Pickling Your Wooden Deck

If you want to lighten or add a different tint to your deck’s wooden flooring, pickling it could be the solution. Instead of replacing the entire deck floor with a light-colored wood, you have this inexpensive alternative. The good news is you can easily pickle it yourself by following these five easy steps.

Before starting, prepare lots of sandpaper and absorbent rags (lint-free), a wide paintbrush, a bristle brush, a lambs-wool wax applicator, and enough varnish and paint for the entire deck floor. For toluene or alcohol-based varnish, protect yourself against toxic gases with a face mask. Oil-based paint is easier to use on your deck because they take longer to dry. If you want latex for the deck, dilute it in paint thinner at a 25/75 ratio. Stick with flat finishes since gloss tends to outshine the deck’s textured wood. For larger decks, use a power sanding device. Otherwise, it would take forever to finish the entire deck.

1. Remove the existing finish of your deck flooring. Be careful in using the power sanding device as it might chip or damage the deck’s floor. Sandpaper the deck on hard to reach spaces. Once the finish has been completely removed, the deck’s surface could be too coarse for you. Use fine sandpaper to make it smoother. Clean up thoroughly afterward. Make sure to vacuum the entire deck, especially the corners, to ensure a clean paint job.

2. Paint the deck. Evenly spread the paint onto the wood. Don’t worry about direction since that won’t matter later. Leave the deck to dry for 20 to 60 minutes.

3. Using the rags, wipe off the paint in circular motions. The amount of paint you rub off will dictate how light the deck stain will be. Smooth out any clumps of paint with the bristle brush.

4. Smooth the deck floor with the power sanding device and sandpaper. Remember to rid it of all sawdust before moving on to the next step.

5. Apply a couple of coats of varnish to finish. Don’t forget to use the face mask for non-yellowing varnish. Use the wax applicator to achieve a polished veneer.

Remember that the colors you choose will blend with the original color of the deck flooring, acting like a sheet of colored cellophane. White paint over cedar will give it a pinkish hue. A purplish one would show if blue paint was used. Different varnishes also affect the deck flooring’s in different ways. Oil or polyurethane varnishes can darken the wood and make it yellow over time.

Be creative with the colors and make it complement or contrast the rest of your deck. That is pretty much the 5 step process for pickling your wooden deck.

Multicast IGMP and PIM

I learned a little more about IGMP and PIM this morning. Hosts use IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol) to register with the router to join or leave specific multicast groups. The router is then aware that it needs to forward the data stream destined to a specific multicast group to the registered hosts. There are currently three versions of IGMP, versions 1, 2, and 3.

  • IGMPv1 – periodically sends membership queries (60-120 sec) to the all-hosts multicast address IGMPv4 doesn’t have a mechanism defined for hosts to leave the multicast group. There for IGMP routers learn that a group is no longer available when it times out from not receiving any queries from that particular group.
  • IGMPv2 – has group-specific queries that allows a router to query membership only in a single group instead for all groups. Instead of waiting for a timeout from a particular group, the last hosts that are apart of a multicast group sends the router a specific message that it’s leaving said group.
  • IGMPv3 – is still being designed and proposed. Version 3 adds the ability to filter multicasts based on multicast source so that hosts can indicate that they want to receive traffic only from particular sources within a multicast group.

In order for Layer 2 devices to recognize multicast packets it uses either CGMP (Cisco Group Management Protocol) or IGMP Snooping. As you might have guessed, CGMP is a Cisco proprietary protocol designed for Cisco switches specifically. It allows you to manually configure specific switch ports for multicast traffic but this feature isn’t scalable because of that reason. IGMP Snooping allows a switch to eavesdrop on IGMP messages sent between routers and hosts, and updates its MAC address table accordingly.

PIM (Protocol Independent Multicast) is used by routers that are forwarding multicast packets. PIM uses the normal IP routing table in its multicast calculations. PIM uses what’s called distribution trees to forward multicast packets. There’s two types of trees

  • Source Tree – A source tree is created for each source sending to each multicast group. The source tree has its root at the source and has branches through the network to the receivers.
  • Shared Tree – Is a single tree that is shared between all sources for each multicast group. The shared tree has a single common root, called a rendezvous point (RP). Sources initially send their multicast packets to the RP, which in turn forwards data through a shared tree to the members of the group.

PIM uses two modes that determines the type of distribution tree to use including one hybrid mode:

  • PIM Sparse Mode (PIM-SM) – Sparse mode uses a “pull” model to send multicast traffic. it users a shared tree and therefore requires an RP to be defined.
  • PIM Dense Mode (PIM-DM) – Dense mode uses a “push” model that floods multicast traffic to the entire network. Dense mode uses source trees.
  • PIN Sparse Dense Mode – uses both Sparse and Dense modes throughout its network

Regrow Thinning Hair – Best Tactics For More Hair

Thinning hair can be one of the first signs of baldness. Many like yourself wonder what can they do in order to regrow their hair and thicken it. It’s actually quite simple and utilizes a few natural techniques.

Go anywhere in the world and you will find men and women buying product after product, attempting to grow their hair back. Really if you can identify a few common causes of a thinning hair problem, you have what it takes to have a full head of hair again.

What many of those manufacturers putting out creams, pills, and topical solutions won’t tell you is that their products are packed with a ton of inactive ingredients that weaken the effects of their products. Do they even care? Yeah right, they only want more money stuffed in their pockets while you run around aimlessly without hope.

Not to mention many of the side effects you can experience. Muscle aches, fatigue, headaches, and even more serious causes of concern.

Below are a few tactics you can follow immediately for regrowing any thinning of the hair:

1.) Increase blood circulation in the scalp

2.) Get the proper nutrients in your system for fast hair growth

3.) Control hair loss causing hormone for maximum hair growth

I’ve limited these to only three factors, but there are more that I’m going to tell you about as well. First take note of why good blood circulation is so necessary for thinning hair. When you lack sufficient blood flow in the scalp, you’re basically starving your own hair follicles.

You’re cutting off exactly what they need to grow and that is nutrients from your blood. This is why some women and so many men go through the condition of having a receding hairline. The frontal area of the scalp receives the least amount of circulation.

And like I said before when you cut this off, you’re losing hair in the process. Simple scalp massage for 15 minutes daily will help take care of the problem. Doesn’t seem like much, but when done on a regular basis makes way for some incredible results.

The Biography of Mikhail Gorbachov – Part 2

5. The “Gensec” of the world

“As every revolution, the perestroika could hold between two limits of one state.” To appease the changes Gorbachov started to use his perestroika as an international campaign, without moving around at home. It is the time of the Chernobyl incident of which the biography doesn’t mention nearly anything. An exploring of the world outside starts. Gorbachov reminds that he didn’t know what a credit card looked like when the public opinion had noticed Raisa buy earrings. To export his ideas to the western world he publishes his book called perestroika.

But with this new more friendly face of the Soviet Union, a dilemma is raised: the health of the Soviet Union existence was partly based on its eternal enemy (the capitalist world outside). The problem was now: how to act against the liberty of choice that was granted in the east-European countries?

In the meantime he had to solve problem of “old-thinking” the war in Afghanistan and the Euro missiles that had provoked American missiles.

It is the time of the Star Wars and Gorbachov surprised the US by announcing a diminishing of the missiles by 50% in Reykjavik. A year later in Washington when Reagan said he missed Reykjavik, Raisa commemorates that the felt that “women were not welcomed there in reikjavik.”

But as the international activities expanded the interior problems remained to be solved…

6. The party is the only that will not betray me

“In spring 1988 the first cracks appear in the monolithic façade of the politburo.” Someone had discovered that Marx did oppose to private property, but how was g. to communicate this to the politburo? It was time that the Party was separated from the administrative and economic governance and had to find its own goals. Besides the party there we not yet other governing organs.

The party became split between red and white roses who supported different ideas.

“Change was not made impossible by the persons, but by the roles they executed.” And Gorbachov didn’t replace the old clan of Brezhnev.

When looking back, Gorbachov recognizes that Yeltsin was one of his biggest mistakes; one of the “gravediggers of 1991”. He should have sent him abroad as an ambassador of some country. But Yeltsin was an aspired politician. And the political reforms that were initiated couldn’t be stopped. It became unclear who betrayed who: the communist party (CPUS) with their lack of support to Gorbachov or Gorbachov by limiting the powers of the CPUS.

Than the event that changed all, the putsch of august 1991. Gorbachov resigns after he acknowledged that “the party didn’t condemn the putsch.

When Stalin was asked why the soviet constitution permitted a state to separate from the union, why inspire separatist’s ideas which could lead to a disintegration of the country? He replied, our party is unique and that’s why we have it, so that it will never happen.

7. Preserve or dissolve

It becomes more and more difficult to preserve and both in the north, the Baltic states starting with Lithuania and the south in the Caucasus region, “with different temperaments” but with similar goals: independence.

In June 1990 after a period where the popularity of Yeltsin has increased, which makes him decide to resign from the Party. Gorbachov acted with economic sanctions to the rebelling state, but also under the pressure of external world, never threaded to use power.

Grachov writes in this context: it is hard to question the convictions that someone build up along his life, but more difficult it is to let them go, like his unionist-conviction… “He could understand that the fall of the Berlin wall would bring serious cracks in the wall of the Kremlin. Gorbachov dreamt of a union of confederation of states that would benefit from the historic ties with Russia. Was he a “homo sovieticus” who wanted to reform his country like a European style of United States? Some say his dream could have been realized, but no one could tell what would be the course of events without the putsch in 1991.

8. “He is God, but I am a normal man”

This chapter is preliminary – most part of the book is in fact – to the next two chapters where the putsch is described in detail; this putsch offers a key in understanding the flow of events.

It is also a chapter where the personality behind Gorbachov is detailed. People more or less close to him portrait his character; he was “impulsive” to some, “hard working, always in the office until late” for others. Not a conceptual thinker, someone who moved the forces, not someone who had a fixed objective in mind. “Moving was more important than the goal.”

And the importance of words. Action was not the only that matters: “the vibration of words.” And that he often waited too long, just for the sake of patience things would go by themselves… And a returning fact about him was that he was a real federate (making sure people connected in the modern sense a networker). And also about “cherchez la femme.” The woman behind the man; was she the one moving him to idealism and unreachable goals?

These are a few contemplations in a chapter of which the meaning is borrowed from the bible; Jesus was also betrayed, by Judas… “but I’m a normal man, Gorbachov said…


Making a Homemade Dog House Heater

In most climates, a well-insulated dog house of the right size will keep your dog warm and cozy. But if you live in a very cold climate, your dog’s body heat may not be quite enough to keep the dog house warm.

In that case, you’re going to want some kind of dog house heater. People often want to know if it’s possible to make one themselves. The answer is yes, you can make a homemade dog house heater, as long as you know enough to set up the electrical side of things safely. You will need to know a bit about wiring and the like to be able to make your own doghouse heater.

So how to make a dog house heater? Well, there’s a particular kind of heater which is very straightforward in construction – the heater box. The basic principle is straightforward – the key part is simply a light bulb. If you’ve ever tried to change a light bulb which has just been switched on, you know how hot they get! So a single light bulb can be enough to keep a dog house toasty warm.

You need to install it at the top of the dog house, so that your dog can get in and out without burning himself on it. Don’t put it right at the top, though – you need a few inches of space from surrounding surfaces, or you’ll have a fire hazard. So, drill a hole near the top of the wall, and run the cables out there to the power socket.

You need to be able to run them in a way that your dog can’t get at them, because if he chews them, he’s going to get a nasty shock. If your dog house is against a fence, you can run the cables straight through the fence. If not, you may need to cover them with a purpose-built casing, or bury them. You can get metal casing at hardware stores, but a bit of garden hose can also make a great casing, and there are other kinds of hard plastic tubing you can get at hardware stores which can work.

Back inside the dog house, you’ll want to cover the bulb with something, or the light may stop your dog sleeping. An old paint can is a good option for this, or failing that a large food or coffee can. Strip off any paper covering, of course. Make a few small holes to let air out, and then attach the can, over the light bulb, to the wall. If you screw it on, then you can easily remove it when you need to change the bulb.

Alternatively, make a large hole in the bottom of the can, and fix the bottom of the can to the wall – in other words, setting up the light bulb inside the can. Then just put the lid on the can to cover the light.

If you like, you can paint the can black – that helps the heat radiate.

If you want to get really fancy, you can add a dimmer switch, so you can adjust the heat, or a thermostat, to control the temperature.

Telemarketing Services – The Purpose of Telemarketing Opening Dialogue

I picked up the ringing phone the other day. “Hello?” I said. Then I sat in shock as I heard on the other end, “Hello, my name is Jim and I’m calling from XYZ Co.

We are a full service communication provider and we’re offering clients a very special promotion on our satellite television services. If you sign up with us today you can receive our full service for just $25.00 a month for the first three months. What’s more you won’t be charged a sign up fee.

Now before you say ‘no’ I’d like to take a moment to remind you about all the great features of our service…” He went on and on and on and didn’t give me the opportunity to say a single word. Finally, he took a breath and I was able to decline the offer.

Jim of XYZ Company (the names are changed to protect the guilty!) shares a misconception among many telemarketing services professionals about the purpose of the opening dialogue.

This article is going to talk about what that opening dialogue is for. Note that it doesn’t matter if you are working for individual sales leads or business sales leads, this truth remains the same.

Telemarketing services opening dialogue?

Many people assume the opening dialogue should be like a Gatling gun: firing off all your bullets at once in the hopes that one or two will hit the target. It’s ineffective and, like Jim’s opening dialogue, almost comical! It gives the impression that the telemarketing “professional” doesn’t care about the sales leads’ time.

Why is it like this? It’s because many people feel that they have a bunch of things they need to say and they’re expecting their sales leads to say “no”.

So, you’re asking me, if that’s not the case, what is the purpose?

Telemarketing requires patience and should be aimed at opening a dialog, not just making a quick sale. The aim is to generate interest; to whet the appetite; create interest; and to develop a little intrigue. Ultimately, the purpose of your opening dialogue is NOT to try and sell the product. The purpose of the opening dialogue is to get the customer to say three simple words:

“Tell me more”.

So when you are faced with outbound telemarketing – a list of business sales leads numbers to dial, and you’re just getting ready by crafting the opening dialogue, what do you put at the beginning? The answer is simple: just enough to have them say to you, “Tell me more.”

Here are some examples that Jim could have used on me:

o”Did you know that you’re not getting all the channels you could be getting?”

o”Did you know that you’re paying too much for television?”

o”Did you know that the average home pays $3 per channel per month. I can show you how to pay half of that.”

Inbound and outbound telemarketing services could be one of the most profitable ways to increase your sales leads.

Whether you’re dealing with housewives or mechanics, students or CEOs, personal sales leads or business sales leads, you only want to accomplish one task with your opening dialogue: get them to say three little words to you… “Tell me more.”

How to Get Rid of Yard Moles Grandpa’s Way

Are moles ruining your yard and garden? Flower beds torn up? Do you blow dirt and chip your mower blades running over dirt mounds?

If you’re like me, you tried every goofball “remedy” that comes down the pike… from sonic blasters to chewing gum… from car exhaust to poison baits and “secret tonics”… from mini-windmills to thorny rose branches.

As you’ve found out, none of that malarkey works. All you’ve really accomplished is to drive the pests a few feet away or into your neighbor’s yard for awhile. But next day, they’re back. More mounds. More damage. And your frustration continues. What’s more, some of those concoctions are unhealthy and hazardous to your kids and pets.

Forget all that stuff, and make it easy on yourself. Here’s how to get rid of ground moles in your lawn for good…

First off, you’ll need to buy an inexpensive trap, or two, at the hardware store or garden nursery. To properly set the mole trap, locate the main tunnel. This can be done by removing the dirt from a discharge mound, finding the dirt’s exit hole, and feeling into the hole with your finger to determine the direction from which the mole came. Once you know that, dig out a shovelful of earth about 6 to 8-inches away from the exit hole in that direction. With a little exploration, the main tunnel can be found.

It’s best not to remove too much dirt or disrupt the tunnel area excessively. The objective is to make the mole believe it’s conducting “business as usual” as it looks for food.

Every 3 to 6 feet, or so, the mole ejects dirt which creates a mound. Newer-looking or fresh mounds will be toward the end of the tunnel most recently created or traveled. Set your trap or traps in the newer areas.

Setting the Trap

Once the main tunnel is found, to properly kill moles, the trap should be set astraddle the tunnel with its legs slightly depressed into the ground and no more room around it than was needed to dig the hole.

After the trap has been placed in the main tunnel, the hole should be completely covered with a flat board. The board should rest right on the top of the trap to help keep it in place when a mole passes through and pushes up from below.

The shovelful of sod you removed when excavating the tunnel should then be placed on top of the board. The sod adds weight to the top of the trap, helping to assure that the mole doesn’t move the trap out of the way when passing underneath it.

Just as important, covering the trap and hole helps keep the family dog or cat from snooping and possibly becoming injured in the trap.

Removing the Dirt

After you’ve chosen a location for the mole trap – and it’s in place – the remaining mounds must be removed. You can accomplish this by either spreading out the excess dirt in the vicinity of the hole or by scooping up the dirt and moving it to a garden or fill area.

Removing the mounds not only improves the appearance of your yard, but also helps disclose where moles are currently active, which is vital in determining where to set traps in the days ahead, if needed.

Now, when you’ve set your trap correctly, you should snare the invading little pest within a few hours. Usually, overnight. If not, you’ll see another mound or two of dirt nearby. Follow the above steps and re-set your trap. Sometimes we must be patient!

Most likely, though, you’ll soon be celebrating your first victory.

Good luck, and good trapping!

Women Aren’t As Intensely "Hot" As They Should Be – Horrors of Circumcision Part VI

The “Horrors of Circumcision” is a series of men’s health articles that are intended to better explain to men and women what unfortunate and negative effects circumcision poses for the human male and his poor penis. This particular article will discuss the negative impact that “Women Aren’t as Intensely ‘Hot’ As They Should Be” in the male who is circumcised. Hopefully such articles will help illuminate people as to the horrible and everlasting effects that a man is shackled to if he’s been circumcised.

One of the most fantastic experiences a man can possibly ever experience is what happens when his penis enters the vagina. In fact, it’s such a fantastic feeling that it’s the first thing a man notices. He notices this incredible vaginal heat that is like sexual opium for his penis. It’s something a man will notice every time he engages in sex and is one of the most memorable accounts of the very first time that he ever had penile-vaginal sex.

The reason for this incredible sensation is that the penis is at a lower temperature than the interior of the vagina. The interior of the vagina should be at normal body temperature (98.6-degrees Fahrenheit) and the temperature of the skin on the penis is usually 91-degrees Fahrenheit. Which is seven and a half degrees lower than the interior of the vagina. However, the temperature of the skin of the penis will rise when it is erect, but will not get as hot as the vaginal interior.

So, with such a huge difference in temperature, the first thing a man feels, with his penis, upon entering the vagina is this incredible sensation of heat. In fact, most men refer to the perception of this vaginal heat as “burning” or “she’s on fire,” and it is a fantastic feeling to experience, especially with your penis, as your penis isn’t used to feeling such intense heat sensations like this. During penile-vaginal sex, since your penis is the only region of your body that is being stimulated in this manner, the response is even more impressive and stimulating; as your brain is now truly focused on what is going on with your penis and a great deal of your ancillary-neurological-perception potential is now concentrating solely on your penis and what it is feeling and experiencing. Yes, this is what sex is all about and this really gets a guy’s brain to focus on what is happening down below.

Unfortunately, for the circumcised man, he will never be able to feel this extreme temperature difference like a man who is uncircumcised. He will still feel it, yes, but the sensation will be compromised and not as intense.

The reason for this is that the foreskin has lots of very specialized nerve receptors. Some that aren’t found in other areas of the penis, believe it or not. One area that has a large number of nerve receptors that respond to temperature (both hot and cold and the discriminations between them) are located where? Well, yes, you guessed it: They are located in the foreskin. Now, it depends on the male, as we are all wired a bit differently, but there are typically more temperature receptors in the foreskin than there are in any other area of the penis.

So, when the uncircumcised man’s penis enters a woman to engage in the sexual act, it is a much more intense experience for him than in the circumcised man. It should also be mentioned that, typically, the longer that two people copulate leads to increased temperatures in the vagina and the penis. This is because of the friction that is created during the sexual process, as well as the increase in body temperature due to the increased heart rate that corresponds with increased sexual activity. Again, the uncircumcised man will be better able to “feel” the vagina getting “hotter” as the sexual act progresses. At least, compared to the poor man who is circumcised.

This is why women are perceived as “hotter” to the man who has an uncircumcised penis.

Georg von Neumann

Home Lighting Design – Daylighting Design

This article develops a unique, extensive home lighting design Daylighting Design Schedule to address code and a whole lot more. Home lighting design policy for most any home these days: let the daylight in with qualifications – maybe not too much, not too little, depends on where, depends on how, how about when, depends what it’s shining on, etc. This is about a Daylighting Design Schedule.

Home lighting design code: IRC 303.1 presents effectively and round-about that for daylighting design, at least in a sleeping room, “aggregate glazing area” should be not less than 8% of that room’s floor surface area. (CABO’s tougher, fewer exceptions.) [Please note that this presentation has no direct connection with emergency egress.]

Home daylighting design practice? Who knows. The author has had reactions from “exactly, right” to “not so important around here” to “what are you talking about” from building authorities having jurisdiction. If considered at all by others, it’d be for sleeping areas only is my expectation.


To start, the term aggregate glazing area – otherwise undefined – is interpreted to mean translucent surface – glass, clear plastic, etc. and not associated frame, sash, muntins, trim, and the like. What Marvin Windows and Doors defines as “Lite”, Pella as “Visible Glass”, Loewen as “Exposed Glass Area,” etc.

Note, please, that if some folks weren’t interested in these surface areas, the big players in windows wouldn’t work it out in print. This custom home designer’s interested.


A home lighting Daylighting Schedule, or Illumination Schedule, achieves four ends.

First, it defines the proportion of aggregate glazing area to interior surface area in each major space of a residence, including habitable rooms, halls, walk-in closets, utility spaces for workshop and laundry and such, garage(s), etc.

Second, it compares actual aggregate glazing area to calculated code target for each major space and presents the difference either in square feet of glazing area or, increasingly likely, in percent of glazing area target – the latter seems easier to usefully understand.

Third, it comments selectively by suggestion, indication, and definition about daylighting aspects of importance as designers’ opinions warrant.

Fourth, it provides an opportunity to identify persistently darkish spaces or parts of spaces sufficiently distant from a natural light source so as to be considered unlighted, or not penetrated, by a natural light source, e.g., a space considerably back from the daylight from a covered porch, an exceptionally deep interior space.

The structure of the schedule presents as a table of several columns. From the left, let’s see: a give space; its surface area in square feet; 8% of that surface area in square feet; aggregate glazing area of that space in square feet (usually to one decimal); the arithmetic and percentage difference between the 8% and the aggregate glazing column; and comments as appropriate. Comments can include, among others, modulate, dark, code compliant (for sleeping areas), etc.

Home lighting experts put definable limits on the extent of useful daylighting that can penetrate a space. These limits can be found in, for example, Lighting Design Basics by Mark Karlen and James Benya, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2004, p.34 and Interior Lighting For Designers 4th Edition by Gary Gordon, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1957, p.53ff. While this daylight penetration aspect of daylighting analysis can be judgmental, consideration of related adjustment to natural illumination is, in the author’s opinion, well worth the effort as a pre-emptive design alert to convenience and safety.

The home Daylighting Design Schedule presents several bases of or inputs to home design analysis – 16 in all.

1. Of itself for natural light, in the house’s compass orientation and, possibly, its adjustment and in personal assessment of infiltration and adequacy in daylighted spaces.

2. Ventilation as a quality control cross-check in cross-venting of sleeping areas and longer occupied rooms, plus sizing and indicative siting of both supplies and returns.

3. UV intrusion indicator of where it may be determined as less welcome and its power diminished.

4. Natural heat-build indicator for HVAC professional attention and various design means to lessen.

5. Daylight glare definition especially in areas, such as stairways, where glare threatens safety.

6. Qualification for code-compliance of aggregate glazing area to space surface area in sleeping areas, notably more problematic in such spaces within story-and-a-half structures at L2.

7. Suggestive guide to artificial lighting throughout, particularly ambient lighting and lighting controls.

8. Definitive cross-check on window and door size and site in elevations, plan view(s), and window schedule (and, possibly, door schedule).

9. Excellent perspective on the consequences of exterior design on interior functionality, occasionally leading to design changes ranging from marginal to major.

10. Guide to increased layering in low-daylight spaces.

11. Guide to continuous service rating in no- and very low-daylight spaces.

12. Guide to altering fenestration dimensions.

13. Guide to altering fenestration siting.

14. Motivation in single-storied deep spaces with exterior covers to penetrate those covers with niches in the roof, sunscreen, skylight, clerestory, etc.

15. Motivation in single-storied deep spaces with or without exterior covers to add clerestories and light wells by way of dormers and other fenestration design modifications.

16. Motivation, particularly in story-and-a-half designs, to necessarily add dormers, skylights, skylight tubes, clerestories, light wells, and other fenestration design modifications.

Comment: Note, please, that latter-day fixing of major mistakes to attain convenient and safe sizing and siting of windows, exterior door composition, luminaires, and light-reflecting and -absorbing features can be a remediation expense and physical inconvenience bigtime.

Designing Wind Breaks

Contrary to myth, solid fencing does not provide the best wind break. The force of the wind on the solid flat surface creates both pressure on the windward side and pressure differences on the leeward side, somewhat similar to the way an airfoil works.

To illustrate this, note that snow fences are designed with porosity, allowing some of the wind to work its way through, yet decreasing and deflecting the air flow. As a consequence of the design, snow will tend to accumulate a few feet in front of the fence, as the vortices of wind redirect.

When designing a wood fence as a wind break, stagger the boards 2 inches apart for every six inches of width. The ideal porosity for windbreak fences is 25-33%, and such a gap will give a 25% porosity. This provides a protection that will extend eight to ten times the height of the fence. Another option is to slope the fencing material, if you are intending to use the fence as a shelter for livestock.

For home and farmyard applications, consider building the fence in staggered sections, with each panel offset from adjacent ones by a foot or so. This gapping increases airflow redirection, while also reducing wind load on the panels. Varying the height of the panels also will aid in this redirection. The intent, of course, is not to stop the wind, but to reduce and redirect.

When installing a wind barrier that is intended to act as a snow fence, do not install the fence right at the point where the snow is to be stopped. Rather, set the fence back several yards, at least, so that the snow that is impeded will drop and accumulate prior to the road way or clear area that you require. Remember that, since the wind break (if properly installed) will create a protection area that is eight to ten times the height of the fence, a four-foot fence will provide a dead zone that is up to 40 feet in front of the fence.

Some permanent wind breaks are nothing more than a good tree or brush line. However, solid rows of trees provide less protection than porous rows, so do not plant so that an impenetrable barrier is created. Instead, use staggered plantings, offset against each other.

Although it may seem counterintuitive, mesh fences can provide good wind barriers, as well. Materials such as the mesh seen along the perimeter of golf driving ranges, plastic and resin meshes and even chain link fencing provide a nominal measure of protection. To illustrate the effectiveness of a simple screen, open your house window on a cold, relatively calm winter day, and feel the coolness of the air coming in against the screen. Then stick your hand outside and feel the difference. That screen has partially blocked the transfer of heat due to convection. It works similarly for wind.

Wind breaks, then, are not so much wind barriers as they are wind speed bumps. Holding back the wind, to paraphrase Jim Croce’s song about spitting in the wind or tearing the mask off the old Lone Ranger, should not be foolishly attempted!

Main Components of a Tractor

Tractors are the workhorses of modern agriculture. These powerful and iconic machines, thanks to their legendary versatility, fill many roles on today’s farms, from plowing to planting to grading and mowing. But what makes them tick? To find out, let’s take a look at some of the main components of today’s tractors.


The engine is the heart and soul of any tractor. When they were first invented, tractors used steam engines, which were notoriously unreliable, not to mention dangerous. Since the 20th century, however, tractors have used internal combustion engines that run on a variety of fuels, from kerosene to ethanol and gasoline. Most modern tractors today run on diesel and biodiesel. These powerful engines typically range in size from 18 to 575 horsepower, giving them all of the incredible power they need to tackle any job on today’s farms.


Tractor service in the agriculture industry has increased dramatically over the past century thanks to their legendary ruggedness and durability. Because of their simple yet hardy design, many older tractors that feature manual transmissions are still in use. Unfortunately, these older transmissions are typically unsynchronized, meaning the tractor must be stopped before shifting gears, which can be very inconvenient. Modern tractors on the other hand use synchronized or continuously variable transmissions (CVT), which not only allows for better fuel efficiency but also allows the CVT to shift through an unlimited number of effective gear ratios.

Wheels and Tracks

Today’s tractors don’t always follow the classic design, with two large rear wheels and two smaller front wheels. Over time, different configurations have been developed to suit the environment in which they are used. For example, in locations with wet or heavy soils, tractors typically use tracks (such as those found on a “Caterpillar” or tank) because of their superior traction. Other modern tractors feature four wheel drive, either with the classic configuration (two large, two small) or with four large wheels.


Tractor engines put out an enormous amount of power, but in order to be useful that power must be harnessed. That’s where tractor hitches come in. They take the form of draw bars, fixed mounts or three-point hitches and quick hitches that allow power to be transferred from the engine to implements that are typically pulled behind or beside the tractor, and may include attachments such as plows, seeders, tillers, mowers and many others.

How to Find the Right Designer for Your Interior Design and Decorating Projects

Looking for an interior designer or interior decorator can be overwhelming if you are not sure which designer you need for the scope or your project. Are you building, renovating or moving and need professional advice? Are you planning to sell your property and not sure how to get ready for the first inspection?

This document gives you answers to frequently asked questions in regards to interior design, interior decorating, colour consulting and property styling.

It will help you finding the right designer for your interior design and decorating projects and eventually create your individual style in your home.

What is the difference between an interior designer and an interior stylist?

You may have asked yourself this question already when facing a building or renovation project. Do I need an interior designer, an interior decorator, a colour consultant or an interior stylist?

The answer is that it depends on the scope of the project.

An interior designer is a skilled professional who is designing interior environments according to your briefing. The interior designer either modifies what already exists (renovation) or provides an entirely new design for a space (new build). In this case the interior designer works closely with the architect and comes in at an early stage of the project. Interior designers work either along a team in design firm or on their own.

What is the job of an interior stylist? An interior stylist is a designer or consultant in a field subject to changes in style, especially fashion or interior decoration. An interior stylist cultivates or maintains any particular style and in most cases stylist are finders, keepers and collectors of beautiful objects.

The interior stylist can help you finding your own style, creating beautiful interiors that are unique and meaningful. This can be achieved with the simplest things and does not have to be expensive. The only thing you need to do is keep your eyes open to beautiful things in nature, architecture, design, museums, art, exhibitions, books, textiles and travel. There is only one rule: Only collect or buy things that mean something to you!

How does a colour consultation work?

The colour consultation focuses on creating a colour scheme for a specific room or space or the whole house according to your briefing. A qualified colour consultant can help you with interior and exterior colour schemes.

Prior to designing a colour scheme for you the colour consultant should always talk to you about the mood and atmosphere you would like to achieve in your space. He will explain to you the differences between the paint companies and their products and choose the right product for your needs. After designing the colour scheme you will receive a written recommendation including a specification sheet and brushouts ready for your painter to start.

Why is it important to seek advice from a designer when choosing colours?

Colour is the most powerful tool when it comes to non-verbal communication and the design element that makes a space come alive. Colour brings individuality in a space and it is one of the most useful tools to master when finding your own style.

Leatrice Eiseman, Executive Director of the Pantone Color Institute, says in her book Pantone Guide to Communicating with Color: “Among other uses, color stimulates and works synergistically with all of the senses, symbolizes abstract concepts and thoughts, expresses fantasy or wish fulfillment, recalls another time or place and produces an aesthetic or emotional response.”

When choosing a colour for a room or house it is important to think about the mood and atmosphere you would like to achieve. Is it a dark room or flooded with natural light? In which direction is the room facing? How are the proportions? Do you live in a small apartment or a contemporary newly built house with open plan living areas? All this needs to be considered when choosing colours for a space.

If you are overwhelmed by the choice of colours available – yes, there are thousands on the market – how can you start finding your personal colour scheme?

For some people it is a longer journey, for others it comes more naturally. The most important thing is to take some time, open your eyes, walk around your home and absorb the colour combinations you see. Then start gathering all the pieces you love. This can be anything from old porcelain, travel souvenirs, photographs, artwork, clothes, tear sheets from magazines, fabric swatches, stationary, a collection of stones, feathers or glass objects.

And don’t forget nature as inspiration for a colour scheme (interior or exterior). If you live near the ocean, shades of blues and greens can be used to link your interior with its surroundings. Flowers, butterflies, stones, shells, driftwood are fantastic inspirations for colour schemes.

Once you have gathered all your beloved treasures in one spot, play around with the pieces, group them by colours and you will see a colour palette emerge. This “moodboard” is a great starting point for your interior designer, interior stylist or colour consultant to help you creating an individual and personal space, a home that reflects who you are and a place that you love coming home to.

Stylist’s tip: Before you start painting always buy a test pot and paint a large sheet of paper or cardboard (one square metre) with your colour. Tape it to the walls in your room and study it for a couple of days. Look at it in daylight and artificial light. This is very important as colours change depending on the light, the orientation of the room, other colours in the room and spatial elements like furniture and artwork for example.

What is the difference between a colour and a styling consultation?

The colour consultation focuses on creating a colour scheme for a specific room or space or the whole house according to your briefing. A qualified colour consultant can help you with interior and exterior colour schemes.

The styling consultation focuses on creating a certain (Your) style in your home or simply on answering all your questions about colours, style, furniture sourcing and placement, art sourcing and placement, displays of your collections, accessories, proportions in a space, lighting etc.

Again it is vital that the designer listens to what you would like to achieve (briefing) and makes sure that he understood what you want (debriefing). Don’t let the interior designer or interior stylist talk you into something you don’t like!

How do I maximise the output of my styling consultation?

Are you planning to colour, redecorate or renovate, but don’t know where to start? Do you have lots of questions about colour schemes, furniture placement, how to display your collections, books or other beloved things? Are you not sure whether to redecorate with your old furniture and accessories or to renovate and create a new look? Do you need inspirations where to source furniture and accessories, second hand pieces or antiques?

If you prepare your first consultation with your stylist properly, you will get answers to all the questions you have. Here are my tips how to maximise the output from your styling or colour consultation:

• Be clear what you would like the outcome of the consultation to be.

• Decide which room or space you would like to focus on. Is it only one room or the whole house?

• Prepare yourself with tear sheets from interior design magazines like Real Living, Inside Out, Belle or Vogue Living. There are plenty on the market so choose the one that speaks to you most and start collecting pages of everything you like: colour schemes, furniture, accessories, room layouts, rugs, flooring, wallpaper, decorative items and everything that speaks to you. If you do this for a couple of weeks you will clearly see what you like and find your own personal style.

• Keep your eyes open to the beautiful things around you: nature, architecture, design, museums, art, exhibitions, books, textiles and travel.

• Make sure that your stylist is listening and explain what you want to achieve with your styling project, what you would like a room to do for you and what mood you would like to create in your space.

And finally one of the most important things: Don’t let the stylist talk you into something you don’t like! You have to live in the space and you need to feel comfortable and at home! It is all about creating your home with your personal touch.

How do I find my own style?

The answer is as simple as this: explore the world around you and appreciate the beauty that lies within everything you discover!

Keep your eyes open and your mind excited! Discover and appreciate the beauty that surrounds you every day! Find inspiration in nature, buildings, shops, exhibitions, museums, art, events, markets, magazines and of course books.

One of my favourite books I spotted in a museum shop is called: How to be an explorer of the world by Keri Smith. On the back it says: “At any given moment, no matter where you are, there are hundreds of things around you that are interesting and worth documenting.”

A stylist’s tip: always carry a little notebook and a pen with you in order to be able to sketch, doodle and write down what you discover.

Keep all your findings, notes and pictures in a folder or box and keep searching for at least four to eight weeks. Then start to group things by colour or theme and you will discover what your style is. And there are no rules. It is all about finding what you like!

Books for your inspiration

This is a list of books that I personally own and love! They are all a fantastic source of inspiration and creative ideas for your home.

Sibella Court: Bowerbird

Shannon Fricke: Sense of Style

Megan Morton: Home Love

Holly Becker: Decorate

Susanna Salk: Be Your Own Decorator

Geraldine James: Creative Walls

Hans Blomquist: The Natural Home

Is it necessary to seek advice from a stylist when I want to sell my property?

If you plan to sell your house it is worth investing in a styling consultation. A professional property stylist can help you to achieve maximum impact when presenting your home to potential buyers. A property stylist will help you to get ready for the first inspection by giving you advice on how to style your house with what you have. He will help you with colour schemes that attract potential buyers. He will also advice if you need rental furniture to style each room according to its function and help potential buyers to envisage themselves in the space. Property styling is all about creating a wow factor in key areas of your home and help the buyers to envisage themselves in your space. Once the styling is done don’t forget to book your stylist for the real estate photography shoot to make sure everything looks perfect on this day!

Removing Natural Stone Flooring

Natural stone such as slate, granite, limestone, sandstone, and other materials, are some of the hardest floors to remove. Unfortunately there is no way around it, the process involves a considerable amount time and manual labor if you want to do it right.

The first thing you should do is remove and base moldings that you may have. This can be done using a crowbar, propped against a piece of wood. The wood is butted against the wall, to protect your drywall from damage.

Once you have removed the molding you should inspect the floor to see if you already have any loose tiles or weak grout lines. If it is possible to remove any of the floor material by hand do so, and use that as a starting point for the entire process.

The actual process of removing the tiles is done using a chisel and hand maul. The chisel should be positioned on grout lines, and struck in such a way that you create an opening where you can get at both adjacent tiles. If necessary, a small crowbar can be used to pry up pieces which are particularly resistant.

If you are going to reuse the underlayment found beneath the tile, be very careful not to damage it with the chisel. Once the tile is up, you will probably have to sand down the layer below in order to remove the resistant stone adhesives which are used.

Since removing natural stone is so difficult, sub flooring is often removed and replaced right along with it. This saves time since you don’t have to go slow and worry about damage to this layer. It also means that resistant stone spots don’t have to be chiseled or sanded, as they can just be removed with the bottom level.

How to Properly Insure Your Concrete Pumps

The business of concrete pumping comes with many challenges, one of them is being adequately insured when something goes wrong. Many concrete pumping companies have pumps and assume they’re automatically insured under their general liability policy, unfortunately they are not.

Trailer concrete pumps should be insured under what is called an inland marine floater. This type of insurance policy provides comprehensive coverage for your pump, insuring it from perils such as theft, vandalism, and damage you may cause it in the event of a car accident. This is similar to the coverage you may have on your car.

Just like any other trailer, liability coverage is automatically extended from the vehicle to the trailer it’s towing. For example: If your trailer sideswipes another vehicle, your auto policy will provide liability coverage to repair the vehicle you damaged. Repairs will only be provided up to your policy limits. Keep in mind if the auto policy your truck has does not include business coverage the insurance company will most likely deny your claim. Make sure you have a proper commercial auto policy before you tow anything for business use.

What about concrete pumps you can drive, how are they insured? Because these type of pumps are self-propelled they would need to be insured under a standard commercial auto policy. Make sure to mention any custom equipment you have to your agent. Just like on any auto policy custom equipment should be stated as such and endorsed into the coverage limits. Custom equipment can include any aftermarket stereo systems, hose reels, ladder racks, etc.

Always provide the replacement cost you’d like if your pump is stolen and ask for it to be stated in your policy. This way you’ll be sure you have enough to replace the pump in the event of a loss. Some carriers provide the actual cash value for your pumps unless otherwise requested. This means you’ll get the replacement cost minus depreciation to compensate you on your pump. Actual cash value may not be enough for you to buy another pump if yours is damaged, this option is not recommended.

Always consult your insurance agent before making any final decisions on your insurance policy. Each concrete pump is different and may have specific needs. Keep these points in mind when shopping for your insurance policy and you’ll be well on your way to protecting your business in the event of a loss.

Belinda Benn Reviews – What Can She Teach You About Fat Loss?

When I first heard about Belinda Benn and the fact that she was releasing her own fat loss program, I didn’t know what to make of it. I wanted to make sure that the Get Lean Program that she created is really of high quality and not just some personal life story with no real and tangible action steps.

There is no doubt that her personal body transformation makes Belinda Benn the perfect role model for many people. She has managed to totally change her body when she was in her late 30’s and early 40’s. This is truly astonishing as most people who aren’t working out regularly or watching the diet tend to find it hard to get lean. Belinda Benn actually became a fitness model in her 40’s. When you see how she looks you can see how she developed the kind of body that women in their 20’s can’t seem to get.

I was impressed and glad when she agreed to give me access to her program. I started going over it and spent some time reading what she teaches in it. Now I can share with you exactly what the program includes and what Belinda Benn teaches. Naturally, as her program is over 200 pages long, this will be in broad strokes.

The Get Lean Program is a nutrition plan meant to help you get lean: burn body fat without becoming frail or weak looking. The program is focused on nutrition with a short chapter on exercise and fitness.

The program has general information such as chapters of fat burning food, healthy nutrition, emotional eating, and other tips and fat loss techniques which Belinda Benn used to become the fitness model she is today. It also has detailed nutrition information including 50 fat burning recipes and a 90 day meal plan schedule.

The 90 day meal plans is a day by day eating plan for the following 3 months. Each day includes 3 meals and snacks. You can either follow the meal plans as written without giving them any additional thought or you can substitute foods for others that you like better. The program teaches how to make these substitutions.

By following the meal plans, you can lose weight in a natural and gradual way. You may not become the fitness model like Belinda, but you can definitely expect some excellent results.

The main thing that you can learn from this program is another way to eat, a way which helps you give your body what it needs to feel good, lose weight, and get lean.