Chandelier or Chandelette: What’s the Difference?

When looking for ceiling fixtures, you may be pondering choices such as a chandelier. Once you’ve stepped into the world of chandeliers, you may also notice that some of these light fixtures are referred to as “chandelettes.” You may be wondering what the difference is between a chandelier and a chandelette. This guide will give you a low-down the differences between the two light fixtures.

What is a Chandelier?

In short, a chandelier is defined as any ceiling fixture that features two or more arms with light sources. They typically include a number of crystals or glass that refract the light from the arms, thus illuminating the light. By definition, chandeliers are accepted to be a minimum of 12 inches in diameter.

What is a Chandelette?

The major defining difference between a chandelier and chandelette is the diameter size of the fixtures. While a chandelier must meet a minimum size of 12 inches in diameter, a chandelette is defined as a one that ranges from 9 inches up to 12 inches in diameter. Once these light fixtures get smaller than 9 inches, they typically are referred to as pendant lights.

Aside from size, a chandelette can be almost identical to a chandelier featuring the same number of arms, lights, crystals or other details; simply on a smaller scale.

Other Similarities

In all seriousness, these lights can share many of the different characteristics outside of size. They can both feature two or more arms with two or more light sources. They can feature drum shades, tapered shades, candelabra style lights, scrollwork, crystals and more.

Today, many manufacturers are creating identical versions of the same light in both chandelier and chandelette sizes. This makes it easy for homeowners to find the right ceiling fixture to suit their space depending on the overall size of the room (or in some instances, dining table).

You can also find chandeliers and chandelettes in a number of different styles including contemporary, traditional, rustic, modern, shabby chic, romantic and many, many more.

Additional Differences

It should also be noted that it is possible for chandelettes to be marketed as “chandeliers.” When shopping for these particular light fixtures, be sure to take note of size. Never, ever assume that a light fixture marked as “chandelier” is of true chandelier size. Always take note of the dimensions listed for the light fixture to ensure it is the correct size and type of fixture for your space.

How High Should I Hang my Chandelier or Chandelette?

Once you’ve found the right light fixture, you’ll need to know how high (or low) to hang it. Fortunately, the rules of thumb are the exact same for both light fixtures. The chandelier or chandelette should hang approximately 30 inches from the bottom of the fixture to the top of the table.

For foyers or other spaces, you will want your lighting to hang at least 7 feet (around 84 inches) from the floor to the bottom of the ceiling light. This prevents you (and your guests) from bumping into it.

In short, the main difference between these two lights simply boils down to size.

How to Use an Impersonal Style of Writing

Wait a minute. Aren’t we supposed to strive for a more personal tone in our writing? Well, yes. But there are lots of writing opportunities where an objective and totally impersonal tone just works better. For instance, it will be tough to take a lab report seriously if the writer is constantly tying the findings with his feelings. It neither helps understanding nor clarity, so it serves no useful purpose in the body of work. Same goes for many forms of technical writing, be it in the engineering, medical or technology fields.

There are three distinct things you should do to promote objectivity in your writing. These are:

1. Use third-person pronouns. As a corollary to this, always avoid the first person. Never write “We found…” or “I tried.” Instead, say “It was found…” or “The group tried…” Linking actions in the actual document to yourself strips objectively in a large way.

2. Use passive sentences, instead of active. I know, every writing guide you’ve read told you active sentences were more vibrant and communicative. That’s not what you’re going for, though. Rather, you’re aiming for objectivity and formality – things passive sentences are able to deliver in spades.

3. Use the report itself and parts of it as actors in your writing. This is actually simpler than it sounds. Basically, you should use terms like, “The report shows…,” “The experiment’s findings indicate…” and “These results demonstrate…”

Lastly, if you want to ensure an adherence to technical writing standards, you should look towards using a technical writing correction software. These specialized writing tools not only work to fix grammar and sentence structures, they take the next step by ensuring it reads well for a technical audience.

Basic Information About Abrasive Garnet Processing

Garnet is a mineral that is abundantly present in the earth and can be extracted from the soil with careful processing. The term describes a large family of minerals that are chemically related. The garnet can be said to be like a grain, and grain like crystals are found embedded in the stone. It is obtained from the silicate based stones and is formed when natural forces like wind, water, and natural shifts of the Earth’s plates wear away at stones. Garnets are generally found in river beds, which indicate that water is the important force in forming garnet minerals. The stone is then harvested and processed to get abrasive garnet. Through geological history of erosion and deposition the highest quality garnet is made available. There are many industries located all over the world for abrasive garnet production.

There are many types of garnet with the same chemical formula and they are found naturally all over the world. The abrasive garnets have different characteristics depending on their natural region. The largest deposits of the highest quality are found in North America, Australia, East Africa, and Asia – specifically in India and Russia. The garnets are available mainly from river beds and mountain regions of these places. Many garnets are mined in an open pit and the shallow overburden, or soils over mineral deposits, is removed using large bucket shovels and dump trucks. This is the appropriate method of extraction for shallow deposits of garnet.

Highly refined, non-toxic garnets are obtained from mining and wet-processing operations. In a wet concentrator, spiral classifiers are used to separate abrasive garnet from lighter trash minerals and shell sands. The garnet is passed through a vacuum filter belt with several stages of final washing with freshwater for very low level of chloride that is internationally accepted.

The remaining sands are shifted back to the mined paddies and reshaped with original top soil for rehabilitation. The quality of the semi-refined garnet concentrate is tested at the laboratory from the sample and then it undergoes dry processing. Final impurities are removed with rare earth magnetic separators using natural gas fired rotary dryers. Non-magnetic minerals spin off in the outer cut and magnetic minerals fall below. At the end of dry processing the garnet is packed in an automatic twin-spout bagging machine and the bulk garnet is stored in large storage sheds for shipping.

The price of garnet is decided based on the type, source, quality purchased, quality and application. The world industrial garnet production has reached a total of about 335,000t. To get a quality product of garnet abrasive, the mining and processing tasks are complicated and need careful supervision.

What is a Front Lip and Why Would You Want One?

What is the reason for all of the interest in this part of an automobile?

There are two key reasons. One is practical and the other one is cosmetic.

From a practical standpoint a vehicle moving through air sometimes acts like an airplane. That is, the air flow under a car or truck travels a slightly shorter distance than the air flow over the top of the vehicle. This difference causes a pressure differential, with the low pressure at the top of the vehicle.

This means that there is greater pressure trying to lift the car up, than keep the car on the road. The weight of the car is enough in most circumstances to overcome this tendency to lift up. However, move the car fast enough and thereby increase the air flow and interesting things can happen. Just like an airplane taking off, enough speed equals enough lift and you are air borne.

What is good for an airplane is disaster for a car. If you ever watch pictures of car races, you might see a picture of a fast moving race car suddenly lift up in its front end and sometimes completely flip upside down.

The front spoiler or lip or air dam, is designed to stop this dangerous air flow, on a race car or an exotic car which is capable of very high speeds.

The second reason these devices are added to cars is for styling. People like to feel they are driving a fast car. They want the appearance even if they will never push the car to speeds that require an aerodynamic device like this. If you look at most new cars, you will see some type of extension below the front bumper. It’s there for the design and not to hold the front end of the car down.

Since not all cars come with this look, there is now a large aftermarket which designs and builds lips, spoilers or air dams for people who want to dress up their pride and joy.

Is it all positive? No. There are a couple of things to keep in mind. First, this is additional weight on the front end of the car. It should not make a difference, but if you add a very heavy weight to the front end you can change the handling characteristics of a car. Second, you have now lowered the distance from the front end to the pavement. On a level road, there should be no problem. However, hit a dip, or a tall parking block, or even a steep driveway and you may find your front end is dragging on the ground.

The last caution is installation. Most aftermarket products like this require a certain amount of expertise to fit it correctly. If you do not have this experience, find a professional for the installation.

A Closer Look on Knee Replacements and Social Security

Knee replacements can sometimes be inevitable. However, these procedures could also mean medical expenses, which you could only hope that your Social Security could cover. This is also for this reason that one should learn more about knee replacements and Social Security.

What Is Social Security?

Social Security refers to a social insurance program that provides benefits or services in recognition of contributions to an insurance scheme. These services include retirement pensions, disability insurance, survivor benefits, and unemployment insurance.

Knee Pain Patients and Disability claims

Severe arthritis and other structural damage to the knees can highly support a successful Social Security disability claim. Most chronic knee pain patients who claim social security are in their forties and fifties. Knee pain is usually the result or wear and tear after a few years. Some are involved in a car accident years ago; some were injured when they were still high school athletes while others simply wore down their cartilage or bones in the knees after standing on hard concrete for many years.

Damage to one or both knees can result to exertional impairments like limitations on standing, walking, stooping, climbing and carrying. Non-exertional impairments are also present like pain, poor sleep, pain medication and side effects, and obesity.

Social Security judges usually encounter knee pain as the reason on claiming disability. However, you should bear in mind that when making a claim, you have to show that the pain is more than the mild to moderate discomfort that patients usually experience. Your pain must be very severe and debilitating to a point that you have difficulty in walking and sitting.

Moreover, most judges look for factors like long consistent work history of the patient, MRI and X-ray reports that are objective proofs of evidence of the knee problems, and recommendations from the attending doctor that knee replacement is needed. Bilateral knee replacements are usually favored. Other factors that the judges will consider include dysfunction of a major weight-bearing joint. They may also look into those who are over fifty years old with limited education as well as unskilled work background.

It should be proven as well that functional capacity for work has been affected and reduced by the knee pain itself.

A Case of Knee Replacement

Take, for example, a 59-year old female who worked as a registered nurse at a local hospital for thirty years. Educational background was high school graduate with two years in nursing school. In January 2005, she visited a relative in the hospital, but her right knee was unexpectedly buckled while exiting the elevator. During that time, she was 54 years old, a little overweight, and was suffering from non-insulin dependent diabetes and hypertension.

She was able to return to her job after the fall and underwent arthroscopic surgery on her right knee in March 2005. However, the surgery was not favorable, so she underwent right knee replacement surgery in October the same year. After a year, the left knee was also deteriorated as a result of the extra pressure of the surgery the other year. In November 2006, she had left knee replacement. However, she was not free of pain or was able to walk without assistance.

The judges agreed to have her on Social Security after hearing. According to them, the claimant cannot return to her job anymore. The claimant’s long and consistent work history, the objective nature of the medical problem presented, age, and helpful functional capacity form from the attending doctor were believed to be the main factors in the judges’ favorable decision.

How to Overcome Being Scared of the Ball When You’re Up to Bat!

As a coach, you can teach hitting mechanics all day and even see players improve by leaps and bounds when hitting off a tee or hitting pitches delivered by a pitching machine that grooves every pitch into the strike zone. But one intangible problem often rears its ugly head when live pitching from an uncertain source, like an opposing pitcher, enters the mix-bailing out of the box due to fear of getting hit by the pitch. How can a fear of being hit by the pitch be overcome? It may not be easy in some cases, but it is possible.

It Starts with the Proper Batting Stance!

To begin with, teach your players (or son/daughter) that proper batting stance will help them hit strikes AND shield themselves more effectively should a pitch come at them. Stepping in the bucket prevents a good swing at any pitch, reducing both power and contact. Plus, opening the front foot out and away from the plate exposes the face, stomach, and for guys, the external anatomy to the potential of being hit. Explain that the impact will hurt worse in these locations than if they keep their front foot in place, striding straight toward the pitcher. Then, if they have to shield themselves, they can tuck in their shoulder and head, twisting towards the back arm, and take the pitch off the helmet, butt, meat of the arm or shoulder, or back, reducing the sting considerably. The bottom line is that proper stance is safer and more productive. Here’s a key: training your players to get out of the way properly, or shield the more vulnerable spots, when a ball is destined to strike them will give them confidence when they head to the plate. Their attitude will be “if I need to, I know how to duck the pitch or have it hit me where it won’t hurt so much.” That confidence will translate into fewer worries, and soon, they may not be thinking about it at all!

The Fear is Usually Worse Than the Sting!

This is a tough one, but help your players understand that the fear of being hit is often worse than the actual fact of being hit. The truth is, in a game, or even batting practice, the adrenaline is usually running pretty high, and adrenaline acts as a natural barrier to pain. Taking a fastball off the leg or hip, or even square in the back, usually doesn’t hurt that bad, if at all. Help your players comprehend this. If you have a pitching machine, have the players stand at the plate with their gloves and catch pitched balls. When they are in receiver-mode, expecting the ball at the speed a teammate might throw it to them while they’re covering a bag, their perspective changes. They may just realize “this ball isn’t coming that fast! It doesn’t hurt my hand when I catch it… it probably wouldn’t hurt me if it hit me.” When that realization occurs, the fear problem often vanishes.

Coach Through the Fear and Never Tease Them!

NEVER belittle players for their fears. This will only encourage them to quit or to act out of fear even more. When a player gets hit by a pitch in batting practice or in a game, make sure that they are not injured, and then give them huge kudos if they don’t melt into a puddle. Let them hear “atta girl” and “that’s my man” when they shake it off. This will strengthen their resolve in the future and help the rest of the team realize it isn’t as bad as they fear it might be. “Way to take one for the team!” will boost pride and resiliency, and might even produce the attitude that getting hit by the pitch is a badge of honor and toughness.

Building Confidence in Practice, Delivers Rewards When it Counts the Most!

Build confidence during hitting drills and batting practice. Confidence is the key to overcoming the fear of being hit by a pitch. Boost your players’ confidence in their hitting through drills and verbal encouragement, and they’ll go to the plate with success on their minds, looking to get on base or drive in runners already there. The fear of getting hit by the pitch will recede as their desire to hit the pitch hard grows.

Book Review – The Glass Castle by Jeannette Walls

Jeannette Walls proves in her astounding memoir that bad parenting and abject poverty do not necessarily condemn children to a dismal future of the same. In “The Glass Castle” published in 2005 by Scribner, Walls reveals the intimate details of her upbringing within a dysfunctional yet loving family.

“The Glass Castle” immediately grips you with an opening scene in which Walls, as an adult in New York City, sees from the window of her taxi her mother scrounging through a dumpster. Her mother is homeless – one of those bag ladies that all of us see – but now you suddenly have to wonder what it would feel like if that was your mother dangling at the fringe of our society.

From this shocking moment, Walls transports you back to her earliest memory. She is three years old and suffers a terrible burn to her torso when her dress catches on fire as she is boiling hotdogs on the stove. A long stay at the local hospital near where her family is currently living in Arizona ensues while Walls recovers. To the hospital staff, the negligence of the parents is obvious, but Jeannette does not associate the murmuring disapproval around her with her parents.

If any action on the part of social services is planned, we never find out because her father, Rex Walls, plans an early check out from the hospital in his trademark “Rex Walls’ style.” This means that he will grab his little girl and skip out of the hospital bill that he has no intention or means of paying.

Jeannette is whisked away with her father, mother, older sister and younger brother and the family hits the road. It begins just one of many journeys in which the Walls family ends up in ramshackle trailers and shacks throughout the deserts of Nevada, Arizona, and California. They stay someplace a while until Rex can’t pay the rent or won’t and they skip town and do it all over again.

Rex inspired the title of the book with the plans, lovingly worked out on paper, for his “glass castle” that he aspires to build some day. He often reassures his children with the promise of this fanciful housing. It is to be a solar-powered house, but first he needs to raise the money to build it, which entails numerous gold prospecting schemes that are doomed to failure. Because gold-hunting never pays the bills, Rex also finds work as an electrician or handyman. He is smart and mechanically talented, but his earnings inevitably are washed away in the flash floods of drinking that perpetually leave his family destitute.

In an engulfing narrative that sweeps you deeper into an almost unimaginable existence of privation, we see how Jeannette and her siblings cope with their destructively alcoholic father and beg their mother to function and get them food. The mother, in fact, has a teaching degree, but she rarely can drag herself into employability. Although the various rural areas where they live are always desperate for a qualified teacher, the mother cannot abide work and only occasionally holds down a job – with the help of her children who get her out of bed.

The infrequent paychecks of the mother rarely go into the rumbling bellies of her children. Rex will invariably claim his wife’s paycheck and set about squandering it.

This desperate state goes on for years as the Walls children sleep in cardboard boxes instead of beds, endure scalding fights between their parents, and eat anything they can find. Their mother teaches them how to swallow spoiled food by holding their noses.

But even amid these horrors of poverty and alcoholism, Jeannette Walls expresses the genuine love within her family. They are loyal to each other, and Rex, in his sober moments, is wise, encouraging, and tender with his children.

In her memoir, Walls brilliantly crafts her experiences so that we can see the transformation of awareness that takes place as she grows up. As a little girl, she is uncritical of her parents. She loves them and does not realize how awfully deprived her life is. But as she and her siblings mature, they definitely realize that the shortcomings of their parents are not acceptable.

The adolescent years of Jeannette are spent in West Virginia, where her father retreats to his hometown after going completely bust in Arizona. The life of the Walls in West Virginia is appalling as they occupy a shack at “93 Little Hobart Street.” The roof leaks. The plumbing does not work. The Walls family buries its trash and sewage in little holes it digs. They almost never have any food. Jeannette goes through high school digging leftover sandwiches out of the garbage, and Rex fills the role of town drunk. As miserable want defines their lives, Jeannette’s mother does the most infuriating things. When Jeannette and her brother find a diamond ring, they immediately want to sell it for food, but their mother keeps it to “improve her self esteem.” And so they go on starving.

As Jeannette Walls tells the story of her disgraceful upbringing, you will admire her perseverance and that of her siblings. The Walls children eventually take charge of their own lives and support each other into normal adult lives in a beautiful display of closeness among siblings.

Every page of “The Glass Castle” will shock you with the shameless and selfish actions of parents who are unable and unwilling to even try to take care of their children or themselves. Despite her appalling parents, Walls rarely chastises them with her writing. Her love for her parents often comes through with aching dismay.

Much more happens throughout this amazing memoir than has been mentioned here. “The Glass Castle” is mesmerizing and an impossible book to put down. It is truly a masterpiece of storytelling and far superior than the typical bestseller.

Benefits of Melamine Dinnerware

You’ve got a picnic to go to, but what serving plates do you take? You can’t take your good dinnerware; you don’t want to chip it, or worse-break it. And paper plates are way too unsteady to trust, so what do you do? Thankfully there is a new dinnerware material which is virtually indestructible and can make your picnic a success.

What is Melamine?

If you remember the old plastic trays from your grade school cafeteria, then you have already been introduced to melamine. Once just a commercial product, melamine is finding a new audience as every day dinnerware. In the past, melamine had been relegated to large volumes restaurants and cafeterias, as it was a durable material that could withstand the continuous abuse from large amounts of usage. Now, the once basic plastic dinnerware is becoming a colorful addition to homes as every day ware.


Melamine has one major benefit: it is virtually indestructible. This is why most high volume restaurants and cafeterias used the product, because it could take a beating and still stay strong. Overall, this saved hospitality groups a solid amount because they did not have to replace the melamine as frequently as ceramic dinnerware.

It’s durability makes it a strong contender for families with smaller children. Mom doesn’t have to worry about that plate being dropped and shattering into pieces. With melamine, Mom knows that if Junior drops the plate, it’s an easy clean up and there’s no damage to the plate. This also makes it a great outdoor picnic plate. With strength equal to regular ceramic earthenware, you can take these plates outdoors without worry. If someone drops a plate, it’s all right. It’s melamine.

Melamine is heat resistant too, which again makes it a perfect choice for little fingers. Many place settings for children are constructed out of melamine, which means your dishware can take a high chair beating or two. Children’s sets come in a variety of colors and sizes, and many have their favorite cartoon characters on, which means Junior can have dinner with his favorite superhero all the time. Adults can have themed melamine dinnerware as well. There are many holiday oriented place settings which can spice up a holiday dinner party or barbeque.

Melamine is a great choice for your every day dining needs. No more do you have to fumble around with flimsy paper plates that get soggy after a few minutes, nor do you have to worry about breaking your good dinnerware. Melamine is here to turn your outdoor, every day parties into a spectacular event.

Using Peladow DG Calcium Chloride For Dehydration of Hydrocarbons

Deliquescing desiccants such as Calcium Chloride have wide ranging applications. Advances in formulation, material blending, tableting, and equipment design have expanded the application range of Calcium Chloride desiccants. Desiccants such as Peladow DG are now used to dry sales gas, fuel gas, sour gas, “peak” gas, and for hydrate control. The operational simplicity of Calcium Chloride offer many advantages over traditional drying methods such as triethylene glycol, including: no VOC or BTEX emissions, no ground contamination, no fire hazard, low capital expense, and low maintenance. Used well Calcium Chloride offers a cost effective method to dry gas to meet pipeline dew point specifications. Vessels can vary in size and can be optimised to extend service intervals reducing employee exposure to contaminants. Desiccant dehydration is well suited for remote, unmanned locations here it can reduce total operating costs and labour requirements.


Calcium chloride has been used to dehydrate natural gas and air for decades. Since many salts are hygroscopic, they have the ability to attract and remove water vapor from the surrounding environment. The ability of each salt to remove water vapor is based on the vapor pressure difference between the hydrate of that salt and the vapor pressure of water in the environment. Combination’s of several salts may produce vapor pressures lower than any of the original salts alone. Originally, calcium chloride chips or chunks were simply placed in an empty vessel on a support screen. Channeling, bridging and plugging were common problems due to non-uniform gas flow through the calcium chloride bed. As gas flowed through the calcium chloride, it would find the easiest path, and bypass the rest of the bed. Once started, this process would accelerate the calcium chloride consumption in this flow zone, and a channel would form through the calcium chloride bed. The drying process would stop since wet gas no longer contacted salts. The operator would have to mechanically break up the bed, which was not easy, as the non-used calcium chloride tended to fuse together. Calcium chloride has good hygroscopic properties, and is effective in hydrate control and a viable technique for drying to pipeline specifications. Because calcium chloride was used in a loose, granular, chip or briquette form, its shape was irregular and when partially consumed, became more irregular. This irregularity also led to non-uniform flow. Calcium chloride in the form such as Peladow DG was formed into briquettes so hydration can only occur on the outside of the tablet, which helps to maintain its general shape as it is consumed. Flow efficiency remains relatively constant as the tablet bed is consumed. This greatly improved the usability of Calcium Chloride in these applications. Peladow DG is used to dry to pipeline specifications in many cases, while using these grades in series to minimize operating costs is advantageous.


Since Peladow DG systems are closed, there are no volatile organic compounds (VOC) or aromatic hydrocarbon (BTEX) emissions. With new EPA Clean Air Act regulations now in place this advantage alone often makes deliquescing desiccants a better choice over triethylene glycol (TEG). Ground contamination by TEG spills from surge tanks and leaky pumps is a major industry problem. Contaminated soil must usually be excavated and hauled to approved landfills, which can be very costly. Deliquescents are very “environmentally friendly”, as there are no emissions and no costly fluid disposal. Since brine water (the only byproduct of desiccant dehydration) is simply piped to a storage tank, spill liability is minimized. Since there is no regeneration with deliquescing desiccant dehydration, there is no fire or heat source. This obviously has substantial safety advantages for offshore and petrochemical plant applications. Since equipment is relatively simple compared to glycol systems, capital cost is normally less than that of TEG systems. This is especially true if emission control systems are required with the TEG unit. Deliquescent desiccant dryers have a distinct advantage over glycol systems at higher pressures, as there is less water in the inlet gas, and cheaper desiccants can be used to achieve the required water specification in the gas. Desiccant units are very simple to operate and require minimal maintenance. There are no moving parts other than a motor valve to discharge fluids. 100% turn down is possible with desiccant dehydration. This is particularly beneficial for peak-shaving, variable flow, or storage locations.


Desiccant tablets are placed in a vertical vessel through service openings in the vessel top. Support and diffusion plates are located several feet up from the vessel bottom. Inlet gas enters the vessel below the support plate, and free liquid drop out in the sump (Fig. 1). As wet gas flows upward it is diffused by the plates, then encounters tablets resting immediately on the plates. These tablets hydrate, removing water vapor from the gas stream. This water accumulates on the tablet surface, and drips off the tablet into the sump as the hygroscopic brine on the tablet surface continues to remove water vapor from the gas. This process, known as “deliquescing”, causes desiccant salts to dissolve into the fresh water accumulating on the tablet. Tablets are hence consumed at a rate based on the dilution factor of each formulation. One pound of each desiccant will remove a certain mass of water vapor from gas. A higher dilution rate indicates that each pound of desiccant removes more water. Generally, more hygroscopic desiccants have higher dilution rates. Gas exiting the vessel top has been dried to a point consistent with the equilibrium point of each desiccant. Selection of the correct grade is based on the inlet gas conditions and the required outlet moisture content. If higher grades (more hygroscopic) are needed, it is normally more economic to use several grades in series, flowing from lowest grade to highest in separate vessels, rather than simply using a high-grade desiccant in one vessel. An exception is for very low flow rates such as instrument gas where operating cost savings per thousand cubic feet (mcf) may not offset additional equipment costs incurred by using multiple vessels. As tablets are consumed new tablets must be added periodically by isolating and depressurizing the vessel, removing the top service closure, and pouring tablets into the vessel. This interval is predictable, and if necessary, the vessel is simply oversized to provide a longer interval between service operations. Water removed from the gas combines with salts in the tablets to form brine water, which accumulates in the sump. This brine is removed (typically by automatic controllers) to brine storage where it can normally be disposed of as common oilfield brine. There are no other byproducts or emissions. Tablets are typically not affected by high BTU gas, however inlet gas should flow through standard fluid knockouts, filters, or separators as required in any dehydration process design. The brine byproduct is not corrosive unless oxygen is present in the gas. No additional corrosion allowance is required for gas streams without oxygen.


Because deliquescing dehydration equipment is simpler than glycol, membrane filters, and regenerative adsorption, equipment costs are generally lower. Operating costs are affected by temperature, pressure, and how much water vapor must be removed, and so must be calculated for each application. By comparison, operating costs of glycol systems can range from $0.01/mcf up to $0.20/mcf, considering glycol loss, burner fuel, maintenance, emission controls, flare fuel, fluid disposal, periodic clean-outs, and man hours. An often-overlooked cost associated with glycol systems is downstream pipeline corrosion due to glycol carry over ranging from 0.05 – 0.3 gallons of glycol for each MMCF of flow. As glycol accumulates in pipeline low spots, it degrades and becomes acidic, causing internal corrosion.


Hydrate control was the first, and is now the most widely used application for deliquescing desiccant drying. Gas is typically dried with a single vessel using the lowest grade desiccant. Therefore both equipment and operating costs are very low. Gas must only be dried to a dew point below the minimum expected pipeline temperature to prevent free water and hence hydrate formation. For surface lines, the minimum gas temperature is the coldest ambient air temperature, but for lines buried below frost level the lowest gas temperature is typically 35 _F. This technology offers an alternative to traditional TEG wellhead drying units, which are often difficult to operate consistently and efficiently especially with remote or variable flow wells. Most operators prefer to check TEG units daily, which reduce the number of wells each operator can manage. However daily service is not always possible, especially in winter. If a burner or pump fails and the operator does not visit the site, wet gas flows into the gathering system and free liquids precipitate after cooling. This may lead to hydrate formation and pipeline blockages. Consequently, methanol injection is frequently used with TEG in the event a TEG unit malfunctions (burner, pump, filter, etc.). Desiccant dehydration is much simpler than TEG and is typically more reliable, so methanol injection can be eliminated.


Regardless of the application, desiccant dehydration offers substantial benefits for drying sour gas. Desiccant tablets react only with water and their performance is unaffected by gas composition. Tablets do not react with hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, oxygen or other gases. Service interval can be extended by simply over-sizing the vessel, or by using several vessels in parallel. Unlike TEG systems, there is no continuous odor, and the operator does not have to dispose of contaminated TEG. The only emission is gas used to blow brine to storage, which is typically treated with a small sweetening pot located on the water tank vent. Most systems include a sweet gas purge system using either city gas or bottled nitrogen. After vessels are depressurized sweet gas is purged through the vessels, normally several times, before the vessels are opened. Naturally the operator should still wear proper safety equipment as if he were working in a hydrogen sulfide environment. Reducing employee exposure to hydrogen sulfide can be a valuable benefit of desiccant dehydration.


Desiccant dehydration is well suited for drying fuel gas for heaters and treaters. This equipment is often remote and frequently experiences fuel line freezing in the winter months. Drying fuel through a single desiccant vessel typically prevents fuel line problems at very low net costs. Because fuel flow is normally low, most fuel gas systems can economically provide very long service intervals, reducing labor expenses.

Perhaps the best use for drying fuel gas with desiccants is at field compressor sites (gathering stations). These sites often operate at capacity and are unable to move more gas or lower suction pressure. If compressing wet gas, the operator must use sales gas that has been dehydrated (typically with TEG) for compressor fuel. This effectively reduces throughput and sales by “robbing” discharge gas for fuel. It is typically not economic to dry suction gas (which is normally low pressure and cool) with TEG for fuel. However a single desiccant vessel can dry gas taken from the inlet separator for fuel use. So instead of using discharge gas for fuel the operator uses suction gas, freeing up the entire compressor capacity for sales.

Economic benefits of drying suction gas for fuel are substantial. A typical 3000 hp compressor may burn 500 mcfpd for fuel. If the compressor is operating at capacity and there is more gas to be moved if more horsepower were available, using suction gas instead of discharge gas for fuel allows the operator to sell the entire compressor capacity, an additional 500 mcfpd in this case.


In an effort to reduce labor costs, companies are designing, installing and operating more and more unmanned facilities. These require expensive automation controls and remote monitoring. However automatic control of TEG units is difficult and relatively expensive. Desiccant dehydration is ideal for remote or unmanned locations since it is very simple and requires very little maintenance.

One company in West Virginia installed two unmanned sites, one flowing 2.5 MMCFPD at 230 psig and the other flowing 0.50 MMCFPD at 660 psig. The first dryer is refilled every other week, and the second dryer is refilled monthly (or longer). The company’s field employee is responsible for several unmanned locations, which are separated by considerable distance. Because of the minimum service required for the dryers, he is able to reduce the time he spends at each site, thereby effectively operating more facilities.


Desiccant dehydration such as Peladow DG is a viable gas drying technology and offers an alternative to traditional dehydration methods such as TEG contactors. It eliminates VOC and BTEX emissions, which are now regulated by the Clean Air Act. There is no fire hazard, making it safer for offshore applications. Simple operation and extended service interval reduces labor and operating cost. Capital equipment costs are generally less than TEG. New technology has eliminated many of the problems traditionally associated with deliquescing desiccants.

Top 10 Best Mouse and Rat Traps

Mouse and rat control is a lot easier than most people think. Preventive maintenance such as keeping lids on trash cans, eliminating entry points into your house and most importantly, sanitation, are crucial to controlling these pests. Uneaten pet food and piles of debris in and outside the house are havens for rodents. Sometimes elements outside your control, like having slobs for neighbors, or new construction in the area can easily attract rats and mice. So, when it’s time to get rid of mice or rats, mouse traps and rat traps are the best way to rid your home of these nasty creatures.

Before you implement a mouse or rat control program, it’s always best to know the signs of a rodent infestation. Seeing a mouse or rat run through your garbage is an obvious sign, but more telling signs you have a mouse or rat issue are rub marks along walls, strong urine odors, gnawing and droppings.

What to use for bait it also key. Most people believe cheese to be the best, but unless you’re trying to catch Jerry, use peanut butter on mouse traps; Fig Newton’s work great too. Using raw hickory smoked bacon has proven to work great for rats.

Below you’ll find the best traps to kill and get rid of mice and or rats. Using traps, if positioned and used correctly, is the best form of mouse and rat control, especially if you have animals and or children.

1. Paper and Tray Glue boards – This is, hands down, the easiest and safest mouse and rat trap. Especially if you have children and pets. Just place these traps along a wall or in a corner until a mouse or rat comes along.

2. Mouse / Rat Snap Traps – There are many types of snap traps on the market, but the most common are the basic pull back and set style, and the all so popular, and very effective expanded trigger versions. The wider trigger paddle increases the catch rate immensely.

3. Auto Set Snap traps – These are great for the people who are deathly afraid of setting the standard snap traps. The easy quick set mechanisms make this trap ideal for the novice mouse hunter.

4. Bait stations with T-Rex – Basically a black box with a trap inside. Mice and rats never see it coming. The most popular bait box / station trap combination is made by Protecta with a T-Rex trap. The bait box acts as harborage and safe haven for mice and rats, and this style of trap plays a safety role when children and pets are present.

5. Tin cat – This trap acts as a monitor / mouse trap that uses the peel off mouse glue board by Catchmaster. Widely used in used food packing plants and stores, but can easily be used in your home. Tin cats are enclosed which helps you to avoid have the rodent being stuck to an exposed glue board.

6. Ketch-All wind up – A wind up multi catch trap that doesn’t kill, at least most of the time. Mice crawl into an opening and the spinning paddle swoops them into a holding cell.

7. Live trap – A lot like the Ketch-All, a live trap is a lot smaller version of standard live cat and dog traps. A Fig Newton or peanut butter in the back behind the trigger plate does the trick every time.

8. Cube Tilt Trap – A cube trap is a gravity trap with a door on one end. When the mouse enters, the cube tilts causing the door to close. Peanut butter at the back of the tube works great.

9. Electric Trap – This trap speaks for itself.

10. Homemade – This is for the guy who wants to make a better mouse / rat trap, or wants to try something different. The most common is the 5 gallon bucket and soda can with wire stretched across the top. Don’t forget to place the board on the lip of the bucket (AKA plank), before you send the local mice and rat populations to their death.

Custody Agreements and Parenting Plans in Arkansas – The Arkansas Family Code

Parents in Arkansas who are involved in a custody situation should learn the laws about custody that will affect them. These laws are found in Title 9 of the Arkansas Family Code. Knowing these laws can be a great asset to parents, especially as they create a custody agreement and parenting plan. Following the laws when creating the plan can help a mother make the best possible plan for the child, help them work out the proper components, and get the plan accepted by the court. Here is a highlight of some of the laws that affect the agreement.

Chapter 13 Section 101 in Title 9 contains the laws about how the state awards custody. This is an important part of the parenting plan. The state gives no preference because of gender when awarding custody. This means that the father and mother have an equal chance of getting custody of the children, providing that they are both capable custodial parents. The standard for granting custody is what is best for the child. If the parents can work this out before going to court, the judge will respect their wishes. The mother and father figure out the custody arrangement that fulfills the needs of the child and put that in the agreement.

This section also contains a statute that when parents are making a plan, they should the child frequent and continuing contact with both parents. Because of this, the court may award a joint custody agreement when making an order for custody. This also means that when the court is making an order, it is more likely to award custody to the parent that encourages the child to have contact with the other parent.

In Sections 102 and 103, the law makes provisions for other family members to stay involved in a child’s life after the parents separate. Grandparents and siblings can be granted visitation rights to the child. This will happen if there is a close family member to the child, and it is in the child’s best interest to continue a relationship with the person. Parents should consider this as they make their parenting plan. They should make a plan that allows for the child to see and visit with other family members.

Once the court has made a custody order of the agreement, it is a legal document. The state takes custody orders very seriously, and there are consequences for the parent who disregards them. If parent wants to make a change to the plan, they should file a motion with the court and present the modification. The modification will be judged according to how it benefits the child.

You Need a Professional For Painting Fiberglass Deck

At one point you or the previous owner of your home made the decision to have fiberglass decking added to the house instead of using the more traditional wood decking. Fiberglass has a lot of positive features going for it, but the truth is it does need some upkeep to be at its best. The need for painting fiberglass deck can cause the quite the headache for the average homeowner. This isn’t like one of those situations where you can just slop some paint on the surface and call it good. You are going to have to call in the professionals to have this one done correctly. Take a look at some of the activities you want to see happening as your painting contractor takes care of business.

The most important job the painter is going to do is preparation. As we have already noted, with painting a fiberglass deck, you can’t simply throw some paint at it and expect it to look good or last. Your contractor is going to need to remove the wax build up from other layers of paint and sand the surface thoroughly. These steps help to ensure that the new paint will adhere to the decking as it should. During the preparation stage, it is also vital to apply a good primer coat to the deck. Any scratches, holes, or irregularities in the material have to be corrected as well.

Many homeowners go for the least expensive paint products and painters and then wonder why the job doesn’t look right or doesn’t last very long. You don’t have to go for the most expensive stuff or person, but be aware that shortchanging this process will cost you more later as you pay yet again to have it done.

Painting fiberglass deck is better left to the professionals. You will find the job is better done and costs less when you take this approach.

The Final Ooma Telo Review You Must Read Before You Buy Ooma Telo

There are definitely great financial savings in telephone charges when you switch from the plain old telephone system (POTS) to a Voice over IP system (VoIP). Ooma Inc is one of the leading providers of excellent VoIP telephony solutions with two great products – the Ooma Hub and Ooma Telo.

When people want to buy Ooma products, they generally look at both Ooma Hub and Ooma Telo. However many people are not sure which of these two products to buy. As such, this Ooma Telo review will be more meaningful when references are also made to the Hub in areas where there are differences so that you can make an informed decision.

However for the sake of readers who are not familiar with Ooma Inc and who stumbled upon this Ooma Telo review, I would like to give you a very brief summary of what the Ooma Inc and Ooma Telo is all about before going into the details in this Ooma Telo review.

A Short Overview Of Ooma Inc

Ooma Inc is a company that focuses on VoIP service. They have been around since 2004 and its previous flagship product was the Ooma Hub which had tremendous success in the consumer VoIP market. Ooma Telo has since replaced the Ooma Hub as its flagship product and Ooma is slowly phasing out the Hub.

The idea behind Ooma’s telephone products is to provide a mostly-free telephone system. Mostly free because you will still be paying taxes on the service to the government after the first year. Ooma targets customers who want to save money on their phone bills but at the same time don’t want to pay high costs for VoIP services like Vonage users do.

Instead it sells its products at a slightly higher initial cost to offset the “nearly free” price of the VoIP service. However it also provides a premier service at a monthly rate. You don’t require this service if you are only using the basic functions.

What Are The Things That You Look Out For Before You Buy Ooma Telo

I would like to highlight in this Ooma Telo review some of the things that you should be aware of before you buy the Telo.

  • You make free calls for the first year. After the first year it is also free but you have to pay a $12 annual regulatory fee to the government. This regulation was only enacted after the Ooma Hub was released, so Hub users do not have to pay this fee. However do note that Ooma just introduced a monthly outgoing talk limit to 5,000 minutes per month, after that you must pay 2 cents per minute. Incoming talk is still unlimited
  • When you first register your Telo, you have to decide whether you wish to port your existing phone number or use an Ooma provided number. You have to pay $40 if you decide to port
  • The Telo has fewer basic features (no voicemail for example), it also doesn’t seem to support incoming caller-id name on the basic plan. Do note it is the caller-id name that is not supported and not the caller-id itself. You can get this feature by subscribing to the premier service.

What Are The Plus Points For The Ooma Telo

  • Modern stylish look that will get you compliments
  • Lighter than the Ooma Hub allows you to take it with you and use in hotels etc
  • Online Phonebook – Allows you to manage contacts over the Internet and then synchronize them automatically to your Ooma headset. This is an excellent feature for putting in a lot of numbers at once with names, email addresses, home addresses and photos. There are also plans in the future for the Ooma headset to support picture ID calling and contact organization
  • Ooma Headsets – The headset allows you to take a phone call anywhere in your home. This is a great asset especially when you need to multitask
  • HD Voice – The Clear Voice feature that Ooma rolled out is only available in the Telo. This is great as the voice quality of the Telo even surpasses the average mobile phone. However do note that you need to have sufficient bandwidth to enjoy this quality
  • USB Port – The USB port also supports Bluetooth technology
  • If you have an iPhone you can download the Ooma app in the Apple store and then completely bypass your regular call charges on voice plans.

The Ooma Telo is definitely great for both consumers and business. You tend to save money in the long run even if your current telephone bill is low. If you run a business, your investment in Ooma can also be written off as a business expense.

I hope that you will find this Ooma Telo review helpful for you to make an informed decision to buy Ooma Telo. Making the switch from POTS to VoIP is wise decision not only from a money-saving but other perspective as well because you also stand to gain many useful and productive features not found in POTS. Many people who have made the switch to Ooma looked back to say “why didn’t I make that switch earlier?“. So why hold back? Make the switch now and get a head start on enjoying the benefits.

3 Reasons to Take a Break After You’ve Been Caught Cheating

After you’ve been caught cheating your first instinct may be to push hard and fast to get your wife to take you back. That could be the worst mistake you could possibly make in this situation. Getting her back can still be a priority but if you take your time and plan out a full frontal assault that is designed to win her back you’ll have much better odds of winning than if you fly by the seat of your pants and hope to get it right.

Here are 3 reasons why a break might be the best thing to happen to your relationship after you’ve been caught cheating.

1) It gives her time away from you. Whether you realize it or not, the sight of you right now causes her pain. It reminds her of what you’ve done and that hurts. Taking a break and giving her time away from you allows her the opportunity to (1) experience what her life will be like without you in it (2) come to terms with how she feels about what you’ve done and (3) decide if she can forgive what you’ve done to her in the interest of attempting to salvage your relationship.

2) The break allows you the opportunity to decide if you are really interested in making things work with your wife or if maybe marriage at this point in your life is not for you after all. Not everyone is ready for the rigors of matrimony. There is a lot of give and take involved in making a marriage work. Are you up to the challenge? Are you even interested in making it work anymore or are there other women out there who are proving to be much too much of a temptation to continue to allow to pass you by? It’s a question you need to be able to answer before you move forward in an attempt to win her back.

3) It gives you both a chance to appreciate one another a little more. There is a lot of truth in the old adage “absence makes the heart grow fonder.” If you really love each other and have a relationship worth saving then taking a break after cheating might be the perfect reminder of just how great your relationship is. Don’t waste the opportunity that taking a break presents by calling things to an end too soon. Instead, take your time and do your time on the relationship break. In the end, the strength of your love should decide whether or not the two of you dig in and work together to work things out.

Sex Offenders Rationalize Their Behavior

Sex offenders rationalize and/or minimize their actions as well as the consequences to him or herself and to his or her victims. Sex offenders convince themselves the child won’t remember, or they justify to themselves that they are entitled because ________. They deny any responsibility for safety and protection of all harm of a child.

They protect themselves by manipulating the child into being a co-conspirator or forcing the child to take responsibility either through intimidation, threats or sometimes even physical violence. They justify their actions by aggrandizing their authority. “I’m a good [father, grandfather, uncle, a good provider.] I am your [father, grandfather, mother, aunt], I can do what I want. I put food on the table and clothes on your back. Once the sex offender has rationalized and justified their actions they believe their own lies. They become an expert at manipulation; they escape adult reality; and are good at pretending that their behavior is not harming the child. They may expend great energy maintaining this illusion to themselves as well as others. They create a persona of goodness beyond reproach. Any one who sees through this well-honed facade is met with admonishment and rebuke for being critical, irrational and/or jealous (Michael Jackson and his legal team-simply distracts our attention from his behavior by accusing the victim is using him for their own greediness-they want to extort money.) The sex offender is the family and society’s emperor with no clothes. And we are, as a society, allowing it.

The media is the major purveyor of misinformation regarding sex offenders and sexual child abuse.

See articles at Oprah Isn’t Always Right, Common Myths About Child Sexual Abuse and Incest, Obfuscation Rules the World, More Evidence: Obfuscation Rules the World.

“For too long we have focused on What To Do after the damage is done. It is time to focus on What To Do before the damage is done.” Claire R. Reeves, President/Founder/CEO, Mothers Against Sexual Abuse (MASA)