Acid Reflux Treatments – An Overview

What is Acid Reflux?

Acid Reflux or Gastro esophageal reflux disease (GERD) is not a disease rather it is a condition. Over stuffing and under eating, excess use of spicy foods, regular drinking of alcohol and smoking accompanied with no exercise are considered as primary causes for acid reflux. In acid reflux the food in the stomach starts coming back to the esophagus. Food that is rising in the esophagus is not the simple food. It also contains strong acids and digestive enzymes. This acidified food burn the protective mucosal lining of the lower esophagus due to this burning mucosal lining becomes weak and even it is destroyed completely. This burning and destruction makes mucosal lining more sensitive to have ulcers and cancers. Most prominent sign and symptoms include burning sensation behind rib cage and stabbing pain in chest. Other symptoms include frequent coughing, difficulty in swallowing, sinusitis, voice changes due to damage of voice box and nausea. In case of improper treatments and ignorance acid reflux will be converted in to serious diseases like ulcers, strictures, inflammation of throat, larynx and lungs and even cancers.

Acid Reflux Treatments

Acid Reflux can be treated in two ways. One is proper medication and other is simple alteration in life style and eating habits. Whatever you use as acid reflux treatment it is highly recommended to consult with doctor. This is because of the fact that medicines used to treat other diseases can inhibit drugs used to treat Acid Reflux. Acid Reflux Treatments can be classified in to three broad categories.

– Changes and Alteration in Life Styles

– Medication

– Surgery or Laparoscopic Surgery

Changes and Alteration in Life Styles

In this treatment patients are advised to change their life style from eating habits to sleeping habits and even body postures during physical workouts. If we talk about eating habits patients will have to quit spicy foods, coffee, alcohol. It is also suggested to reduce the consumption of cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli and cauliflower. It is also recommended to have smaller meal but more than 3 times. Avoid having meal just before going to bed. This will reduce stomach expansion during digestion. Chewing gum just after having meal will increase the production of saliva that in turns neutralize the acid in esophagus and in turn give relief in acid reflux. Patients are advised to follow the following guidelines

– Give up smoking.

– Cut down caffeine intake.

– Bring down stress

– Try to maintain ideal body weight.

– Try to avoid wearing waist fitted clothes.

– Do not do physical workouts after having meal.

Bad body postures such as bending or slumping that causes contraction of stomach can increase the chances of GRED. Patients are recommended to try to keep their body in straight and comfortable posture. Don’t sleep without pillow. Keep your upper body elevated this will not let the fluid come in esophagus.


Proton Pump Inhibitor Drugs

Specific drugs are also designed to use as acid reflux treatments. Some drugs lower down the acid production by deactivating cell surface molecules (proton pumps) in gastric lining. Proton pumps work with positively charged Hydrogen ions and increase acid production. Proton pump inhibiting drugs have serious side effects.


Mild cases are treated with Antacids. Aluminum hydroxide, Magnesium hydroxide, Calcium hydroxide and Sodium bicarbonate are common antacids used as acid reflux treatments. Antacids increase the pH of stomach and decrease acidity by neutralizing acid in stomach. Antacids must be taken after one hour of having meal. Because antacid can not stay longer in the empty stomach and leave the stomach with in the hour. Meal increases the retention time of antacid in stomach. Other than lowering pH antacids have certain undesirable side effects. Aluminum containing antacids can cause constipation while magnesium containing antacids can cause diarrhea. Liquid antacids are preferred over tablets. Strongest liquid antacids available are Maalox II, Mylanta II, Gelusil II and Extra Strength Riopan

Alginic Acids

Alginic acid is the active component of foam barrier tablets. Foam barrier tablets contain Alginic acid in combination with aluminum hydroxide gel and magnesium trisilicate. Alginic acid in tablet form protective coating on stomach and lower esophageal mucosal lining. This allows cells to regenerate and repaired. Foam barrier tablets forms foam in stomach. This foam starts floating on the top of the liquid content of stomach. Foam act as physical barrier and does not let liquid to rise in esophagus. Two foaming barriers Gaviscon and Algicon are commercially available. It is recommended to chew well after 30 to 60 minutes of having meal or before going to bed.


Antihistamines are also used to treat acid reflux. Stomach walls produce histamine. Histamine accelerates acid production by binding specific receptors present on acid producing cells of stomach. Antihistamine drugs bind to these receptors and block histamine binding that in turn reduces the acid production. Ranitidine, Famotidine, Cimetidine and Nizatidine are commonly used antihistamines or histamine antagonists. They are available without prescription as over-the-counter (OTC) but the dose of OTC is lower than those available by prescription. Antihistamine drugs are taken 30 minutes earlier than meal. This will make antihistamine available in higher concentration when stomach is actively producing acids to digest food. Antihistamine gives fast relief from primary heartburn and inflammation of esophagus.


Prokinetics drugs act on lower esophagus muscles. As a result muscles become tough and accelerate the departure of food from stomach. Due to this food does not get the chance to return to lower esophagus. Due to dangerous side effects it is not recommended to use. Drugs have been withdrawn from the market.


Sucralfate are used for proper functioning of digestive muscles. They improve the healing of esophageal muscles. It protects the sensitive mucosal lining. It is normally used in combination with anti GERD drugs.

Surgery or Laparoscopic Surgery

Severe Acid reflux can be treated through surgery. Surgical procedures are use to support lower esophagus. This will stop the rising of acidified food in esophagus. Surgical procedure used to accomplish this is called as Fundoplication. In this method stomach is wrapped over esophageal sphincter. Surgical treatment of acid reflux is very complicated. Before surgery extensive investigation has carried out to check the patient condition. These investigations include combine pH-impedance, testing assessing non acid, and acid reflux. Surgery is invasive procedure and must perform with extreme care. In contrast laparoscopic surgery is less invasive method. In this method tiny holes are made in belly button and upper abdomen. Patients get fast recovery. Laparoscopic surgery must performed by qualified and experienced surgeons.

What Are The Different Types of Fireplace Mantel Shelves?

Fireplaces, heat providers aside, are great to look at. They live up to their status as the focal point of your room, if not your entire house. How you accessorize your fireplace, however largely affects the overall look of your interior decorations. This is the reason carefulness is needed when you decide to spruce up your hearth like for instance, adding a fireplace mantel.

When deciding on a mantel shelf, there are many elements to take into account, starting off with the material. Here are four common materials used and how each of them fair, both functionality and decorative wise.


Among the fireplace mantel shelves, wood types are the most common. They work well in traditional looking homes and blend really nicely with almost any interior designs. Wood mantels offer many options when it comes to decorating. Oak, a superior type of wood, for instance is both classy and versatile.

Typically wooden mantels are affordable. Its cost is one of its main attractions. Even expensive solid wood shelves like those made of oak don’t cost as much as those made of stone. Wooden mantels come in different wood types which include maple, cherry, Douglas, hemlock, alder, pine, just to name a few. They come in different finishes like black, distressed cherry, and primed. There are also unfinished wood fireplace mantels which are great for people who have yet to decide the best shade for their mantel to match their home interiors.

However, one major drawback for wooden mantels is that it’s highly flammable. If you’re thinking of a wooden mantel shelf, make sure that you consult with your local building officer and fire safety code department for the safety regulations specifically on the desired measurements allowed from a wooden material to your fireplace.


Stone mantel shelves whether made of limestone, marble or granite are great for aesthetic functions. Home builders prefer stones simply because they give many options as they come in a variety of colors and textures. They are both beautiful and functional. Moreover, they can also be treated in several different ways providing more diverse choices that will surely match any discerning taste. It is likewise fireproof and durable, making it the best material for a mantel shelf. It is also relatively low on maintenance. It usually just takes a soft cloth to wipe it clean.

On the other hand, stone mantel shelves are generally more expensive than other options. It can also be difficult to install which makes installation cost higher than normal. For those who prefer stones but can’t afford it, there are actually cheaper alternatives which will give you the same stone fa├žade. There are kits that you can buy in many home improvement stores or even through online shops. They look like the natural stone mantels but are much easier and cheaper to install.


Metal is best known for being versatile. It goes well with almost any kind of designs most especially the modern or contemporary look. You don’t have to worry if your metal mantel shelves will clash with the rest of your interiors because chances are, there is always something in your room thats made of metal. Appliances alone are generally made of metal.

Metal mantel shelves made from stainless steel, solid bronze, brass or aluminum among others. They are known to keep up their pristine look despite many wear and tear situations. With their bold lines and intricate craftsmanship, they are ideal for electric-powered fireplace. Also, because of their flexible features, metals can offer non-conventional shapes and forms, providing more unique designs than other available options.


Perhaps next to wood, bricks are the most obvious choice for a mantel shelf. They are simple, functional and very affordable. If you are into Romanesque and country feel, bricks are definitely great options.

Despite their simplicity and functionality, bricks, also have some drawbacks. They’re limited when it comes to color and texture options making it difficult to find one that matches the design you have in mind. To solve this limitation, tiles are often the ideal substitute for bricks.

Measurement and Prices:

When selecting a mantel piece, material and dimensions are crucial factors to consider, along with price. In terms of measurements, most chimney pieces come in standard sizes. The average width ranges from 60-72 inches while height averages from 4.5-16.75 inches. They are also made available in custom sizes. Prices on the other hand can start from around $100 to as much as or over $500.

Before purchasing a mantel piece, it is always a good idea to shop around to compare prices as well as designs. Get accurate measurements and see safety measures. Installation of conventional mantel shelves is generally made easier by adjustable brackets. However, for more complex types, you might consider hiring a contractor. With the right fireplace mantel, you will surely have a more enjoyable fireplace experience.

Dollhouse & Miniatures – How to Create a Unique Replica Dollhouse & Miniature Project

Before creating a unique dollhouse, one must first have some creativity and imagination. If you plan to furnish your dollhouse with a collection of miniatures bought elsewhere, it may get a bit costly. However, with enough patience and imagination, you could very well be on your way to creating your very own unique dollhouse project that will be the talk of the neighborhood.

Choosing Your Dollhouse Style

There are many dollhouses out there and all of them are very presentable, but to really create a unique dollhouse & miniatures, you need to first plan a theme. You can get ideas from movies you’ve seen, books you read, people you have researched, or by visiting the building you wish to replicate. The possibilities are endless.

You may already have an inspired idea for your first unique project. To help decide on your theme and get some creative ideas flowing, first, decide whether your dollhouse project is going to be fictional or nonfictional. In other words, decide if it is going to be something more real looking, or something right out of a movie. Secondly you then decide the time period or fantasy idea you are going to work from. For example, do you want to create a castle, or a more futuristic project? Then, if let’s say castle was your choice, start by researching all the castles and their time periods until one sparks some inspiration. Inspiration is the key to finishing a good replicated dollhouse & miniatures project.

Establishing a Floor Plan and Scale

Once you have found your inspiration and idea, you need to come up with a floor plan and scale. Many dollhouses are made in 1:12 scale, meaning that the dollhouse and all objects in it are 12 times smaller than the actual object itself. This is an easy scale because 1 foot actually equals one inch. So if your house is originally 20 feet wide it would need to be 20 inches wide in your replica. By researching the project you intend to make, you may find for example a floor plan of the Edinburgh castle for example. If you can, arrange a tour of the building but if you can’t, then finding online web cams, websites, and pictures of the location may help you be as authentic as possible. It would be wisest to choose a project of something you know you can replicate well. If you do not have the means to go to the place as it is fictional, then watching the movie you are working from or reading the book you are creating from, you may come up with enough details to draw up your own floor plan if you can’t get a copy of one. The more authentic the floor plan, the more amazing your unique dollhouse & miniatures become.

Choosing a Display Style

Next, you will need to decide on the display of the dollhouse. You may want to either have it hinged in the middle to open up, have an open back, have lots of large windows, or have a roof that comes off for viewing the miniatures. Deciding on the display of your project now, will help you envision your finished product, that much better. You need to decide on what the best way to showcase your miniatures inside will be.

Make a List of Materials

You need to look carefully at the details of your project and materials that will be needed. Decide what you will build your dollhouse & miniatures out of. Many dollhouses are made from wood, but I have seen a few made of clay or even glass. Many miniatures are made from polymer clay and some water effects have been created by using epoxy resin. Some products can be found in nature also, like pebbles for stones, sand, moss, bark, twigs and dried shrubs. Note: always work outside when handling epoxy resin or even some of the glues used and learn the safe way to use it before starting your project. Be sure to read all directions for the proper use of the materials and tools you are working with. Next, make a list of all supplies needed. You will want to have everything handy.

Once you have decided on the materials, you then need to list the tools that will be needed to complete the project. Keep in mind that your hands will often be working in confined spaces and so the tools may vary room to room. Do not forget to include a measuring tape as it will be used often. Long handled tweezers and tongs often come in very handy as does a well lit room and a set of magnified glasses or for me a magnifier lamp comes in super handy for hands free magnifying and light all in one.

The Building Phase

OK, so by now you probably will feel very prepared, which is the key to a successful dollhouse. You can now start building the project. You need to build the dollhouse as you would a real house. Start with the foundation or base, then the framing or skeleton as many call it. Next you may want to plan in your lighting. You can buy lighting in dollhouse size in many places online. Then start the walls leaving spaces for the doors, windows, and lighting fixtures and then finally the roof leaving a space for the chimney if required. Once framing is complete, add any other details to the dollhouse as needed including siding, roofing, doors, windows, wallpaper, flooring, trim, fixtures, landscaping and lighting fixtures. Test your lights and any other electrical additions to be sure they are working before you continue filling the house with miniatures. Be sure to leave enough wire to reach the nearest plug in from where your dollhouse will be located once finished. Six to ten feet of wire should be a suitable amount to reach any plug in.

The Decorating Phase

Finally comes my favorite part, creating the miniatures. Start with the furniture and appliances, then the wall hangings, being sure everything is adhered well to the dollhouse. There are many different types of glue that are needed for different types of materials, so be sure to include that in your list of materials needed. Also include gloves if needed. Nothing is more embarrassing then gluing yourself to a tiny toilet! Once all of your furnishings are in place, add in the finishing touches. There is no limit to what you can create and if you draw a blank on how to create something, ask yourself what can I use that looks a lot like the object? A cap off of a small mouthwash bottle would make a great wastepaper basket for example. Some pieces you may want to buy rather than make such as a toilet or a stove for example. There are many great miniaturists out there who would possibly even be willing to create a custom miniature for you.

Enjoy the Dollhouse Experience

Last but certainly not least, have fun! That is what this hobby is all about and once the project is complete there is a real sense of accomplishment and reward. When the project is finished, consider having a miniature themed dinner party complete with tiny hors d’ oeuvres to celebrate and show off your new masterpiece.

Thank you for reading and I hope you enjoy your next dollhouse & miniatures project!

Hardwood Flooring Vs Carpets

With what at times appears to be an ever increasing number of home ‘style’ programmes on TV, perhaps it is not surprising that people are becoming more and more conscious of the variety of interior decorations that are possible. One big question for many is what type of flooring to have in their home. For many years, it has almost been standard practise to have carpeting, but increasingly, there is a trend towards hardwood flooring. There are, of course, advantages and disadvantages to both, and we look at these below:

Period Style

Whilst this may be less relevant for those moving into a new build, for anyone moving into an older property that they are looking to renovate, it will be important to capture the look of the era in which it was built. In many cases, this will mean leaving the flooring visible rather than carpeting it. This, of course, is largely an argument for style, and certain disadvantages may have to be overlooked in order to attain the appropriate period look.


Whilst carpets certainly offer a degree of warmth and colour to a home, they do also wear out. This can leave a room looking a little worn unless the carpet is replaced at regular intervals. This, naturally, brings with it an extra cost. Hardwood flooring, on the other hand, not only looks attractive but is extremely hard wearing. Eventually too, its appearance will deteriorate but is easily, and cheaply, corrected with a quick varnish.


Carpets offer a little extra warmth to us humans; however, they also offer a home to a great deal of dust and other particles which are then circulated around the room, causing problems for those with allergies and asthma. They are also prone to attacks by the carpet moth which lays it’s larva in the carpet weave and, often undetected, eats away at the carpet. This effect is rarely seen until it is hoovered, when the carpet thread simply turns to dust, leaving a bare patch. Hardwood flooring on the other hand is easy to keep free of dust and other debris which can cause allergies, making it a much more pleasant environment for those sensitive to such things. Whilst a carpet can be easily cleaned by hoovering regularly, this does not reach deep enough into the carpet to eliminate all dust. Hardwood floor, on the other hand, can not only be swept, but a damp mop will clear it of any remaining dust.


If you have a pet such as a cat or dog, a hardwood floor is much more suitable. Cats especially, love to dig their claws into a carpet and pull at the threads. They do this as a form of grooming, as it trims their claws. It does, though, cause a great deal of damage to the carpet. Muddy dog paws too can make a significant mess of a carpet but can easily be wiped off a hardwood floor surface.

A Change

To change the style of a carpet, you have to purchase a new one. Hardwood flooring however can be sanded down and varnished in a different shade. It can also be aged, distressed, or even coloured should you prefer to do that.

Which method of flooring suits you best, can only be decided by you, but it is fair to say that wood floors offer many significant advantages over carpets in the main rooms of your home.

Why Every Home Needs a Water Velocity V-Pump

A reliable pump system is crucial in every home, whether for practical reasons or emergency purposes. You may use this to empty out your swimming pool or pond, remove water from a flooded basement, or use it for construction purposes. Most homes and even commercial properties rely on electrical or a sump system for basements. If you find electrical to be costly or if you are looking for a back up to supplement your existing system, a water velocity v-pump is your best bet.

What is a water velocity v-pump?

This type of pump uses velocity to move water. It does not use electricity in order to relocate water or mud. Unlike most types of appliances that are similar, which contain complex parts in order to function, the v-pump does not have any moving parts. Through a patented design, this works with a garden hose in order to drain water efficiently from any flooded area. A quick connect feature connects the v-pump easily to the garden hose. You may use the water velocity v-pump in swimming pools, ponds, fountains, spas, boats, construction sites, and basements.

The advantages of the v-pump

One of the biggest advantages of the v-pump is that it doesn’t use any electricity. An electric one is efficient in drawing out water from flooded areas but it is usually expensive to maintain and operate. One that operates at more than 10 amps will surely cost you a significant amount in electricity per month. Since the v-pump does not require electricity in order to work, it is a breeze to use, at no expensive cost. The innovative, patented design of the v-pump makes it an easy to use, inexpensive, and highly efficient pumping system for the home and beyond.

Another significant advantage to the water velocity v-pump is its cheaper acquisition cost. Most electrical pumps easily cost a hundred dollars, sometimes more. Since the v-pump simply relies on the effective use of velocity and does not have expensive moving parts, it costs less than half of many electrical ones available today.

The V-Pump Submersible Water Velocity V-pump is a submersible water pump that has the capacity to move water and mud at a rate of 1200 gallons per hour. This v-pump does not need electricity to operate and relies on water pressure to deliver pumping results. With its 40 ft discharge height, it is an excellent choice for ponds, basements, construction, and pools.

Cam Gigandet Workout and Diet – Never Back Down Workout

Cam Gigandet workout and diet program for the film “Never Back down” got him into incredible — muscular and lean — conditioning. Read this article and discover the “Secrets” of how he got his phenomenal body.

As movies go… “Never Back down” is not exactly an Oscar-winning film however, the conditioning that the villain in the film had (Ryan McDonald) was award-winning.

The type of physique he displayed is the body… that women really love. Six pack abs, lean yet muscular — it’s a very similar look to what Brad Pitt served up in the movie “Fight Club.”

Secrets of the Never Back down Workout

In order to develop that lean muscular look that Cam Gigandet had here’s what you need to do:

Cam Gigandet Workout Routine Schedule

Monday – Chest

Tuesday – Back

Wednesday – Shoulders

Thursday – Biceps & Triceps

Friday – Treadmill 45 minutes

Sat/Sun – OFF

That is what his workout schedule looked like.

The goal of this workout was to get Cam as ripped as possible. While the above schedule only reflects one 45 minute cardio workout, for most guys if your body fat is not already in the single digits you will need to do cardio 5 to 6 days per week. Use a high-intensity interval training protocol to get the maximum fat burning effect.

The Cam Gigandet Diet

His nutrition program was a typical bodybuilder’s diet. High protein and low in carbohydrates. If you’re looking to get lean and ripped you will need to increase your protein intake to approximately 1 to 1 1/2 g per pound of bodyweight and you will need to restrict your carbohydrates. That means no carbs after 6 PM and you will need to eat clean.

Here are some good food choices:

Skinless chicken breasts

Salmon, Tuna, Trout (these are all high in omega-3’s which is a good fat.)

Baked potatoes, Brown Rice, Yams, oatmeal etc. should make up the bulk of you’re carbohydrate foods

Most individuals don’t have a lot of time to workout. Exercise routines like this Cam Gigandet Workout are usually very intensive. The actors don’t have a lot of time to get in shape and therefore they train — many times for 2 to 3 hours (including cardio.)

However, you can get a great workout in the comfort and convenience of your home using resistance bands, dumbbells, or Isotonic/ isometric exercise equipment. Don’t use the excuse that you don’t have time stop you from having that lean, muscular, six pack abs showing body that you want.

NLP Circle of Confidence Exercise

This technique is from NLP and will help you access confidence whenever you need to feel more confident. Clients in the past has found this technique really useful when giving presentations

Client Exercise

1. The Situation. First think of a situation when you would like to feel your best and most resourceful self. Draw an imaginary circle on the ground in front of you. Make it a generous circle of about three feet in diameter.

2. Relive Confidence. Stand up and let yourself go back in your memory to a time when you were very confident, abundantly confident. Get back to it strongly; see what you saw and hear what you heard. Notice what you are feeling and how good it feels reliving that moment…

3. In the Circle. As you feel the confidence building step into the C.O.E. What colour would you like the circle to be? Would you like it to have a sound like a soft hum that indicates how powerful it is? What is the sound like? How does it feel? Are you relaxed, excited, strong? How is your posture and breathing right now? Notice the position of your feet and hands, the tilt of your head. When the feeling of confidence is at its fullest, step out of the circle, leaving those positive confident feelings, colours and sounds inside the circle. Break state.

4. Repeat the exercise with a second experience if you want to add further resourceful states to the circle or if the circle doesn’t feel strong enough. Repeat as many times as necessary. The circle is limitless and you can keep adding more confidence and power resources to the circle over time.

5. Selecting Cues. Now think of a specific time in the future when you want to have that same feeling of super confidence. See and hear what will be happening just before you want to feel confident. How will the scene unfold? What is the cue to knowing that it is nearly time to step into the C.E.O.? It could be the opening of an office door or stepping onto a stage or being introduced to an audience…

6. Step into the Circle of Excellence! Feel the confidence there for you again, the colour the sounds, the confident breathing and posture. Imagine the scene unfolding exactly the way to want it too with all your confident feelings and resources fully available for you.

7. Check Results. Now step out of the circle again, leaving those confident feelings there in the circle. Outside the circle, take a moment and think again of that upcoming event or situation. You’ll find you’ll automatically recall those confident feelings. This means that you’ve already reprogrammed yourself for that upcoming situation and you are already feeling better resourced for it. When the time comes you will naturally feel more confident and if you want to add more power to those positive feeling, your circle of excellence is only ever one footstep away.

Wicker and Teak Furniture – Best Outdoor Furniture

Furniture is an essential element in every home. It will enhance the beauty and structure of your house. It is therefore crucial to choose furniture that will suit your taste. You must choose the finest and not just any ordinary furniture that will give your home a distinct look and feel. Read on to determine the types of patio furniture that you can choose and get sufficient knowledge that can enhance your home.

Wicker Furniture

Wicker furniture is mostly popular for outdoor furniture. It is made from interlaced slender branches and has distinct characteristics. It is light, strong and woven like feature which makes it more appealing. Wicker furniture can enhance any outdoor area with relaxing mood and tropical aura. It can be made from rattan, bamboo or plastics. Rattan is more preferred as it brings out natural beauty with its natural finish. It is also believe to bring luck and wealth in one’s life.

Plastic wicker, on the other hand, is equally popular. Aside from being inexpensive, it is also a low maintenance material that is weather resistant. The only disadvantage of having plastic wicker is that, due to its low cost, it is often mass produced look. The furniture you might be getting may not be unique, unless you customize it.

One disadvantage of wicker as furniture is when a part of the woven material comes loose. It is most likely to affect the entire furniture when not taken care of. The whole structure may be damaged and weakened. This can be prevented when the loose part is restored immediately. You can glue or bond it with a chemical suitable to stick the wicker together.

Most wicker materials can withstand any weather conditions. Because of this characteristic, it is ideal as outdoor furniture. However, most wicker materials are flammable. That is why it should not be placed near fireplace or bonfires.

Teak Furniture

Teak is considered an expensive wood material. Having tweak furniture is considered to be part of your status symbol. It is expensive at the same time possesses great qualities. Teak originated in Southeast Asia. It is mostly used for making ships in the old times due to its durable characteristics. And because of this, tweak furniture can last long and stay beautiful for the longest time. With proper care and maintenance it can be long lasting furniture. Teak have natural oils which has the ability to be rot free. It also gives a glossy and polished look. It is also bug repellant and absorbs very little heat. With these characteristics, it makes teak withstand extreme weather conditions.

Teak furniture is expensive compared to other materials. It is mainly because of its strong and durable property. It is therefore ideal to get a teak patio furniture if you prefer an outdoor furniture that will last a lifetime.

With these different types of furniture available, it is up to you to decide which one will suit not just your outdoor space as well as your budget.

7 Examples Why Boots Are Better Than Shoes

Boots are better than shoes for all sorts of reasons. They are more durable. They last longer. They protect your feet from potential dangers better than shoes do. The list goes on and on. However, real life anecdotes help drive home the idea better than just making a list. Here is a list of experiences that demonstrate the point.

1) When you drop an eighty-pound speaker cabinet on your foot, the steel toed work boots you are wearing protect your feet from being crushed. Meanwhile your friend who was only wearing a pair of Converse All Stars now has a smashed foot with lovely purple toenails.

2) While cruising on your motor scooter your only brake cable snaps and you are forced to press your thick Vibram lug sole work boots to the pavement in order to stop. In a similar incident your girlfriend wears shoes while riding her moped. Unable to get her machine to stop because her shoes were inadequate to the task at hand, she now sports a nice scar on her hip marking the spot where she became one with the asphalt.

3) Being a short female, less than five feet, in a bar sucks. Wearing a nice pair of women’s western boots can give you a solid two-inch lift and the stability that isn’t offered by a pair of stiletto heels. Plus when the drunken guy next to you tries to balance his beer on your head you have the option to kick him in the package without fear of the toe breakage that an open toed shoe would be vulnerable to.

4) Your friend falls off his skateboard and sends it careening your way. It hits you in the ankle. You end up with only a small bruise because you have a nice pair of Lacrosse work boots on that cover your ankle with thick leather. Thank goodness you didn’t wear tennis shoes because you’d probably have a fractured ankle.

5) Out on a summer picnic with your girlfriend you spy what looks like a rounded up pile of dog feces. Before you are able to react the dark brown-coiled object lunges at your feet and bangs its head against your boot. I further examination you find two tiny semi punctures with trailing scrap marks in the leather. Rattlesnakes can ruin picnics if you don’t watch where you are walking and wear leather boots.

6) It rains roughly three inches in less than an hour in your neighborhood. The city drains begin to back up from the deluge and become choked with debris. The streets are now flooded with two feet of standing water. Luckily you have a pair of Muck boots which you deploy thereby keeping your feet dry and protected against the floating trash within the water. You unclog the nearest drain, which stops the water from almost entering your home. Your neighbor wears a pair of Nike shoes and gets a nasty gash on top of his foot from a submerged spiked palm frond. You trudge onward protected by thick rubber boots.

7) You try to recapture your youth and buy a pair of Converse All Star tennis shoes. These shoes proceed to do everything in their power to murder your feet. Pain permeates your body with each step you take. You swear you don’t remember them hurting like this when you were in high school. You buy a pair of plain looking Tony Lama cowboy boots. You slip them on and they become the most comfortable footwear you have ever owned. You don’t take them off for two years. Your girlfriend is concerned. You get a new girlfriend and give the All Stars to the Salvation Army. Boots rule!

No matter if your experience is out of the ordinary or not, boots just do a better job of keeping your feet in good health. Don’t mess around with footwear and stay standing and walking by wearing good boots.

Ten Little Known Facts About the Columbia River

Here though are ten little known facts about the Columbia River:

1. The Columbia River is the largest hydroelectric power producing river on the entire continent of North America. Over its length, there are fourteen different hydroelectric dams that span the width of the river and produce power that can be used by both those within the region as well as those from outside the area.

2. In 1836, the first steamboat entered the Columbia River when the British vessel ‘Beaver’ made the trip.

3. An area of the Columbia River called the Hanford Reach, located south of Priest Rapids Dam and before the river reaches the Tri-Cities, is the last stretch of the Columbia River within the United States that is free flowing and unimpeded by dams, reservoirs or the effects of the ocean tides.

4. The Columbia River starts in Canada and flows south into and through Washington State before emptying into the Pacific Ocean. Despite this, for the first 200 miles of the river’s journey it actually flows northwest.

5. The first European explorer to travel the entire length of the Columbia River from the headwaters down to the Pacific Ocean was Canadian explorer David Thompson who did so in 1811.

6. More than 40 percent of the wheat that is exported from the United States travels by barge down the Columbia River.

7. Only three rivers actually flow completely through the Cascade Mountains; the Columbia River along the Washington-Oregon border, the Klamath River in Oregon, and the Pit River in California.

8. Cape Disappointment is the name for the landmark on the northern edge of the mouth of the Columbia River. It was named as such by British Captain John Meares who had searched for the legendary river but could not find it.

9. Vanport City was a community located near Portland that was completely destroyed in 1948 due to a massive flood that resulted from a failed dike. At the time of its destruction it was the second largest city in Oregon.

10. A landslide during the 1700s near present-day Cascade Locks, Oregon formed a land bridge that crossed the Columbia River and allowed Native American tribes on each side to trade with each other more easily. The name for this bridge was the Bridge of the Gods. There is now an actual bridge near the location of the slide that is also named the Bridge of the Gods.

The Columbia River will continue to be one of the most used and needed resources in the Pacific Northwest. The power produced on the river benefits residents far outside the boundaries of Washington and Oregon and has played a vital role in the development of industries as well as wartime production. The Columbia River provides a number of options to visitors to the region as well as those who are local to the area. From water skiing, to fishing, to boating, to swimming, to commerce, to transportation, and more, the Columbia River offers something for almost everyone who travels near it.

Types of Puzzles

What is a Puzzle?

Often definition is:” A puzzle is a problem or enigma that challenges ingenuity.” In a basic type of puzzle you piece together objects in a logical way in order to come up with some shape, picture or solution.

Puzzle games never seem to age, specially today with computer, WWW and online games. Most puzzle games are basic in graphics but are very addictive, sometimes leaving you playing for hours.

There are many types of puzzles. Some of them are very popular, and some are not. Puzzles that have been created until now can be divided into several main categories.

Jigsaw puzzles are a well known and popular type of puzzle. A jigsaw puzzle is a puzzle that requires the assembly of numerous small pieces, and each piece has a small part of a picture on it. When all pieces are complete, a jigsaw puzzle produces a complete picture. There are two dimensional, three dimensional (Puzz-3D is the brand name of three-dimensional jigsaw puzzles), and recently online Jigsaw puzzles have appeared.

Word puzzles like Crosswords and Anagrams are the most popular type. A crossword is a word puzzle that takes the form of a square or rectangular grid of black and white squares. The goal is to fill the white squares with letters, forming words by solving some type of question or clues which lead to the answers. The black squares are used to separate the words or phrases. An Anagram is a type of word play puzzle, and by rearranging the letters of a word or phrase, you produce a new word or phrase by using all the original letters only once.

Logic puzzles include many different types of puzzles. Logic puzzles are math-based, like the well known and popular puzzle, Sudoku. Besides Sudoku, other logic-based number placement puzzles include Nonograms (or Pixel Puzzles), Kakuro, Impossible Puzzle, and The Tower of Hanoi.

Combination puzzles are a variety of mechanical puzzles that consist of a number of pieces which can be manipulated into different combinations by a group of operations. The most famous of these puzzles are the original Rubik’s Cube, and the Tangram puzzle, where the objective is to form a specific shape with all seven pieces.

Tiling puzzles are puzzles which involve two-dimensional packing problems where a number of flat shapes have to be assembled into a larger shape without overlaps. In some tiling puzzles you must first dissect a given shape, and then rearrange the pieces into another shape, or dissect a given shape while fulfilling certain conditions. Types of tiling puzzles include Conway puzzle, Domino tiling, and Puzz-3D.

Construction puzzles are solved by assembling any puzzle from a given set of pieces in a certain way. This main category includes any of the stick puzzles, many tiling puzzles, and also some mechanical puzzles. In online games puzzles representative of this type are Bridge Builder, The Incredible Machine, and Pipe Dream.

Transport puzzles are puzzles in which the player pushes boxes around and tries to achieve the aim of the game. The most popular representative for this type of puzzle is the Sokoban puzzle. Other examples of this type of puzzle are cube puzzles and sliding puzzles.

Picture puzzles are popular with children, and include Connect-the-Dots and Spot the Difference where two versions of an image are shown side by side, and you must spot the difference.

Sliding puzzles are solved by sliding blocks without lifting any of the pieces of off the board. Most people are familiar with N-puzzle (or. Fifteen puzzle), where you slide flat pieces along a board to establish a certain end-configuration.

Tour puzzles are puzzles where players make a trip around some type of game board. The most popular tour puzzles are Knight’s Tour, Mazes (or labyrinths), Mizmazes and Logic mazes.

Mechanical puzzles include the Rubik’s Cube, disassembly puzzles, interlocking puzzles, and impossible objects (like Ship in a Bottle).

Which Arabian Horse is Right for You? Tips to Choosing Your New Horse

After years of admiring the gallant Arabian horse from afar – or enjoying one from a local stable – you’ve finally decided to take the plunge and become an Arabian owner yourself. Congratulations! There’s nothing quite like the exhilaration of mounting your very own regal Arabian horse and heading off for a ride – just you and your new companion.

But, finding the right horse to meet your needs, interest and personality can be quite daunting, not to mention time consuming. There are a lot of things to consider when choosing the right Arabian horse, but most experts agree, a horse’s conformation, condition, training, temperament and personality are the most important things to be considered.

Conformation- Arabian horses are known for their physical attributes: those wide-set eyes: short arched back: and high tail carriage. But don’t be fooled by this horse’s beauty. It’s important when selecting an individual horse to look at its overall body structure and the way it’s balanced. At the most basic level, you want to look for an athletic body structure. Next, you’ll want to carefully study each part of the horse’s conformation to determine how well it will be able to perform the tasks it’s asked to. When considering any Arabian for purchase, it’s important to check the following:

Forehead – should be broad, full and flat Head – should feature well proportioned ears: eyes that are located correctly and are short and soft. This usually signifies intelligence and a good demeanor.

Throat – the throat should be of average thickness with no muscle buildup on the underside of the neck. Look for a nice natural roundness on the top side of the neck.

Nostrils – Arabian horses are known for their flared nostrils, which help them take in more oxygen. Be sure they feature wide dilation.

Muzzle – Check for firm lips, with no sagging of the lower one.

Chest – watch for a narrow chest which can cause interference with the front legs.

Forearm – should extend from the elbow to the knee and be well-muscled.

Condition- Arabian horses are known for being a sound breed. Their strong resilient legs and dense compact bone makes them free from most lameness. Of course, any horse can have physical ailments that may go unnoticed by the untrained eye. That’s why it’s important to carefully study the horse’s conformation closely to give you a good idea of its overall condition. As a potential horse owner, it’s also important to understand the purpose of owning your horse in order to determine what condition is acceptable. If you’re planning on showing your newly acquired Arabian horse, than you’ll need to consider its overall look more closely to be sure that it meets showing requirements, as opposed to horse’s purchased for recreational riding only. Never sign any sales agreement without first having a prospective horse carefully examined by a veterinarian of your choice to be certain that it is indeed strong and healthy. Once you’ve received a good health report, you can check it out for these other important features:

Training- While young horses have more energy, they can also be harder to train. Unless you have experience training horses – or are willing to pay for someone who does – it is generally better to stay away from horses under six years of age. Unless you are a horse trainer /or hire a trainer, they can be overly excitable, nervous and even hard to control. However, older horses too may take a bit of work, since they often come with bad habits or poor training and structure.

Temperament & Personality- Loved for their disposition and loyalty, Arabian horses are a wonderful choice for just about any horse lover who wants a true companion for years to come. The best recreational mount is one which is gentle to handle, and sports an attitude that is willing to please. Be sure to visit prospective horses several times to get a true feel for its temperament and personality before making any purchasing decisions. A horse may appear to be perfect in every way, but if your personalities clash, you’ll regret your purchase in no time! Avoid any sellers who aren’t willing to give you the time and space to really get to know the animal. They may be trying to hide a physical flaw or uncomely personality trait. While a horse’s conformation, condition, training, personality and temperament are the most important factors when choosing the right Arabian for you, there are a few other factors to consider:

Your Experience. How much experience you have with horses can make a big difference in the one you ultimately choose to call your own. Arabians are beautiful horses that can be easily picked out of a crowd, making them very appealing to many horse lovers. They are strong and loyal and are well suited for many purposes including showcasing: endurance rides of 50 to 100 miles: harsh weather conditions and of course, recreational riding. Alert and curious, the Arabian is quick and intelligent, making it a wonderful companion.

However, they can also be flighty and high-strung, making them hard to control for the less experienced rider. As is the case with most horse breeds, the Arabian stallion can be difficult to control, while mares are often calmer, and showcase better dispositions. They are more expensive though, which often makes the more mild-tempered gelding (or neutered male), the best choice for many horse buyers who aren’t interested in breeding. The size of the horse is also important. Since Arabian horse can be slightly smaller than some other breeds, you may need to consider your size in relation to the horse before settling on one specific animal.

Choose one that is large enough and strong enough to handle your height and weight to avoid unnecessary injury in the future. While it’s important to pay particular attention to the factors explained above when choosing your next Arabian horse, the most important factor to buying any type of horse – including an Arabian horse – is taking your time. Pick one that best suits your own personality, style and experience and you can’t go wrong.

Stress – How Perceived Stress Vs Actual Stress Affects Your Health

Stress affects your health in a variety of ways, all negative. Without going into all the biochemical specifics, suffice it to say stress, perceived or actual, floods your body with powerful stress-related chemicals that would be very useful if you were literally fighting or running for your life, and are very health-destructive otherwise.

Effects Of Stress On The Body

  • Stress cause blood platelets to stick together, which raises blood pressure.
  • Stress causes your body to burn essential nutrients at a rapid rate, which can lead to nutrient deficiency leading to poor organ and gland function.
  • Stress interrupts digestion, which means food goes partially undigested and you get only a fraction of the nutrients from the food you would get otherwise.
  • Stress floods your system with homocystine and cortisol, which are linked to high blood pressure, heart disease and a tendency to gain weight.

Types Of Stress: Actual And Perceived

Actual stress, which is largely unavoidable, includes environmental stress such as air, water and noise pollution, and other environmental factors including extreme temperature, dangerous weather and so on.

Actual stress, which is fully avoidable, includes things like smoking, excessive drinking, a junk-food, fast-food, high-sugar, nutritionally deficient diet, lack of sleep, pushing yourself physically beyond your limits, and doing anything that obviously works against your health and well being.

Sources of psychological stress, most of which is avoidable or certainly capable of being modified, may include things like relationship issues with a spouse, child or anyone;  job-related issues; financial issues; self-esteem issues; goal and achievement related issues, personal integrity issues and so on.

When something happens that directly, physically impacts you, it is an ACTUAL stress.  Drinking polluted water, dropping a hammer on your foot, eating a bag of cookies and washing it down with a quart of sweet tea; these are sources of actual, real stress.

Perceived stress is not actual, perceived stress has to do with the story you tell yourself about what something means.  If your spouse runs late without calling, and you get all upset because you decide that means he or she is having an affair, then you upset yourself abut something that may or may not ever happen, and being upset about the thing you IMAGINE produces the SAME negative cascade of powerful stress-chemicals that flood your system as if an actual physical stress had occurred. 

Perceived Stress May Be More Health-Destructive Than Actual Stress

If you think about something that has not happened, and your thoughts upset you, the stress response to those imagined events is a REAL STRESSOR that affects your health.  This is how someone can use their mind to destroy their health, and while the stress is imagined, the damage is real.

A study published in The Journal of Psychosomatic Medicine reports that perceived stress is more destructive to your immune system response than actual stress.

Using blood samples taken over a 16-month period from study participants who had been vaccinated against meningitis C, researchers determined that people with high levels of PERCEIVED STRESS consistently measured fewer protective antibodies than all other groups.

Participants were divided into 3 groups;

1) Group one had Low ACTUAL Stress with no stress conditions beyond the ordinary. 2) Group two had High ACTUAL Stress with unusually high stressful circumstances. 3) Group three had High PERCEIVED Stress.  Most participants in group three had low to normal stress levels, however, they perceived their lives as being highly stressful.

The group with high-perceived stress frequently had very low actual stress.

The group with HIGH PERCEIVED STRESS tested 80% fewer protective antibodies in their blood than either of the other two groups.

Discussion: The message here is clear; there is a DIRECT and MEASURABLE connection between your immune system strength and the way your react to the world around you.

The most notable thing about this study is the clear distinction made between ACTUAL STRESS and PERCEIVED STRESS.

Several of the study participants experienced the loss of a parent during the 16-month study period.  By any standard, the death of a loved one is a highly stressful event, yet even those in this highest stress group had perfectly normal levels of protective antibodies.

Twenty seven percent of the participants reported high levels of perceived stress during the study and, to a person, this 27% had up to 80% fewer antibodies, even though in most cases, their ACTUAL stress was far less than other participants.

The message is clear.  If you think you are stressed you get the negative health consequences whether or not the stress is real.

How does perceived stress weaken your immune system?

When you feel stressed your brain produces a cascade of powerful bio-chemicals called neurotransmitters.  There are many different kinds of neurotransmitters, but the long and short of it is that stress related neurotransmitters can be HIGHLY DESTRUCTIVE to your health.

Constantly feeling stressed means you are constantly flooding your body with powerful chemicals that weaken your immune system and leave you more vulnerable to illness and disease.

Practical Application: The practical application of this information is obvious.  Take control of your emotions and never let little things, (or big things), get you down.

Stressful situations occur, but ACTUAL STRESS, stress that you recognize, deal with and move on, will not harm your health.

Monitor your feelings and emotions.  If something is bothering you, DEAL WITH IT.   Your health is too important to let things bother you for very long, and besides that, (to quote my dad), what difference will it make in a hundred years?  And to quote my wife, what difference will it make in an hour?

Remember this . . .

Stress-related bio-chemicals damage your health and those chemicals are made IN DIRECT RESPONSE TO YOUR PERCEPTIONS, not in response to the actual situation, and that means, simply controlling your response to things may go a long way to helping protect and preserve your health.

Remember, excellent health is a choice you can make, and you make that choice every day with your diet, nutrition and lifestyle decisions.  So learn everything you can… and choose wisely.

Types of Down Syndrome

Down syndrome is a congenital defect that leads to both physical and mental problems. This genetic disorder is a common disability, affecting 1 in every 700-800 babies per year. It occurs more frequently to babies born to older mothers. In fact, by age 45, a woman carries a 1 in 45 chance of giving birth to a child with Down Syndrome.

There are several different types of Down syndrome, which can all affect a person differently. First, the most common type of this condition, and the disorder that everyone associates with Down syndrome, is called trisomy 21. Normally, people only have 2 copies of genes at every locus, one for the maternal information and one carrying paternal information.

However, during the creation of egg or sperm cells, one may carry an extra set of genes for the 21st chromosome. Thus, when they combine, the baby will have trisomy 21, or three sets of chromosomes at that location. Because this happens so early in the formation of the baby, trisomy 21 will occur in every cell of the body.

A rarer form of Down syndrome is called mosaic. With this form, trisomy 21 arises at a later stage of infant development, which means that only some of the cells have the effects of Down syndrome. This may only affect part of the body.

Lastly, the least common form of this genetic disorder is called translocation. With this, normal genetic information from the 21st chromosome becomes attached to another chromosome. Thus, a child may have extra information from the 21st chromosome even though it is not at the normal location.

In many cases, Down syndrome can hinder a child’s learning and development, making it difficult for him or her to work as an adult. This is especially true with non-mosaic Down syndrome. If you suffer from this condition, you may be entitled to financial compensation to help you with your disorder.

Interior Painting – How Much Paint to Purchase

Have you purchased a home and want to save a few bucks by doing interior painting on your own? Indeed, this is a great idea because interior painting can be done even by a person who does not have any experience. But before taking a brush in your hands, make sure you do some homework by reading a few learning guides. This article is to help you determine how much paint your need to purchase so it is enough to cover all of your walls.

Next time you go to a place that specializes in paint, take a good look at labels that let you know the expected number of square feet a gallon of paint will cover. Normally, you can expect to easily cover around 350 square feet with one gallon of paint. Although basing your calculations on the figure is a good starting point, you still should take it with a grain of salt. In other words, don’t take it too seriously because the number of square feet you can cover with one gallon of paint will greatly depend on the type of the surface you will be working on and how you paint.

To get a more precise amount of paint that needs to be purchased, it is important that you measure a room. Luckily, measuring the room is not a brain breaker. Just measure the surface, after which you can convert the numbers into square feet. You do this by multiplying the width and the length of the surface that need to be covered with paint. Make sure you multiply the result by 2 if you are going to be applying to coats of paint.

The method of calculation described above is not 100% precise, but provides you with a good starting point.

A problem might arise when you decide to calculate the amount of paint needed to cover the surface next to doors and windows. It is not that easy to do, so a good rule of a thumb to follow is to pretend that windows and doors also need to be covered with paint. In other words, imagine that the door is the continuation of the wall. This allows you to have some space for an error. Since you are not a professional interior painter, chances are you may will spill a bit of paint.

Below is a calculation of an imaginary wall, just so you have an example to follow when calculating the amount of paint needed. Say you have a wall which is 15 feet by 25 feet. We multiply these numbers to get 375 square feet of surface. If it is a newly constructed building, you will want to use to coats of paint to make sure the wall will not be seen through it. Therefore, we need to purchase enough paint to cover 750 square feet. If 1 gallon of paint should be used to cover 350 square feet, then all you need is to be 2 gallons of such paint.

Hopefully this article helps you tackle of one the many problems you need to address when it comes to interior painting.