Fixing Your Pond Pump

The average lifespan of a pond pump is two years and will cost you an average of $500. But, of course this statistic does not help you if your pond pump has stopped working leaving your fish gasping for breath. Perhaps you are gasping after seeing the cost of a new pump. Fortunately, most pumps that stop working can be fixed by a little pond pump troubleshooting.

A pump can evidently stop working when it does not have enough water. Often waterfalls connected to ponds will reduce significantly in flow simply because a pump hidden in a skimmer area is not receiving enough water. Visually look at the pump and insure that the pump is completely submerged. Of course, this sounds basic. But the number one reason for a pump failure is the lack of water. Often mats, nets and other such barriers must be cleaned regularly to avoid build up of excess debris.

The next item to check is whether the pump itself is clogged. Mechanical skimmer boxes were developed primarily to house the pump and keep it from clogging through the use of several barriers. Chances are if your pond pump is in the bottom of your pond it will clog on a regular basis and will require attention often. Visually look into the end of the pump and with the pump unplugged spin the impeller and clean with a jet of water from your hose.

Rarely do older ponds have vapor locks. However, it is still worth noting. Pond pumps are designed to pump water and not air. So if an air bubble gets trapped in the plumbing of the pond the pump can become vapor locked. In this instance, the pump impeller would be spinning but no water would be coming out. A vapor lock can be fixed by tilting the pump to allow air to escape.

The fifth step to troubleshooting your pond pump is checking the electrical source and its connections. If the pump is not making any noise or vibrating it is good idea to check the power source. Often after an electrical storm or heavy rain a GFIC outlet trips, turning the power off. Reset the breaker by pressing the button labeled “reset” on the outlet. GFCI’s are very sensitive, but are important as they protect people from receiving a shock in case of an electrical malfunction.

If the breaker continues to trip the pump usually has one of two problems. Often seals on bearing pumps allow water to enter into the inner workings of the pump causing the pump to trip the breaker. A simple slit in the cord due to traffic or weight on the cord can allow water to enter after the morning dew or a rain storm.

If the impeller in the pump does not spin freely it can cause the breaker to trip, causing a power surge. If this is the case. It is time to buy a new pump. There are no manufacturers that have built pond pumps with repairs in mind. It is much more cost effective to replace the pump with one that carries a good warranty of 3 years or better than to fix it.

The value of a “good” pump is in its warranty. Many bearing driven pumps used in ponds today are nothing more than retrofitted sump pumps used in basements. These are usually backed by a one year warranty. The challenge for pond pump manufacturers face is to develop pumps to run twenty four hours a day. The best pumps today are energy efficient, high flow magnetic pumps that come with easy exchange policy and last over 3 years.

DIY Tune Up and Misfire Codes – Top 10 Misfire Causes

Tune ups are not required on today’s vehicles nearly as often as they were in the past. Most vehicles today, no longer have distributors (with points) and carburetors. A tune up used to consist of much more than it does today, with technology and innovative design vehicles require much less attention from us when it comes to maintenance items affecting the engine’s performance. The car’s computer is running thousands of tests everyday to insure optimum performance. If the SES (Service Engine Soon) light comes on, the computer is telling you there’s a problem. Today I cover what a tune up consists of and the most common causes of misfire codes being set or stored in your car’s computer. Also, in this article read on to find out why my friend with an old Chrysler lean burn system used to carry a big stick! 

What a Tune Up Used to Be

In cars during the 60’s and 70’s a minor tune up consisted of replacing the spark plugs, distributor cap, rotor, points and condenser. The timing and dwell would also be set if needed. Back then a major tune up would also include spark plug wires and adjusting the carburetor. Computerized cars no longer need all of this attention! Electronic ignition and fuel injection in today’s cars have almost completely banished the use of distributors. And practically the only place you’ll find a carburetor is in a dinosaur or a hot rod. Today spark plugs typically last from 60 to 100,000 miles (sometimes less if there’s a misfire). Computers control the mixture of fuel and air to the cylinders so efficiently that a car that floods today, is a rare one indeed. Don’t get me wrong there were some growing pains in the 80’s with carburetors that still needed adjustment and computer systems that never really allowed some cars to run very well from day one. I had a friend with a 1980 Chrysler equipped with a lean burn system that worked in conjunction with a feedback carburetor, it caused him many headaches. The lean burn computer was mounted on the air cleaner housing. He discovered that when the car wouldn’t run, it only took a light tap on the computer to make it work again. Instead of switching back to a conventional carburetor or relocating the computer away from the heat of the engine like many people did back then; he found that carrying a stick in the car, would allow him to stand outside, reach the stick under the hood and tap the module while he turned the ignition switch to start the engine!

Cars Today

Misfire codes (including P0301, P0302, P0303, P0304, P0305, P0306, P0307 & P0308) indicate that there is a misfire in a cylinder, the last number indicates which cylinder has the problem. If something is causing a miss in random cylinders or is affecting all of them, a P0300 misfire code will be stored in the car’s computer. It’s always smart to begin with the basics. Also consider the mileage and service history when diagnosing a misfire. Higher mile vehicles are more inclined to have mechanical issues with the engines, like low compression from worn valves or rings etc. Any accompanying codes should also be considered in case they may be related. If the spark plugs are worn (excessive gap) or the car is past due for a tune up, it may be smart to go ahead and start with spark plugs and spark plug wires and go from there.

The most common misfire causes on the cars I’ve worked on have been:

  1. Spark plugs
  2. Spark plug wires
  3. Ignition coil
  4. Fuel injector
  5. Wiring to fuel injector
  6. Timing Belt
  7. Vacuum leak or stuck open EGR
  8. Contaminated fuel or bad fuel pump
  9. Weak compression
  10. Blown head gasket

Obviously there are many different types of cars, so a service manual for the specific one that you are working on may be required to help pinpoint the misfire you’re looking for, but hopefully this will direct you to some of the most common causes of misfires in cars of today.

Understanding CPR and How to Use an Automated External Defibrillator

Introduction to Health Care Professional CPR / AED

The leading cause of death in the US according to the Center for Disease Control ( is cardiovascular disease. Risk factors for cardiovascular disease are: smoking, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, lack of exercise, stress and obesity. Factors which are unavoidable are: age, sex, hereditary and diabetes. It’s important to note that death is most likely to occur after 10 minutes of a loss of oxygen to the brain. From 6 to 10 minutes brain damage is expected. From 4 to 6 minutes brain damage is very possible and from 0 to 4 minutes brain damage is virtually non-existent. However, CPR should still be performed.

It’s important to note that the latest 2010 AHA guidelines recommends un-confident performers should at least perform chest compressions upon the patient since studies show chest compressions can be as effective as the combination of CPR.

CPR for 2 Rescue Workers

Roles are to be switched every 5 cycles (2 mins) at a ratio of 30:2 Compressions to Breaths.

When to stop CPR

If the patient regains a pulse, if the area becomes unsafe, if cardiac arrest last longer than 30 minutes, if the rescuer(s) is too exhausted or ordered to stop.

Or, if these complications arise:

Fractures, punctures, lung ruptures or collapses, rib separation, bruises of the heart and/or lungs.

Bloodborne Pathogens to be aware of: Hepatitis B and C (HBV / HCV), Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) as well as Tuberculosis (TB).

The Good Samaritan

Any persons who assist those who are injured, ill or in peril are protected by the Good Samaritan Law. As long as they’re acting voluntary, without expectation of reimbursement or compensation while performing such aid, on site-they’ll have legal protection. Remember, when performing CPR every second counts so, unless required otherwise, don’t hesitate to call 911, perform CPR or external chest compressions immediately.

Adult CPR

C is for Circulation – Adult Compressions

Chest compressions Circulate the blood within the patient. It’s important to place your hands correctly upon the patient’s chest when performing compressions. To do so, find the point where the patient’s ribs meet (just below both halves) and interlock your fingers with both hands. Make sure you’re kneeling beside the patient’s shoulders. Once in position, lock your elbows and use your body’s weight to compress 2 inches upon the patient’s chest. Make sure to let the patient’s chest rise after each compression.

Remember, CPR should be administered until help arrives.

A is for Airway. Clear the Airway

Check for any obstructions, such as: tongue, foreign objects, vomit, swelling or food blocking the patient’s throat or windpipe (finger-swipe, if necessary).

Make sure the patient is on a solid/firm surface (on his/her backside). Next, kneel beside the patient’s neck/shoulders. Open the patient’s Airway by tilting the head back with the palm of 1 hand as the other hand gently lifts the chin. For no longer than 10 seconds, check for life: listen for any sounds, put your cheek beside the patient’s mouth to feel for breathing and look for any motions. If, for whatever reason, you’re unable to perform the tilt-head chin-lift maneuver, perform the jaw-thrust maneuver: kneel above the patient’s head, rest your elbows on the surface, place 1 hand on both sides of the patient’s jaw, stabilize the patient’s head with your forearms, use your index finger to lower the patient’s jaw as you use your thumb to retract the patient’s lower lip. If the patient is assumed lifeless, perform mouth-to-mouth.

Chest compressions should be performed on patient’s who are obese or pregnant.

B is for Breathing. Mouth-to-Mouth

Rescue Breathing is widely known to be performed mouth-to-mouth-it can also be performed mouth-to-nose, mouth-to-mask and mouth-to-stoma, but in rare cases. Breathing tasks: Adults – 1 breath 3-5 seconds (10-12 per min), Children – 1 breath 3-5 seconds (12-20 per min). While still performing the Airway technique pinch the patient’s nose shut. With a complete seal over the patient’s mouth, with your mouth, breathe into the patient until you see the chest inflate. If the chest does not inflate repeat the Airway technique. Once the chest inflates take a second breath. When performing the breathing technique make sure to give 1 breath for 1 second.

Once the breathing technique is applied you will continue the C-A-B’s.

Child CPR

Child CPR ages 1-8

Perform all the same tasks mentioned for an Adult: check for safety and consciousness and ask the child, “Are you okay?” Several times or, until the child’s alert. If there’s no response administer CPR. In a child’s case you must administer 5 reps of CPR before, calling 911. Unless you can have someone else to call. Check the child’s pulse by placing 2 fingers on the carotid artery (against the throat/windpipe). If there isn’t a pulse begin compressions.

C is for Circulation – Child Compressions

Make sure the child is resting upon a solid/firm surface. Before you begin compressions determine if 1 hand could be used instead of 2 depending on the size of the child. It’s important to note that when performing chest compressions on a child do NOT exceed 1/2 the depth of the child’s circumference. It should be between 1/3 and 1/2. Make sure your hands are placed correctly upon the child’s chest (in the middle of the chest, just below the ribs). Follow the same steps when performing CPR on an adult. 30 compressions and 2 breaths equaling 5 reps. Do NOT forget to call 911. Repeat process.

Check again for pulse.

A is for Airway – Clear the Airway

Kneel beside the child’s shoulders/neck. Perform the 3 steps as you would with an adult-Tilt-chin and open mouth while listening and feeling for any sounds/breathing, for 10 seconds. Make sure nothing is blocking the airway. If the child isn’t showing any signs of life proceed to the Breathing technique.

B is for Breathing – Mouth-to-Mouth

Make sure to perform the same Breathing task upon the child as you would upon the adult. Children’s lungs are much smaller than adults so make sure to give a lesser breath when performing this task upon a child. After tilting the head and chin, squeeze the nose shut. Seal your mouth over the child’s mouth and perform the Breathing task.

Remember, give one breath into the child’s lungs while making sure the child’s chest inflates. If the child’s chest doesn’t inflate repeat the airway technique. Once, the chest inflates, perform the next step.

Infant CPR

Infant CPR ages 12 months or younger

Before attempting CPR on an infant make sure to check for safety and consciousness. For infants make sure to administer CPR before, calling 911. Never leave the infant alone. Perform 5 reps of CPR with the same ratio of 30:2 Compressions over Breathing.

C is for Circulation – Infant Compressions

Before attempting any chest compressions check the infants pulse. You can find the pulse just under the upper arm. If no pulse is felt begin chest compressions. When performing compressions upon an infant use EXTREME caution. Just below the infants nipples, in the center of the chest, just below the middle horizontal line, place 2 fingers for compression.

Remember, 100 compressions per minute – 30:2 Compressions over Breathing.

Perform 5 reps of Compressions over Breathing or about 2 minutes and then, call 911. Continue CPR until help arrives or until the infant begins to breathe again. Compressions will be pressed at about 1 and 1/2 inches of circumference.

A is for Airway – Clear the Airway

As you would with an adult or child, make sure to lay the infant on a solid/firm surface on its back. Make sure to kneel beside the infant’s shoulders while placing 1 hand on the infant’s forehead as the other hand gently lifts the chin.

Once again, check for any signs of life.

Look, listen and feel for any breathing for 10 seconds. Remember to place your cheek just in front of the infant’s mouth while checking for a pulse under the upper arm. If the infant isn’t showing any signs of life begin the Breathing technique.

B is for Breathing – Mouth-to-Mouth

Breathing into an infant is different than breathing into an adult or child.

Place your entire mouth over the infant’s mouth and nose when you breathe into the infant. Make sure to perform this task with less breath than you would with a child. If the chest rises complete the second breath, each for 1 second. If the chest doesn’t rise make sure to check for anything blocking the Airway of the infant and repeat the process.

Make sure to feel for a pulse and if there isn’t one continue performing CPR.


Choking is caused by an object blocking the throat or windpipe. Adults often choke by a large piece of food but children often swallow small toys or other objects.

Remember, the universal sign for choking is mimicking choking yourself. Make sure to ask the patient if he/she is choking because, many times, the person is merely coughing. If the patient is unconscious make sure to call 911.

Infants 12 months or younger: rest the patient on your forearm, while also resting your forearm, on your thigh. Perform 5 thumps with the heel of your hand upon the infants back. If the patient is still choking turn the infant over, face-up, and with 2 fingers upon the breastplate perform 5 chest compressions. Repeat the process until the object is lodged.

Children and adults: when performing the Heimlich maneuver make sure to stand behind the person. Lean the person slightly forward and wrap your arms around his/her waist. Next, press hard with a closed fist into the abdomen than grab your fist with your other hand. Perform 5 quick thrusts. If the object still hasn’t cleared the patient’s throat/windpipe, repeat the cycle.

Unconscious person: when performing the Heimlich maneuver on an unconscious person lay the patient on his/her back. Make sure to clear the patient’s airway, if needed, finger swipe the patient’s mouth to pick out any foreign objects. If you can’t see or can’t take the object out of the patient’s mouth, make sure to perform CPR. Chest compressions will most likely clear the patient’s airway.

If you’re still unable to clear the patient’s airway and/or if the patient still isn’t showing signs of life, make sure to call 911 and continue performing chest compressions.


Ventricular Tachycardia is a rapid heartbeat that begins at the bottom chambers of the heart, named Ventricles. Ventricles are the main heart’s main chambers which pump. Ventricular Tachycardia can be very life-threatening because it can lead to Ventricular Fibrillation.

Ventricular Fibrillation is when the cardiac muscles quiver rather than contract. Ventricular Fibrillation requires immediate medical response. If the patient receives no attention he/she will fall degenerate with no blood circulation. After 4 minutes serious brain damage can occur and after 8 minutes brain damage is likely to be severe and can result in death.

Automated External Defibrillator (AED) Guidelines

When should an AED be used?

CPR is a very important action when saving a patient’s life. However, an AED is crucial towards regaining the natural rhythm of the heartbeat as well as restarting the patient’s heart. CPR should be performed if the patient is non-responsive and not breathing and an AED should be applied after performing CPR. If the AED does not bring the patient back to consciousness CPR should be re-administered. It’s crucial to call 911 or any Emergency Medical Service (EMS) before performing CPR or applying an AED.

How to use an AED

Turn on the AED – Usually there will be an “On” button but in some cases there might be a lever. Remove all clothing from the patient’s arms, chest and abdomen-whether male or female. Attach pads to bare skin on the chest. Make sure to use the appropriate system for the child or adult (an AED should not be used on an infant). Place the left pad under the left armpit-to the left of the nipple and right pad under the collarbone on the right side of the chest. Make sure to place the pads at least one inch away from any implanted devices. Next, connect the wiring. Analyze the patient’s heart rhythm. Make sure you DO NOT touch the patient during the defibrillator process. If the AED does not begin analyzing automatically make sure to press the analyze button. If a shock is advised then push the shock button.

Make sure your patient is cleared of any debris such as: metal, large amounts of water, etc…

Newer AED’s only shock once; however, some models do shock up to 3 times. If the patient is shocked but doesn’t regain a pulse immediately perform CPR for 2 minutes. If a shock is not advised continue CPR. Make sure to stay clear of any large amounts of water or any metals. Make sure to shave the patient, if needed, when using an AED. Make sure to place the pads at least one inch away from any implanted devices or Transdermal medication patches (or remove patch).

Note: Before using an AED physical training is recommended.

Resuscitation (special circumstances)


Make sure to remove the patient’s wet clothing and replace it with something warm and dry. Make sure to perform rescue breaths if the patient is unconscious. If rescue breaths aren’t accessible make sure to perform chest compressions.


Make sure to use the jaw-thrust maneuver when performing the airway task. Make sure to check for any injuries, such as: head, spinal and neck, to maintain patient’s protection.


Hypothermia is considered to be when the patient’s body temperature is below 95 F. Make sure to remove patient from any damp areas. Make sure to remove any wet materials the patient might be wearing and replace them with something warm and dry. If the patient is unconscious make sure to NOT raise the patient’s body parts above the heart. Make sure to check for a pulse for 35-45 seconds.


Make sure to check for safety before attempting any performance on the patient. Make sure the patient isn’t near any electrical currents or fuse boxes. CPR is priority 1 for Cardiac arrest patient’s, burns, scrapes and other bodily harms aren’t considered priority 1. If the patient is unresponsive or pulse less, perform CPR.

Rescuers should be physically & mentally fit as well as skillfully prepared and readied for emergency responses. Rescuers should be knowledgeable of all equipment necessary for usage, beforehand.

Now let’s review

Infant – Review

AHA guidelines for infants are under the age of 12 months. The same C-A-B process is performed with the infant as with children and adults, besides a few important differences.

Make sure to perform 5 reps before calling 911, unless someone else can. Make sure to place 2 fingers just under the nipples and below the middle of the chest. Unlike children and adults you’ll place your mouth over the infant’s mouth and nose. The same ration of C-A-B’s are used 30:2 at 100 compressions a minute with 1 second breaths.

Child Review

AHA guidelines for children are from ages 1-8. The same process is performed with the child as you would with an adult besides a few differences.

Make sure to perform CPR before calling 911. The ratio of chest compressions to breathing is 30:2. Look, Listen and feel for breathing. Make sure nothing is blocking the airway. Squeeze the nose shut and perform the Breathing task.

Adult Review

Check to see if the patient is conscious by shouting “Are you okay?” several times. If the patient doesn’t respond, immediately call 911. Then perform the C-A-B’s. Circulation – use 2 hands for chest compressions at a ratio of 100 per minute-30 compressions then mouth-to-mouth. Airway – tilt the head back and listen for breathing and then look for any response. Breathing – mouth-to-mouth – pinch nose shut sealing the patient’s mouth with yours and breathe once checking for the patient’s chest to inflate. If not, perform the airway technique until chest inflates. 2 breaths every 30 chest compressions-each breath, 1 second.

Remember the order of the tasks being: Circulation, Airway, Breathing (C-A-B).

Choking Review

Choking is caused by an object blocking the throat or windpipe. The universal sign for choking is placing both hands around your neck.

Treatment for infants: Apply 5 thumps to infant’s back and 2-finger compression upon the chest and repeat until the object is lodged. Treatment for children and adults: perform the Heimlich maneuver (5 quick thrusts). Treatment for an unconscious person: lay the person on their back on the ground and perform CPR-not forgetting to clear the airway and to call 911.

When using an AED

Make sure to remove the patient’s clothing from intended placement of the pads. Place the pads on bare skin. Place the pads away from any implanted devices/medicated patches. Connect the wires and check the patient’s heart rhythm. Shock the patient if advised too. If not, perform CPR for an additional 2 minutes and recheck the patient’s hearth rhythm.

If you’re interested in learning more of if you’re interested in becoming Certified please visit us at:

We also offer certifications for First-Aid, Bloodborne Pathogens and Basic Life Support for Healthcare Professionals, Workplace Employees and the Community!

-National CPR Foundation

Find New Life For Old Tarps

Tarps are one of the most versatile items to have in your home or garage. The wide variety of sizes and materials makes them useful in many applications from protecting your car or boat from the elements to using them to haul leaves and debris across your yard.

When they’re new, these covers can protect almost anything but eventually, they wear out. Like most things, they can be reused and repurposed when they’ve outlived their original function. Instead of throwing them away here are some creative uses for an old tarp.

Reusing Your Tarps

What you reuse a tarp for depends on the type of material it is made of. Poly materials are great for waterproofing applications whereas canvas is better suited to protecting items that need breathability. With a good pair of scissors and some creativity there is no limit to what you can do with an old tarp!

Protect Smaller Items From The Elements

Just because a tarp is damaged in one area doesn’t mean the whole thing is bad. With a little creativity, you can re-fashion the old material for use in the same application. For example, a boat cover may break down and weaken over time on the top, which is where it gets the most direct sunlight, rain, wind and snow. But the sides might still be in perfectly good shape. If so, you can easily cut the damaged parts of the tarp off and cut down the good parts to fit other applications. A boat cover may be cut down to become an engine, seat or battery cover, used to wrap up fishing gear or protect the spare tire on the trailer. Use bungee cords to hold them in place.

Probably one of the most common uses for tarps, old and new, is to cover the backyard woodpile to keep your firewood dry. You can take that a step further by covering up your backyard fire pit if you know you’ll be using it soon but rain is in the forecast. When a tarp wears out, check it for sections that are still in good shape, then cut them into a manageable size and use that to create a handy log carrier.

Protect Delicate Areas

Canvas offers protection from wetness but allows air to circulate through. In their prime, canvas tarps are commonly used by painters as drop cloths and to protect outside items from rusting. Once they wear out, tears, rips and holes make it harder for these tarps to remain water-resistant, but they still have plenty of functions. They can be used to protect plantings, flower beds and garden crops from early or late frosts or use them as trunk or truck bed liners if you’re going to be hauling muddy or dirty materials or want to protect the interior surface of your vehicle.

Fun For The Kids

You can use your old tarps in practically any situation where you need to protect or cover something, but they can be used for good old-fashioned fun too. Drape the tarp over a cord hung between two trees and make a play tent for your kids. Use it to cover up a sandbox or kiddie pool or create an awning to provide a shaded area to play. Lay it on the floor and let them sit on it during messy activities like playing with modeling clay or finger painting. Clean up will be a breeze!

Next time you’re faced with a worn out tarp, take a minute to think about other ways you could use it or pieces of it. You’ll be surprised by how many ways an old tarp can be repurposed. In the process, you’ll save money by not having to buy new products for these uses and you’ll also extend the life of your tarp.

Professional Landscaping Design

Do you dream of entertaining your friends in the beautiful garden of your home? Are you thinking about renovating your home? Instead of renovating the inside of your house again, why not improve the landscape of your property. Having beautiful flowers, a pool, and maybe a fountain can prove to be more than inviting for your guests, it can also serve as a relaxing lawn for you to escape your worries. Let professional landscape company bring your dreams to life.

There are many varieties to consider when choosing the perfect design of your landscape. A professional landscape design company offers a full range of landscape design consultation services with on site designs. The experts of the landscape designers along with your personal design ideas, professional landscape company can make your dreams come true within the given time with little complications.

Professional landscape design company takes time to understand the environment of your ideal area of installation to clarify your needs. They want to give you the best quality service. You’ll be along the designers each stage as you wish to oversee the development of your perfect landscape.

Trees, shrubs, and other plants are an essential part to your landscape designs. They provide a sense of privacy, arduous smell surrounding your home, and they are a sight to see. Unless you’re a botanist or horticulture expert, you may not know that the flowers you place in your yard attract more than your neighbor’s attention. Different plants can attract some beautiful animals into your garden. The experts also give you advice and train you on the knowledge of the plants blooming cycle. You can easily have a blooming garden all year round.

Professional landscape design company goes to great lengths in the selection of the client’s plants, fences, pavements, etc. Choosing the correct activities for your yard guarantees the proper shade, texture, color, and form of the landscape. Some other varieties to consider are decks, ponds, fence, patios, walks, drainage, and paving. There are specific details that can enhance your lifestyle. The details that the professional put into your project are what truly make them experts.

Quality service comes along a professional landscape company that focuses on your need and to try to measure up to your lifestyle. Renovating or improving your landscape can have a peaceful effect to you and your family. A lovely landscape not only serves as a great spot to entertain your guests, it can also increase the value of your property in the long run.

Play Better Snooker – The Screw Back Shot, Also Known As The Draw Shot

The first requirement for successful execution of the screw shot (also known as the draw shot) is to aim at the very bottom of the cueball not by lifting the butt end of the cue into the air but by lowering the whole of the cue parallel to the bed of the table. A good tip here is to flatten your bridge hand. Whereas in the standard position the cue rests around about 2″ above the cloth (at the point it crosses your thumb-forefinger rest), by flattening your bridge you should be able to lower this.

Here’s a quick visualisation technique to help you aim at the correct point on the cue ball. This applies not only to the screw back shot but to any shot you will ever play. Picture the cue ball being split into layers. The very bottom of the cue ball is number 1, the centre is number 5 and the very top is number 10. This is a technique applied by the very best of players as it helps to engage the brain into a positive thought process. By successfully implementing this into your own game, you will find that you have a clearer understanding about how to execute every shot you play because you can apply a number to the position on the cue ball (e.g. stun shot = 5; stun run-through = 6-7; deep screw = 1-2). Please consider that you must also consider the power in which the shot will be played and the timing of the strike as these two factors obviously affects the action of the cue ball after contact with the cue tip. The same rules apply to side spin or ‘english’.

Although in my opinion, the way you grip the cue is not so important, it still warrants discussion because the grip itself has vital importance during the follow through phase of the cue action. Your grip on the cue should be guided by your thumb and forefinger. The other three fingers do not need to play any part in the cue action. They simply ‘do as they please’ during backswing and follow through. Movement of these fingers should be unconscious. With the screw back shot, it is important that your grip is loose enough to allow you to pull the cue back as far as possible – if it is too tight, you’ll simply not be able to pull the cue back far enough.

Here’s the important part regarding follow through – to achieve maximum screw back you’ll need to learn to follow through that extra little bit further than you may already do and to achieve this you may find that you’ll need to let your elbow drop. Watch snooker player Ronnie O Sullivan – notice how his elbow drops when he plays any shot with high power. This is because his grip has followed through maximally, i.e. past the point where it usually stops at – when it hits your chest. If you have your elbow locked you’ll find it difficult to follow through effectively for the screw shot. Try pushing your cue through another 2-3 inches after you feel you have reached full follow through and you’ll find there’s a little bit more to go by letting your elbow drop as you drive the cue through – at this point make sure that you don’t ‘release’. What I mean here is that you must keep your thumb and forefinger locked because they guide the cue and any release can cause the cue to throw off-line. If you can implement these little ‘maneuvers’ into your game you’ll notice your timing will improve as well because it will stop you from jerking the cue at the end of your follow through.

Many players have a good cue action but seem to be afraid of cueing too low on the white in fear of the dreaded miscue. Well, most of you will know that you can literally rest the tip of the cue on the cloth directly behind the white ball (watch snooker player Jimmy White for example) because a good cue action follows a pendulum like plane and at the moment of tip-cueball impact the cue is actually on the up.

To summarise and to put things into perspective….the reason for a long backswing is simply because of the point I mentioned above regarding the cue action being pendulum like. Visualise a swinging pendulum and how would you describe it….simply that it swings a certain distance in one direction then the same distance in the other direction. Now think back to the cue action….it’s simply inefficient to expect to bring the cue back 6″ and to follow through 12″ – that’s not pendulum like is it!? Aim to bring the cue back by around 8-10″ to your thumb-forefinger rest (this should tell you where to place your bridge hand in relation to the cueball). When you are ready to follow through, you should attempt to push the cue through the cueball with a fluent motion by 8-10″ also. This is arguably the most difficult part of the shot. If you can achieve this or even get somewhere near then you should be well on your way to improving your execution of one of the most difficult shots in the game to execute well, the deep screw.

Nutrition: Healthy Eating for Kids

Escape The Fast Food Trap: Nourishing Kids The Easy Way

When busy parents come home to a house full of finicky, hungry children, the local drive-through window may offer a tempting way to get dinner on the table. Yet soothing the restless natives with junk food comes with a hefty price tag. Convenience foods have inflated levels of processed sugars, carbohydrates, preservatives, and sodium – all of which are a recipe for nutritional disaster. A diet high in fast foods has been linked to childhood obesity, learning difficulties, behavioral issues, and worse. Health conscious parents can avoid these pitfalls by learning handy strategies that add up to delicious, nourishing meals that are ready in a flash. With a few of these tricks up your sleeve, every dinner can become a truly “happy meal.”

Swap Fast Food For Portable Pleasures

Kids love finger food, but that’s no reason to limit them to pizza and burgers. Pita pockets, rice paper rolls, and tortillas offer much lighter ways to transform any meal into a hand held feast. Pitas and tortillas are great blank canvases. Set out an assembly line of healthy options like greens, cucumbers, beets, corn, and salsa- and let your kids get creative. These ingredients are loaded with flavor, low in calories and packed with nutrition like B vitamins, lycopene, and iron. Add a protein like grilled chicken or tofu, and supply favor infusing condiments like salad dressings. These nutrition-packed power pockets will become a weeknight staple and kid favorite. For lightning fast dinners, pre-cook a large batch of chicken at the beginning of the week and cut it into strips. Your nightly meal preparation will consist of merely opening the refrigerator and chopping some veggies. Now that’s the ultimate fast food for kids and busy parents!

Make Breakfast A Priority

The nutrition your kids get from their morning meal can set the tone for the whole day. You simply cannot rely on school lunches to be healthy, or trust your children to actually consume what’s in a bagged lunch. Therefore, it is twice as important to feed kids well before they embark on a busy day of learning and play. Rather than sugar-laden toaster pastries or cereal, offer simple, nutrition packed options. A morning meal of apple and banana slices topped with almond butter is quick, and overflowing with antioxidants, potassium, magnesium and protein. Keeping a bowl of hard boiled eggs handy provides instant access to more lean protein that kids can grab on the go. When an extra energy boost is called for, make a smoothie with creamy almond or coconut milk, hemp protein powder, berries, a banana, a handful of greens (your kids won’t even taste them) and fruit juice. As far as children are concerned, it’s as decadently delicious as a milkshake. Yet nutrition experts would agree that this concoction packs a seriously nourishing punch.

Making nutritious food fast and delicious is simply a matter of good planning and good taste. What’s more, showing love via healthy cooking is good food for both body and soul. Escape the fast food trap and live deliciously.

How to Build a Go Kart – 5 Go Kart Building Secrets

To make a go kart that corners on rails like a Porche, looks like a Ferrari and turns all your neighbor’s heads we need to back up the truck and go to the beginnings.

In short hand, there are five steps to making a simple frame. First of all the following steps are:

1. Engine And Passenger Layout
2. Drive Train System
3. Steering System
4. Brake System
5. Throttle System

Let’s get into it now….

1. Engine And Passenger Layout

First of all the assumption, whether this go-kart is made out of wood or is made out of steel is that you have some sort of layout in mind. Typically the engine is behind, and the person sits in front of the engine. A good safe layout is to have a seat protect the passenger from the engine.

So a structure of some sort is needed to hold the seat in place. You can use a seat off of a chair, but a more protective seat is a ½ piece of plywood angled back and supported. Covering the piece of wood is optional, but it is more comfortable with basically a piece of heavy cloth covering a cushion. The cloth is stapled typically into the board (on the backside).

The structure supporting the seat can be wood, or steel.

The frame work can be wood or steel as well. If using wood, use two by fours placed vertically, so that the strength of the wood is optimized.

If you are using steel for the frame, use a tubing that is at least .070 wall or thicker. The length of the frame is really dictated by how big the person is. Have a person sit comfortably in the leaned back position with a steering wheel in their hands. That is the person compartment. Measure this length.

Add the engine drive section and the person compartment lengths together and that is the length of the gokart. Cut your frame tubes (or tack tubes together) to this length. You will need at least two parallel lengths of tubing.

Space the tubes apart the width of the seat you made (20 inches is a good width).

Cut at least four (4) tubes to the 20 inch length. Lay all the pieces on the floor. Place the 20 inchers at the following locations: Engine Plate area, seat back section, seat forward section, front main bumper tube, and rear main bumper tube. (The bumper tubes can be wider than the frame by 12 inches (6 inches per side).)

Tack the tubes in place using a welder. If you do not have a welder, then you can fasten them together using plates and bolts. (Trust me, buy a $100 welder and save yourself wood chips and drill bits, busted knuckles and exasperation!)

What you have put together now is what I term a “flat-go kart.” You will soon find out that flat gokart frames are weak and require extra stiffening. You may want to put some struts into the system to bolster the frame design. Typically what I use is the seat back as reference. This works very well as an integral frame support, side seat holder, and engine protector.

2. Drive Train System

The next sequence is to place your engine and drive train system in place. At the same time put your seat in position to make sure the seat and engine are not hitting each other. Be sure to make the seat removable so that you can actually work on the engine system when needed.

When placing your engine typically a plate is needed to hold the engine onto the frame. Some designers use tubes with holes drilled in them for engine placement. I prefer the plate option, because it gives me greater options as far as engine choices in the future.

For example on the Phi-Alpha-10 and the Phi-Alpha-9 (go karts I designed) the engine plate served well in allowing me to use different engines, whether Briggs and Stratton, Tecumseh or even Honda. All engine types could be easily mounted just by drilling the holes in the motor mount plate.

Most go karts use a slot system to keep the chain tight. In other words, the engine is mounted not using holes but slots. That works, but honestly, drilling slots is intensive works and requires some patience and thought. So I prefer tensioning the chain, it works better on multiple fronts. (I can go on and on about engines, drive trains and such…but we have got to keep moving here…)

A word about drive systems: A live axle system is really the way to go. All you have to do is mount two bearing brackets and away you go. On a one wheel drive system, you need to have special rims that contain bearings, special drive sprockets that connect to the tires, and the axle if it gets bent, you have to cut it out of the frame and start over….so use a live axle…

But, that is not all true. You can get away with using old lawnmower wheels if they have bushings in them. They work great for acting as bearings. Grease snot out of the axel-hub interface and away you go. Be sure to retain the wheel with a cross bolt that is at least grade 5.

3. Steering System

So after having mounted the rear axle (with brake disc (or brake drum) and sprocket), and having placed the engine and chain system in place, proceed to mounting the front steering system.

Before we did some measurements of the person sitting in the comfortable position, make sure you remember the measurement (relative to the go kart frame) of the steering wheel. That is the target point for the steering wheel.

The actual position of the front wheels is a bit more involved though. You will need a scale. Place the scale first of all under the rear wheels. I typically use a board placed across the rear frame rails underneath the wheel area. Have someone sit in the go kart. (Be sure to a have the front wheels, steering wheel and steering structure on the go kart when you weigh it)

Now proceed to the front of the go kart and place the board in the general area that you want the steering system. Again weigh the go kart.

Take the two weights and add them together. That is the total weight. The front weight ideally should be with-in 5 to ten pounds of the rear weight. This is called 50/50 weight distribution. The more weight you have on the rear, the more the go kart will under-steer. Meaning, when you turn the wheel the go kart will tend to keep going straight. The more weight you have on the front wheels, the more the go kart will over steer. Most drivers are used to under-steer, it is easier to recover from.

But I digress…

Once you have placed the front wheels in place then fix the front steering system in place there. I typically use plates, so that I can move the steering system back or forward. So I weld mating plates on the frame and the steering system, then bolt them together.

For wood go karts, you can actually design a very stable wood go kart using the carriage style steering as long as the steering is supported an not aloud to twist.

A word on steering systems: You can purchase from the store steering assemblies that you tack onto tubes. These work real well, with one exception, they typically come in .750 inch diameter shafts, where most high speed bearings use .625 diameter shafts. The shafts may need replacement. Look for .625 shafts… Additionally, there are ways to make the steering more tractable and more user friendly, these involve geometric relationships such as camber, caster, Ackerman and so forth.

4. Brake System

Now that you have the steering system in position, you can button up the hole project by covering the bottom of the go kart. Sheet metal (like furnace guys use) is the best option. Buy some tech screws (the ones with drills on their ends) and zip through the sheet metal into the tubing. Once you have that in place, you don’t have to worry about your feet hitting the ground!

Now it is time to place the brake system. You notice we placed the brakes in place on the live axle, now the actual braking mechanism needs to be mounted to the frame work. You can either weld it, or bolt it to the frame. I prefer bolting, it is more forgiving and easier to repair.

A word on brake float: The brake system should float. What that means is that the disc either needs to be mounted freely on the shaft, or the brake caliper needs to float. If the neither is floating, you will get a binding, and prematurely worn out brakes, and fast! So keep that in mind. Something has to float, the disc or the brake caliper (1 of the 5!)

For your brakes it is important to have the brake off while driving. A good spring is needed to keep the pedal back when the brake is not being used.

On a wood go kart be sure to use the same thought into the brake system. A lot of force is going into the brake boards so be sure to account for this in the brake mechanism which usually involves force multiplier linkages.

5. Throttle System

This seems like the most inane or over looked system on the go kart. It shouldn’t be though. A good connection between the throttle and the pedal is needed and a good range of motion is needed too. Most pedals give you different holes to work with, allowing your several options in throttle actuation.

Again, like the brake, a good spring is needed. Do not use a spring on the carburetor, but use the spring in the pedal, or pedal system.

A word about throttles: most engines come with governors. It is a good idea to use the governor system, because it helps keep the engine at even speeds and from over revving.

Marketing Vogue – Fashionable Ideas for Small-Business Owners

As a small-business owner, it’s OK if you’re trapped somewhere between the eighties and the early oughties fashion-wise…as long as your marketing is as in-the-now as the Buddhists. A marketing-mix that’s as up-to-date as Coco Rocha’s wardrobe might not make you an international celebrity…but it’ll definitely help you get paid like one. Take some tips from the fashionistas and makeover your marketing today.

Seasons Change… And so should your marketing plan. Frankly, a one-year marketing plan is too much for most small businesses…a big part of our viability is in our flexibility. To stay au courant, reassess your marketing plan on a quarterly basis – and make sure it suits the season.

Cover the Basics You know you’re gonna be living in those blue jeans, so it’s worth finding the ones that display your keister to its best advantage. The same holds true for the denim of marketing – your brand identity. Your logo and business cards should fit like a second skin…if you have to cuff the legs or leave the button undone it’s time for a new pair.

Make it Your Own Sure, wearing a sweater vest isn’t for everyone. But building unique marketing collateral that complements your brand identity makes you more memorable…and helps you compete for mind space. You can pair your blue-jean-brand-identity with a blazer of a website or the hoodie of brochures…but ditch the pre-designed template and customize.

Pleats Happen MC Hammer’s pants? Madonna’s glove? The eighties? Mistakes are inevitable and, in fact, constitute a big chunk of the growth process. Marketing mishaps are a certainty, and the best way to learn from them is to track them. Assiduously tracking your marketing dollar’s ROI is like looking at your high school class photo…it reminds you what not to do.

Classical Guitar Reviews

Once you get beyond the beginner stage in classical guitar, you are immediately looking at serious musical instrument quality. If you do not have a huge guitar-buying budget, you will need to be quite choosy and able to bear in mind the qualities you feel that your present guitar lacks. Your next classical guitar is, to a large degree, your musical voice, so do not let a tight budget make you buy a second grade instrument.

Let us start with Alvarez guitars, makers of a wide range of guitars. Alvarez guitars have been recognized as one of the leading acoustic guitar brands in the world. Alvarez guitars have been made in America since 1965 and are handmade in limited quantities making use of traditional construction techniques and naturally seasoned wood. Because the Alvarez craftsmen do not use computers to build their guitars, each guitar has its own unique feel and character.

Alvarez Regent Series RC10 Classical Guitar is towards the more affordable end of the Alvarez guitar range. but the Alvarez family craftsmanship still makes itself felt. A hand picked spruce top projects a warm tone topped off by mahogany sides and back. Rosewood fretboard and bridge and a real mosaic rosette make for a sumptuous look set off by gold machine heads. The novice guitar player will be pleased with the low action and optimal string spacing.

Alvarez Masterworks Series MC90 Classical Guitar is maybe the finest classical guitar in its price range. Its Indian rosewood back and sides, plus Western cedar top with precision scalloped bracing are features usually found only on much more pricey guitars. This instrument features a really elaborate mosaic rosette, rosewood body binding and headcap. The gold machine heads with tortoise buttons make it a guitar you will be proud to play and be seen playing for many years to come.

And now for the Jose Ramirez 4E Classical Guitar. The Ramirez name has been synonymous with fine guitars since 1882, and the 4E Classical Guitar is the top of the line. It is all made completely by hand and contains much of the look and feel of more expensive instruments. With hand-inlaid purfling, the marquetry and detailing are the most refined of all the Ramirez student guitars. Humidicase is included. The Jose Ramirez 4E Classical Guitar features a Cedar soundboard, solid rosewood back and sides, Spanish cedar neck strengthened by ebony topped off by an ebony fretboard and Fustero machine heads.

Finally, the Manuel Contreras II C-7 Classical Guitar. Manuel Contreras was born in 1928 and died 1994. He started out as a cabinet maker moved onto making guitars in Jose Ramirez’ guitar shop in Madrid in 1959. He started his own luthier business in 1962. Manuel’s son Pablo was born in 1957 and presently makes guitars himself aided by a smallish staff. Although the Contreras II C-7 guitar is at the low end of the Contreras line, you still get the benefits of the Contreras tradition of making top quality classical guitars. This guitar features a light, player-friendly action and a satisfying clarity and evenness of tone.The Manuel Contreras II C-7 Classical Guitar features a Solid cedar top with Indian rosewood back and sides plus Honduras cedar neck and ebony fingerboard.

His Most Famous Painting (Fate of the Animals) – Franz Marc

A pioneer of the ‘Expressionist’ movement in Germany, Franz Marc (February 1880 – March 1916) was born in Munich. His father was a ‘Landscape’ painter. Franz Marc studied at Munich, Italy, and France. He formed the ‘Der Blaue Reiter (The Blue Rider) Expressionist’ group with Kandinsky, in Munich, in 1911. A majority of his paintings have animals, including horses, dogs, tigers, and foxes, to name some, as their theme. Under the influence of ‘Cubists’ and ‘Futurists,’ Marc’s work showed a tilt towards ‘Abstraction.’ Apart from painting, Marc also worked in print, using lithography and woodcut. One of his best-known paintings, created in 1913, is “Fate of the Animals (Tierschicksale),” exhibited at the Kunstmuseum Basel.

Franz’s oil on canvass work, “Fate of the Animals” is a dynamic but a bleak piece of art depicting the devastation of nature. The painting, devised from ‘Leinwand’ technique,is said to be a prediction of the First World War. Franz made the use of vivid primary colors and jagged forms to depict the contrast between technology,

European wilds, and the destruction of natural surroundings. About the painting, Marc wrote to his wife, “It is like a premonition of this war, horrible and shattering. I can hardly conceive that I painted it.” The painting was in stark contrast to the works of the ‘Italian Futurists,’ whose creations were a glorification of the cruel aspects of development & technology. At the back of the painting, Marc wrote, “Und Alles Sein ist flammend Leid” (“And all being is flaming agony”).

Most of Marc’s work portrayed animals, mostly in natural settings. Overall, simplicity, bright colors, strong emotional overtones, and intense mysticism characterized his work, which the influential people in society noticed. Talking about the depiction of animals in most of his work, Marc said, “I think a lot about my own art,” adding, “My instincts have so far guided me not too badly on the whole, even though my works have been flawed. Above all I mean the instinct which has led me away from people to a feeling of animality, for ‘pure beasts’. The ungodly people around me (particularly the men) did not arouse my true feelings, whereas the undefiled vitality of animals called forth everything good in me… I found people ‘ugly’ very early on; animals seemed to me more beautiful, more pure.”

Under tragic conditions, Marc died in the Great War, in 1916, but not before creating some wonderfully exciting and moving paintings, most notably, “Fate of the Animals,” measuring 77 x 105 inches (195 x 266 cm). Had it not been for the War, Marc would have created several more painting splendors.

Zaha Hadid: The Nonpareil Impact On The World

In 2008 Zaha Hadid was ranked 69th on ‘The World’s 100 Most Powerful Women’ list of Forbes. Every building, artifact or installation crafted by her screamed of her identity through them. The bold shapes, asymmetric designs and lots of curves, crystallized contours were her signature style. Breaking the barriers of the contemporary architecture of her times, Hadid became the first Muslim women to win the prestigious Pritzker Prize.

Counted at the top of her game, Hadid was the most influential and powerful women in her arena, known for her futuristic and unconventional spaces that she created in Cincinnati, Guangzhou, Baku and London. She was and continues to be an inspiration for many designers in the fashion industry. Each work of an artist embodies a personality in itself and hadid’s architecture and designs are characterized by the expression of a sense of movement. However, her imagination was not just confined to the realm of architecture, but fashion as well. Apart from being a celebrated architect, Hadid designed Shoes, Jewelry, Furniture, Interiors, Installations, fittings and chandeliers and was also a painter.

Her inspirations stemmed from the dynamic motions of the intersecting routes, volumes and shapes that are not static. Hadid tried to capture the beauty of randomness and chaotic occurrences into massive structures, like freezing an explosion in real-time, or capturing the moment when a tidal wave is in action. The buildings designed by Hadid can never be simple, bland or prosaic, as every segment of the architecture stands bold, as if making an assertive statement of its identity. Her inspirations were drawn from a vast range from geological patterns, topography, landscapes or even sedimentology. The modern infrastructure, the curves, separations, bundling or intersections of motorways served as the ocular exemplars for some of her works. The dichotomy between nature and man-made, and their meticulous interactions were integrated in her experimentation with the visual imaging of the digital videography. The ‘unexpected’ and the ‘dynamic’ are the words synonymous with the design materialized of hadid’s imagination.

The embodiment of Hadid’s dedication and contribution to fashion is the exhibition designed by her known as the “Women Fashion Power” at London’s Design Museum.The uber luxurious designs by Hadid ranged from the mobile art pavilion, inspired by the Classic quilt handbag, that soon found glory globally and became mainstream in New York, Tokyo, Hong Kong and Paris – to the unique Pharrell Adidas sneakers. For the Danish label Georg Jensen, Hadid crafted the sculptural jewelry that represented an extension of her imagination and her unconventional fashion statement and a rustic blend of curves and edges to create the bold geometrical jewelry designs for Aziz and Walid Mouzannar, a Lebanese brand.

Although an ideal Zaha Hadid architecture would be mainly in the hues of whites and shades of Silver, Hadid extended her range in choice of colors by designing the jewelry using yellow gold, shades of Pink, Black and of course, White. Her signature fashion statement was unconventional, dramatic, bold and all black ensembles that made her stand out in the kind of edgy attires and jewelry.

According to Hadid, there was, in recent times, more fluidity between architecture, art and fashion. Having designed for Louis Vuitton, Melissa, United Nude, Georg Jensen, Lalique, Lacoste and Atelier Swarowski, Hadid always found an association between fashion and architecture. Since fashion gives you the immediate spatial and temporal feeling of moving ahead in time.

Zaha Hadid was in effect an exceptional personality, who was way ahead of her time, marking her spirit, brilliance and passion in everything she did. An unrelenting dedication to her art and the unique and spontaneous imagination, Zaha Hadid was a product of her time, who visualized the world in a different perspective and showed us how the future ought to look like.

Toward a Psychology of Being – A Review

Anyone who has studied basic management or leadership has heard of Maslow and his Hierarchy of Human Needs. As important as his contribution is to the body of leadership theory, there are probably few leaders who have ever actually read his writings. Frankly it’s much easier to read other’s synopsis of his work; he isn’t the most spellbinding author. First published in 1962, (the second edition was published in 1968) Toward a Psychology of Being examines Maslow’s thoughts on the self-actualized human.

Humans have certain needs and when those needs aren’t satisfied, the result can be neurosis. A need is defined as that which, in its absence breeds illness, when present prevents illness and if restored, cures illness. Maslow also felt that the need is inactive, at a low ebb, or functionally absent in a healthy person. But, needs exist in a hierarchy and so when one need is satisfied the person becomes aware of another need. These needs produce motivation.

Maslow did not believe that a proper definition of motivation had yet been created, but he uses the concept anyway. The movement from one level of need to the next is what leads to motivation. Some people are strongly driven to grow, to constantly seek out more and more. Simply stated, they experience motivation; the inward desire to improve. It is this group that has reached the self-actualization level.

As people progress along the hierarchy, the satisfied need doesn’t entirely go away but stays in a sort of repressed state. Therefore, it is possible to regress if that need ceases to be met. Even a self-actualized person will fall back down the hierarchy if a lower level need becomes unsatisfied.

In his research, Maslow made an interesting observation about creativity in healthy, evolved, and mature, self-actualized people. He discovered that many who are considered creative were not really healthy and that creativity was not the sole property of what are considered the creative professions, such as artists and writers. In fact, people in many varied situations proved to be creative, that it was a tendency of self-actualized people.

Toward a Psychology of Being is not an easy read. It only takes the reader a few sentences to clearly understand that Maslow was a psychologist. But, for a serious student of human behavior and management/leadership theory, it is worth the effort. Unfortunately, the first and second editions are long out of print, so search your local library. There is a third edition, published by Wiley in 1998, available on Amazon with a list price of $80.00. My purpose here is to review books that would be helpful for leaders to study, not to critique publishers. However, I can’t let this go without comment. Why so much for what appears to be essentially a reprinting of the 1968 second edition?

What Is Skin Rejuvenation And How It Can Be Achieved?

Most anti aging products lay claim to skin rejuvenation properties however, what does this really mean? What Is Skin Rejuvenation and How It Can Be Achieved? Having an understanding of this process might assist you to select the correct procedure your yourself.

Definition of Skin Rejuvenation

The skin rejuvenation process is defined as a process that takes place to attempt the reversal of visible signs of ageing. Skin rejuvenation processes have the ability to diminish wrinkles and lines as well as firm loose and sagging areas of the skin leaving the skin with a younger appearance. There are some surgical and medical procedures that can enable this.

The Face Lift

This method of skin rejuvenation can be carried out both surgically and non-surgically and is an efficient way of eliminating wrinkled or sagging skin as well as firm and tone.

Surgical face lifts are invasive and entails an incision in the hairline, traveling right around the upper part of your head. The surgeon will then peel the skin back to repair and rebuild underlying damaged tissue, he then replaces the skin, pulling it back while trimming any excess, it is then reattached to its original position.

The non-surgical face lift repairs facial tissue with the use of extreme heat through radio frequencies, laser surgery or electrical currents. The laser procedure creates a resurfacing of the skin by burning off old cells. Heat and electrical treatment works collagen groups, strengthening and building them and thereby promoting skin firmness. They can also increase the ability of the skin to produce new elastin and collagen.

The Chemical Peel

This process also assists in skin rejuvenation. By application of a chemical peel on the problem area, once the chemical peel is removed it takes away all old dead skin cells revealing skin that is more youthful looking. The chemical peel is applied and left to dry and once set, peeled off. This procedure also stimulates skin to generate new cells.

Injections for Skin Rejuvenation

There are many instances in which people have undergone skin rejuvenation by means of injection and this has proved successful. It entails having Restylane and Collagen injected below the skin of problem areas to plump the skin, giving a fuller, more smooth appearance. Botox is also use, this blocks neural impulses that cause the skin to contract, the resulting “relaxation” lets the skin health naturally.

Why to Proceed with Caution

All of the procedures mentioned above have proved successful skin rejuvenation methods. However, there are some drawbacks; they are sometimes not effective on people with darker complexions and others might have distressing side effects. Always check with your doctor to secure a method that is perfect for you.

7 Benefits of Being Physically Active

Do you want to feel like you are healthy and energetic? Maybe even live a longer, healthier life? Regardless of your age, sex, or physical ability, you can improve the quality of your life by becoming physically active. Check out these seven benefits of remaining physically active.


Physical activity will help to improve your mood. Many people find that walking, jogging, or working out after a stressful day helps to calm their moods.

When you exercise, chemicals in your brain are stimulated, causing you to feel both happier and more relaxed. Your confidence and your self-esteem should also improve when you exercise on a regular basis because you will feel better about the improved shape of your body. There is also evidence to suggest that regular physical activity can help to prevent depression.


Chronic diseases such as heart disease and osteoporosis can be controlled through physical activity. And, high blood pressure can be dramatically reduced (and sometimes even eliminated) if you will develop a routine of exercising on a regular basis. Other issues such as the build-up of plaque in your arteries can be reduced by exercising as you increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and decrease triglycerides.

Even Type 2 diabetes, osteoporosis and certain types of cancer can be prevented by remaining physically active.


You can manage your weight through regular physical activity. We all know that physical activities such as walking or jogging will move us toward our health goals faster than spending time watching TV.

Engaging in physical activities causes our bodies to burn calories. We lose weight when we burn more calories than we consume. And, more intense activities burn more calories.

You need to find time to exercise on a regular basis. Like many people, I go to the gym every day for my structured workout routine. However, even if you do not go to a gym or have a structured routine, there are several things you can do every day to increase the number of calories you burn. Instead of riding the elevator, walk up the stairs. Instead of sitting during breaks, walk around the building. Incorporate some type of activity while you watch TV. If you look for ways to burn extra calories every day, you’ll find them.


Boost your energy level by exercising. You will be able to breathe easier when you exercise on a regular basis because your tissues will be supplied with more oxygen and nutrients. Your entire cardiovascular system will work more efficiently when you are physically active on a regular basis. The result? You will discover that you have more energy because your heart and your lungs will be performing more efficiently.


You will be able to sleep better when you perform a regular exercise routine or stay physically active. And, your concentration, your productivity, and your mood will all improve when you sleep well. However, many people have found that exercising at least several hours prior to bedtime works better than exercising close to bedtime. Since exercising tends to energize your body, you may find it challenging to fall asleep immediately after your workout.


OK, here it is… you might notice a rather dramatic improvement in your sex life once you get on a regular program of exercise. Have you ever been too tired to enjoy sex? Has physical intimacy ever been awkward because you were out of shape?

Well, it happens. So, you can understand why feeling energized and feeling better about your physical appearance might improve your sex life. Some women report enhanced arousal and some men report fewer erectile dysfunction issues when they are physically active on a regular basis.


Find an exercise or physical activity you like… then do it! Even better if it’s fun and you can involve other family members or friends. If you get up and start moving around, you will find indoor and/or outdoor activities that not only burn calories but are also fun.

Move around. Develop a routine. Become physically active. Today. You can do it!