence, dealing with the students depending upon their potentials and levels is sure to produce effective results.

Usage of music

One of the quintessential features of a class that produces phenomenal results is the usage of salsa music throughout the salsa lessons that get conducted, as the movements and the interpretation becomes intrinsic features pertaining to the salsa lesson. The class should become the starting point for the enthusiast to get acquainted with the breaks and accents pertaining to the salsa music.

Feedback from salsa instructor

The prime element that not only helps students learn the salsa essentials but also happens to be a morale boosting factor is the feedback given by the salsa instructor. At the class, when the salsa learning environment embraces a relaxed environ, and when the salsa instructor provides positive feedback to all the students who participate in the class, with the individual attention lavished upon the students, it becomes an effective medium to shape the salsa talent of many individuals.

Fast partner rotation

When the salsa class offers the facility that embraces the fast partner rotation pattern, the student enjoys the fun as well as learns the tricks of dancing with a partner quickly. Since salsa stresses on partner dancing, it would do a world of good for the enthusiasts if they chance upon different people as partners, as each of the partners tend to perform the same step in a different way.

Well-researched curriculum

The curriculum unveiled by the class goes a long way in imparting the needed essentials, and a well-researched, student-centric curriculum that also takes the skill levels into consideration is sure to bring about the desired result of imparting the skills and techniques in an effective manner. Thorough researching, sound training principles and piloting must form the basis of creating the curriculum for the class.

Stay current

Monitoring the implementation as well as the success levels of the classes and the curriculum is essential to pave way for the desired results. Staying in touch with the evolution related to this dance genre and getting updated with the current trends to keep the classes fresh is an important feature that needs to be considered. It also is idyllic as when the lessons embrace latest practices, and revisions get done as when it is needed to make sure to create the ideal learning opportunities for the salsa buffs.

When you are keen to gauge the success rates of a salsa class, the six sigma of a successful salsa class helps in narrowing down the options related to classes without any hitches.

British Standard Rock Salt: The UK’s Favourite De-Icing Salt

Traditional brown rock salt is the nation’s favourite de-icing salt, with its characteristic high-visibility colour and the efficiency with which it dispatches slippery patches for pedestrians and motorists. But why is it such a quality product?

Sodium chloride – otherwise known as NaCl – is a natural, safe de-icing salt, most commonly known as rock salt or road grit, though it does actually have other forms that can also be used to the same effect.

Traditional brown de-icing salt is the cheapest and safest way to made roads, pavements and car parks safer. In the UK, quality brown de-icer salt holds a quality mark, BS 3247:1991. All salt packaged using this British Standard and described on the bag as ‘rock salt’ must meet or exceed certain standards.

British Standard Quality De-icing Salt

BS 3247:1991 de-icing salt must not contain moisture above 4% and its granular size is also controlled: a good guide for the grain size of traditional brown de-icer salt is around 6mm. This means it will easily flow for distribution through gritting equipment and provides traction on road surfaces.

In a high-profile prosecution this year by Trading Standards in West Yorkshire, a company was fined for claiming they were selling rock salt. Tests on their product revealed that it contained only around 20% rock salt, bulked out with sand and gravel. Customers had complained of excessive sand residues and poor de-icing action.

To further put this into perspective, the Highways Agency itself does not use sand to facilitate de-icing, so it would not seem diluting an effective de-icer salt with sand is a particularly good idea. There are mineral-based products on the market which have been developed for the purpose of complementing the use of de-icer salt or replacing it when national stocks are under high demand.

Traditional Brown De-icing Salt

Traditional brown de-icer salt gets its colour from mineral deposits in the seam: while brown is most common, it can also be coloured pink or grey. Its colour, when spread, can give road users and pedestrians peace of mind that gritting has taken place, or that an area has been sufficiently treated.

It is mixed with an anti-caking additive so it can be stored for longer in salt bins, silos and bags, while retaining its quality, as long as it is kept moisture-free and is not subjected to rain run-off, which dilutes its high sodium chloride properties.

Rock Salt: A Summary

De-icing salt:

• Should bear the British Standard BS 3247:1991

• Should never be mixed with sand or gravel

• Should only be mixed with a mineral de-icer if necessary

• Is best used as-it-comes from your reputable supplier

• Is cheap, effective and easy to use

• Should be stored dry and away from moisture

Rock salt can also:

• Be ordered online

• Be delivered in bulk, pallets or IBC

• Be packaged in branded bags at source

Ascension Tactics – The Higher Self and Dimensional Integration

As Ascension continues I am finding their is a specific sequence, pattern, to really opening yourself up to higher dimensions, an important step being breaking a gap between 3rd and 5th and being able to talk to your higher dimensional self for true, supreme advice. We are currently making a bridge between the 5th dimension and the 3rd as Couldn’t say why but I believe we funked something up with our evolution of the 4th dimension.

To clarify a 4th dimensional human would be someone we know like Jesus. They have reached a level of connection with the oneness and energetic fluidity to raise their focal point of reality to the Heart Chakra. This can create emotional energies so strong they can manipulate the material world at will. Also you would be seen as a different color of light but you would still remain connected to many laws of the physical, material world. For example, death and rebirth still exists. The control over one’s material surroundings would be depending on your community and the energetic levels of those of your immediate collective.

The Lumerians were 4th dimensional society and studying some of their temples you can tell that their higher shaman priests had the capabilities to change stone to putty and mold it like clay.

They had underground temples where these special members of society would enter deep into the earth to perform exhibits of energy beyond our understanding and affect the ecosystem within the soil, aiding in the agricultural efforts of the people above the surface.

But to bridge that gap and open yourself up to your 5th dimensional self. This sequence takes work, if you have not had a walk in or were born with abnormal abilities… you will have to work hard, train hard to Find Your Higher Self.

But I was not born with any of this and I am making my way there, progressing to have more and more contact with my higher self and higher dimensional selves more and more.

Today I had conversations with my 5th dimensional self which I have only experienced on rare occasions. But it felt more normal today, like we would be getting to know each other better and better, talking, on a verbal level. Of course I am sure he knows all he needs to about me, But I can sure learn a lot about me from “that me”.

How to Integrate Higher Dimensions

But we must also take care once we start developing these traits and realizing a larger spectrum of reality. Many people wonder about the 911 scandal being such an obvious inside job and the infamous Illuminati. I will tell you, this group does exist and many ask if they are so secret why is the subject now so popular?

The Illuminati had to make a pretty big decision. As more of us begin raising our energy beyond the levels they have held in secret to maintain control and manipulation over the world… they have a lot less to guard in secrecy. How could they combat this? This society that is becoming more and more aware and less and less controllable as at first outright slaves, then capital slaves… and now most people are like “F THIS, I Do Not Want To Live My Whole Life Working What Bores Me To Pay Bills That Bore Me.” Though a fancy gimmick phone, car, etc. can still be very bribing… many are realizing that is Just Not Fulfilling Them.

So looking for answers you often go back, why did I want that in the first place? This is where many people have been finding the Illuminati, New World Order, Ect. No accident they revealed themselves now after thousands and thousands of years… only in unlikely hopes they will scare the ascending from continuing. Not Working!

Stay tuned as I will soon be sharing deeper with you some of the experiences I had with Illuminati Spies, Dark Sorceress and the such. Also, how I handled them rightfully and wrongfully and great tips about how you can learn from my mistakes if you ever find yourself is a similar situation.

Shelving: 20 Practical Things To Make Out of Slotted Angles To Dramatically Cut Costs And Save Money

Slotted Angle: A Powerhouse of Creativity

I recently carried out a short study of the basic building blocks of shelving systems and discovered I could make structural sections for small bridges, workbenches, shelves, partitioning, fencing and a whole range of very practical equipment to serve as day to day work equipment. This article demonstrates how a little imagination and a few power tools can transform you into a professional improviser and money saver. In an age of mounting costs and financial pressures it is still possible, with minimal investment, to create very useful, low cost equipment at a fraction of the cost of retail prices. With modern hand tools, what used to take hours and be tedious work, has become fast, fun and rewarding. If you thought slotted angle was a museum piece, think again. There is more low cost, fast build functionality to be extracted out of slotted angle in less time than a trip to the local D.I.Y branch to buy a flat pack of lesser strength and less specific to your needs.

Getting Inventive

Slotted angle is one of the cheapest and most versatile sections. Rolled by the mile and finished in an anti corrosive coating, it is an ideal solution for a range of useful working facilities easily constructed in a bespoke fashion specific to the task you have in mind, whether it be in the garden shed, green house, garage or at work. For the input of your own time you can easily create some impressive equipment at a price and quality which you will find impossible to match elsewhere. Starting with some very simple construction shapes, it is very easy to see how a rectangle, square or triangle can be very simply constructed. These are the building blocks for any basic structure or frame. Once you have a frame you can clad it or line it to enclose or control the space you have created. Angles can be put back to back to form a ‘T’ shape, assembled toe to toe to create strong structural box sections or channel and even ‘I’ beams or ‘H’ sections. As the angles are all pre-punched they provide perfect fixing surfaces for finishing, access, storage or mobility fixings and thereafter you are limited only by your own imagination.

Structural shapes are created by a simple joining mechanism comprising a square or angle plate as a valuable but very low cost accessory. A cut section can easily be used to join up two lengths to extend and create load bearing sections for deployment into your creation. Once built the sections may then be joined to form new structural shapes, such as rectangular frames or trusses. Other simple but very effective load bearing shapes, such as angle brackets, can easily be made up for stiffeners and nut and bolt fasteners are quick to use with power tools. Armed with these power tools you can make your own workbench or storage rack and get into production to equip your home or business at very affordable prices.

Savings – What to expect

There are so many uses, for example the slotted angle on its own is a quick and strong way to fix up a P.V.C. strip door. By joining it to other angles it is easy to change the shape and strength to enable you to span larger distances. It is easy to manufacture triangular support brackets to enable the angles to be cantilevered forward away from a wall to avoid obstructions. You can also make wall mounted shelves and storage systems in the same way. A £145 fabricated version of a bin rack to hold plastic bins to organise components for assembly work can be made by yourself for less than £30. A luxury workbench which would retail for over £300 can be built for under £200. This is a saving of 30% and provides a work top, two lower shelves and two over shelves. Louvred panels, holding tools or more storage containers can be easily added. Trolleys can be constructed from about £30 plus castors or a flat top work bench can be constructed from as little as £70 to which lighting rails, power track for electric sockets or tool rails are a very easy addition. Even conveyors can be made from as little as £90. One kit will easily make a workbench or trolley.

20 Practical things to make

It is a really easy way to save money and get a made to measure job. With modern power tools they are very fast to build. A bench can be easily made up in an hour making it as quick as many D.I.Y. self assembly kits at a fraction of the cost. There has never been a better time to be your own D.I.Y. entrepreneur. Here is a list of items you can easily construct from slotted angle

  1. Shelving.
  2. Racks.
  3. Tool holders.
  4. Workbenches.
  5. Work Stations.
  6. Trolleys.
  7. Stillages.
  8. Garage benches.
  9. Greenhouse plant benches.
  10. Conveyors.
  11. Light structural sections in the following shapes: T’s, H’s, box rectangles, trusses, frames and brackets.
  12. Wall racks.
  13. Bin storage assembly racks.
  14. Steps.
  15. Fences and simple partitions.
  16. Small sheds.
  17. Gates and doors.
  18. Dolly bases for transporting plastic box stacks.
  19. Mobile bases for pallets.
  20. Lintels and supports for fixtures such as lighting and P.V.C. strip doors.

Were Gods Aliens?

Almost all Gods are believed to come from the skies. From Christianity to Islam, to Hinduism, to Judaism, gods of all religions have some connections with the skies. So, did they really come from a world other than earth? There are speculations that gods came from a different world. Some people believe that they were aliens; at least ancient astronaut theorists strongly believe that gods were aliens and came from another world. Let us come across some facts that force us to believe that our so-called gods were aliens.

Depiction of Gods

  • If gods were humans, why civilizations across the world have been depicting them so differently? For example, in ancient Mesopotamian cultures, a group of deities, Anunnaki have been depicted more like gray aliens than humans. They are believed to come from skies and people in Mesopotamia used to worship them like gods. Some Anunnaki gods have been depicted with bird or reptilian heads.
  • Two popular paintings of 13th and 17th centuries, one hangs over the alter at the Visoki Decani Monestary in Kosovo, Yugoslavia and another is located in the Svetishoveli Cathedral in Mtskheta, Georgia, depict two flying objects on either side of Christ. These objects, more like flying saucers, also have flames and are appearing to blast-off into skies.
  • Indra is the god of rain and thunderstorm in Indian mythology. He was believed to live in Svaragloka (haeaven), a place somewhere in space. He had a weapon called Vajra which he used to kill sinners and ignorant persons. In Norse mythology, a similar depiction of the god of thunder, lightning storm, and the protector of mankind is Thor. He wielded hammer as his weapon and lived in heaven-like place called Asgard that was only accessible via Bifrost Bridge.
  • A deity of Mayan has been depicted to wear an astronaut-like helmet with tubes. There are many Mesoamerican or Mayan statues that totally resemble pilots in space suits.
  • A painting “The Madonna with Saint Giovannino” hangs over Palazzo Vecchio and was most likely painted by Domenico Ghirlandaio in 15th century, depicts an unidentified flying object above Mary’s left shoulder. A man and his dog can also clearly be seen looking up at the floating object.

Weapons and vehicles of Gods

  • In many Sanskrit epics, Vimanas have been referred as mythical flying machines. Ramayana, one of the great epics of India and Nepal, mentions a Vimana owned by Ravana. It was made by Vishwakarma for Brahma who is the Hindu god of creation. Brahma gifted this flying machine to Kubera, the god of wealth, but was later stolen, along with Lanka, by his half-brother, the demon king Ravana.
  • Lord Yhovah is described as flying in all different clouds. In different depictions, he can be seen to fly in bright clouds, dark clouds, white clouds, thick clouds, low clouds and fiery clouds. There are platforms, great fires, storms, sky dwellings that propose some kind of flying vehicle that the god lives in, and travels in.
  • Teotihuacan, a pre-Columbian Mesoamerican city in the basin of Mexico has its architectural significant for top-less pyramids. The name Teotihuacan means “the place where men become gods. These pyramids do not have any chambers on top. They have flat tops which appear to be vertical landing platforms for some kind of sky vehicles. Each platform also has a set of staircase.
  • Many gods and divine beings mentioned in the Bible traveled in flying machine like object that rapidly flew, spun and projected light beams at night. These objects could have descended to the ground and ascended into the sky. They could have also hovered over ground and generated sounds.
  • There are thousands of gods and deities worshipped all over the world, and there are hundreds of mythological objects or weapons dedicated to them. Most common weapons with which most of the gods have been depicted include swords, tridents, bows and staves. All the depictions of gods, regardless of their orientations, show them with one or more divine object or weapon. For example, a weapon creating thunderbolt has been mentioned in most of the mythologies. The Hebrew Bible mentions about an arrow-like weapon generating lightning. Vedic mythology mentions about a thunderbolt weapon called Vajra that was wielded by Lord Indra. In Greek mythology, Zeus had thunderbolt weapon. In Igbo mythology, the thunderbolt is the weapon of Amadiora. There are tens of similar examples for the use of a thunderbolt-types weapon.

Glimpses of modern technology in ancient walls, building, structures and references, etc

  • Many researchers have adopted the view that kings of Atlantis, a legendary island first mentioned in Plato’s dialogues Timaeus and Critias, written about 360 BC, were the later gods of Egypt, Greece, America and North Europe. Atlantis is believed to have technology of very advanced stages. The book A Dweller On Two Planets describes many references with respect to Atlantis. There is mention of devices like air conditioner, lamps, light-tubes, electric rifles, guns, mono-rail transportation system, water generators, aerial ships, etc.
  • Seti I, and his son Ramses II, considered as god kings, built the temple of Abydos. In this temple, there is a heavy stone slab for supporting the ceiling. The stone slab has hieroglyphical writings, which illustrate some futuristic crafts such as a helicopter, a space ship, hovercraft or tank, an airplane, and the last one also looks like some kind of spacecraft.
  • Carved lid of the tomb of K’inich Janaab’ Pakal in the Temple of the Inscriptions shows the king Pakal sitting in the cockpit of some compact aerial vehicle and operating levers. He also has some kind of oxygen tube connected to his mouth. Researchers have also discovered a huge artifact, identical to the exhaust system of a rocket engine, in the secret chamber below the tomb Pakal.

However, these pointers do not prove that our gods were aliens, but they suggest that maybe the gods were aliens.

Pros and Cons of a Tumbled Stone Tile Backsplash

Are you looking for unique ideas specific to a new kitchen backsplash? If you tired of traditional solutions, and want something other than a cookie-cutter look, you might consider a tumbled stone tile backsplash. This process of “cleaning up” stones can be done with granite, marble, travertine, and so on. When used as a backsplash, the look is simply gorgeous but before you make a final decision for your remodeling project, it would be important to research different stones to identify the one you want to use.


The nice thing about using tumbled stone to create a backsplash or floor is that rather than the stone being rough and in a natural state, the tumbling process creates a smooth, polished look. Therefore, if you were interested in a cleaner, more elegant look for the splashback, whether in the kitchen or bathroom, going this route would be ideal. Chances are good that the stone would need to be installed by a professional simply because even small pieces would be heavy so the surface would need to be carefully prepared.

Another benefit of choosing this type of stone is that using small pieces of varying colors and hues, you could create different designs for kitchen backsplash tile murals. Obviously, creating a mural on the splashback would require more time and effort but with the installation complete, you would without doubt be the envy of the neighborhood. For this, you could have the tile installed by a contractor or consider peel and stick tumbled stone products that would allow you to handle installing the tile.


While the negative aspects of a wall in the kitchen covered with tumbled stone are minimal, you should consider a few things. For instance, whether going with natural stone, slate, travertine, etc, remember small and large pieces are going to be heavier than using prefabricated stone, ceramic, stainless steel, tin, and copper. Therefore, if you wanted to make the installation a do-it-yourself project, you must have the proper surface on which the stone would be applied. Additionally, the adhesive product used to install the stone would be a critical factor to success.

You will also find that both raw and tumbled stone tile backsplash products are going to be more expensive than prefabricated products. For this reason, it would be to your advantage to look at designs, followed by choosing one that would fit within your budget. Now, even with higher prices, by taking your time to shop around, you could easily find natural stone products that have been tumbled that are being sold at a discount.

How to Paint Foam Crown Molding: DIY Techniques, Tips, and Tricks!

One of the smartest ways to add tasteful decor and depth to a room, crown molding is a subtle alternative to many of the over-the-top adornments some people fill their homes with. For years, molding has been almost exclusively made from wood, which results in a process that requires hyper-detailed calculations, expensive tools, and woodworking skill. Foam on the other hand, represents a newer, simpler, and more cost-effective alternative that can give you the same appearance as wood without all the work.

Lightweight and flexible, foam crown molding needs little more than adhesive to install, and is easily cut by hand with a sharp carving knife. Foam’s “squishiness” means you can be generous with your cuts, as the foam will compress when fit into a tight space, creating perfect joints and seams while hiding imperfections. Getting a spongy material like foam to look like a more solid product is what makes people occasionally question its ability to genuinely replace wood as a molding material. In reality, the process of painting foam molding gives an installer the ability to make the foam look like any other medium. In this post, I’ll give you a run-through on how easy it is to paint polyurethane foam molding and wind up with a beautiful new space.

There are two methods for painting foam molding, and it’s up to you to decide which is best: spray painting or brush painting. Spray painting requires less work, fewer materials, and is faster, but doesn’t give you maximum detailing capability. Brush painting allows you to replicate the design or look of any other molding medium, but is slightly more labor-intensive than spray-painting.

Spray Painting Foam Crown Molding

After measuring and cutting your foam molding sections, prepare a workspace in a well-ventilated area where accidental overspray won’t be an issue. Putting down a large drop cloth or tarp in the garage, basement, or even on the ground outside on a calm day works well.

When your area is ready and your molding is spaced out on the tarp, apply thin, even coats, taking care not to oversaturate the foam. As an absorbent sponge rubber, the molding will take longer to dry if you do. After painting all the pieces to your specifications and allowing adequate time to dry, your crown molding will be ready to mount.

As previously stated, spray painting has an advantage over brush painting in terms of speed and ease. Prepping the area, painting the foam, and allowing it to dry are the only steps before mounting. The drawbacks to spray painting amount to little more than personal taste. There will be limitations to spray painting based on the nature of its application; two-toned or intricate designs won’t be practical. Also, foam will retain its spongy appearance with the spray method. The polyurethane foam most manufacturers use has a cellular structure small enough that it will be indistinguishable from a solid at the distance from which it will be seen, but it is still a consideration to take into account.

Brush Painting Foam Crown Molding

For people who have an intricate or customized paint job in mind, or prefer to have a solid, smooth surface on their molding, brush painting is the right choice.

Unlike spray painting, brush painting requires the foam to be coated with thinned drywall joint compound as sealant before painting to create a smooth surface. Also different from spray painting, the molding will need to be mounted before sealing and painting. Mounting first gives you the benefit of foam’s compressibility to create clean corners and seams before you harden the material with sealant and paint.

After the foam has been mounted, protect the room from paint and joint compound with drop cloths and painter’s tape. When you’ve finished with the prep work, prepare your drywall compound mix. You’ll want to thin it down until it’s the consistency of paint.

Once you’re finished mixing, brush a thin coat onto the entire surface of the molding. The joint compound should dry quickly, so in an average-sized room, you’ll be able to start applying a second coat as soon as you finish the first go-around. Only two coats are necessary, but if you prefer to add more, do so. Once you’ve completed applying the drywall compound, give the molding a full 24 hours to completely dry all the way through.

The following day, the molding will be ready for paint. Sanding the dried joint compound should not be necessary unless you spot a flaw. If you need to sand the compound down, use the finest grit sandpaper possible, and utilize a respirator or face mask. When you’re satisfied with the coating surface, proceed to paint the molding however you desire. Once the paint dries, remove the drop cloths and tape and you’ll have a newly-transformed space that you upgraded with a fraction of the time, money, and effort needed for traditional crown molding.

Final Tips

Lastly, there are a couple tips that apply to either painting method. First, avoid oil-based paints for the foam. There is little reason to use them anyway, since latex paints are more affordable and you won’t need weather resistance inside. Second, the foam itself may be bright white when you first purchase it. If you plan to have white crown molding, you will still need to paint the foam, even if it matches your room. This is because foam will naturally yellow as it ages. This is purely an aesthetic change and doesn’t impact quality, but by painting it, you will ensure it will always be the color you want.

Lightning Conductor Installation Can Save You a Fortune

One of nature’s most destructive forces, lightning has claimed countless lives over the millennia. With the momentum of phenomenal destructive force on its side, it can crumble the most unyielding structures, and cause irrevocable damage to human lives. To diffuse this wrath of nature, many technological innovations have been utilized to good effect. Lightning protection installation is one such option, which neutralizes the force of electrical surges by channeling them away from vulnerable structures and letting them dissipate naturally into the ground.

Lightning Conductor Systems Serve a Purpose

Such unforeseen acts of God threaten the building owners with extremely costly consequences and can cause serious injury and even death in some cases. It’s easy to recognize the potential risks an electrical surge may bring to a building and its occupants, not to mention valuable possessions within these buildings. In short, the damages can be insurmountable. The owners of these buildings must, therefore, exercise due caution to ensure total safety for their establishments by opting for lightning conductor installation.

Provide Protection to the Building against Potential Damages

These systems have become an absolute necessity for both towering and modest structures alike. Many jurisdictions have made it mandatory to align the construction of a building with adequate lightning protection. Additionally, commercial property owners must perform system testing, and maintenance on a regular basis to ensure the system functions correctly. Considering the gravity of potential risk involved, you should act with ample discretion when settling for the right provider.

Choose the Right Contractor

There exist a number of companies specializing in customized solutions for projects of all sizes. These companies begin by conducting a thorough risk assessment of a structure to determine the level of safety it requires. Moreover, these contractors must conform to strict quality standards, specifications, and industry practices like the ISEN 62305 code of practice. Considering the fact that technical flaws in conductor systems can jeopardize many lives, reliable companies employ technicians, with expert knowledge about lightning protection installation, testing and maintenance.

Choose a Qualified Provider

A company who complies with the ISEN 62305 code of practice when designing earthing solutions, will ensure that your property is adequately reinforced against electrical surges and lightning strikes. Moreover, these companies employ state-of-the-art technology at all phases of the project. Their installers have the requisite credentials to assess and cater to your electrical safety needs. The risk to human lives and potential economic loss posed by this force of nature, demands that you place absolute importance in choosing a qualified professional installer.

Build Your Own Homemade Gold Sluice Box

Have you ever thought of going prospecting for gold? Using a sluice box may help you find more of that beautiful yellow stuff. Here how you can plan and build your own gold sluice box. These do it your self projects are popular with lots of folks, and fun to think about even if you just end up buying a store bought product. Here are some thoughts on how to build your own do It Yourself, hand fed Gold Sluice Box – I think it’s a great project for beginners. A wooden sluice like this was the first piece of prospecting equipment I ever built.

A sluice box lined with riffles is one of the oldest forms of gravity separation devices still being used today. They are simple and have been in use all across the world for thousands of years. A sluice is really nothing more than an artificial channel lined with devices to catch gold through which water flows, moving the lighter materials such as clay, sands and gravels out of the sluice. They heavier materials remain behind, trapped by the riffles. For many years, most sluice boxes were home made affairs designed and built in the gold prospector himself. To this day, in the gold bearing regions of third world countries, prospectors design and build sluice boxes out the most unusual items – sometimes whatever materials are available locally. You don’t really need any special sluice box plans – the exact size is really not all that critical.

Making your own gold sluice is actually a very good beginning project for new prospectors in my opinion. Just take a close look at the sluices being offered by the manufacturers, and that will show you how to build your own sluice box. It won’t be difficult to get some ideas to make your own plans. Sluice boxes can be made out of wood, aluminum, plastic or steel. Injection molded plastic is not really an option easily available to the do-it-yourself prospector, and steel has a tendency to rust, so wood and aluminum are the preferred options.

In developing plans for a homemade sluice box, the more time you spend thinking about your design, the better. You don’t want to have to buy parts you don’t need, but on the other hand your slice box needs to work and catch the gold efficiently. A good plan and a good understanding of how a sluice box traps gold are important to your design. I think using miners moss underneath your riffles is a real important item for capturing that fine gold. That is why miners moss is used in the sluices of nearly all commercial suction gold dredges. Having a liner underneath the riffles is an important aid in catching small gold dust, and is very worthwhile. I went with miners moss under all the riffles in my sluice, and I strongly recommend it for you.

The typical wooden homemade sluice is made of boards and varies in width from 8 to 18 inches, usually with a depth of 6 inches to a foot. A typical length would be in the three to 6 foot range. Riffles can be made from half inch square dowel nailed about every 6 inches down the length of the sluice. The section without riffles in the top of the box about a foot long is often left for the spot where material shoveled in. This type of sluice box does catch gold, and is easy to build, but is hard to clean out at the end of the day. In addition, the gravel will beat up the wooden riffles over time. It is also possible to create steel riffles that fit inside a wooden sluice, and in that case you can also use miners Moss or some similar material to line the bottom of the sluice underneath the metal riffles.

Homemade sluices can also be made from lightweight aluminum. Wooden sluices tend to become waterlogged in increased greatly in weight after they have been in the water for time. This gives aluminum quite an advantage and it is certainly preferred in the construction of the homemade sluice. The trough of the sluice, whether aluminum or wood, is usually roughly about the same size.

For those interested in making their own home made hand fed sluice box from aluminum with steel riffles as a do it yourself type of project, I can say if you have any metal fabrication skills, you will find this an easy project. A little welding, a little metal folding and the project is done. If you purchase fairly thin aluminum sheet it will be possible to bend it yourself into the trough shape as a single piece (just don’t go too thin). More information and detail can be found on the authors website.

Ameriglide – The Cheap Stair Lift

Many manufacturers tout that their stair chair lifts offer home mobility that is affordable for most. However, with some brands charging more than 5,000 dollars for a one, this claim sounds rather hollow. The price of an Ameriglide stair lift is considerably lower than other brands; an Ameriglide can be installed for under 2,000 dollars, but is this good value for your money?

An Ameriglide is a no-frills but reliable model. It lacks some of the features that come as standard on other makes like Bruno and Stannah stair lifts but for a consumer who’s looking for something basic, cheap and reliable it should serve its purpose but there are a few caveats.

The Ameriglide uses old fashioned – some might say outdated – technology. A cable system is used to haul the carriage along the track rather than a rack and pinion system now favored by top rated stair lift brands. Rack and pinion is preferred as it gives a smoother ride so an Ameriglide may not give a smooth a ride as more modern systems.

When stair chair lifts first came out they were all powered by mains AC. Batteries were seen as being unreliable. But nowadays, rechargeable batteries are the industry norm. But, until quite recently, you could only buy an Ameriglide that was mains powered. This has now changed, but rather than switching to a battery operated model, Ameriglide makes a battery model in addition to its mains model.

The reason the company finally succumbed to a battery powered stair lift – like everyone else in the industry – is because they are easy to install. There is a growing demand from consumers who want to buy one from a dealer – usually on the internet – and then self-install it. Doing this represents a further saving to the customer. Mains powered units require wiring and many states prohibit the installation of any appliance run from mains power by anyone except a qualified technician.

It’s unusual for a manufacturer to make both mains and battery powered stair lifts; in fact, I can think of no other company, apart from Ameriglide, that makes both types. If you really are looking to buy a battery model you might be better advised to look at other brands.

Both battery and mains powered electric stair lifts have advantages. Battery powered models are usually quieter, have smoother starts and stops, can easily be installed and can be operated during a power outage.

A mains powered model has the advantage that it can be in constant use. Batteries need recharging after 20 round trips up and down the stairs. So, for those who will be using the stair lift constantly or for a household where more than one person will be using it, a mains powered model might be the best option.

Ameriglide stairlifts do come with some, though limited, safety systems. There is a safety sensor in the footrest to stop the chair if any object gets in the way. You also get a seat belt. However, there are some safety features that are not available. The Bruno comes with 5 sensors, on the footrest and carriage, which means any obstacle on the track, will also stop the stairlift – there are no sensors on the carriage of the Ameriglide.

They also don’t come with wireless remote controls either. With many makes like the Acorn, Bruno and Stannah Stair Lift, the unit comes with two call/send remote controls. You should think carefully about how you will be using the lift; if there will be two people using it, then you really need units that come with two call/send remote controls, in which case the Ameriglide stair lift won’t be the best option.

But the Ameriglide stair chair lift wasn’t designed to compete in the high-end niche. It was designed to be functional, reliable and cheap and it fulfills all of these roles. It lacks the refinement, safety features and functionality of others but there’s no doubt that the Ameriglide has brought mobility to those who could not have afforded the other, more expensive, brands.

Body Language – How to Demonstrate Personal Power Through Non-Verbal Communication

When dealing with people, remember you are not dealing with creatures of logic, but creatures of emotion. ~ Dale Carnegie

The first impression you make on others is non-verbal. As a matter of fact, people only hear part of what you say. More than 50% of your message is ‘read’ through your body language and another 30% or more through the tone of your voice. It’s truly a case of “what you do speaks more loudly than what you say”.

Body Language is a complicated and diverse science. Experts spend years trying to analyze the different stances and gestures humans make-and interpreting what they mean. For this article, however, we need only focus on a few simple rules of good non-verbal communication.

PERSONAL SPACE: We all have a sense of our own presence and do not like to have it ‘invaded’. It’s important, then, to honor another’s personal space. Generally, if you are closer than arm’s reach, you risk making the other person nervous or irritated. When that happens, they will usually lean or step back. That indicates an attempt to get away from your perceived threat.

Standing or sitting too close can also signal insecurity on your part. It shows that you are trying to hide yourself or absorb confidence from the other person. Maintaining your own space demonstrates your confidence and power.

Leaders are usually somewhat unapproachable. They present a sense of authority by maintaining their personal space and distance. Then, as they ‘invite’ others into their personal space, they share that sense of power with those around them. I once got into a hotel elevator with a TV personality. Although we didn’t speak, I felt honored to share that space for eleven floors.

Success Tip #1 – Leave some extra margin between you and others until you are ‘invited’ into their personal space by a word or gesture. If you are offering a hug or handshake, do so. Then move back a little bit to honor their sense of space.

BODY STANCE: Our stance, including our arms, says volumes about our mood and attitude. Standing rigid, with your hands on your hips, automatically sets up barriers. It tells everyone around you that you’re in an aggressive mood, whether you are nor not. People will be hesitant to approach you.

Have you ever tried to have a ‘conversation’ with your teen – or spouse or employee – while you were standing in that position? They’ve already tuned you out before you even say a word!

Crossing your arms is another unconscious barrier. If you’re in the audience, it tells the speaker that you are not receiving the message. If you are the speaker, it disconnects you from your audience.

Personal control, through your stance and gestures, tells the audience that you are confident and professional. It contributes to your charisma, your positive vibe.

Conversely, if you are worried or negative, your unconscious stance will repel people. I’m sure we’ve all walked into a room and known when someone was in a bad mood, even before anything was said!

Success Tip #2 – Keep your arms loose and casual. If you are seated, place your hands comfortably in your lap. Keep your fingers relaxed and open.

Success Tip #3 – Use small, controlled gestures, especially when appropriate with your speech. They add to your personal power. Don’t put your hands in your pockets. It makes people wonder what you’re after and distracts from your message.

Success Tip #4 – Whether you are speaking in a social situation or from a podium, stand still! The way you stand speaks volumes to others about your sense of confidence. Stand tall and relaxed. Too much movement is distracting. Don’t pace, tap your fingers or rock back and forth. In conversation, nod your head to show understanding.

USE APPROPRIATE PHYSICAL CONTACT: When you meet someone, be the first to extend your hand for a handshake. Share a quick hug. Use touch to communicate friendliness and compassion.

Action speaks louder than words. Practice showing an open, welcoming attitude and stance to those around you. Be comfortable and use good body language to increase your personal presence and influence.

The Best Design For Your HHO Fuel Cell

Want to build an HHO fuel cell but not sure what type to choose? While most cells will generate some HHO, there can be an enormous difference in output from one to another – so it’s important to get the design right.

HHO is created by electrolysis: electricity conducted through water between two charged poles, or electrodes. The substance and form of the electrodes can vary, although they must be made of an inert metal, preferably stainless steel. The four basic electrode designs are described below.

The type of electrode that is easiest to build – and one of the most popular – consists of two or more wires wrapped in a spiral around a support mechanism. Unfortunately it is also the least effective, as so little metal (maybe a few square inches) is actually exposed. The the amount of HHO gas that can be generated directly relates to the surface area of the electrodes.

The second kind of electrode is made out of steel mesh, similar to the mesh you would use for screen doors or windows. The mesh is cut to fit into a container and stacked in various configurations. Each layer must be insulated from the others – if the layers contact each other, they can cause a short. This type of electrolyzer makes a lot of bubbles but is not very impressive in terms of the density of HHO gas produced.

Plate designs are the most widely used and the most efficient. Because of their large surface area, plate electrodes have the highest conversion of energy to Hydrogen and Oxygen, while wasting very little energy in the form of heat. High quality stainless steel plates are corrosion resistant, which is why they are used in industry to generate vast quantities of gas.

Tube designs are second in efficiency to metal plates. The tubes may be placed in a ring Stanley Meyer-style or stacked concentrically, one onside another. The problem with tubes is that their maximum usable area is going to be limited by the smallest tube. Tubes, along with spirals, are also prone to overheating.

Those are the four main types of electrodes. There are also two different styles of fuel cells: wet and dry. In a wet cell, the plate stack (or other type of electrode) is completely immersed in electrolyte solution. In a dry cell, the stack is not immersed. Instead, the solution is housed in an external reservoir and gravity fed through holes that have been drilled into the plates.

Both styles of cell have good and bad design points. Recently a third style of cell been developed that seems to combine the best aspects of wet and dry cells. Generally speaking, in this hybrid type the cell container serves as the reservoir but the electrolyte remains below the top of the plates.

As you can see there is no definitive version of an HHO fuel cell, which means it can be difficult knowing exactly which type to build. Using plans that have been developed by experts and tested over and over again can certainly save a lot of time. The most important thing is to just get started, and reap the amazing benefits than an HHO cell can provide.

6 Super In-Tent Activities For Your Children

“Rain, Rain Ago Away” is one of the most beloved children’s rhymes of all times. When was it written? Though historians are not 100% certain about its origins, one theory is that it is based on the Spaniards’ invasion of England, during the Elizabethan period. Stormy weather was partially responsible for the Spaniards’ defeat. Your kids may also sound defeated when reciting the rhyme during a family camping trip. Dealing with bored kids at home is one thing. But the problem seems doubly worse when the family is confined to a camping family tent. What is a parent to do?

When packing up your family camping gear, including a family camping tent, camping sleeping bags, camping stove, and Brass Beaded Neck Chains, make sure to also pack up enough items and knowledge that will help your kids to stay busy during those dark nights and rainy days when the rain refuses to go away. Here are some ideas to help you:

1. Sing a (campfire) song. The great thing about campfire songs is that they can be sung anytime when camping, including when trapped inside tents. You can find hundreds on the Internet, but it is always more meaningful to teach your kids some of your own. One of my favorites was, “John Jacob Jingle Heimer Schmidt.” What was your favorite jingle?

2. Campfire stories without the fire. Campfire stories are an excellent activity that can be enjoyed within the confines of a tent. They can range from silly to spooky. At nighttime, you can also use a Coleman flashlight to create special effects. However, if you are camping with younger children, make sure that the ending is never too scary. That could prevent them from falling asleep later.

3. Board games prevent boredom. Just as they do at home, board games can keep your kids busy for hours, wheeling and dealing property or trying to conquer the world. Just make sure that enough light is provided, and that the games are appropriate for your children’s ages.

4. Dance ’til dawn. You can use your camping flashlight to create a disco in the tent. One kid can dance around while another child quickly moves the flashlight, to create an effect that resembles a strobe light.

5. The camping trip game. This is a simple, yet fun game for kids to play. The first player says “I’m going on a camping trip, and I’m going to bring…” Then, the player can list anything that he or she would bring, such as a tent, sleeping bag, backpack, or Elastic Neck Cords. The next player begins with the same phrase, but adds an object whose first letter is the same as the last letter of the previously mentioned object. For example, if the first child mentions a tent, then the next player could list a toy, turtle, teapot, etc. The game continues in the same manner.

6. Connect the squares. Create a grid of dots on a sheet of paper. The first child connects two dots that are next to each other. Then the next child connects another two dots on the paper. The goal is to draw the last side of a square. When a player accomplishes that, the child puts his initials by the square. The winner is the player who completes the most squares during the game.

Nights and rainy days can seem to ruin any camping trip with your child. But by preparing various activities that can be enjoyed from a family camping tent, you can keep your family camping as practical as Military Neck Chains. Your kids may enjoy the games so much that they sing “Sun, sun, go away.”

The History of the Crock Pot Yesterday, Today and Beyond

Crock-pots… almost everyone has one, but do they use them? Many just stay in the cupboard, completely underused. Slow cooking has been used for hundreds of years to get the most out of food, but it used to be a lot more work than it is today.

Way Back When the Origins of Slow Cooking

Slow cooking has been around ever since people figured out how to make an iron pot. One could be hung over a fire for many hours while food simmered in it, or a smaller one could be filled with ingredients and buried in the coals to cook. People have long known the benefits of slow cooking their food. The obvious detriment to these methods was the attention it took tending the fire all day and stirring the contents of the pots.

Cooking on a low heat for many hours tenderizes tough meats through the softening of the fibers. The natural collagen also melts, creating a tender, delicious meal that is full of gelatin and nutrition. Long cooking times may also be beneficial to tough root crops, rendering them more digestible. Dried beans and lentils also benefit from a long cooking time on low heat.

Today’s Crock Pot not Your Mother’s Slow Cooker

In the 1950s, Naxon Utilities Corporation of Chicago created the first slow cooker. It was called the Beanery All Purpose Cooker, and it was designed to help people cook baked beans. It was basically a ceramic pot that fit inside a metal pan with heating elements around the inside. This kept the heat even all around the food, but kept it out of direct contact.

Naxon was bought by Rival in 1970. The Beanery was reinvented as the Crock Pot. During the 1970s, more women were joining the workforce, and the Crock Pot helped them manage to feed their families as well. It was easy enough to fill it before they left for work and be able to come home to a hot meal.

Crock-pot Evolution

Over the years, Crock Pots have evolved. They now have ceramic pots that are removable, making cleaning much easier than the old models. With the older pots, one had to be careful during cleaning that the electrical cord not get wet. The new ceramic inserts are dishwasher safe, as well, making clean up even easier. Some newer crock-pots also have an additional setting. They come equipped with High, Low, and Warm. A few are even computerized and will change automatically to warm when the food is finished.

While women made many dishes slow cooking the old way, today’s crock-pot is even more versatile. Beans, stews, casseroles, and roasts are the most common dishes made in the crock-pot. You can also make foods like lasagna, barbecued pork, and even your favorite chicken noodle soup recipe in your crock-pot.

You can also emulate your ancestors and bake breads by slow cooking. The more you use your crock-pot, the more creative you will get. You may even try desserts and dips if you get adventurous.