Plastic and Its Uses

Plastic is one of the most amazing innovations of the last millennium. The name plastic itself comes out of the Greek word ‘Plastikos’ which refers to the ability of taking any shape or mold. This ability of plastic is unmatchable by any other naturally occurring substance. Not only that it can be molded into any shape itself, there are several uses for its resins as well. For instance, manufacturers who produce contract vinyl coating and OEM vinyl coating use polyvinyl chloride which is a common plastic resin.

Plastic is typically classified into two types: thermoplastics and thermosetting polymers. Thermoplastic melt when heated and can be mold again. The thermosetting plastic is melted and molded, and then it remains solid. Together both kinds of plastic have replaced metals in most application. The reason might be the light weight of this material and its ease of production. This article discusses some of the most commonly used plastics and some of their most common uses.


It is one of the most commonly used polymers. Its chemical designation is C6H3. The properties that make it the most commonly used option are its rigidity and resistivity to many chemicals. It is used in manufacturing food containers, bottles and containers’ hinges, car fenders and plastic pressure pipes.


It is a polymer made from styrene. It is used in making Styrofoam for packaging and making disposable cups. It is also a common material for CD and Cassette cases.

Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene:

It is well known for its toughness as well as gloss. Therefore, it is commonly used in electronic equipment cases.


This is probably the one we hear the most about. Polyester is mixed with cotton and other natural fibers to make a fabric. It is also used to polish high quality wood product.

Poly Amides:

Also called Nylon, this material is another type of plastics which is used as a fabric as well. It is mainly used in car moldings. It is also used in making the bristles of a toothbrush. Fishing lines are also made up of Nylon.

Polyethylene terephthalate:

Also abbreviated as PET, this is what PET bottles of carbonated drinks and mineral water are made up of. It is also used in making microwavable packing.

Polyvinyl Chloride:

This is the same material which is used in Vinyl tiles and coatings around the house. It is also used in hosing and tubes. Because of its flexibility, it is used to make inflatable objects.


Polycarbonates are usually used in chemical and manufacturing industries for different purposes. They are both temperature and Impact resistant. Many useful plastic products such as CDs, sunglasses, lab equipments and lightning lenses are made up of Polycarbonates.

There are several other kinds of plastic with countless general and special purpose types of plastic. The properties of all these plastics are different from one another. Therefore, plastic offers a wide flexible range to fulfill a variety of manufacturers’ requirements. However, environmental issues and hazards call for a cutback on this usage.

Board and Batten Siding is an Inexpensive Yet Durable Siding Option

People say that there is no single thing that can define a nation. It is certainly true. It would really be too myopic to say that hamburgers define the American nation. Likewise, it is simply foolish to equate the United States with Hollywood. Yet there is no denying the fact that nations like America can be known for some things.

For instance, the US is known for its huge farmlands and its iconic barns. What makes an American barn unique from other barns across the globe is its siding. American barn sidings are not just made of regular planks. Instead, they are made of board and batten siding.

One of the simplest and common types of sidings, board and batten is made by alternating wide boards and narrow wooden strips, otherwise known as battens. The usual width of boards is about one foot. On the other hand, battens are typically one and a half foot wide. Boards are placed either vertically or horizontally while battens are put in between the seams of the boards.

Advantages of Board and Batten


Siding made from wood is known for its somewhat expensive price tag. Log siding, for instance, is a costly siding option. However, this is not always true. Not all wooden siding is expensive. One particular example of an affordable wooden siding is the board and batten variety. Because it is relatively easy to make, this siding is not expensive as red cedar shake siding.


One of the things that homeowners look for when buying a siding material is durability. No homeowner wants to get a siding material that would need to be replaced after 10 years. What homeowners are looking for is a durable siding material.

When it comes to durability, wooden siding, such as board and batten, is still one of the best options on the market. In recent years, wood has been unfairly criticized as a somewhat obsolete siding option. Some critics say that wood siding is prone to insect and mildew damage and would not really last long. That certainly is purely unsubstantiated talk.

It is a fact that wood can be damaged by termites and mildew, but that only happens if it is not treated properly. With proper application anti-termite or anti-mildew chemical, a wooden siding can certainly last a long time. A board and batten material, for example, can easily reach 30 years without serious damage.

Aesthetically Superior:

One of the top concerns of homeowners is the appearance of their properties. A house is an investment. You can never predict it, but there might come a time when you will need to sell off your property. So it is really important for a homeowner to do everything to make his property look beautiful. An elegant-looking house would have a higher price tag compared to a mediocre one.

A house’s siding can certainly enhance its appearance and raise its value. When it comes to aesthetics, wooden siding is far superior compared to other siding options. Therefore, investing in board and batten siding can really pay off.

Personal Development Plan Of An Entrepreneur

A human is created with everything it needs to survive the first 9 months of its life in the womb. Then parents take over and begin the teaching process of the tribe that the small human is born into. During this process, somehow all humans learn the fundamentals of bodily function – walking, moving, talking, grooming.

In other words, your personal development plan happened by default, without you having to think about it or do anything.

Later in life, however, you were exposed to all kinds of conflicting and contrasting influences from your friends, family and authority figures, such as school teachers and religious leaders. Your pure, unrestricted, unlimited mind was closed off with concepts of limitation, lack, and restriction. No wonder so many people are confused and lost out there.

Then, you went to work and were exposed again to another set of rules and restrictions in order to succeed as an employee.

Basically, your life has been guided by the society you’ve lived in, and for the most part, this society has determined your personal development.

As the fully functioning, and self-realised adult that you are, its time to take the control back and direct your own pathway of development. Its time to undo the conditioning of the society and realise that those restrictions and contradictions placed on you are purely illusions created as a form of control to keep you towing the line and to keep the system running the way it should be. Are you ready to step away from the tribe mentality and create your own destiny?

Ahh…destiny. We all have one. But again, the destiny concept is really just a trip of the mind. Ever noticed that you never actually reach your destiny or destination? Where you are right now was your destiny of yesterday. Tomorrow’s destiny is a result of your thoughts and actions of today. And so on. You’ll never arrive. So, for now, forget about your destiny and pretend for a moment that you’ve arrived at your destiny, today. Right here, right now.

Your point of attraction and power is in the here and now. You don’t need to do anything, except start to think and act like you’ve already arrived at the destination of your dream life. Easier said than done, I know, but you know it to be true don’t you?

So, what is the personal development plan of an entrepreneur?

“Personal Development refers to activities that enhance self-knowledge and identity, develop talents and potential, improve human capital and employability, enhance quality of life and realise dreams and aspirations.” -Wikipedia

It’s the realisation that you are in control. You always have been and always will be. You have the power to create anything your can conjure up in your unlimited and expanding mind. At any moment in time, no matter what you are feeling or thinking, you can consciously choose to think and feel something else.

So, the personal development plan for an entrepreneur is firstly to know where you are going. That is, having a clear vision of what you want to see in your external world, and what you want to feel in your internal world. Meditation is the key here. I’ve got many resources to assist you with this on my website.

Secondly, your role is to work everyday on creating experiences and thoughts that are in alignment with that vision. Yes, that’s right, you must create experiences that harmonise with your vision.

The plan that the Universe has given you is to simply be who you were born to be – an ever-expanding, ever-reaching, prosperous, loving, serving, and magnificent god-like being, who directs and controls his/her own life on the path of conscious choice.

You are that already. All the money, health, love, and happiness is right at your fingertips for you to use for the good of all, including yourself. Your ego-mind will trick you into thinking that you limited by these factors. Again, meditation will help to quieten this part of your mind so you can be free to create from unlimited potential.

That is how an entrepreneur develops themselves. And in the process of this development, and keeping your focus on creating value and serving others, you will create tremendous rewards in financial and material terms, for yourself and those around you, and you’ll be seen by others as “successful”.

For you, however, it’ll just be another day and another opportunity to harness this amazing creative power you have developed for yourself. So, your destiny, if there is such a thing, is whatever you want it to be. So expand your mind, expand your thoughts of what’s possible, expand your circles of influence.

Building Deck Stairs on a Budget

As a professional, I’ve built many decks of all sizes and shapes. Stairs are often the last part of the deck to be tackled because they are usually the most difficult and expensive part of the deck to build. However, by using a method known as the ‘engineered bracket system’, not only can I save up to $500 per flight of stairs, but the installation is easy, with professional results.

The adjustable stair bracket system automatically adjusts to the exact rise and run needed. The customized rise and treads configurations can be adjusted to meet all building codes for any interior or exterior application. The brackets act as joist hangers which allow the stair risers to be used structurally, carrying the load across the stair like floor joists. Using only two outside stringers, the stair width can be up to nine feet wide and the stairs are strong. The need for interior stringers is eliminated. The outside stringers then require only 3 to 4 cuts each, and the risers and treads are simply attached to the brackets. If you make a mistake, you can readjust the brackets.

A wide range of materials such as redwood, cedar, tropical wood, treated wood, untreated wood, vinyl, steel, and composites can be used. Adjustable brackets allow for customized rise and tread configurations which can be adjusted to meet all building codes for any interior or exterior application.

This is how it works: Set the brackets on the two 2×6 stringer members using the spacers and pivot screws. Remove spacers and rotate brackets to adjust stair height. Fix brackets in position, attach risers and treads. 3D video demos are available on the website below.

Before you begin, determine the material you are going to use, the exact number of steps you need and the stair width.

You will need (2) 2×6’s per stringer for each side. Make sure when you purchase your 2×6’s make sure that they are straight without any twist. The 2×6’s will need to be at least 12″ longer than the total length of your stairs. Two stringers are sufficient to span up to 7′ wide (exterior stair requirements).

For risers you will use 2×8’s for riser heights up to 7-1/4″ and 2×10’s for higher risers. For treads you can use 2×12’s (which is the easiest option). However, if you decide to use (2) 6 inch wide treads instead…wood or composite, you will need to use cleat brackets to bridge between the risers for tread support. Time saving tip: when you determine how many steps you will need and your stair width….get all your risers and treads pre-cut to exact lengths when you purchase the materials.

Tools/Materials needed will be: a power drill, saw (skill saw is preferable, but not required, #8 1 1/4″ Phillips flat head or star/square drive screws for the stair brackets, #8 2 1/2″ deck screws for every 9″ of tread and riser connection and Spacers for customized riser and tread measurements.

The “Engineered Stair Bracket System” method eliminates the need to cut stringers and is tested to be much stronger and faster than conventional construction. Whether you’re a seasoned professional or a do-it-yourselfer, you will build fast, strong and accurate stairs, on a budget.

What is a Content Switch?

This article explains what a network content switch is and it also outlines the main benefits of using them in your business network. This type of switch is very expensive so its normally medium to large enterprise scale businesses who use them.

The main function of a content switch is to inspect the network data that it receives so that it can decide where on the network that data (or request) needs to be forwarded to. Once this is determined the data is sent to the appropriate server which can handle the data abed return a response if needed. At a network level the data in the request is divided up into packets.

In most cases the switch looks to see what type of application or software the request is targeted at. It does this by looking to see what port the requests is directed at. For example if the data is targeted at an ftp port then the request will be sent to an ftp sever. The main benefit of this approach is that the switch acts as a load ba lancer as it can balance data or requests across the different type of application servers used by the business. In simplified terms and application server is a server that runs an application like ftp or a mail server.

A second major function that this type of switch can perform is to look at the incoming requests and see which websites are targeted. This is important for large enterprises or hosting companies. If for example a web hosting company was hosting several thousand websites the switch could direct requests to the specific servers that the websites are running on. If this did not happen the hosting company would have to run every website on every server.

So in simple terms a content switch is a network device that is used to distribute incoming requests to the servers or websites that can handle the requests.

Product Review: Qwell Silver Gas Barbeque With Stainless Body

The Qwell Silver gas barbeque grill is a quality value product from Italian manufacturing giant Qwell that is very durable, sleek and continues to impress grill users worldwide.

Qwell Silver is among the newest batch of barbeque gas grills from Qwell’s ever-growing line of barbeque grill models. It’s body is made of 430 marine grade, pure stainless steel making the Qwell Silver gas grill a very durable and likewise solid built gas barbeque that offers an assurance of quality craftsmanship.

It comes with two collapsible side tables that offer gas barbeque grilling flexibility especially for those users that are having limitations when it comes to space. If the space is an influencing factor in choosing a gas grill for barbeque, the Qwell Silver’s two side tables (or just one side table) can be put down for it to fit easily in the area where it is installed. If placed in an open wide area, the Qwell Silver barbeque grill’s side tables can be raised and utilized for a lot of uses most of which, is to keep the ease of having an extra storage or space where a griller can use to place the food to be grilled, as well as the tool and equipment used in doing barbeque. The Silver also comes with lockable heavy duty wheels that are designed to carry it’s solid weight for easy transportation and added flexibility.

The Qwell Silver features a double-walled stainless roasting hood that is very useful for those grill users that enjoy roasting and smoking barbeque. With the Silver’s double walled roasting hood, the accumulating heat that is inside the grill when doing smoking and roasting is efficiently trapped making it easy and fast to reach the desired temperature. The hood also is appropriately designed to promote a constant circular wave motion of heat and smoke thereby giving the food an authentic flavourful taste.

The Qwell Silver’s two griddles (hotplate optional) are all made of cast iron metal which is the most popular for grills and barbeque aficionados worldwide because of its capacity to retains heat more which results to keeping the grilled meat juicy and succulent once cooked.

With regards to cleaning and maintenance, the Qwell Silver’s frontal drip tray provides an easy access to all accumulated oil, grease and residue from your barbeque. One nice trick to even do the cleaning job easier is to place an aluminum foil on the drip tray before you start your barbeque. When the grilling is finished, users then will just need to dispose the aluminum foil together with all the dirt and grease.

The Qwell Silver is truly a smart choice if your top priorities in choosing for your next gas grill are equipment durability, flexibility in design and ease of use. With the Silver’s price that is very competitive and slightly lower compared to other equally popular brands, you can never go wrong if you decide to choose it as your next (or first) gas barbeque grill!

Exposed Aggregate – Why Is it So Popular?

Exposed aggregate concrete is a style of decorative concrete where the aggregates of the cement, mainly pebbles and small stones, are exposed in contrast to the traditional smooth finish of concrete surfaces. Exposed aggregate concrete adds visual interest to a surface because of its random designs and diverse colors.

It is a cost-effective way to give old or new concrete an appealing look. Aside from looks and a reasonable price, exposed aggregate also features the main characteristic of concrete – strength. All these make this option widely popular. Because it’s very hard wearing, some common applications of exposed aggregate concrete are public areas including footpaths and traffic areas such as driveways, sidewalks, patios, plazas or pool decks. It can also be used on vertical applications such as decorative walls and building facades.

Aside from the fact that it is durable against heavy traffic and oftentimes cheaper than other decorative concrete techniques, here are more reasons why exposed aggregate concrete is popular:

  • It has practically limitless texture and color options allowing a customized look. With the exception of sealing the finish and cleaning it occasionally, this option is very low maintenance.
  • Its rugged surface poses less of a slipping hazard than brushed concrete.
  • It is resistant to harsh climate conditions.
  • Fewer tools or additional materials are needed in this method than other options.
  • This method is easier to learn and master than other decorative concrete techniques.
  • This technique has long been used since the early 20th century but it continues to be popular today with contractors discovering even more creative ways of using it. The two most common ways of achieving exposed aggregate concrete are:

1. Surface Dressing – In this method, decorative aggregate such as decorative stones, gravel, crushed glass, shells or quartzite is seeded onto freshly-placed cement. The cement must first be tapped about 5 to 9 mm below the required finish level before the aggregates are spread evenly over it and patted down the concrete surface. This method is ideal for smaller projects such as patios and garden footpaths.

2. Washed to Expose – The fresh concrete surface is washed away to expose the aggregates that are already part of the cement’s ingredients. Specifically, the cement’s fines are stripped away from the top 2 to 6 mm of the concrete surface to reveal the aggregates. This is the preferred method for commercial or heavy-duty applications.

In choosing a decorative aggregate, keep in mind that the type will determine the color palette of the finish and will also have an impact on the project’s overall cost. There are many reasonably-priced aggregates that will produce great results. Aside from color, hardness, shape, size and durability, consider locally-produced aggregates because they are readily available and, therefore, more economical.

Even more stunning effects can be achieved with exposed aggregate with the use of advanced techniques such as creating contrast by using different aggregates or alternating smooth surfaces with exposed aggregate finished areas. Some use strips of wood patterned stamped concrete as dividers to create accent. The possibilities when it comes to design are almost endless. What you can be certain of is that this decorative technique will offer you excellent value for your money.

The Wireless Doorbell

The Wireless Doorbell is yet another extension of modern society’s focus on function and electronics. The Wireless Doorbell’s ability to be applied without any installation and its increasing signal strength make it a valuable for purchase for many consumers.

It can be used in homes, apartments and even RVs or mobile homes. Since it does not require any wires, it is especially valuable to people who live in leased homes and apartments. It can be taken with the purchaser when they move to another place and easy to take out because of no wiring.


Models can vary in price with the cheapest models costing about $15 to $20 and the most expensive ones going up to $150. The more expensive naturally tend to either have more additional features and/or have unique decorative designs. Regardless, of this price range, a good functional wireless doorbell can be purchased for roughly $50 to $80.


Wireless Doorbells vary in range with most items extending out to 75 to 150 feet. Although, you can now purchase longer range wireless units that can extend out to 300 feet. Also, you can buy multiple bell receivers which will allow you to place the bell receivers in different parts and floors of the house.

Energy Source:

Wireless doorbells come into two varieties for their energy source: battery-operated and plug-ins. The Battery-operated ones will vary somewhat with some weaker models using Triple A batteries and the stronger models using D batteries. The main feature to look for in this area is battery life. We recommend going with a unit requiring D batteries as these will tend to last longer.

For plug-ins, as the name suggests, the bell receiver is plugged into a wall socket. These can be useful if you do not want to fool with batteries as some can even double as night lights. However, these have less functionality as they take up outlet spaces and may not be ideally suited around the house for maximum noise distribution.

Sounds and Chimes:

The options in this area are endless. There are types that you your basic sounds like Westminster, Dong, or Ding Dong and then there are others that offer a lot more. Some types will play a list of over 50 songs and some will even let you record a message or play your favorite song in a CD quality recording. This can be an especially intriguing option around the holidays as there are a number of different holiday songs. At the very least, this feature will be a good conversation piece. Also, for those who already have a wireless doorbell, you can even purchase add ons that provide more chimes or sounds. Regardless, of the option chosen most devices offer 12 or 13 basic chimes. Whether you want to go beyond this list will depend a lot on your personality and personal taste.

Amplifiers or Sound Extenders:

There are several units that offer plug-ins or additional bell receivers which allow the sound to be extended throughout the house. This is particularly useful in large homes and out of the way areas of the house like basements and attics.


This is one of wireless doorbells main advantages over wired systems. The bell receiver can be placed anywhere in the house and then moved again. There are even some models that work well outside and some that can even be placed on a belt clip and carried with you throughout the home.


Sometimes wireless doorbells will go off unexpectedly due to conflict with car alarms and garage door openers. The cheaper models are especially susceptible to this whereas the more expensive versions have a number of frequency jammers to help eliminate this issue.

Another limitation may be the wireless signal itself. Some people feel uncomfortable about additional signals being sent through the airways of your home. It is currently unclear whether wireless signals pose a health risk; however, it is something to consider. The good news is that a wireless doorbells signal is a lot weaker than other wireless signals and so its impact for possible radiation will be a lot less significant than a cell phone or a wireless network home computer.

As you can see the wireless doorbell has a lot of unique features that make it more than just an alternative to the wired doorbell.

Starting Up a College in Kenya

STEP 1: The initial step is to go to Sheria House (registrars) and acquire a name search for the college.

STEP 2: From Sheria House, the company will acquire certain documents that are meant to be taken to TELEPOSTA GPO building where the company will receive a requirement list, a letter of no objection and a letter of acceptance/ a waiting letter. The requirement list basically contains all the documents that the company interested should have prior to acceptance. The letter of acceptance should then be taken to the educational examination body that the company desires example, KASNEB, KNEC, CITY AND GUILDS. This is necessary so as to acquire the necessary curriculum. Further information and clarification will be found in this document.

STEP 3: from Sheria House the applicant will then be directed back to TELEPOSTA, where the registration process and necessary information will be provided.


Before registration at TELEPOSTA the institution should have the premise ready.

The institution should also have a curriculum

The institution should have the legal documents; the acts; (Legal Act,Labor Acts, Education Act) these can be acquired from the government printers or from an already established institution

The college lecturers as well should have a higher degree than what they are meant to teach in the college, example a diploma lecturer should have a degree, and a certificate lecturer should have a diploma.

Lastly the institution should acquire a handbook that is provided at the ministry of education, science and technology website.

In terms of the timeline, pre registration of the college will solely depend on the applicant and their urgency, however once submission is done, the MINISTRY OF EDUCATION SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY will take 60-70 days to make the final decisions before giving the go ahead.


The ministry of education recognizes, the following curriculum bodies in kenya, KASNEB, KNEC, CITY AND GUILDS, ICM,ABEUK, NATIONAL INDUSTRIAL TRAINING AUTHORITY(NITA).

FOR KASNEB: The institution has to acquire application forms from the KASNEB website. Once application is done KASNEB will send out individuals to assess the institution. From that assessment KASNEB advices the applicant the necessary steps forward.

FOR KNEC; once the registration documents are filled the institution will have to go to the KNEC offices, where they will receive the centre number for their institution.

NITA: The NITA curriculum is available for any institution even before registration. It can be acquired for a fee of Ksh.500 per curriculum depending on the needs of the institution at the NITA offices in Commercial Street, Industrial area. Nairobi.


City and Guilds being an international curriculum body their requirements are more than that of the local bodies; which are:

1. Organizational chart with names and titles of those involved with the delivery of the course/program.

2. C.V’s for all current teaching staff involved with the delivery of the course/program.

3. Copy of appeal procedures document

4. Equal opportunities statement, this is for gender purposes.

5. Health & safety certificate of your premises from the respective Ministry.

6. Equipment list to be used in the delivery of the course/program.

7. Duly filled form CGI -CAP, Centre Approval*

8. Duly filled form CGI -QAP, Qualification Approval.*

9. Ministry of Education / Ministry of Science & Technology or Directorate of Industrial Training approval certificate.

10. Centre approval fee Ksh. 210,000 per centre

11. Qualification Approval fee Ksh. 40,000 per qualification.

*these forms are acquired from the City and Guilds office..

Shirt Stays Can Improve Your Dressing Style at Golf

When it comes to golf, the game of gentlemen, a game that is for the elite and rich, you will be surrounded by people who are very well off, so it is quite essential to look rich, as luxurious as you can to mingle with them and to gain respect. A poor clothing may make others at the golf course to stare at you and even Caddies not respecting, putting you into the hole instead of the pill.

Golf clothing in itself is not an easy thing to learn in a single stretch, it has a lot of detailed parts which are to be noted like the use of accessories, choice of colors and so on. But there is a yet another hidden detailing that is often not observed but takes your look close complete to perfection, it is what is the main theme of this article. It is none other than the art of having your shirt tucked into your pants perfectly till the end of all rounds. This is called an art because having your shirt tucked well throughout seem to be a difficult task, as it is obvious that after having the shirts tucked in well, it becomes uneasy to move your arms freely to perform coils, cuts and knockdown to take the pill to the hole keeping the par (number of strokes within which one has to reach the hole) in mind.

As a golfer, you would have tried a lot of ways before to fix this problem that may trouble you while playing. You may even have tried tucking your shirt into your underpants, but due to the movement that shots require, your underpants may raise above the line of your pant which would embarrass you. But there is a close to ideal way to drive away your discomfort and improve your concentration on the game.

It is nothing but Shirt stays and shirt locks that come handy for those of you having this trouble. It is easy to use, keeps your shirt intact as when tucked in, enables you to focus better, gives you the confidence to play the shots to perfection without the fear of the shirt jumping out! How about giving it a try?

Parameters to Measure the Performance of Computer Monitors

A monitor, also known as display is basically an electronic visual display for computers. Three primary components of the device include a circuitry, enclosure and the display. As far as the display device is concerned, it is basically a thin film transistor liquid crystal display in most of the modern monitors. The monitors available in the past used a cathode ray tube.

The demand for these latest devices in the market is increasing with every changing day. To meet the requirements of the users, more and more brands have started launching user-friendly gadget furnished with innovative features and state-of-the-art technology. Some of the leading names in the domain of monitors include Panasonic, Samsung, Sony, etc. The gadgets introduced by these brands are known to offer an exceptional performance even home as well as office.

As far as the performance of the device concerned, it is measured by the following parameters:


The unit for measuring luminescence is Candelabrum per square meter.

Aspect ratio

It is another important parameter for measuring the performance of the gadget. It is defined as the ratio of horizontal length to the vertical length. The aspect ratio of the device can be 4:3, 5:4, 16:10 or 16:9.

Display resolution

It is defined as the number of distinct pixels occurring in every dimension, which can be displayed.

Refresh rate

It is defined as the number of times for which a display is illuminated in a second. The response time limits the maximum refresh rate.

Contrast ratio

It is defined as the ratio of the luminosity of the brightest color and the darkest color produced by the monitor.

Viewing angle

The maximum angle at which an individual can view the images on the monitor without the extreme deprivation to the image is called viewing angle. It is mainly measured in degrees vertically and horizontally.

These are some of the essential parameters to judge the performance of the gadget. The perfect medium to grab the best computer monitors is the internet. The medium proffers a vast collection of products available at cutthroat prices. In addition to this, customers can also enjoy exciting offers and deals on a wide range of products. The price comparison tools of several online shopping portals can also enable individuals to compare the price and feature list of a majority of products and brands. Apart from monitors, you can also find other electronics at one such store like mobile phones, all professional camcorders, digital cameras, etc.

Headlights – Conventional Vs High Intensity Discharge (HID) Systems

Nothing is worse than driving down the road and not being able to see where you are going. You always notice the difference when you have just changed the bulbs in your headlights. The question is what the difference is between conventional and High Intensity Discharge (HID) head lights. Some people want the brightness the HID lights offer, but are unsure if they are really worth the price. Others simply do not know how they will be able to install the new technology in their car. This is why you should get to know as much as possible about the two lights.

Conventional Head Lights

The lights which people have been driving with over the past few decades are considered by most to be the best lights for your car. The low price of the head lights is one of the biggest driving factors of what people like about the lights. You can get away with a light bulb change for less than $20 in most cases. It is also possible for you to be able to quickly and easily change out the bulbs yourself right in the parking lot of the auto parts store.

HID Head Lights

The HID lights first made their appearance with the luxury models and with the tuner crowd. The lights are easily identifiable by their blue hue. The head lights are much more expensive than the standard bulbs. It is also not recommended you change the bulbs for the lighting system on your own. Most people are cautioned that the power used by the bulbs can create a danger of you being electrocuted even with the power supply being disconnected from the bulb. The two main reasons why people like the bulbs is because of the intense light they offer and the long life they offer.

Comparison of the Two Head Lights

When asked if there is really a difference between the two kinds of bulbs, most people will tell you that to see the difference all you have to do is drive a car with HID bulbs in it. The clarity at which you can see everything which is coming at you is a night and day difference. Instead of being able to see a short arc of the road in front of you, you can see everything. This is because of the hue of the light as well as the intensity of the beam which is being broadcast by the bulb. It is also fair to point out that while the HID bulbs will cost more, they have the ability to last for five years without the intensity being decreased.

The kind of head lights you prefer will depend on your personal preferences. It is a good idea to check out the two in a driving comparison before you make a decision. People who are die-hard conventional light fans have been converted to using HID lights after driving one time with the brighter lights. You owe it to yourself to try the lights out in a real world test.

Golf Strategy – How to Break 90

Most people who play golf have never broken 90 in their golf careers.

This is obviously a major goal for these folks and a source of major frustration…

When I talk and play with these golfers, there is one common observation that I can make about their games that is creating a serious mental barrier to their progress… and that is an intense desire for “more distance”.

The other common observation I can make about their game is that they are passionate about golf and will do whatever it takes to improve.

The golf industry thrives on these desires:

“buy this driver and add 10 extra yards to your game”

“buy this ball for extra distance”

“Learn to swing like the pros”

“Turn more for more distance”

Whenever you look in golf magazines or watch infomercials on TV these headlines are everywhere….its no wonder that this distance message has rubbed off on the struggling golfer.

Yet, when you do the math on what distances you require to break 90 off the standard white tees on the typical golf course, the numbers will surprise you…

Understand the Numbers

Golf is all about numbers and making smart decisions. If you can understand the numbers that are necessary to meet your scoring goals, you will begin to make smarter decisions that will quickly lead to lower scores.

I say this because it is this lack of understanding of the numbers involved in the game that leads golfers to make bad decisions both on and off the course:

“I need this new $600 driver to get my drives to 230 yards….that will make a huge difference to may scores”

“If only I could get my irons to go further, what a difference that would make”

Yet, talk to these same people 6 months after their purchase and many of them have made little difference to their scores…

This push for distance is a huge mental barrier. Those golfers who progress faster with their games are those who have discovered how to overcome this mental obstruction.

What they need to do is make mental shift away from distance, to one of “consistency”…

If you can make that change, you will find your game will accelerate rapidly to lower scoring.

That process begins by knowing your numbers….

Understand the Distance Numbers

Golf is all about making smart decisions around distance. If you can understand the numbers that are necessary to meet your scoring goals, you will begin to make smarter decisions that will quickly lead to lower scores.

I say this because it is this lack of understanding of the distances involved in the game that lead golfers to make bad decisions both on and off the course:

“I need this new $600 driver to get my drives to 230 yards…that will make a huge difference to may scores”

“If only I could get my irons to go further, what a difference that would make”

Yet, talk to these same people 6 months after their purchase and many of them have made little difference to their scores…

This push for distance is a huge mental barrier. Those golfers who progress faster with their games are those who have discovered how to overcome this mental obstruction.

Make this mental shift, and you will find your game will accelerate rapidly to lower scoring.

That process begins by knowing your numbers…

Average distances to Break 90

Let’s assume you play on an average length course of 6,100 yards. I am going to throw some average distance requirements per stroke out there to break 90 that are based on different putting abilities…

45 putts/round – average distance/stroke to shoot 89 = 138 yards

40 putts/round – average distance/stroke to shoot 89 = 124 yards

36 putts/round – average distance/stroke to shoot 89 = 115 yards

(average distance = 6,100 ÷ (89 – # of putts/round) )

For ladies on a 5,500 yard course the yardages are less:

45 putts/round – average distance/stroke to shoot 89 = 128 yards

40 putts/round – average distance/stroke to shoot 89 = 115 yards

36 putts/round – average distance/stroke to shoot 89 = 104 yards

As you look at these numbers, even some absolute beginners using a set of old clubs can reach these distances!

So where is the need for distance?

If you are any good at putting you could probably get round the course in 89 using only a 9/8 iron and a putter…

“Ah, but that is not how the game is played…” some might say.

That is certainly true. But then I would ask “how should you play the game and what are you trying to achieve?”…

Change of Thinking

In showing you these distances and prodding these questions I am not trying to be critical of those who play in the 90’s or above…

I am simply trying to help you clarify the numbers to encourage you think a little more about how you may be approaching your own game.

Of course I would not suggest you go around the course with nothing but an 8 iron and a putter. That is silly. However, these numbers clearly suggest that you do not need a 230 yard drive either.

So what can we learn from just studying these distances?

1. For starters, if you are able to average a 2 putt on every green for your round, you remove a huge distance requirement from your game.

This then should be your top priority for breaking 90…practice putting at home to get your putting average down to 36 or less per round.

2. The second observation that jumps out at us is that distance is not an issue if you are able to execute every shot cleanly during the round without a miss hit or duff shot.

Swing consistency becomes key, not distance.

Here is how your thinking and mental approach to your swing has to change…

It does not matter how far you hit the ball, but it is vital that you hit every shot with some level of consistency.

Consistency comes with a lot of practice, but it can also come from making smart decisions with your shot making…

Operating at the Top End of your Swing Capability Curve

Your judgment calls on distance and club selection can seriously affect your swing consistency…this is all a “mental process” and has nothing to do with your physical capability.

Let me show you an example…

Let’s say that you are faced with an approach shot to the green of 140 yards. What are your choices?

Well, on the range you know that you can reach 140 yards with an 8 iron….in most cases you might have a go with that decision.

How confident do you feel at executing that shot? What are the likely outcomes if you do not pull it off?

Here is what I observe with many high handicap golfers when making decisions of this nature…

9 times out of 10 they are always short of the green. This is because of either a complete miss hit duff shot or they did not catch the ball cleanly at contact.

On top of this the accuracy of the shot is off as well.

The reason for this is they are swinging at the high end of their swing capability curve trying to execute a “full turn”, because that is what they have read, or been told will give them the “most distance”.

If they adopt this same mental approach to swinging with a full turn during their practice sessions with all their clubs, their decisions on distance capability with each club is going to be influenced by the results they achieve on the range.

The shots they remember are the shots they hit well that go a mile, but do they remember how far they hit the balls that did not go so well?….probably not.

Whenever you try to run a “system” at the high of it capability it is going to experience some failure.

The same can be said of your golf swing. Try to swing with a full turn on every shot, and you will experience failure more times than not.

That is because with a full backswing extension you are more likely to experience:

o Balance problems

o Breakdowns of the left arm

o Excessive tension in the arms that leads to a prerelease of the hands from the top of the swing and poor timing

to mention but a few…

OK. Now I want you to consider your chances of reaching the same 140 yards with either a 7 iron or even a 6 iron. Are you likely to be short with either of these two clubs?

The answer is, “no, only if I miss hit the shot completely. If anything I may overshoot the target…”

Choose a Club Down for better Swing Consistency

Here is how you can immediately improve your swing consistency on the course…

I want you to ask yourself why you put yourself under distance pressure for this 140 yard shot?

Why do you need to operate your swing at the high end of your capability curve and push the extremes of your swing limits with an 8 iron, knowing that you are likely to experience a miss hit?

This is totally unnecessary. You have the option of selecting down a club that you know you will reach the distance with a much higher degree of certainty.

This same thought process can be applied to every swing decision you make with every iron you have in the bag.

The only time you reach a point where you have to make a full turn to increase distance comes with clubs at the low end such as a 3 iron, 3 wood and driver where you no longer have the option to choose down a club.

Choosing to club down for all of your distance decisions changes your mental approach from one of going for distance, to one of going for consistency.

The first reaction you have when you make this decision is worrying about over shooting the target.

This thought process forces you to shorten your backswing so that you take some “heat” out of the shot.

When you shorten your backswing:

o Your balance is better and your swing is much easier to time.

o With improved balance also comes improved accuracy.

So, club down and shorten your backswing for improved consistency…

Set a scoring goal for each hole

You can reduce the pressure to swing for distance from your swing even further by accurately knowing what distance you need to achieve your scoring goal for every hole to break 90.

On a par 72 hole course you need to score 17 over par in order to achieve an 89.

You can break that down to a scoring goal for every hole of a 1 over par, only needing a single par on any one hole somewhere during the round.

Now let’s look at how knowing this information affects your decision making and club selection on the course…

For those of you who feel you need to add more distance to your game but have yet to break 90, I want to try and dispel this mental obstacle once and for all with this following example…

Let’s put you under a pressure for distance scenario on the course by imaging you are standing on the tee of a 410 yard par 4. Does this intimidate you? You bet!

“I need to have a long drive so that I can give myself every chance of getting on or near the green with my approach shot…”

“It is holes like this that bring out the need for that 230 yard drive! Even with that drive I still have 180 yards to go with the next shot.”

How do you rate your chances of pulling off consistent shots under this amount of pressure?

Not very high is my guess…”

Before you reach into the bag for the heavy artillery and psych yourself up for a monster drive, step back for a minute and think about what you are trying to achieve on this hole.

You are not trying to play for par, you are trying to play for a one over par because that is your goal for this hole.

Come to think of it, even a 5 handicap golfer does not need to go for par on this hole because holes of this nature usually have a handicap index of 5 or less!

Knowing you have 5 strokes to meet your goal, how can you best use those strokes to make each shot as simple as possible?

The trick lies in working your way back from the green to the tee, not from the tee to the green in your club selection…

Work backwards from the green for shot simplicity and improved consistency

First of all, I am going to assume you took note of my first observation and have practiced your putting at home and feel pretty good at averaging 2 putts per green.

That leaves you with 3 shots with which to work your way back to the tee to cover the 410 yards.

The first decision you need to make is at what distance and with what club can I feel confident at getting anywhere on the green 9 times out of 10, remembering that there is no need to push your swing to it’s high limits for distance.

Let’s say that a 65 yard pitching wedge comes to mind.

Ok, now let’s work back a little further and decide what would be a reasonable shot that you feel pretty confident at getting you within that 65 yard approach shot range even from light rough.

Maybe a 160 yard iron or hybrid club.

What’s left for your drive….185 yards, which for some of you may be a 3 wood distance.

What this exercise does for you is reduce the pressure to swing for distance completely from every shot tee to green. You will be able to swing well within your distance capability…especially if you also club down.

Your chances of executing this strategy with reasonable consistency compared to the “conventional approach” is going to be much higher because you are not swinging at the high end of your swing range.

On top of this, if you successfully land your third shot on the green, you give yourself a one putt chance of a par!

Now compare that opportunity to the “conventional approach” where you would probably be satisfied with a one or even a two over par….

Adding the Extra Shot and Shorten your Approach Shot

The one over scoring goal on every hole but one to break 90 allows you to design your tee to green play with an “extra shot” compared to a regulation strategy.

That extra shot on all the par 4’s and par 5’s reduces the distance you require for every shot considerably.

Knowing this allows you to back off and swing well within your distance capability by clubbing down.

The extra shot also allows you to select a shorter approach shot on every hole which improves your changes of getting on the green.

This helps you avoid many wasted short game shots from around the green which are tremendous shot consumers for high handicap players who have not developed a short game.

Breaking 90

As I have shown you in this article, knowing the distance numbers to break 90 takes away the pressure to operate at the high end of your swing capability on every shot

Making smart club choices by clubbing down, also eliminates this distance pressure.

The strategy of adding the extra shot from tee to green to shorten your approach shots on every hole, not only reduces wasted shots from around the green, you also give yourself more par opportunities for a one putt par.

The desire to add more distance to your game can be a major mental barrier that is preventing you from lowering your scores and reaching your goal of 89.

Make the mental shift to thinking more on how to improve consistency by swinging well within you distance capabilities and your scores will drop significantly in a short period of time…

Good luck and good scoring!

A Stump Grinders Bearing Maintenance Guide

A huge amount of technical bearing data and procedure is offered by most bearing manufacturers. If you are like me, you simply do not have the time, patience, or interest, in wading through all of this information, with cost effectiveness being unsupported by the frequent need to outsource bearing maintenance, but yet do have an interest in running cost reduction for your tree stump grinder. Replacement bearings cost over £100 each, and represent a large portion of overall machine maintenance costs. This guide is meant for those who wish to reduce cost by increasing bearing service life. Bearing failure or premature bearing wear on stump grinders is mainly due to inadequate maintenance of clean lubricant. I use a pneumatic grease dispenser driven by an air compressor at each days end of stump grinding, with a grease top up, out in the field, using a conventional hand-held grease pump. I use a great deal of grease but it is far cheaper than replacement bearings. When I re-grease bearings, I thoroughly purge out the contaminated grease, until clean grease exudes from the bearing. A high melting point EP-2 grease is essential. I prefer a molybdenum disulphide (moly) enriched EP-2 complex grease because it is a heavy-duty grease. So, to sum up this paragraph, there are three principles of maximizing bearing life insofar as lubricants are concerned:

  • select the correct grease
  • apply the correct grease properly e.g in the correct quantity
  • re-grease frequently

A second common reason for premature bearing wear on stump grinders is inadequate or incorrect bearing adjustment ( for those machines with an adjustable bearing wear takeup) Now, I know how awkward accessing bearings for adjustment, can be on stump grinders. I made up some specialised tools out of allen keys, owing to their tough, high quality steel content, as a work around to the awkward access problem I have on my grinder. I simply ground away excess material with a bench grinder to shape an allen key into a right-angled punch. If you are comfortable doing this, please be sure to frequently cool the allen key in water. Do not let it turn blue in colour. I come from an engineering background, and accept that many who may read this, do not. Many may feel this to be somewhat out of their depth. This is why I’m making this effort to avoid technicalities as much as possible with emphasis on minimum salient points. I’m not conversant with bearing access configurations on all brands of stump grinders, but I can’t over emphasis how, with a bit of initiative and determination, the importance to overcome a bearing access problem is. It will save you money.

The detection and analysis of premature bearing failure is by its nature a technical subject involving specialised equipment e.g. heat sensors, vibration sensors, infrared sensors, oil and ultrasound analysis equipment. All of this equipment generates a great deal of data, is very costly, and totally impractical out in the field. A non technical tree stump grinder who is dependent upon the continual operation of his stump grinding machine will easily be put off by this situation. The easiest, most practical and non technical way to roughly monitor bearing performance is to rest your hand on the pillow block bearing after running it for a reasonable length of time, say at least one hour. If you must remove your hand because the bearing is too hot, this indicates a worn bearing. Adjustment to take up excessive play within the bearing be made in accordance with manufacturers instructions. If the sound of a bearing “knock or rumble” is also heard, this usually means it is excessively worn and needs replacement. For those who my be interested, there are four stages of bearing failure which I will touch on, as it does get involved and is not in keeping with this scope and its objective.:

  • Stage 1. Vibration analysis detects the earliest sign of bearing failure. Signal data appears in the ultrasonic frequency range band around 250 to 350 Kilo Hz.. At this point there is about 10-20 percent remaining bearing life.
  • Stage 2. Bearing failure begins to “ring” at its natural frequency (500 – 2000 Hz) At this point there is 5 to 10% bearing life left.
  • Stage 3. bearing failure harmonics are apparent with defects in the inner and outer races. Temperature increase is now apparent with 1 to 5% bearing life left
  • Stage 4. High vibration is clear with random ultrasonic noise greatly increased, temperature increases quickly. One hour to one percent remaining life.

It is unfortunate for all stump grinder operators, that by the time a bearing knocks, rumbles, or noticeably heats up, it is shortly on its way to failure. There is no practical way for the average owner / operator to accurately judge the length of serviceable time remaining in a stump grinders bearing while out in the field.

From this viewpoint, I am making an attempt to try to collect some useable data out in the field, which may prove to be a practical and inexpensive way to monitor bearing serviceability. I will be installing thermocouples (heat sensors) to the bearings. If a running average temperature gradient can be established, it may prove helpful to those stump grinders who are concerned with maximizing their machines bearing life, by simply adjusting up their bearings, when its temperature rise indicates time to do so. This will require some effort on the part of those interested. They too will need to fit thermocouples to their bearings to monitor temperature as the only cost-effective, and practical way to know when to adjust up their bearings.

This effort will be totally negated if a strict and sufficient re-greasing program is not maintained. What would be the point of regular, timely, bearing adjustments, if the bearings regularly ran in a bed of contaminated grease. I think the reader will agree, is a total waste of time and effort.

Importance of Exhaust Fans in Our Homes

While most of us are used to the exhaust fans in our kitchens and bathroom, we don’t really understand the importance of an exhaust fan beyond its air refreshing function. We simple think kitchen exhaust fans help clear the smoke and steam from the kitchen and bathroom fan is used to keep it odorless.

But exhaust fans perform a lot of other underlying functions that are not so obvious. Take for instance the job of a kitchen exhaust fan. It clears the air of the stem and the smell of the food. If you were to accidentally burn something, it will also clear the smoke. Now imagine if you didn’t have a fan in kitchen to get rid of exhaust.

The steam will settle on the cupboards and walls, encouraging mold and mildew. The kitchen will continue to hold the old food smell and the smoke and the oil will start to stain the wall. Not a pretty picture is it? We also tend to keep potatoes, onions etc outside in the kitchen and they will start rotting fast due to the excess moisture in the air.

The bathroom exhaust fan plays a similar role. Apart from odor, bathrooms tend to have more humidity with constant water use. This humidity can travel throughout house damaging wood work and one might even see fungal and mildew growth here and there.

For this reason it’s very necessary that both bathroom and kitchen fans have ducts that finish out the house. If the ducts are blocked or terminate within the house, the moisture will pool in and damage the surrounding areas of construction. If the bathroom exhaust fan stop working, you probably will start to see signs like mold on the wall, peeling paint or wall paper, moisture marks on tiles and roof, frost on window, rust on shower head and other metal finishing in the bath.

The need for a garage exhaust fan is something people sometimes overlook as it’s not as frequently used as the bathroom and kitchen. However, garages are not always as well insulated as our homes and we tend to store multiple things in the garage along with our car- like fabrics and wood, both of which have a tendency to grab moisture and culture mold and other fungus like growths. And since the garage is essentially connected to your home, this pores will eventually drift into the air you breathe and cause health problems, even though your exhaust fans in kitchen and bathroom are working.

The garage exhaust fan, run occasionally will not only keep the moisture level low but also keep the foundation of the building strong, since in many houses, the garage is part of the main building. Any damage to the garage walls and roof in the form of damp can cost you thousands of dollars in reconstruction.

Moreover, mold, mildew, odor – all these can affect our health as well, especially causing asthma or allergies in children and can even cause serious fungal infections in adults. Mold may not easy to spot but you have peeling paint or wallpaper or cobwebs on the wall, it may be mold. If you suspect mold, you can take a sample and take it for testing to a lab. Install proper sized exhaust fans for most efficient ventilation, whether it’s your kitchen, bathroom or garage.