Save Your Scooter Repair Money – How to Do Your Own Oil Change

Changing the oil in our Chinese gas motor scooters is vital in ensuring its proper functioning. Most of us have the tendency to ignore this and as a result end up burning-up our engines. When changing oil, we do not need to go to a mechanic.. Why spend money for labor when we can change the oil ourselves?

Before proceeding with the oil change, let’s make sure we have everything we need. We will need a socket set or adjustable wrench, and an oil collection pan or mini container with a wide mouth (a cut-in-half open milk-carton works great). Of course, we will need oil; we can use any type oil except 30 weight – use 10/40, 15/50 or any combination of a10-15/40-50 weight – just don’t use a 30 weight.

To begin the scooter oil change, put the scooter on the back stands so the scooter is level. Look for the larger bolt under the scooter below the engine. When you remove this large bolt, have your container ready to catch the oil. Once the bolt/cap come off, let it simply drop into the container, as the spring and oil screen are also going to come out. Let it all fall into the container. Once the oil has stopped draining, remove the bolt, spring and oil screen and clean them off. Rinse the oil screen and hand dry.

Inspect the oil to see if it has a milky color. This would mean that there is water leaking in other parts of the scooter and should be taken to a mechanic to reseal the gearbox. Otherwise, replace the oil screen, the spring and the bolt to the bottom of the scooter. A caution about adding oil: Don’t add too much oil. We have had just as many burnt engines come to our repair shop due to people adding too much oil instead of not having enough oil.

Start adding the oil. After you pour in some oil, stop and let the oil drain into the bottom for about 15 seconds before measuring. When measuring oil, the dip stick does NOT need to be screwed in. Simply stick it in as far as possible without screwing it back into the oil spout and pull it out to see how much oil is on the stick. Once the oil level is half way it is OK to stop adding oil. A good tip is to start the scooter, let it run for 1-2 minutes, shut it off and wait about 2 minutes. Then recheck the dip stick to see the oil level. If you are a visual learner, there are videos on the internet that show us step by step how to complete and oil change.

$200 Per Hour Opening Cars — How To Become A Lockout Specialist

If you haven’t yet locked your keys inside your car, you will someday. The odds are heavily against you, because this is one of the most common slip-ups to haunt the civilized world. Personally I’ve done it no less than ten times myself over a period of, say, twenty years…and I’m a Locksmith!

Now, how can you turn this into a benefit?

If you happen to be looking for a high profit, super interesting career you could do a lot worse than to consider becoming a Lockout Specialist. I know whereof I speak, because as a working Locksmith since 1983 I’ve opened (literally) countless vehicles and I’ve had many instances where I made upwards of $200 per hour over several hours at a time. I can recall one incredible day in which I serviced twenty-three lockouts, at an average price of $40 and an average labor time of 10 minutes per vehicle — for most of a day. This was near Christmas in 1995, in Salt Lake City, Utah. I was self-employed and doing very well as a full service Locksmith, but the bulk of my business during Holidays has always been in the form of lockouts.

It is important to make a distinction here, to avoid confusion. I am not proposing that you will make that kind of money day after day. There will be average days, and there will be busy days. But if you set up a business, in a fairly large city or base yourself at least near one, you stand to make unconscionably easy money once you get settled in and your business becomes visible. Opening locked cars is as easy a profession as ever has been conceived. It takes some skill, of course, and you will have to do some studying before you break out the lockout tools and advertise yourself — but compared to many other professions it just can’t be beat for simplicity. You will also have to do some homework with respect to legality. Some states require Lockout Specialists to be registered Locksmiths, but most do not! This is something you have to determine before you take another step.

If you find that you are living in a jurisdiction that requires registering, it is not that difficult to do. You will have to gain a wider knowledge of Locksmithing, but this certainly is not a detriment as it will likely lead to a fantastic career that goes well beyond opening locked mini-vans. If on the other hand you are fortunate enough to be living in an area in which Lockout Specialists can be licensed without having to be full-fledged Locksmiths, the path to a cushy career sprawls before you.

I started my business in Salt Lake City when I was 37 years of age. Up until then I had never so much as dreamt of being involved with locks, car openings or keys. I was in dire straights, having just lost most everything I owned through a business failure that occurred as collateral damage from a divorce. Someone suggested I go door to door and sell “door viewers” — those little peepholes people put in their front doors. This actually worked well, but only because at that time I had no bills (everything got disposed of). After a while I was being asked to install locks. I started doing that and was buying deadbolts at a local Locksmith shop one day when the guy behind the counter, who by then had gotten to know me, suggested I start a Locksmith business. I thought he was kidding me, seriously. But he told me that Locksmiths make incredible profit from most everything they do, especially doing lockouts. He sold me a few tools — which in Utah is perfectly legal (or was at that time at least) — and also a small book on opening cars.

That was a turning point in my life. I went on, within six months, to taking on small Locksmith jobs and teaching myself. I put a small ad in the Yellow Pages, hoping against hope I wouldn’t go bust in the first few months because those ads can’t be canceled, and I soon realized there was enough business out there that I was opening cars almost every day. I got better at it the more I did it (there were nightmare jobs in which it took me hours to open a single car, but that was in the very early days). Eventually the calls started coming in quite regularly and I started making good money, doing something I enjoyed. The feeling of helping others who really need your specialized service is a great one, and knowing you are working for yourself and no one else is beyond description.

I had to do all this without a road map. There was nothing available to beginners in those days, not like there is today. The explosion of information that is the Internet has made all the difference. I wish back in 1983 I’d had the advantages available to career seekers today. There are many self-help manuals and DVD courses now that can teach you to set up a Lockout Specialist business, or a full-fledged Locksmith business. The prices are surprisingly affordable, and the information in at least some of them is staggering. In many cases, you can actually earn certification by purchasing one of these courses.

It is worth considering if you like the idea of working for ten minutes, assisting a motorist in need, and putting up to $50 or $60 dollars in your pocket for your trouble.

Woodworking Tips – Furniture Fittings

The usefulness of veneered and melamine-faced chipboard has been revolutionised by the wide range of fittings available for joining it together and for making furniture, such as fitted cupboards and wardrobes.

All the fittings described on this article are sold separately in do-it-yourself shops and by mail order, but the fittings supplied with bought furniture (particularly kitchen units) are identical. Many of the fittings are known as KD (knockdown) because they have the characteristic (unlike conventional woodworking joints) that the furniture can be taken apart once it has been assembled.

Chipboard screws and plugs

Ordinary woodscrews do not take well in chipboard, and special chipboard screws have been developed. Looking more like self-tapping screws than woodscrews. chipboard screws are usually threaded all the way to the head and often have a double thread, which means the screw goes in faster. The screw bites into the chipboard as it is put in to give a good grip. Some larger chipboard screws come with a special drilling jig to make sure the holes to receive them are drilled in the correct place. To cover the normal chipboard screws, special plastic covering plugs are available in white, magnolia or brown, depending on the type of chipboard being used. These cither push into the Pozidriv head of the screw or into a counterbored hole in which the screw is recessed.

To get a stronger connection, a chipboard plug can be used. Some of these work on the same principle as solid-wall fixing (expanding as the screw is driven in) while others are glued into the chipboard; both allow ordinary woodscrews to be used. A hole (typically 8mm in diameter) is drilled in the edge of the chipboard which will receive the screw and the screw is driven into the plug to give a secure fixing. Again, a dowelling or other jig will keep the hole square.

Where the countersunk head of a screw could damage a thin surface, surface or recessed screw cups can be used.

Block joints

These plastic blocks are used for joining two pieces of chipboard at right-angles.

The simplest type the mini-block – has a dowel to locate in one piece and a single screw to secure to the other. This makes for an unobtrusive joint, but not a very strong one.

A better connection is given by the one-piece block joint which is fitted into an internal corner and is simply screwed to the two pieces of chipboard. A neater result is given by a rigid triangular corner joint.

Better still is the two-part (or ‘knockdown’) block joint where one part is screwed to each piece of chipboard and the two joined together by a slotted-head machine screw. This joint has the advantage that it can easily be taken apart but, like the one-piece joint, takes up room inside the cupboard. Block joints generally come in a choice of white or brown colours.

Cam joints

A cam joint is more complicated than a block joint, but is completely unobtrusive once fitted. A nylon dowel is inserted in the edge of one board and is locked by driving a steel pin into it. A large plug is fitted in the other board in a hole drilled by an end mill. The dowel fits into the plug and a cam screw is then turned to lock it in place. Although neat, this type of joint is more difficult to make than other types and is not always very rigid.

Panel connectors

There are two special connectors you can use for joining panels end to end or back to back.

For joining panels end to end (two adjacent lengths of worktop, for example), a panel butt joint connector is used. This fits into a pair of holes drilled in the surface of the two boards to be joined (again using an end mill) and a slot is cut to join the two holes. The connector is positioned and tightened with a spanner, drawing the two boards together.

For joining panels back to back (connecting together two adjacent kitchen cupboards, for example), a cabinet connecting screw is used. This simply fits into a hole drilled through the walls of both cupboards and tightening it will bring them together.


There is a wide selection of other types of hinge available for making your own furniture.

For kitchen cupboards, the most useful type of hinge is probably the adjustable concealed hinge which is fitted into two large holes drilled in the back face of the door and the side of the cupboard. This hole (typically 35mm) has to be made with a special drill bit called an end mill, which drills a flat-bottomed hole. For control on the depth to which it is drilled (which is crucial), the end mill is best used in an electric drill fitted to a vertical drill stand equipped with a depth stop.

Cupboard fixings

When it comes to fitting cupboards in place, there are several different types of fittings which can help.

First there is a variety of catches, including magnetic catches, magnetic touch catches (push to open; push again to close), roller catches and ball catches. If certain types of hinge have been used (and the door is hung properly), no catch is needed at all the hinge will hold il closed.

Hanging wall cupboards can often be a problem if the securing holes (for wall plugs) in the wall have not been made in exactly the correct place. Cabinet suspension fittings and cabinet hanging brackets both allow a degree of adjustment once lilted; the hanging bracket provides the more secure fixing.

An angle plate can also be used for holding cupboards to the wall, but is more commonly used for securing worktops to the sides of base unit kitchen cupboards.

For lightweight cupboards (or wall shelving units), glass plates can be used: these are simply screwed to the back of the cupboard and the surface of the wall, which means the cupboard stands out from the surface of the wall by the thickness of the plate.

At the bottom of kitchen base unit cup¬boards, some kind of foot is necessary to keep the chipboard sides off the floor -particularly important if the chipboard is left unsealed when any water on the floor could damage it. Feet may also be needed to deal with uneven floors, though many kitchen fitters will simply pack the cup¬boards out with slips of hardboard. The simplest type is the metal foot, which is banged into the bottom of the cupboard sides. More sophisticated are the cabinet leveller, the base levelling screw and the adjustable foot, all of which allow for adjustments to be made to allow for discrepancies in the floor surface. As well as feet, there is a range of castors which can be used if the cupboard is to be movable.


Making drawers in the traditional way can be very satisfying, but is hard work and, for a kitchen cupboard, may not be the best solution as all-timber drawers can be difficult to keep clean.

There are various drawer-making kits on the market, which use plastic slotted sections for the two sides and back of the drawer: you add your own front (sometimes attached to a fourth plastic section) and base (typically melamine-faced hard-board, positioned melamine face up).

Making your own drawer like this is fairly simple and involves only cutting the profiles to length, screwing pieces on to the back of the drawer front and slotting the whole thing together. You must double-check that everything is correct before you assemble the drawers (for example, the base is the right way up), because, once assembled, these drawers cannot readily be taken apart.

The drawer slides on simple rectangular plastic runners which are fitted to the sides of the kitchen or other cupboard.

An Introduction To LCD Projectors

A projector is an apparatus for presenting an enlarged image on a screen from a transparency such as a photographic slide or a film. In a motion picture projector, each frame is held stationary at an illuminated aperture for a brief period, and then advanced by an intermittent sprocket or reciprocating claw, the light being cut off by a rotating shutter during the movement. The sound track on the film is reproduced at a separate sound head where the film is moved continuously at a constant speed.

LCD projectors come with the capacity to deliver high-definition pictures with high pixel density. Most of the LCD projectors are compact and lightweight; most of the advanced LCD projectors even use two-inch poly silicon panels. These panels (an advanced LCD projector might have TFT panels) help to produce high-quality images with a high-definition quality of about 1,000 scanning lines.

Most of the ordinary and average LCD screens have a screen ratio of 4:3. However, in some cases, an LCD might also have a screen ratio of 16:9. Images are projected on to a super-large screen. Some of the salient features of a compact, lightweight LCD projector are:

1. The utilization of three high-definition two-inch poly silicon TFT LCD

panels are key elements in the production of the three RGB basic colors.

2. Images of high ratio contrast are produced. Usually the image contrast is 400:1.

3. A good LCD projector adds to the normal brightness by about 40% over most other conventional and ordinary LCD video projectors. These LCD projectors use a high-transparency LCD panel for the above purpose.

For example, one of the recent high-quality LCD projectors is the Fujitsu LPF-D711 high-definition LCD projector for home theater.

A Few Advantages of Floor Lamps

When it comes to lighting a room, there are a lot of different options. Ceiling lights are always a popular choice but if they are not already built into the structure, they can be a pain to install. Traditional lamps are more versatile but they still require a table or similar structure. More often than not, floor lamps are the best choice for affordability and versatility.

They are about convenience and style. Generally speaking, these lamps are the easiest way to add light to a room with minimum effort. They do not require any complicated installation as it can be easily plugged into a wall. Simply bring it home, place it on the floor, plug in the cord and bask in the glow of the light.

Another advantage is mobility. Unlike ceiling fixtures or mounted wall lamps, these lamps can be easily moved from room to room and can also be placed in different corners of the room. If one room needs a bit of extra light, it’s easy to grab a one from another room and bring it wherever it’s needed.

It is easy to find these lamps in a variety of colors and styles. This means it is possible to find one to fit most any decor style. It is also easy to control light output by selecting different lamp shades and different bulb styles and strengths. There is no need to worry about one overpowering a room or putting out to much light.

Generally speaking, most floor lamps are energy efficient as well. This efficiency is yet another reason why these lamps are a great economic lighting choice. In terms of convenience and price, it’s a great option for a variety of lighting needs…

Absorbent Drink Coasters – The Good, the Bad, and the Stains

People love absorbent coasters. They are some of the most functional home accessories that you can purchase. Acting as a shield, a barrier against stains, they soak up the moisture from a sweaty glass, and hold it within themselves, keeping water damage from spreading to your possessions. However the problem is who protects the coasters from those stains? Can you purchase a permanent set of absorbent drink coasters, or are you relegated to the fleeting functionality of less sophisticated disposable models.

First a quick overview of disposable coasters; these consist of paper, cork, sponge, and other low cost material coasters. Their purpose is to be cheap, and effective, once or twice, and then to be tossed. This is the most common choice for a bar or restaurant, because they are easy to replace and purchase in bulk. You can even get them printed up with a particular logo or graphic.

The problem with these coasters is that they get soggy and nasty pretty quickly. They are also obviously cheep, and don’t have much decorative style to them. In a bar, where everything is disposable and made to order this works, but in a home, which is supposed to be your custom environment, it can be a little embarrassing.

The alternative to these temporary accessories are the new absorbent sandstone and slate coasters which are available. These coasters are made from natural stone materials, which have existed since the earth was formed. Natural properties in these materials, allows them to absorb the moisture from a liquid spill or drip, taking the water into its pores, and holding it inside of the stone. While the water is trapped in the stone, air can and does still reach it, and this causes the liquid to evaporate away.

These stone coasters are great, because they can theoretically last forever. The water goes into the coaster, but it will always evaporate away, without causing much damage to the piece.

The problem is that stone is just a natural material, and sometimes, it can stain. When a colored liquid such as juice or sauce falls on the surface of the sandstone, suddenly that absorbent property is a liability, because it will allow the stain to soak down past the surface of the stone, discoloring it from the inside.

If a staining agent does fall on your coasters there are certain things you can do. Soaking the stone in warm water will often allow you to extract the coloring agent. You can also use heat to try and melt the agent. These methods will be most effective, by far; if they are done immediately after the stain occurs.

Another absorbent alternative is to purchase slate coasters. Slate is another natural stone, and it does have absorbent properties, however slate is less absorbent than sandstone, cork, paper, or just about anything else out there. When a wet glass is placed on a slate coaster, drips of water will fall on the surface and sit there, slowly seeping into the stone. It won’t be immediate, but it will have enough suction to keep the water from spilling off over the side of the coaster onto your furnishings.

The fact that they are less absorbent means that they are also resistant to stains, and can survive staining agents much better, and for a much longer period of time, than most of their counterparts.

Absorbent coasters are some of the most useful and functional accessories that are available for your home. They can protect your possessions, while still being stylish, elegant, and customizable. However they do have several drawbacks, most notably of which is their ability to get stained by certain liquid agents. This can make some absorbent coasters more permanent then others. In the end, you will have to balance functionality with durability, to find the perfect set for your situation.

Types, Advantages and Uses of Carbon Steel

One of the most popular and widely used construction materials in the world includes steel. Steel is available in different varieties and carbon steel is one among them. This specific form of steel has many unique qualities, advantages and disadvantages compared to other types of steel metals. Steel which contains over 0.8% of carbon can be categorized as high carbon steel. This particular steel is comparatively very hard and brittle. Therefore it is likely to break easily when it is used improperly.

Different Types and Its Significant Features

Steel which contains carbon as the main alloying constituent is known as carbon steel. Based on the content of its basic constituent, it can be classified as follows.

Low or mild steel

Medium steel

High content steel

And ultra-high carbon content steel

Low or mild steel: Mild or low steel contains 0.16-0.29% of carbon. This variety of steel is used for various applications as it is relatively cheap compared to the other types of steel. Mild steel has comparatively lower durability and strength as it contains lesser amount of the main constituent. Used in places when large amount of steel is required, this variety of steel is applicable for various construction purposes.

Medium steel: Another notable variety of steel which is quite strong and resistant to wear and tear. It is mainly used for automotive components and large metal structures.

High carbon steel: This variety of steel is very strong and is mainly used for manufacturing high-strength wires and springs.

Ultra-high steel: These steels are mostly used for non-industrial purposes as it is very hard and strong. It is used to manufacture axles, knives and other hard materials.

Basic Advantages and Disadvantages

This unique variety of steel has considerably many advantages compared to other types of metals. Its usage and features may vary according to individual purposes. Due to its immense strength and durability, it is used to make masonry nails and cutting tools. Steel with high content of carbon has huge hardness levels and can resist wear and tear. It is therefore used in many industries to manufacture metal cutting tools and other machinery. It is also used to manufacture drill bits, knives, wood cutting tools, saws and metal cutting tools.

Some of the greatest disadvantage of this variety of steel includes its brittleness. It cannot be used for any type of welding work as it may fracture or break easily. Steel with less content of the main constituent is more likely to break so it can seldom be used for all purposes.

However, carbon steel is used for the manufacture of pipes as it is highly durable. Different types of steel tubes and pipes are used in many industries as it can withstand pressure and seldom break or bend with increased pressure. These steel pipes can be used under water as it is resistant to corrosion. Thick steel pipes are quite tensile and durable with its ability to remain intact under huge pressure. These steel pipes are used in various industries as it can be manufactured according to custom requirements.

Makeup – Top 10 Ingredients To Avoid

1. Methyl, Propyl, Butyl and Ethyl Parabens.

Why used? A preservative. It’s cheap.

Where used? Shampoos, makeup, moisturizers, toothpaste and food.

Dangers: A report in the New Scientist 2004 stated that in an analysis of 20 breast tumors that “high concentrations of para-hydroxybenzoic acids (parabens) [were found] in 18 samples. Parabens can mimic the hormone estrogen, which is known to play a role in the development of breast cancers. The preservatives are used in many cosmetics and some foods to increase their shelf-life.” The jury is still out on whether parabens are to blame. But even the American Cancer Society says that more research has to be done to establish if parabens have an effect on breast cancer risk.

What to look for on labels: Anything ending with the word paraben.

2. Diethanolamine (DEA).

Why used? A wetting agent and provides a rich lather.

Where used? Shampoos, lotions, creams and other cosmetics.

Dangers: This isn’t harmful in itself but it can react with other ingredients in the cosmetic formula to form a potent carcinogen called nitrosodiethanolamine which is absorbed through the skin and has been linked with stomach, oesophagus, liver and bladder cancers.

What to look for on labels: DEA, diethanolamine, or DEA-related ingredients, including: Cocamide DEA, Cocamide MEA, DEA-Cetyl Phosphate, DEA Oleth-3 Phosphate, Lauramide DEA, Linoleamide MEA, Myristamide DEA, Oleamide DEA, Stearamide MEA, Triethanolamine (TEA), TEA-Lauryl Sulfate.

3. Diazolidinyl Urea.

Why used? It’s a preservative.

Where used? Many cosmetic, skincare products and shampoos, conditioners, bubble baths, baby wipes and household detergents.

Dangers: Established as a primary cause of contact dermatitis (American Academy of Dermatology). Contains formaldehyde, a carcinogenic chemical, is toxic by inhalation, a strong irritant, and causes contact dermatitis.

4. Sodium Lauryl/Laureth Sulfate. (SLS and SLES)

Why used? A foaming agent. It’s cheap.

Where used? Car washes, garage floor cleaners, engine degreasers, soaps, shampoos, detergents and toothpastes. Used in 90% of products that produce foam.

Dangers: Skin and eye irritant. SLES is somewhat less irritating than Sodium Lauryl Sulfate, it cannot be metabolised by the liver and its effects are therefore much longer-lasting. In the same way as it dissolves the grease on car engines, sodium lauryl sulfate also dissolves the oils on your skin, which can cause a drying effect. It is also well documented that it denatures skin proteins, which causes not only irritation, but also allows environmental contaminants easier access to the lower, sensitive layers of the skin.

Perhaps most worryingly, SLS is also absorbed into the body from skin application. Once it has been absorbed, one of the main effects of sodium lauryl sulfate is to mimic the activity of the hormone Oestrogen. This has many health implications and may be responsible for a variety of health problems from PMS and Menopausal symptoms to dropping male fertility and increasing female cancers such as breast cancer, where oestrogen levels are known to be involved.

5. Mineral oil

Why used? To hydrate skin. Because it is a left-over from the oil industry it’s very cheap. (In fact it’s cheaper to buy it than to dispose of it)

Where used? Many baby product including baby oil (100% mineral oil), petroleum jelly, baby wash liquid soap, baby lotions.

Dangers: Coats the skin like plastic, clogging the pores. Interferes with skin’s ability to eliminate toxins, promoting acne and other disorders. Slows down skin function and cell development, resulting in premature aging. What happens is that mineral oils cause the skin to actually dry out. Then you put on more mineral oil based products, which drys the skin even more and so a vicious cycle starts.

6. Talc.

Why used? Resistant to moisture

Where used? Soaps, deodorant and baby powders.

Dangers: Scientific studies have shown that talc is similar in structure to asbestos, a well known cancer causing agent. Studies also show that women who used talc in their genital area had a higher risk of developing ovarian cancer. This is particularly disturbing since this cancer has such a poor prognosis when diagnosed at an advanced stage. Talc poses a health risk when exposed to the lungs. Talc miners have shown higher rates of lung cancer and other respiratory illnesses from exposure to industrial grade talc, which contains dangerous silica and asbestos. Since the early 1980s, records show that several thousand infants each year have died or become seriously ill following accidental inhalation of baby powder.

7. Triethanolamine (TEA).

Why used? Adjusts PH levels, and are often the base for cleansers

Where used? Cleansing milks, eye gels, shampoos, shaving foams etc.

Dangers: Problems associated with TEA include allergic reactions and dryness of skin and hair. They can also be toxic to persons exposed over long periods of time.

8. Propylene Glycol.

Why used? Prevents the escape of moisture, makes the skin smoother. It’s cheap to produce.

Where used? Makeup, shampoos, deodorant, mascaras, skin cream, after shave, baby wipes, wallpaper stripper, paint and de-icer.

Dangers: Has many side effects including the risk of cancer, reproductive toxicity, usage restrictions, allergies and immune system toxicity, skin and eye irritations, organ system toxicity, endocrine disruption, contact dermatitis and neurotoxicity. It also is a penetration enhancer, meaning it penetrates skin cells, getting right into the bloodstream, carrying other chemicals with it. Many of the natural companies sell “paraben-free” and “aluminum-free” deodorants, but they still contain propylene glycol because it’s a cheap ingredient.

9. Artificial colors.

Why used? Cheaper to produce than naturally occurring coloring agents

Where used? Most cosmetics

Dangers: Coal Tar by-products, sold on the cheap to manufacturers to mimic naturally occurring colors and scents. such as Blue 1 and Green 3, are carcinogenic. Impurities found in commercial batches of other cosmetic colors such as D&C Red 33, FD&C Yellow 5, and FD&C yellow 6 have been shown to cause cancer not only when ingested, but also when applied to the skin.

10. Artificial Fragrances.

Why used? Cheaper to produce than naturally occurring fragrances.

Where used? Most makeup, cosmetics and skincare products

Dangers: Can contain chemicals that aren’t listed on the ingredients. (Would you buy some food that had an ingredient listed as ‘other stuff’?) Artificial fragrances can be a combination of unknown chemicals, sometime up to 200, and it is often difficult to determine what is in a product “fragrance” or if the ingredients used are safe. That’s because companies don’t have to tell consumers what is in a “fragrance.” This information is considered proprietary. Many synthetic fragrances contain phthalates which are toxic to the reproductive system and have been linked to health problems such as allergies, birth defects, cancer, and respiratory disorders.

The conclusion about these ingredients in makeup products: While it probably isn’t possible to remove all chemicals from all products it’s important for us to be well informed as to what we are buying and the implications. Certainly we all should be wanting to reduce the amount of chemical that our bodies absorb through the skin. From the other extreme, its not wise to get stressed out if you can’t find something 100% natural. This would offset the benefits of using natural makeup.

This is where natural makeup and cosmetic products come in – we can protect our skin and bodies.

Did you also notice that the reason for many of these ingredients being used is because they are cheap. So it begs the question – if companies are putting so much cheap ingredients in their makeup, just why then are their cosmetic, makeup and skincare products so expensive? Yes, we are paying for advertising, packaging and then name.

What are the alternatives? At my site you will be able to find some great alternatives to these nasty ingredients. You will also find some great tips and recipes for natural makeup and skin care

You will probably agree that it’s time to change to natural products. Don’t let your looks kill you!

Today’s Hottest Kitchen Remodels – Flooring to Countertops

When homeowner’s today want to upgrade their homes, most remodels take place in the kitchen. This one room in a house will give the best return on any investment as well as offer the most enjoyment of any upgrade. Homeowners looking to increase equity, sell a house, or better enjoy their living space all look to kitchen remodeling jobs.

Today’s most popular kitchen remodeling projects are either floor upgrades or the addition of new kitchen countertops. New flooring makes any room look new again and can immediately add value. When it comes to beauty and a large value addition, kitchen countertops are the best investments one can make.

Kitchen Flooring Choices

The biggest concerns for flooring in the kitchen are moisture and stains. Nothing will damage or destroy flooring like water in addition to breeding mold and mildew. Any flooring choice made in the kitchen has to be water resistant and form a good seal to prevent water seepage to the sub floor.

Popular kitchen flooring choices include laminate, tiles, and even hardwood. Laminates combine low cost with an easy installation to provide a good water seal. Laminate also comes in many colors, sizes, shapes, and can mimic nearly any other flooring type in appearance. Tiles are the elegant choice for kitchens and can be sealed against moisture. Hardwoods are even gaining popularity with open floor plans that extend from the living and dining rooms into the kitchen. With extra precautions, hardwoods can withstand kitchen moisture as well.


When it comes to elegance in the kitchen, however, granite and quartz countertops are high class. With bold, glossy colors and a material that feels great to the touch, granite kitchen countertops will both add value and increase the enjoyment of the kitchen space. Quartz, which is an engineered stone, will resist stains and require less maintenance than granite. Less expensive countertop materials include laminate and ceramic tile, both of which are still excellent choices for a remodeling project and can be used as a stepping stone to further upgrades.

There are also manufactured products for use on counters. By combining natural minerals, resins, acrylics and pigments, man-made surfaces offer a wide variety of design choices combined with good durability. Heat treated surfaces are extremely durable and will remain in excellent condition for many years. Anti-microbial surfaces are nationally certified as safe for food and hospital service due to their sanitary properties. If a manufactured stone is selected, each piece is cut and fused together in the kitchen for a seamless look and water proof seal.

If home is where the heart is, then the kitchen is the soul of the home. Homeowners and entrepreneurs alike appreciate the value of a kitchen remodel, whether it is new flooring or a fresh countertop. Both options will increase the sentimental and monetary value of a home. That is why most home projects, on both new and old structures, start and end in the kitchen.

Airflow (CFM) Determination of an Air-Source Heat Pump (ASHP)

If you are a HVAC/R technician, you should always check any air-source heat pump (ASHP) for proper airflow across the coils when troubleshooting or during preventive maintenance.

Correct airflow is of crucial importance to the operation of any ASHP. Part of the heat transfer rate is determined by the airflow across the indoor and outdoor coils. If the airflow is incorrect, then the heat transfer rate is incorrect and can drastically affect the equipment’s performance.

Accurate airflow measurement is essential in troubleshooting any heat pump system. In fact, no refrigeration test is valid if the air flow volume is not correct!

ASHP manufacturers follow the tenants of the Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) which has a “Test Stand Value” requiring the measured air volume rate, when divided by the measured indoor air-side total capacity, must not exceed 37.5 SCFM per 1,000 Btu/h [this is a maximum of 450 cubic feet per minute (CFM) of airflow across an indoor coil per 12,000 Btu/h of capacity]. Most manufacturers use an acceptable range of 350 to 450 CFM per 12,000 Btu/h of capacity, and over 750 CFM per 12,000 Btu/h of capacity across outdoor coils (most outdoor fans move approximately 1,000 CFM, up to 1,500 CFM, per 12,000 Btu/h of capacity). In the HVAC/R industry, 12,000 Btu/h of capacity is referred to as a “Ton” of refrigeration. Typically, most manufacturers focus on around 400 CFM per “Ton” when rating their equipment.

Before performing any airflow determination, always make sure that all registers and grilles are open filters and coils are clean, and that blowers and fans are running properly delivering airflow across the indoor coil and the outdoor coil.

There are various methods that help determine the airflow amount across an indoor coil. The indoor coil is typically checked as the airflow must cross this coil to allow the refrigerant to either absorb (ASHP cooling) or reject (ASHP heating) the heat to the appropriate “sink.” In summer, the “sink” is the outdoors, and during winter, the “sink” is indoors.

One of the most widely utilized methods when checking ASHP airflow has been the “temperature rise” method across the auxiliary or emergency (back up) heater(s). This method can be performed regardless of outdoor ambient temperature.

When performing this test, you should remember that typically, most air source heat pumps operate with the same airflow regardless of mode of operation. In cooling or heating, or during emergency heat or defrost, the heat pump simply delivers the “same” airflow per ton across the indoor coil. The only change is possible during the cooling mode, as water condensing on the indoor coil increases resistance slightly, lowering airflow amounts somewhat. Of course, you can also change blower speeds and CFM amounts for either cooling or heating on some ASHPs.

To check airflow (CFM) of an ASHP, you have to perform several measurements and use some math. The common formula for calculating CFM is:

Emergency Heat Output(Btu/h)

CFM= —————————–

Temperature Rise x 1.08

You must find the CFM per Ton traveling through the indoor coil during cooling or heating modes. To accomplish this, you should place the system in the emergency heat mode and place thermometers in the supply air and return air paths as close to the air handler as possible without being affected by the radiant effect of the heaters.

In the previous formula, CFM equals the emergency heat output in Btu/h. Since you will be checking heaters, you will be calculating electrical data. When finding Btu/h output of the heater, you will simply measure the voltage and the amperage at the disconnect for the heater(s) and record the values. This will require use of a voltmeter and an ammeter.

Supply voltage multiplied by amperage equals wattage. Wattage multiplied by 3.413 (Btus per Watt) equals Btu/h and you will then have the value for the CFM formula numerator.

In the CFM formula denominator, temperature rise comes from the difference in the return air and supply air temperature after the heater(s) has/have stabilized and a difference has occurred. This difference (sometimes called TR or ΔT) is then multiplied by a constant of 1.08 to find the adjusted temperature difference. Always pay close attention to temperature change when finding the difference in temperature.

This adjusted temperature difference is the denominator for the CFM formula.

When the formula is completed with the necessary inputs, the answer is the total delivered airflow (CFM) traveling across the heater in emergency heat mode. You then simply divide this value by the tonnage of the installed outdoor coil to find the CFM per ton. The cooling airflow (CFM) will be near to this value or slightly lower due to increased pressure drop from water condensing on the indoor coil during cooling. The ASHP compressor heating airflow (CFM) per ton will be a similar value to that found from emergency heat. The CFM per ton should be in the AHRI range to be acceptable.

If inaccurate air flow (CFM volume) across the indoor coil (evaporator in cooling, condenser in heating) is determined, this situation must be corrected prior to further analysis of the refrigeration cycle.

Determining ASHP indoor coil airflow (CFM) during emergency heat example:

Two (2) Ton Unit

240 Volts at disconnect

20 Amps at disconnect

Return air = 70ºF

Supply air = 88ºF

CFM = (240 x 20 x 3.413) ÷ (1.08 x 18ºF) = 843

843 CFM ÷ 2 Tons = 421.5 CFM per Ton

(This amount is acceptable per AHRI)

You should also check the outdoor coil for minimal clearance per manufacturer around the unit from shrubs, trees, and decks to allow for proper heat rejection in the summer and absorption in the winter. You can also determine the airflow across the outdoor coil by using the product specifications from the manufacturer as shown below. Most ASHP outdoor coils will typically deliver close to this amount if the coil is installed correctly and unobstructed.

Phillip A. Rains

5 Key Reasons Why Your Company Needs Professional Logistics Management Services

The most successful companies in all industries are applying strict logistics management principles in every compartment of their operations. Nothing is left to change or left out of scrutiny when it comes to evaluating how the transportation and logistics costs impact the company’s budget and how much waste the company generates through its manufacturing and distribution activities.

If your company is trying to reduce logistics cost, but it has not yet reached the desired level of supply chain optimization, here are the top five reasons why you should consider hiring a professional logistics management company:

1. Reduce Logistic Cost by 50%

Given the previous experience of professional logistics companies in dealing with clients, they estimate that implementing lean manufacturing, sustainable packaging and logistics principles helps them reduce their overall costs with logistics by half. The implementation of logistics management procedures involves everything from rethinking the way products are handled, packaged and stored to the implementation of automated manufacturing systems.

2. Reduce The Quantity of Waste

Companies generate a lot of waste – some of which they are not aware of, because it is their end client’s job to recycle one-way packages. One of the key elements of logistics management is reducing costs and creating sustainable packaging solutions which are reliable, reusable and help both the company and its clients reduce the quantity of waste generated by the activity.

3. Apply Lean Manufacturing Principles

Besides reducing the quantity of waste, lean manufacturing focuses on increasing productivity, minimizing lost time due to unnecessary handling of products from the assembly line to the warehouse and then to the shipping trailers. This logistics management principle which originated in Japan is now the backbone of many successful companies which have implemented strategic work procedures to help employees be more efficient in their work and to help promote a corporate culture based on collaboration and open sharing of ideas.

4. Improve Your Company’s Image among Clients

Companies which managed to optimize their logistics and supply chain management and reduce their overall logistic cost will reduce the manufacturing costs of their products. Thus, they can offer to their clients more competitive prices and stay ahead of their competition. Adequate logistics management is not only about cutting costs, but also staying successful and relevant in an ever increasing competitive business environment.

5. Earning More Goodwill for Your Company

In today’s business environment a positive public image is the key to attract valuable partnerships and endorsements from industry thought leaders. This goodwill can bring to your company the kind of exposure it needs to convince potential clients to do business with you. By implementing the right logistics management and supply chain optimization principles, your company will promote the image of a modern and adaptable business which cares for its clients and the environment and promotes a solid and sustainable business model.

Cervical Conception Cap Insemination

Many couples who are facing infertility find that there are few satisfying therapeutic options between timing ovulation and undergoing IVF. There is another lesser known category of treatment that couples can consider; cervical cap insemination. To use this technique, the semen is collected and placed into a small cap which is inserted into the vagina and onto the cervix, the opening to the uterus. The sperm are held next to the cervical mucus while being shielded from the vaginal environment. Without this protection the sperm die within minutes after intercourse. Capping the semen onto the cervix allows all the available sperm to swim up into the uterus and fallopian tubes, to where the egg will be. The cervical cap can be used for treating low sperm count, low sperm motility, tilted cervix, and other common conditions.

Cervical caps have been used by gynecologists and urologists for decades and have been documented in medical literature since the first edition of Fertility and Sterility in 1950. At that time, Dr. M.J. Whitelaw wrote about a technique for insemination by “using a plastic cervical cap filled with the husband’s semen applied to the cervix for 24 hours”. (1) This was done to treat oligospermia, which is low sperm count. At the time, other OB/GYNs were also doing cervical cap insemination, but with a heavier cup made of surgical steel, with the women undergoing treatment having to lie down in the doctor’s exam room for six hours with their hips elevated.

Cervical cap insemination was used widely into the 1970’s and 1980’s. Effective for the treatment of low sperm count and tilted cervix, it was also used for unexplained infertility. In 1983, Dr. Michael Diamond and colleagues found that women with primary infertility, defined as no prior pregnancies, had a pregnancy rate of 43% in the first six months of cervical cap use. Women with secondary infertility, having a history of at least one pregnancy, had a pregnancy rate of 67% in the first six months of use. (2) Their method included a cervical cap that was placed by the patient onto the cervix then filled with semen using a catheter that fit into a small opening in the cap. The couples treated in this study generally had low sperm count and/or poor post coital test results, yet had normal evaluations of the female. The doctors in the study also offered cap insemination as an option for couples who had not completed a full evaluation which at the time included diagnostic laparoscopy. This allowed patients to continue trying to conceive and use all of their cycles, while still considering advanced options.

Eventually, with the advent of Invitro Fertilization (IVF) and subsequently Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI), cervical cap insemination began to fall by the wayside. During the economic boom of the 1990’s, with more discretionary income, couples had access to a multitude of tests and procedures, even if their insurance did not cover them. Such tests as Hamster Egg Penetration, Hypo Osmotic Swelling Test, and Antibody Testing which were popular a few years back are not as frequently ordered by doctors today, citing the value of the results obtained compared with the money spent. ICSI, which was developed to treat low sperm count, is now used a majority of the time by clinicians with IVF. In the most recent data collected, The Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology (SART) reports that ICSI use for 2006 was 62% of all IVF cycles. In 2007, a study published in the New England Journal of Medicine showed that over a decade, the rate of use of ICSI had increased five times although the sperm quality parameters over that same time period essentially remained the same.

While the cost and use of high tech treatments has skyrocketed in recent years, the cervical cap and at home insemination is quietly making a comeback. Couples interested in more cost effective, natural methods are seeking out other options for conceiving. At home insemination by cervical cap is a treatment option that can fit into several places in a couple’s fertility planning. For couples just beginning on their fertility journey, at home insemination could be used as a first step, especially when one or both of the partners are reluctant to spend a lot of time at the doctor’s office. For those who have been trying to conceive for several cycles, and may be taking fertility medications to enhance ovulation, a cervical cap could add another valuable tool to the treatment plan. Lastly, couples who are undergoing IVF cycles, or who have had IVF in the past, may want to try an at home insemination method on their cycles away from the more aggressive treatments. Single mothers of choice can also benefit from this technique as an alternate insemination delivery system.

Cervical caps, which have also been used for contraception to prevent pregnancy, are part of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). The current term for cervical cap devices used for insemination is conception cap. The cervical cap currently available for at home insemination is a modern upgrade of the old rigid plastic or metal caps of the past. The newer version is made of soft implantable grade silicone, and has flanges in the inner rim to create a one size cap that does not need to be custom fitted. It can be worn during normal activities, allowing a woman the freedom to go about her regular daily routine.

The clinical trial done for FDA clearance in 2007 was designed using couples who had been diagnosed with infertility; most of them also had attempted other methods such as IVF and IUI. The results were that 84% of patients found that placing the cervical cap on their cervix was easy to do, and 92% of patients found that the instructions were easy to understand. Of the patients involved in the clinical trial, 24% became pregnant within the first month, including couples with failed IVF and IUI attempts. (3)

Cervical cap use has shown positive results in the past and has something significant to contribute to the future of reproductive medicine. With the cost of medical expenses rising beyond the ability of the average consumer to pay, at home cervical cap insemination may be an attractive option for continuing pursuing family building in tough economic times.


1. Whitelaw MJ. 1950. Use of the cervical cap to increase fertility in case of oligospermia. Fertility and Sterility. 1:33.

2. Diamond, MP, Christianson C. Daniell JF, Wentz AC. Pregnancy following use of the cervical cup for home artificial insemination utilizing homologous semen. Fertility and Sterility. 1983 April; 39(4); 480-4.

3. Conception Kit clinical trials, Conceivex. 2006-2007

Aluminum Garden Furniture – Keep Your Aluminum Patio Furniture Looking Brand New

Aluminum garden furniture has become really popular for those who have large outdoor living areas that need to be decorated and who spend a lot of time entertaining in their outdoor lounging spaces.

Aluminum patio furniture is outstanding because it is so strong, lightweight, rustproof and fashionable and the best part about it is that it is really low maintenance furniture. It’s important to know, though, that despite the fact that your aluminum patio furniture might not need too much extra care, a little bit of TLC from time to time will insure that your aluminum garden furniture will last for a really long time.

Aluminum garden furniture will come with care instructions from the manufacturer and these could differ depending on where you purchased it from and who made it. The way in which you care for your aluminum garden furniture will depend on whether the furniture is made out of extruded, wrought or cast aluminum.

There are, however, some normal tips everybody can use to take care of their aluminum patio furniture.

The easiest of cleaning instructions is to spray it over often. This is to prevent build up which may cause damage and it’s fast and easy to complete.

You should also use a mild soap that is earth friendly along with some warm water to clean your aluminum garden furniture from time to time. If the frame happens to be exposed to any type of chemical, especially those found in repellents and suntan oils and lotions, clean the frame immediately or as quickly as you can. These chemicals might cause some of the finishes on your furniture to become faded or deteriorated.

If your aluminum garden furniture picks up scuff marks, these can be removed somewhat quickly by using a light abrasive. If the scuff marks are a bit larger, you can use fine grained sand paper or even a wire brush to get rid of them.

Touch-up paint is another a good way to keep your aluminum garden furniture in perfect shape. If there is a part that needs to be touched up, buff it with a fine steel wool to improve the adhesion of the paint. After you scrubbed it with the steel wool, wipe the spot to get rid of any residue that might have been left. Now you can add thin coats of touch-up paint to your aluminum patio furniture. If you are going to apply multiple coats, allow for each coat to dry before applying a new one.

To make your aluminum patio furniture last through a long and icy cool winter, you should coat it in some oil. This is not any kind of special oil, motor oil works and cooking oil works just the same and it is environmentally friendly! When winter is complete, remember to wipe it all off. During the warm months, you can apply baby oil or mineral oil to your aluminum garden furniture to keep it looking beautiful and shiny.

Wax is another great way to keep your aluminum patio furniture in good condition – this should be applied once or twice a year.

By taking the steps above, your aluminum garden furniture will be more lasting and will give you a good life span.

Fender Flares Do More Than Add Good Looks

If you are a confirmed off-road enthusiast, then you understand the benefits of fender flares. However, if you’ve never ventured beyond the edge of the pavement, but want to, or simply want to add great rugged looks to your truck for on-road use, then fender flares are of definite interest to you.

What are fender flares?

In essence, these are additions that mount to the exterior of your wheel wells (the actual mount is inside the well), that extend and expand the size of you fenders. In addition, you have several options on the market that you will need to understand prior to buying a set.

The basic job of fender flares is to protect the sides of your vehicle from mud, rocks, sticks and other debris that might destroy your paint job in seconds, or wreak havoc on your bodylines (dents don’t do much for clean lines!). Of course, they also beef up the look of your ride, giving it a ruggedness that suggests muscularity and masculinity.

Finding the Right Set

Choosing the right type of fender flares is important. For instance, if you have a Jeep, you will need a different type of fender flare set than would someone driving a Dodge 1500 or a Chevy Silverado. Therefore, your first order of business is to find a set of flares that is made to fit your vehicle.

Caution should be exercised here, as well. Some manufacturers sell their flares in sets of four, for obvious reasons. However, other manufacturers sell them in sets of two, which can come as a surprise if you don’t read the fine print. If you don’t want to end up with two, instead of four, make sure that you check out the entire listing from the manufacturer.

Construction Material

Most flares are “plastic,” though you will find several different types, including ABS and polyurethane. You should, however, ensure that any fender flares you choose are UV stable, or UV resistant. UV rays will cause many types of plastic to dry rot over time, which will result in damage to the flares far before they should wear out.

Size Considerations

One of the other major considerations you will need to make is the size of the flares you want. If you are simply seeking a cosmetic fix for your vehicle, then any size will work. However, if you actually need to protect the sides of your vehicle from the ravages of rocks and debris off-road, then you will need to make sure that the flares extend far enough past the lip of the actual fender.

For Jeep owners, flares are a special consideration and will actually extend your fenders out by about three or four inches, in order to cover the entirety of the tire.

Color Concerns

A quick glance at the types of fender flares available will show you that most of them are black. Most companies should provide you with paintable fender flares, though you will find some that can be ordered in OEM colors. However, you should not purchase any fender flares that do not state specifically that they can be painted (unless you intend to leave them black, of course).

Finding a set of fender flares to enhance and protect your vehicle can be accomplished easily, though you will have to ensure that the set you purchase matches your wants and needs. Remember that some sets are purely cosmetic, while others provide tremendous protection in the off-road environment and you will easily find a set to meet your needs.

Choosing Your Lens Type When Buying Glasses Online

When it comes to brass tacks, the choice of prescription lenses for your new glasses most often boils down to how much you’re willing to pay to reduce weight upon the bridge of your nose: Opt for the cheapest eyeglasses lenses and you’ll have also opted for the heaviest lenses; lenses which may not have anti-scratch or anti-reflective coatings to boot (these ‘nice to haves’ usually come as standard on more expensive lens packages).

Lens indices: Thickness & weight.

These days glass lenses eyeglasses are a thing of the past having been replaced by plastic lenses which although lighter than glass is not necessarily much lighter in the case of cheap plastic lenses. Many customers still approach their opticians seeking “sunglasses with glass lenses” while really looking for prescription sunglasses with modern (plastic lenses). For clarity then this article shall be confined to considerations of modern lenses only. Lens thickness/weight are described by one of four lens indices: 1.5 index is the thickest and heaviest, while 1.61, 1.67 and 1.74 become progressively lighter and thinner (as well as progressively more expensive) as the index value increases in magnitude.

While the one might find one’s self swaying towards the very thinnest and lightest lenses every time (ie. 1.67 and 1.74 indices) these are not recommended for rimless & semi rimless frames for practical reasons to minimise risk of chipping and / or cracking. That said, sometimes a choice of thick and heavy lenses suit some people just fine. There are some trade off’s to be made, the final choice will ultimately be the consumers so following general advice should help you make an informed decision:

Have you chosen rimless or semi rimless frames?

We recommend a 1.6 index lens for rimless and semi rimless frames because these are more resistant to chipping and cracking. One could opt for the 1.67 and 1.74 anyway but be warned: While these glasses are very light on the bridge of the nose, they must be treated with extreme care to prevent damage. For lenses of these indices risk of chipping and cracking is increased from ‘could possibly happen’ to ‘chipping and cracking is highly likely’. Furthermore, should you decide to disregard this advice and opt for 1.67 or 1.74 you probably won’t get the usual one year guarantee on your lenses from most opticians. Often, they’ll only guarantee the bridge and the temples under these circumstances so if chipping or cracking does occur you will not have recourse to refund or return – ouch!

Thick frames vs. thin-delicate frames lens-choice debate:

Thick eyewear frames will hide a thick lens quite well but that same thick lens will definitely be more noticeable if placed within a thin, delicate frame (so we advise you to be careful of this fact and take note!) Thus for thin frames, a thinner lens will certainly be the more aesthetically pleasing choice.

However (getting back to thick frames for second), should you opt for thick frames and thick lenses, you will have a pair of glasses that are going to feel heavier on the bridge of the nose which may not be very desirable.

Lastly, if you choose a thin & delicate pair of fully rimmed spectacles you can safely opt for any of the higher (lighter-weight) lens indexes without fear of cracking or chipping during normal usage for a pair glasses that will feel very light on the bridge of your nose. Your choice of index depends upon budget and upon how light you want your glasses to be.

A Quick Overview of lens types – you’ll have to choose one!

(1) Distance Lenses: Choose these if you use your glasses all day but do not have bifocals or varifocals. These are general purpose lenses intended to be used for everything from reading to driving and (at risk of labouring the point through repetition), are usually worn all day.

(2) Reading lenses: Choose these if you want glasses specifically for reading documents and seeing things very close to you or at arm’s length away including computers, sheet music, documents etc

(3) Enhanced reading: These lenses are specialized: Only choose these if they have been specifically recommended by your optician.

(4) Bifocal lenses (with a line): Choose if you’ve had them before, you liked them and your optician recommends them. Read more on bifocal lenses below.

(5) Varifocals: Choose if you’ve had them before, you liked them and your optician recommends them. Read more on Varifocal lenses below.

Distance Lenses:

These are the most common lenses of all; they’re usually worn all day and can be prescribed for both long and short sightedness. When choosing lens types on glasses websites you may see the word ‘distance’ used interchangeably or in conjunction with the term ‘single vision’ and may see (for example)

Distance (single vision)

Reading (single Vision)

You’ve guess it, these are corrective lenses for short and long sightedness respectively.

Bifocal Lenses:

These lenses contain both distance and reading prescriptions in one lens. They’re easily recognisable by a horizontal line that runs through the middle of the lens. Although they’ve been overtaken in popularity in recent times by varifocal lenses, they nonetheless still retain notable popularity as they remain a very cost effective lens solution. There is a however a very noticeable jump between reading and distance parts of these lenses.

Progressive or Varifocal Lenses:

These lenses also known as progressive lenses, contain distance, intermediate and reading prescriptions all in one lens. The transitions between each of the prescriptions are very smooth in contrast to bifocal lenses which have a noticeable jump. There are no visible lines on a varifocal lens but the segment containing the reading prescription is just about visible as a semi circle. In the old days there was some noticeable distortion present at the right / left extremities of varifocal lenses which often made the wearer feel a little seasick. Thankfully these days have gone with the evolution of free form varifocal lenses that are now very easy to wear.

Varifocal lenses include corrective prescriptions for all of the following vision ranges within a single lens:

i. Distance

ii. Intermediate

iii. Close-range

Note: if you buy these lenses from an online seller, they will require a varifocal prescription and very accurate papillary distance [PD] measurements for each of the above ranges. For this reason we do not recommend PD measurements are taken at home for varifocals lenses: The required accuracy of PD measurements for varifocal prescriptions is such that nothing less than professionally measured PD measurements will suffice. In this particular case, an optician must take the PD measurements for you.

Transitional lenses:

Also known as Reactions, Photochromic and Sun sensors, these lenses darken in response to increasing levels of U.V. light and can be ordered in either grey or brown tints. They tend not to work at all in your car: car windscreens tend to block the U.V. light these lenses need to sense in order to darken.

Enhanced reading lenses:

These provide a greater depth of focus than conventional single vision lenses for reading. Also known as office lenses, the top half of the lens will have a longer focal distance at the top and closer at the bottom. As the term “office lens” implies these have been developed for use with the VDU although have other applications such as for use with reading music or DIY. Like a varifocal lens they have no line but will give a much wider field of vision for the intermediate distance. They have a little or no distance vision and are not suitable for driving.

Scratch-resistant coatings:

These days, all lenses are made of plastic and not glass. Left without scratch resistant coating, this plastic remains soft and scratches easily. A scratch resistant coating is in fact not a coating in a similar sense to a coat of paint but is rather a process where the plastic surfaces of the lens are toughened to make them more scratch resistant. While this process will not make your lenses scratch proof, it definitely makes them a good deal more resistant to picking up scratches during normal use. We would advise that scratch resistance are a very nice to have feature on your lenses.

Anti-reflection coatings (a.k.a. MAR / anti-glare coatings):

This coating reduces reflection on the outside of the lens so that when people look at you they will not see a glare or reflection from your glasses lens surfaces. Instead, your lenses shall be 100% transparent and glare-free to the onlooker. As such they are therefore aesthetically more attractive than non-coated lenses. Anti-reflect coatings also reduce glare coming into your eyes from PC’s, or from the headlights of on-coming cars at night.


All prescription lenses can be turned into sunglasses by choosing tinting options. It is possible to choose a homogenous tint which will make the entire lens the chosen colour or else choose a graduated tint where the lens is darkest on top while getting progressively lighter towards the bottom.


Glare is caused by light reflecting off of surfaces and horizontally bouncing into the human eye. Polarizing tinted lenses will ensure that only vertical light can get through thereby eliminating glare. Polarization of lenses usually incurs an extra charge.