Types of Construction Projects

Construction is defined as “a process that consists of the building or assembling of infrastructure.” (See 1. below) On the other hand, a Construction Project “includes all material and work necessary for the construction of a finished structure for occupancy by End Customer. This includes site preparation, foundations, mechanical, electrical work, and any other work necessary to complete the project.” (See 2. below)

There are different types of construction projects:

  1. Residential
    Residential construction projects include houses, townhouses, apartments, condominiums, cottages, single unit dwellings and subdivisions. The housing designs are generally done by architects and engineers and the construction is executed by builders who hire subcontractors for structural, electrical, mechanical and other specialty work. This type of project must conform to local building authority regulations and codes of practice. Many new builders are attracted to residential projects because of its ease of entry in the real estate market. This makes it a highly competitive market with potentially high risks as well as high rewards.
  2. Building
    Building construction is perhaps the most popular type of construction project. It is the process of adding structure to real property. Most of the projects are room additions and small renovations. Most new building construction projects are construction of sheltered enclosures with walk-in access for the purpose of housing people, equipment, machinery or supplies. It includes installation of utilities and equipment.
  3. Institutional and Commercial
    Institutional and commercial building construction covers a great variety of project types and sizes such as hospitals and clinics, schools and universities, sports facilities and stadiums, large shopping centres and retail chain stores, light manufacturing plants and warehouses and skyscrapers for offices and hotels. Specialty architects and engineers are often hired for designing a particular type of building. This market segment has few competitors because of the high costs and greater sophistication of institutional and commercial buildings as compared to residential construction projects.
  4. Industrial
    Industrial construction is only a small part of the whole construction industry nevertheless it is a very important part of the industry. These projects are generally owned by big, for-profit industrial corporations such as manufacturing, power generation, medicine, petroleum, etc.
  5. Specialized Industrial Construction
    This type of construction project usually involves very large scale projects with a high degree of technological complexity such as nuclear power plants, chemical processing plants, steel mills and oil refineries.
  6. Highway Construction
    Highway construction involves the construction, alteration, or repair of roads, highways, streets, alleys, runways, paths, parking areas, etc. It includes all incidental construction in conjunction with the highway construction project.
  7. Heavy Construction
    Heavy construction projects usually involve projects that are not properly classified as either “building” or “highway.” Examples of this type of project would be: water and sewer line projects, dams, sewage treatment plants and facilities, flood control projects, dredging projects, and water treatment plants and facilities.

These are the more popular types of construction projects. Construction is a big industry and there are now several construction companies that you can choose from. This, coupled with the use of the internet, has made it easier for the consumer to make a decision on how to proceed with his or her projects. You just need to do a little research. Don’t hesitate to contact these construction companies and ask questions. Construction projects are a major undertaking and you need to make the right decisions when you embark on these projects.

1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Construction_project

2. http://www.steelbuildingreference.com/steel_buildings_definitions.htm

Anxiety Panic Attacks Caused by Malfunction in the Inner Ear – Motion and Visual Related Phobias!

The inner-ear processes all motion-related information. If it is impaired, you may be hypersensitive to horizontal motion, vertical motion, clockwise motion, counterclockwise motion, or any combination of the above.

Depending on what types of motion you are sensitive to, and your degree of sensitivity to each, the movement of a boat, plane, car, elevator, escalator, or even a rocking chair can provoke any or all of the following symptoms:

o Anxiety, and related symptoms

o Dizziness

o Light-headedness

o Nausea

o Vomiting

o Retching

If your anxiety is severe or uncontrollable, phobias may result.

Motion-Related Phobias: An Example

Chris has a motion-related fear of flying. Notice how his fear is specifically related to horizontal motion sensitivity:

“I’ve only been on an airplane once. That was enough. It was during takeoff. The plane started picking up speed, and suddenly I was pinned to the back of my seat. I couldn’t move. I could barely breathe. My stomach was inside out. It was as if I had lost control of my body… like I was having some kind of seizure. As soon as the plane stabilized I felt a little better, so I started drinking. I don’t remember much after that.”

An inner-ear dysfunction can also result in motion insensitivity. Individuals with this problem need to be in motion and become anxious when they are stuck, trapped, tied down, or unable to move literally or symbolically. This motion-related claustrophobic anxiety can result in a wide variety of phobias.

Some individuals have the worst of both worlds. They are hypersensitive to some forms of motion and hyposensitive to others. These individuals often suffer from numerous motion-related phobias.


The inner-ear system processes all visual information. If this system is impaired, you may be hypersensitive to bright lights, fluorescent lights-even certain colors. Any or all of these may provoke anxiety.

A wide variety of visual distractions can also provoke anxiety, including: flickering lights, blurred images, the dark, and various hypnotic patterns as tiled floors, moving cars, oncoming headlights, crowds, wallpaper patterns, food displays, etc.

If visually triggered anxiety is severe or uncontrollable, various phobias may develop, including: fear of the dark, fear of bright lights, fear of crowds, fear of supermarkets, fear of driving, etc.

A Visual Tracking Problem:

Sensitivity to visual distractions is often the result of a tracking problem. The inner-ear system guides the movement of our eyes, enabling us to track the movement of visual information in our environment. If this tracking process is impaired, the eyes may be incapable of keeping pace with this visual information and anxiety may surface.

Gloria’s fear of driving stems from a visual tracking problem. Note how she describes her fear:

“Driving has always terrified me. Even if I’m being driven somewhere, I can’t look at the road all of the time I get overloaded. I thought that if I could learn to drive I wouldn’t be so frightened, so I signed up for a driver’s education course. I quit as soon as we started driving on big streets. I just couldn’t handle it. There were too many things to watch for, cars in front, cars behind, cars on your sides, lights, signs. And everything seemed to be coming at me so fast. I had no time to react. I froze in total panic. The instructor started to scream at me. Then the car behind us hit us. That was the end of my driving career.”


Many visual phobias are partially determined by underlying balance and/or compass and/or motion-related problems.

When our senses of balance, direction, and/or motion stability are impaired, we often become more dependent on visual information to compensate, and think of how getting a visual fix on land suppresses motion sickness.

If the brain is not receiving this necessary visual information, balance, compass, and motion-related problems are aggravated. This triggers anxiety. Although the anxiety is provoked by visual distractions, it really stems from other, inner-ear problems.

The interaction of visual and balance problems can be clearly seen in Charlotte’s description of a frightening panic attack:

“We had gone to see a Broadway show and my husband didn’t tell me that he had gotten balcony seats. There was a mirrored ball that hung in the middle of the ceiling. Flickering lights would bounce off the ball and spin around the theater while the skaters skated in a circle. I was looking down from the balcony, and the place suddenly started to spin. I panicked. I literally had to crawl out, pretty much on my hands and knees, to get out of the balcony seat. I got so dizzy… just from watching the skaters going in a circle and the lights and the ball spinning.”

The vast majority of phobias can be traced to a physiological problem: a malfunction within the inner-ear system! The inner-ear system plays an important role in modulating and controlling anxiety. In my blog, please click on the link below, I have further discussed these problems.

Molding Options – Quarter Round Vs Shoe Molding

During home renovations many homeowners choose to make dramatic changes in the home, from complete kitchen renovations to adding multiple new rooms. Oftentimes, however, the small things can have a large impact. It’s this attention to detail that can help save you money in this sluggish economy, which is why making the right decision the first go around is important.

Some homeowners choose to install baseboard along with door and window trim, because it helps cover gaps and does look more attractive (in most cases). When doing so, the question arises as to whether to use quarter-round or shoe molding. You may come across the same issue perhaps, and not really even see a difference between the two options. After a glance and some thought, you’ll quickly realize that there are differences between these two baseboard options.

Many professionals prefer base shoe molding, partly because it looks more elegant than quarter-round. Additionally, the quarter round baseboard is shaped like a semi-cylinder (hence its name) so it can be difficult to drive a nail through it and into the baseboard. The lack of a flat nailing surface can be a large problem for installers; the molding is more susceptible to splitting or hammer dents if you’re not using a pneumatic finish nailer.

In contrast, base shoe molding is sleeker and it has a broad vertical surface that makes it easier to nail. This, along with its elegance mentioned above, is why shoe molding is the most popular or the “default” choice for contractors. That said, any contractor worth working with will be able to professionally install the baseboard you want. Don’t opt for shoe molding if your set on quarter round.

Quarter round molding is typically ¾” x ¾” with a ¾” radius profile, but you may be able to find different sized quarter molding. Quarter round molding isn’t all bad. Some positives include its flexibility, which makes it useful for working with a wavy floor, and it’s bulky, so is great for covering large gaps between the floors and the baseboards.

If you don’t have a contractor, here are a few tips…

If you opt for shoe molding, when installing it be sure to nail it to the baseboard, not the floor. This will allow the floor to expand and contract freely, with no added stress to the molding.

Since the size of molding being installed will vary from one home to the next, it wouldn’t be prudent to recommend a nail size. However, for most trim jobs a size 4d nail works great.

How to Select the Best Sump Pump for Your Basement

What is a sump pump?

Before choosing the right pump for your basement, you should understand what it is first. It’s defined as an electric power pump installed on the basement floor.

What’s the purpose?

The primary purpose of a sump pump is to eliminate unnecessary water out of the area when it’s raining hard. It’s an essential tool for your basement during hurricane and winter seasons.

What are the different types of sump pumps?

Different basements need a different type. Therefore, it’s important to carefully select the right pump that works well. Here are seven types to choose from.

1. Primary pumps are designed to move gallons of flowing water out of your basement when it’s raining.

2. A submersible primary pump doesn’t operate quietly but the noise level is reduced as its motor and impeller do the work underwater. It works smoothly throughout the downpour.

3. Pedestal is designed for a small basin installed in a narrow pit. Its pump base is submerged but the pump motor is located above the pit.

4. Backup with a float switch supplements primary pumps during unexpected power loss.

5. DC backup is a battery-powered unit that switches to battery mode once the AC power is down.

6. AC/DC owns a primary and built-in back up systems that pumps on AC power and DC.

7. Sewage pumps are installed in the basement bathroom either in the septic tank or separate pump chamber designed to expel solid and water waste to a septic system.

Common limitations of a primary sump pump

There are three, namely:

Excessive use – Although these electric tools are made to last for more than five years, these tools can easily give up when it’s used excessively. Excessive means it’s used every day for more than 24 hours nonstop or it’s used even when it’s not needed.

Mechanical failure – It happens. Homeowners buy that are not strongly recommended by basement waterproofing experts. Therefore, it’s easily broken.

Power outages – Non-battery operated pumps can’t function when there’s no electricity.

Can you buy backup pumps with traditional batteries?

Simple answer. It’s a yes.

What’s the difference between backup pumps with traditional and maintenance-free batteries?

Backup pumps with traditional batteries are made up of acid, in which the water is added occasionally for good functionality while those with maintenance-free batteries only require timer setting.

How to select the right sump pump for your basement?

Step 1: Choose the pump with the right amount of horsepower (HP) and with less maintenance.

A high horsepower pump requires a bigger sump pit. Average-sized homes with average water table require a 1/3 HP sump pump. The term “water table” is defined as “the upper limit of the ground portion that is totally saturated with water.”

Average-sized homes with above-average water table need a sump pump with 1/2 HP. Homes with high water table are susceptible to flooding. They need 3/4 HP.

Remember: Ask your local basement waterproofing company if you’re unsure what water table you belong.

Step 2: Choose a battery backup pump according to your need and budget.

Step 3: Install a heavy-duty sewage pump system when there’s a functional bathroom in the basement.

Step 4: Choose the one that offers longer warranty.

Step 5: Look for the one that is made of cast iron, which can handle the wear and tear of a basement.

How to install a sump pump?

Step 1: Diagnose the problem.

Step 2: Dig a pit.

Step 3: Install the system.

Remember: It’s best to hire a professional.

How to contact basement waterproofing expert for sump pump installation?

Step 1: Research for the best basement waterproofing company in your city. For example, if you live in New York, simply key-in the keywords “basement waterproofing in New York” and a number of links will appear with their addresses and phone numbers.

Call those numbers and get in touch with a basement waterproofing specialist. It’s simple, right?

Step 2: If you’re not in a hurry, you can also send an email to their customer service. You can ask questions such as “How much does it cost to waterproof the basement walls and floors?” or better yet, schedule a free inspection.

Lean Six Sigma – SKU – Item Reduction – Rationalization

Project Outline

To reduce SKUs, this company used multiple sales variables (sales $, unit sales and margin $) to determine which items to discontinue. This project was called a “triage” project by the CEO of the company because our job was to quickly determine which SKUs to cut and which to keep. The project was meant to provide quick answers on how to return to the historic SKU count.

· Conducted Sales Pareto Analysis to confirm that low performing SKUs exist (We nicknamed the project team “The Biggest SKLUsers”)

· Identified what variables define a high performing SKU

· Calculated an “Overall Performance Factor” for all items using Multi-Variable Pareto analysis based on Sales $, Unit Sales & Gross Margin $

· Sorted the SKUs based on this Overall Performance Factor from best to worst

· Identified the bottom 25% as poor performing (These items were The Biggest SKLUsers)

While our Value Stream Mapping Study showed that SKU count had grown and sales remained flat, we wanted to know the full extent of the problem. We conducted a quick Sales Pareto analysis. The drop-off from the best 25% to the worst 25% was dramatic.

· The top 25% of SKUs account for 70.6% of sales

· The bottoms 25% (or 700 items) account for only 1.5% of sales

We had SKLUsers (our nickname for low performing SKUs). Then we used Multi-Variable Pareto analysis to identify which items were the SKLUsers based on a mix of measures. Multi-Variable Pareto was used, versus just a straight sales analysis, because of the importance of different sales variables.

Sales $ is the most commonly used performance measure. Others argued that Gross Margin $ should be used as this represents cash flow. Still others thought that if an item is a low per unit price, but had high movement this should be considered because volume is a big driver for this business.

As we looked at the data, we saw that different SKUs were strong or weak in various measures. For instance, this company loses money on some items to drive sales (loss-leaders). These items had negative margin $’s, but drove significant sales and units (and traffic into the store).

What defines a great or poorly performing SKU is multi-dimensional, which drove the use of Multi-Variable Pareto analysis.

Multi-Variable Pareto Analysis

Our Multi-Variable Pareto Analysis created an Overall Performance Factor. We calculated this factor for all SKUs and sorted from highest performing to lowest. Below are the top 10 and bottom ten SKUs.

Top Ten Items by Overall Performance Factor (OPF)

SKU # 1, OPF = 7.46, Sales $3,013,442, Units 1,117,009, Margin $313,514

SKU # 2, OPF = 5.61, Sales $1,015,888, Units 953,248, Margin $453,229

SKU # 3, OPF = 5.29, Sales $1,398,854, Units 1,252,197, Margin $288,231

SKU # 4, OPF = 5.02, Sales $2,882,798, Units 8,642,193, Margin -$113,737

SKU # 5, OPF = 4.43, Sales $1,569,511, Units 1,586,938, Margin $81,269

SKU # 6, OPF = 4.36, Sales $1,566,789, Units 585,275, Margin $215,773

SKU # 7, OPF = 4.21, Sales $1,172,974, Units 520.190, Margin $293,701

SKU # 8, OPF = 3.76, Sales $1,165,273, Units 1,790,616, Margin $29,906

SKU #9, OPF = 3.45, Sales $820,379, Units 509,906, Margin $ 253,890

SKU #10, OPF = 3.43, Sales $689,507, Units 817,707, Margin $226,552

Note: SKU # 4 was a top selling item, but was sold at a loss. This item was a strategic loss-leader for this retail company.

Bottom Ten Items by Overall Performance Factor

SKU # 2791, OPF = 0, Sales $1.99, Units 1, Margin $0

SKU # 2792, OPF = 0, Sales $1.99, Units 1, Margin $0

SKU # 2793, OPF = 0, Sales $1.89, Units 1, Margin $0

SKU # 2794, OPF = 0, Sales $1.59, Units 1, Margin $0

SKU # 2795, OPF = 0, Sales $1.49, Units 1, Margin $0

SKU # 2796, OPF = 0, Sales $1.49, Units 1, Margin $0

SKU # 2797, OPF = 0, Sales $1.29, Units 1, Margin $0

SKU # 2798, OPF = 0, Sales $0.99, Units 1, Margin $0

SKU # 2799, OPF = 0, Sales $0.69, Units 1, Margin $0

SKU # 2800, OPF = 0, Sales $3.01, Units 3, Margin -$0.94

What was most surprising was not the performance of the top 10 items, but the extremely poor performance of the bottom 10. These SKLUsers sold about 1 unit each over the last 12 months. In stores and the warehouse they were just gathering dust, and eventually would have to be thrown away or deeply discounted.


Labor costs have gone down by $1.3 million due to eliminating the handling of these low volume, slow moving, items. Inventory will be down $5 million after these slow moving items are dispositioned out of the distribution centers, and not replaced.

How to Straighten a Curved Penis – Learn to Fix Your Bent Penis

Curved penis is among the worrisome issues bordering a lot of men, occupying their mind with anxiety and taking away the serenity from their mind and filling it with worry. A noticeable bend in the penis size is enough to make a guy not to be willing to pull down his boxers in the presence of a lady. How are you going to feel if she busts into laughter? What if she walks away from you as a result of this? No one wants to be a product of radical, even if the guy with this problem is liable for this condition or not, some ladies do not care and they take it as failure.

Nevertheless, a lot of guys are really gallant about the way they look. A bent penis seems to undermine a defiant individuality that declines to give in to tradition. Furthermore, a cured penis may be suitable to some ladies due to the fact that the cap of the penis will be able to smooch towards the regions which are not always reached by a straight one. Moreover, it is necessary for you to consider both the advantages and disadvantages of a bent penis due to the fact that a lot of ladies favor a straight looking penis instead of a curved one.

There are two things that result to a curved penis. One is caused as result of the natural development of the penis or the disease known as peyronie. The natural curvature happens during the time the two cavities of the penis spring up at unusual level as the years go on, hence deforming the penis to the direction of the cavity growing slow. You can not find any means to detect this natural penis curvature inclination and forestall it, but the good news is that there is a way to straighten your curved penis and fix it to be straight. Nevertheless, a lot of men that have a bent penis ignore the need to try the solution which can easily be reached and chose to try their luck with the benignity of a lady.

The known natural method of straightening the penis is through the utilization of penis stretching exercises. Penis workout program like that offered by penis health gives the exercise routines that will straighten the scar tissue away and aid to fix the curve. The jelqing method is a few of the penis exercises which have proven to be fruitful in fixing this predicament. The second means of straightening a bent penis is through the use of penis extenders. The steady draw of a penis extender on the penis will aid to slacken up the tunica albuginea and straighten your manhood.

The best choice you should opt for is to attempt these penis unbending methods at one time. It will hasten the remedial time, though you need to know that magic will not occur overnight. The scar tissue consumes a lot of time to develop and it will not disappear just like that. You require determination and endurance. They are the two things that will make this work out fast. Carry out the exercises and put on the penis extender everyday and you will notice the bend vanish with time.

How To Keep Birds Off Of Your Patio Furniture

Believe it or not, there are many different solutions for how to keep birds off of your patio furniture. Perhaps you have already tried to put up a scarecrow on your patio, but you know what? A scarecrow is much more likely to scare your guests than to scare any birds away. So, how do you keep birds off of your patio furniture?

Well, these days, there are many innovative ways to keep birds off of your patio furniture… ways that are a bit more high tech and much more effective than the classic scarecrow. One such solution is a magnet. A magnet that can keep birds off of your patio furniture?! Now, the idea may sound a bit odd, but it really works.

You can buy a powerful magnet whose main purpose is to keep birds away from your patio (in a safe and humane manner). How does such a tool work? Well, it disrupts the birds’ means of sensing direction, and they will therefore stay away from the 15-20 foot radius that such a magnet might cover. Birds cannot adjust to the effect of such a magnet. Of course, if you are going to use one of these devices to keep birds off of your patio furniture, be sure to keep your computer, pacemakers, or other magnetically coded devices away from it.

Another tool for keep birds away from your patio is a bird repellant. There are simple non-toxic bird repellants out there that you can apply to surfaces that you do not want birds to land on. Such a bird repellant is stick and birds do not like the “feel” of it. Of course, seeing as how it is sticky, you will not want to apply it to your patio furniture, but you may want to consider applying to branches that hang over your patio or a gutter that surrounds your patio. If a bird cannot land around your patio, it is much less likely to poop on your patio!

There are also more modern takes on the scare crow to keep birds off of your patio furniture. Birds really are afraid and nervous around things that remind them of a predator bird, and also sometimes bright colors and bold designs. Pick up some of these items at your local gardening store.

There are also many other ideas on how to keep birds off of your patio furniture that pertain to specific species. So, if these aforementioned hints do not help you with your bird problem, then there is still hope.

Metaphors – How to Use Them When You Write

Everyone uses metaphors. Rightly so. They’re a natural way to illustrate. Use them wrong, though, and they can really foul you up.

Don’t want to get fouled up? Then know the 3 good rules about metaphors (and all other figures of speech, for these apply broadly).

1. Don’t mix them. Saying something like “knowing the ropes paves the way for a fruitful harvest,” for example, as I saw in a real memo once, is illogical. (Ropes, pavement, and agriculture have nothing to do with each other.) Why does logic matter? Because if you mix imagery like this, you’ll rightly be accused of not thinking through what you’re writing.

2. Don’t set off your metaphor with “quotation marks” or the British ‘inverted commas’. It’s amateurish. Your reader is smart enough to know when you’re using a figure of speech. You’d only use this punctuation if you were defining some unusual or made-up word. This is called a “neologism.” Even with a neologism you’d only use quotation marks once, when you defined your new term; ever after, your reader wouldn’t need them. Neologisms aren’t usually metaphors, in any case. So just remember, no special punctuation for metaphors.

3. Make up your own metaphors. Don’t use ones you’ve already heard. This is important. First, using someone else’s one makes you look lazy, which you are. Second, because it’s lazy, sooner or later you’ll accidentally mix one, or you’ll use one that isn’t quite right for the situation. And you’ll lose your credibility. So never talk about needles in haystacks, or taking bulls by the horns, or anything else you’ve heard before. Invent new ones.

Here is some vocabulary to be clear about. These are three terms you’ll hear from time to time, whenever people are talking about figures of speech. A metaphor, technically, is an implied comparison, such as talking about all world being a stage, and the people on it players. A ‘simile’ (pronounced SIM-uh-lee) is the same idea, only more obvious, and it employs ‘like’ or ‘as’. So, her tears fell like rain; her lips were sweet as wine. That’s a simile. And finally: ‘cliché’. This is what printers used to call the plate used for stereotype printing. Now it refers to any term, phrase, or idea that’s repeated so often as to lose its meaning. (You can see why ‘stereotype’ is now used the way it is, too.) ‘Wallowing in self-pity’ is an example of a cliché. The term is overused. When it’s applied imprecisely to a situation, it is said to be ‘trite’.

Okay? Now stoke those fires, keep your powder dry, clear the decks, and write.

Traversing the Okeechobee Waterway – A Sailor’s Guide

A few years ago, My husband Skip and I crossed Florida’s Okeechobee Waterway from Stuart on the east coast to Fort Myers on the west coast. The good news is that the crossing was uneventful. The bad news is that the crossing was uneventful, which means that I have no dramatic tale to tell. However, having become a big fan of the waterway as a result of the crossing, I want to go on record with my two cents, as undramatic as those two cents may be.

Perhaps it was my proximity to Orlando that prompted me to think of the Okeechobee Waterway asan EPCOT Center version of the Panama Canal (which I have crossed several times on small sailboats). The trip followed the same steps: Locking up to lake level; traversing the lake; and then locking back down to sea level. The locks were smaller, the water hazards far less, and there were not enormous cargo ships or cruiser liners going through with us. For me, transiting the Okeechobee Waterway was like going through the Panama Canal Zone again, with all of the fun and none of the risks.

There are a few issues to consider when contemplating a passage across the waterway. The fixed bridge just east of Port Mayaca Lock (on the eastern side of the lake) poses a challenge to some vessels. It has a clearance of 49 feet when the channel is at its normal depth, which keeps many sailboats from using the waterway for a cross-Florida passage. Several sailing acquaintances have availed themselves of the services of nearby Indiantown Marina, which does a very professional and able job of tilting a vessel to clear the bridge (cost of the service as of September 2003 is $100). Other fixed bridges along the waterway are in the 53- to 55-foot range.

Controlling depth and status of maintenance activities are other issues to consider when contemplating a passage through the waterway. We were able to check controlling depth on the Internet at the Corps of Engineers Jacksonville District web site and found it quoted at 15 feet. Because we had been advised that the Corps of Engineers sometimes shuts down portions of the waterway for maintenance during the summer months, we inquired about maintenance plans via email to the Corps of Engineers office and received a response within a week-this year, there was no maintenance planned, so we were good to go.

We departed Stuart on a hot muggy morning in the latter part of May. The St. Lucie River soon morphed into a tree-lined canal cut and we reached St. Lucie Lock (Mile 15) in good time. Our first lock experience taught us the basic drill:

  1. Hail the lock keeper on VHF radio (Ch. 13) to announce your approach and get instructions.
  2. Either wait until the lock gates open to enter, or proceed directly into the chamber if accessible.
  3. Edge up to the left side of the chamber and grab one of the lines hanging over the side, then act as human fenders as the water level rises or falls (depending on which side of the waterway you are on).
  4. When the lock gates re-open, exit at a sedate pace, waving and yelling (or radioing) a thank-you to the lock keeper as you leave.

We stopped for the night at Indiantown Marina, one of several friendly boating concerns along the waterway, and were off the next morning in good time to make it through Port Mayaca Lock (Mile 37) and across the lake before settling in for the night. Our passage was windless and calm, so even though we were disappointed that we couldn’t sail, we did not have to cope with the choppy waves that easily form when winds pass over the lake’s shallow waters-so we didn’t complain. A single hander friend of mine wasn’t so lucky on his passage of the lake a few years ago; he said that getting across Okeechobee was harder and more uncomfortable than any part of his passage from New Zealand to California!

We settled for the night alongside the dock at Roland Martin’s Marina in Clewiston, on the south shore of the lake. Nehalennia stuck out like an alien in the string of power boats; it was the first time I have ever been the only sailboat in a marina! But no matter…we met some very nice folks, took a dip in the pool, and watched the water birds pace the riprap across the channel from us, searching for their evening meal, while we sipped our drinks in the cockpit.

Day 3 took us through Moore Haven Lock (Mile 78) and into the Caloosahatchee Canal, on the “downhill run” to the sea. We went through Ortona Lock at Mile 94, then stopped for the night in La Belle, tied up at the dock of the funky River’s Edge Motel for twenty-five cents per foot. Interesting little town, La Belle-we’ll have to return someday to look around a bit more.

We were off right after breakfast on our fourth day out from Stuart, and the canal cut morphed back into river again, every scenic and serene. We spotted an alligator along the bank at one point, but were disappointed in our search for manatees. Returning to sea level at Franklin Lock (Mile 121), we left the quiet waters of the rivers and canals for the busier thoroughfares of the Fort Myers area, which we traversed in favor of tying up in Cape Coral at Tarpon Point Marina. And so ended our transit of the Okeechobee Waterway.

See what I mean? The trip was uneventful. I am certainly not complaining…and I recommend that anyone traveling to and around Florida consider the Okeechobee as a possible route in the itinerary. As long as you pay attention to the issues I noted above to make sure the boat can make it through, and watch the weather when crossing the lake, I am sure you will have a pleasant trip!

Advantages of Steel Detailing Drawing and Shop Drawing Structure

In construction industry steel detailing services plays an important role, with the help of steel detailing drawing you can create accurate building structure. Detail drawings of any building construction represent the members of each assembly and contain step by step instructions on how to fabricate each and every piece.

Steel detailing drawing requires skills in drafting, logic, reasoning, spatial visualization, and communication. A basic knowledge of general engineering principles and the methods of structural and steel fabrication are essential to the practice of this discipline. A computer-aided detailer also requires skills in using computers and an understanding of the specific CAD software he has to use.

Detailed structure shop drawing is the involvement of experienced engineers, architects and general contractor. A good steel detailer will work closely with a wide range of professionals so they can work to provide its customers a superior product. Shop drawing structure is also a necessary thing. It is not possible for us to construct buildings without them, but these drawings are very confusing, and it requires a special staff for the shop-drawing services within the time limit.

The structural detailer should also have knowledge of wind and gravity loads and material stresses. He must be familiar with different type of steel and other materials, architectural details of construction and be able to produce various types of beam-beam or column-column connections. Shop drawing structure is very useful in a whole range of manufacturing and construction businesses like plants, building construction, shipbuilding and naval and marine, and other similar industries.

The shop drawing structure must also be checked for accuracy and completeness by another detailer. During checking comments arising from approval and corrections must be resolved, and the original drawing must be updated accordingly. After this, the drawing may be released for use in construction.

Choosing the Best Car Audio System

The basic components of a high-quality car stereo system are an AM/FM tuner, a CD player, an amplifier (optional but recommended) and great speakers.

Rule: No auto audio can equal the performance of fine home equipment. The car compartment is small, besieged with engine and traffic noises, and surrounded with competing electrical signals. And all of this in a moving environment. A welter of technical and personal choices dictate the final package.

General guidelines: Shop around. Car audio components are often discounted. Check mail-order houses and the Internet for the best buys.

Essential: Deal with reputable businesses and buy name brands. Make sure you can exchange or return components in case they prove incompatible or do not fit into the car. Remember each unit must be installed and may require custom mounting accessories. Keep personal tastes in mind. Rock and country music fans usually prefer stronger bass ranges. Classical music requires good mid and treble.

How to allocate your spending: 40% to 50% for tuner/tape player, 25% to 30% for amplifier, 25% to 30% for speakers (unlike home gear, for which half the recommended expenditure may go for speakers alone).

General recommendations: Components are a better deal than manufacturer-installed original sound equipment. Good manufacturer-installed gear can cost $1,000, a price that will usually bring you far better sound if spent on components. Try to find a dealer that has set up a sound room to hear and compare different systems.

New-car buyer strategy: Buyers planning to purchase components should insist on a delete-option clause, eliminating the installed radio cost.

In-dash versus under-dash components. Under-dash components are easily installed.

Overriding disadvantage: A thief can slip out the under-dash gear as easily as an ashtray. Choose in-dash tuner/CD players unless you want to stow the components in the trunk each time you leave the car. (If you still prefer an under-dash system, Sony components are top-notch ones.)

Amplifiers: Most auto-sound packages benefit from amplifiers that strengthen bass and high-treble tones.

Problems: Amplifiers are bulky and often must be installed under a seat or in the trunk. Unless your tuner has a bypass circuit permitting you to plug into the preamplifier, your costly amplifier will only boost the distorted output of the built-in amplifier.

Smart buying: Look for amplifiers measuring power in watts (w) per channel in terms of distortion (THD). Goal: About five watts per channel at 1 % distortion or less. To get this, the amplifier may require 50 watts per channel because few operate at better than 10% efficiency in a car.

Bi-amplifiers: They offer separate power boosts for bass and treble ranges. Bi-amplification may be called for when separate bass and treble speakers are installed.

Speakers: Speakers must be compatible with amplifiers. Their power capacity should be slightly higher than amplifier. Example: Get 60w speakers for a 50w /ch amplifier. One way to be sure of speaker/amplifier compatibility is to purchase them as a package.

Stereo sound requires at least two speakers. Many enthusiasts choose four. Non-directional bass speakers are best placed in the factory cutouts in the rear window shelf. Next best placement: In rear doors. Treble speakers can be mounted in front door panels or under dash.

Installation: Unless you are highly skilled electronics hobbyist, have the auto-sound system professionally installed. Allow $150 to $200 for installation, and get a satisfaction guaranteed agreement.

Recorder Notes in Relation to Piano Notes

When a musical instrument is played we can hear sounds in the form of music. Musical instruments have unique sounds which are formed by playing notes, in varying ways. So what is a note? What is a Recorder and Piano? What are recorder notes in relation to piano notes? Let us explore.

A note is a sign in music. It tells the musician to do something on his or her musical instrument to produce a sound of the note name and note length as indicated on the sheet of music. The names of the musical notes are A B C D E F G which are the first seven letters of the alphabet and called the musical alphabet. The musical alphabet repeats itself for the note range of the musical instrument. Each of the note names are associated with flats and sharps eg A sharp and A flat, B sharp and B flat etc. Notes are given specific positions on a set of five lines called a stave to indicate which A or B or C etc to play.

Notes vary in the length of time they are sounded. They are given names which correspond to a number of beats or counts and they have different pictures. The first few note lengths which people learn and play are the crotchet ( 1 beat ), minim ( 2 beats ) and semibreve ( 4 beats ). And so if a two beat A is required then the picture of the minim will be placed on the stave in position of the A required.

Musicians learn the positions and note lengths whilst learning their instrument.

Now you need to understand what a recorder and piano are to understand the recorder notes in relation to piano notes. A recorder is a wind instrument in varying sizes made from wood or plastic. It is like a tube in two or three sections with a headpiece and shaped mouth hole at one end, a round open hole at the other end and holes. A recorder player creates a sound by closing their lips over the mouth hole and blowing air down the tube. Different sounds are made by pressing the finger tips or pads on the holes in various configurations called fingering, so that no air escapes from the required holes. For example, if a musician wants to play an A, then the fingering for one of the A’s is to place your left hand thumb on the thumb hole which is underneath, and the first two fingers on the top two holes on the upper side. The range of notes on a recorder is greater than two octaves. Music is written on the treble clef stave for most of the recorder sizes.

A piano is a keyboard instrument with black and white keys. A pianist produces a sound by pressing down on the keys in varying numbers. What happens is that the pressed down key or keys cause small hammer or hammers to hit tuned strings which cause vibrations and produce a sound. The lower the key the thicker the string. The black keys repeat themselves in groups of 2 and 3 for the entire length of the keyboard. The note names of A B C D E F G are positioned on the white keys in relation to the black keys eg all C’s are directly to the left of the group of two black keys, hence when you press this key down, the sound of C is produced.. A piano usually has around seven repetitions of A to G, called octaves. Music is written on a grand staff consisting of a treble staff joined to the bass staff below, by a line.

Let’s look at the recorder notes in relation to the piano notes.

1. Note names and note lengths are the same for both instruments.

2. Musical notes are written on the treble staff for most recorder types and piano. The piano also has notes written on the bass stave. And so the notes from most recorder types are equivalent to the notes played with the right hand on the piano. Hence most recorders use the treble clef and the piano uses the treble clef and bass clef.

3. The recorder has a smaller note range than the piano which is > 2 octaves compared to 7 octaves. And so all notes you play on the recorder can be played on the piano.

4. Both instruments are completely different in looks, size, production of sound and the actual sound you hear. Recorder sounds are produced when air vibrates down a recorder tube. You play different notes by pressing your finger tips on the holes in various configurations. Piano sounds are made when pressed down keys cause a hammer to strike a tuned string which vibrates. You play different notes by pressing down different keys with your finger tips

5. Loud and soft notes are formed differently between the two instruments. A loud sound is produced by blowing harder on the recorder or pressing more firmly on the keys of the piano. A soft sound is produced by blowing more gently on the recorder or pressing less firmly on the keys of the piano. However the markings on sheet music for loud and soft notes are the same for both instruments.

You now have an understanding of what a note is, what a recorder and piano is and that the notes on the recorder in relation to the piano have features which are the same and different.

Wildlife Art – Its History and Development


Some of the earliest of all known art (pre-historic cave and rock art) features wildlife. However, it might be more properly regarded as art about food, rather than art about wildlife as such.

Then for a lot of the rest of the history of art in the western world, art depicting wildlife was mostly absent, due to the fact that art during this period was mostly dominated by narrow perspectives on reality, such as religions. It is only more recently, as society, and the art it produces, frees itself from such narrow world-views, that wildlife art flourishes.

Wildlife is also a difficult subject for the artist, as it is difficult to find and even more difficult to find keeping still in a pose, long enough to even sketch, let alone paint. Recent advances such as photography have made this far easier, as well as being artforms in their own right. Wildlife art is thus now far easier to accomplish both accurately and aesthetically.

In art from outside the western world, wild animals and birds have been portrayed much more frequently throughout history.

Art about wild animals began as a depiction of vital food-sources, in pre-history. At the beginnings of history the western world seems to have shut itself off from the natural world for long periods, and this is reflected in the lack of wildlife art throughout most of art history. More recently, societies, and the art it produces, have become much more broad-minded. Wildlife has become something to marvel at as new areas of the world were explored for the first time, something to hunt for pleasure, to admire aesthetically, and to conserve. These interests are reflected in the wildlife art produced.

The History and development of Wildlife Art…

Wildlife art in Pre-history.

Animal and bird art appears in some of the earliest known examples of artistic creation, such as cave paintings and rock art

The earliest known cave paintings were made around 40,000 years ago, the Upper Paleolithic period. These art works might be more than decoration of living areas as they are often in caves which are difficult to access and don’t show any signs of human habitation. Wildlife was a significant part of the daily life of humans at this time, particularly in terms of hunting for food, and this is reflected in their art. Religious interpretation of the natural world is also assumed to be a significant factor in the depiction of animals and birds at this time.

Probably the most famous of all cave painting, in Lascaux (France), includes the image of a wild horse, which is one of the earliest known examples of wildlife art. Another example of wildlife cave painting is that of reindeer in the Spanish cave of Cueva de las Monedas, probably painted at around the time of the last ice-age. The oldest known cave paintings (maybe around 32,000 years old) are also found in France, at the Grotte Chauvet, and depict horses, rhinoceros, lions, buffalo, mammoth and humans, often hunting.

Wildlife painting is one of the commonest forms of cave art. Subjects are often of large wild animals, including bison, horses, aurochs, lions, bears and deer. The people of this time were probably relating to the natural world mostly in terms of their own survival, rather than separating themselves from it.

Cave paintings found in Africa often include animals. Cave paintings from America include animal species such as rabbit, puma, lynx, deer, wild goat and sheep, whale, turtle, tuna, sardine, octopus, eagle, and pelican, and is noted for its high quality and remarkable color. Rock paintings made by Australian Aborigines include so-called “X-ray” paintings which show the bones and organs of the animals they depict. Paintings on caves/rocks in Australia include local species of animals, fish and turtles.

Animal carvings were also made during the Upper Paleolithic period… which constitute the earliest examples of wildlife sculpture.

In Africa, bushman rock paintings, at around 8000 BC, clearly depict antelope and other animals.

The advent of the Bronze age in Europe, from the 3rd Millennium BC, led to a dedicated artisan class, due to the beginnings of specialization resulting from the surpluses available in these advancing societies. During the Iron age, mythical and natural animals were a common subject of artworks, often involving decoration of objects such as plates, knives and cups. Celtic influences affected the art and architecture of local Roman colonies, and outlasted them, surviving into the historic period.

Wildlife Art in the Ancient world (Classical art).

History is considered to begin at the time writing is invented. The earliest examples of ancient art originate from Egypt and Mesopotamia.

The great art traditions have their origins in the art of one of the six great ancient “classical” civilizations: Ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, Greece, Rome, India, or China. Each of these great civilizations developed their own unique style of art.

Animals were commonly depicted in Chinese art, including some examples from the 4th Century which depict stylized mythological creatures and thus are rather a departure from pure wildlife art. Ming dynasty Chinese art features pure wildlife art, including ducks, swans, sparrows, tigers, and other animals and birds, with increasing realism and detail.

In the 7th Century, Elephants, monkeys and other animals were depicted in stone carvings in Ellora, India. These carvings were religious in nature, yet depicted real animals rather than more mythological creatures.

Ancient Egyptian art includes many animals, used within the symbolic and highly religious nature of Egyptian art at the time, yet showing considerable anatomical knowledge and attention to detail. Animal symbols are used within the famous Egyptian hieroglyphic symbolic language.

Early South American art often depicts representations of a divine jaguar.

The Minoans, the greatest civilization of the Bronze Age, created naturalistic designs including fish, squid and birds in their middle period. By the late Minoan period, wildlife was still the most characteristic subject of their art, with increasing variety of species.

The art of the nomadic people of the Mongolian steppes is primarily animal art, such as gold stags, and is typically small in size as befits their traveling lifestyle.

Aristotle (384-322 BC) suggested the concept of photography, but this wasn’t put into practice until 1826.

The Medieval period, AD 200 to 1430

This period includes early Christian and Byzantine art, as well as Romanesque and Gothic art (1200 to 1430). Most of the art which survives from this period is religious, rather than realistic, in nature. Animals in art at this time were used as symbols rather than representations of anything in the real world. So very little wildlife art as such could be said to exist at all during this period.

Renaissance wildlife art, 1300 to 1602.

This arts movement began from ideas which initially emerged in Florence. After centuries of religious domination of the arts, Renaissance artists began to move more towards ancient mystical themes and depicting the world around them, away from purely Christian subject matter. New techniques, such as oil painting and portable paintings, as well as new ways of looking such as use of perspective and realistic depiction of textures and lighting, led to great changes in artistic expression.

The two major schools of Renaissance art were the Italian school who were heavily influenced by the art of ancient Greece and Rome, and the northern Europeans… Flemish, Dutch and Germans, who were generally more realistic and less idealized in their work. The art of the Renaissance reflects the revolutions in ideas and science which occurred in this Reformation period.

The early Renaissance features artists such as Botticelli, and Donatello. Animals are still being used symbolically and in mythological context at this time, for example “Pegasus” by Jacopo de’Barbari.

The best-known artist of the high Renaissance is Leonardo-Da-Vinci. Although most of his artworks depict people and technology, he occasionally incorporates wildlife into his images, such as the swan in “Leda and the swan”, and the animals portrayed in his “lady with an ermine”, and “studies of cat movements and positions”.

Durer is regarded as the greatest artist of the Northern European Renaissance. Albrecht Durer was particularly well-known for his wildlife art, including pictures of hare, rhinoceros, bullfinch, little owl, squirrels, the wing of a blue roller, monkey, and blue crow.

Baroque wildlife art, 1600 to 1730.

This important artistic age, encouraged by the Roman Catholic Church and the aristocracy of the time, features such well-known great artists as Caravaggio, Rembrandt, Rubens, Velazquez, Poussin, and Vermeer. Paintings of this period often use lighting effects to increase the dramatic effect.

Wildlife art of this period includes a lion, and “goldfinch” by Carel Fabrituis.

Melchior de Hondecoeter was a specialist animal and bird artist in the baroque period with paintings including “revolt in the poultry coup”, “cocks fighting” and “palace of Amsterdam with exotic birds”.

The Rococo art period was a later (1720 to 1780) decadent sub-genre of the Baroque period, and includes such famous painters as Canaletto, Gainsborough and Goya. Wildlife art of the time includes “Dromedary study” by Jean Antoine Watteau, and “folly of beasts” by Goya.

Jean-Baptiste Oudry was a Rococo wildlife specialist, who often painted commissions for royalty.

Some of the earliest scientific wildlife illustration was also created at around this time, for example from artist William Lewin who published a book illustrating British birds, painted entirely by hand.

Wildlife art in the 18th to 19th C.

In 1743, Mark Catesby published his documentation of the flora and fauna of the explored areas of the New World, which helped encourage both business investment and interest in the natural history of the continent.

In response to the decadence of the Rococo period, neo-classicism arose in the late 18th Century (1750-1830 ). This genre is more ascetic, and contains much sensuality, but none of the spontaneity which characterizes the later Romantic period. This movement focused on the supremacy of natural order over man’s will, a concept which culminated in the romantic art depiction of disasters and madness.

Francois Le Vaillant (1769-1832) was a bird illustrator (and ornithologist) around this time.

Georges Cuvier, (1769-1832), painted accurate images of more than 5000 fish, relating to his studies of comparative organismal biology.

Edward Hicks is an example of an American wildlife painter of this period, who’s art was dominated by his religious context.

Sir Edwin Henry Landseer was also painting wildlife at this time, in a style strongly influenced by dramatic emotional judgments of the animals involved.

This focus towards nature led the painters of the Romantic era (1790 – 1880) to transform landscape painting, which had previously been a minor art form, into an art-form of major importance. The romantics rejected the ascetic ideals of Neo-Classicalism.

The practical use of photography began in around 1826, although it was a while before wildlife became a common subject for its use. The first color photograph was taken in 1861, but easy-to-use color plates only became available in 1907.

In 1853 Bisson and Mante created some of the first known wildlife photography.

In France, Gaspar-Felix Tournacho, “Nadar” (1820-1910) applied the same aesthetic principles used in painting, to photography, thus beginning the artistic discipline of fine art photography. Fine Art photography Prints were also reproduced in Limited Editions, making them more valuable.

Jaques-Laurent Agasse was one of the foremost painters of animals in Europe around the end of the 18th C and the beginning of the 19th. His animal art was unusually realistic for the time, and he painted some wild animals including giraffe and leopards.

Romantic wildlife art includes “zebra”, “cheetah, stag and two Indians”, at least two monkey paintings, a leopard and “portrait of a royal tiger” by George Stubbs who also did many paintings of horses.

One of the great wildlife sculptors of the Romantic period was Antoine-Louis Barye. Barye was also a wildlife painter, who demonstrated the typical dramatic concepts and lighting of the romantic movement.

Delacroix painted a tiger attacking a horse, which as is common with Romantic paintings, paints subject matter on the border between human (a domesticated horse) and the natural world (a wild tiger).

In America, the landscape painting movement of the Romantic era was known as the Hudson River School (1850s – c. 1880). These landscapes occasionally include wildlife, such as the deer in “Dogwood” and “valley of the Yosemite” by Albert Bierstadt, and more obviously in his “buffalo trail”, but the focus is on the landscape rather than the wildlife in it.

Wildlife artist Ivan Ivanovitch Shishkin demonstrates beautiful use of light in his landscape-oriented wildlife art.

Although Romantic painting focused on nature, it rarely portrayed wild animals, tending much more towards the borders between man and nature, such as domesticated animals and people in landscapes rather than the landscapes themselves. Romantic art seems in a way to be about nature, but usually only shows nature from a human perspective.

Audubon was perhaps the most famous painter of wild birds at around this time, with a distinctive American style, yet painting the birds realistically and in context, although in somewhat over-dramatic poses. As well as birds, he also painted the mammals of America, although these works of his are somewhat less well known. At around the same time In Europe, Rosa Bonheur was finding fame as a wildlife artist.

Amongst Realist art, “the raven” by Manet and “stags at rest” by Rosa Bonheur are genuine wildlife art. However in this artistic movement animals are much more usually depicted obviously as part of a human context.

The wildlife art of the impressionist movement includes “angler’s prize” by Theodore Clement Steele, and the artist Joseph Crawhall was a specialist wildlife artist strongly influenced by impressionism.

At this time, accurate scientific wildlife illustration was also being created. One name known for this kind of work in Europe is John Gould although his wife Elizabeth was the one who actually did most of the illustrations for his books on birds.

Post-impressionism (1886 – 1905, France) includes a water-bird in Rousseau’s “snake charmer”, and Rousseau’s paintings, which include wildlife, are sometimes considered Post-impressionist (as well as Fauvist, see below).

Fauvism (1904 – 1909, France) often considered the first “modern” art movement, re-thought use of color in art. The most famous fauvist is Matisse, who depicts birds and fish in is “polynesie la Mer” and birds in his “Renaissance”. Other wildlife art in this movement includes a tiger in “Surprised! Storm in the Forest” by Rousseau, a lion in his “sleeping Gypsy” and a jungle animal in his “exotic landscape”. Georges Braque depicts a bird in many of his artworks, including “L’Oiseaux Bleu et Gris”, and his “Astre et l’Oiseau”.

Ukiyo-e-printmaking (Japanese wood-block prints, originating from 17th C) was becoming known in the West, during the 19th C, and had a great influence on Western painters, particularly in France.

Wildlife art in this genre includes several untitled prints (owl, bird, eagle) by Ando Hiroshige, and “crane”, “cat and butterfly”, “wagtail and wisteria” by Hokusai Katsushika.

Wildlife art in the 20th Century, Contemporary art, postmodern art, etc.

Changing from the relatively stable views of a mechanical universe held in the 19th-century, the 20th-century shatters these views with such advances as Einstein’s Relativity and Freuds sub-conscious psychological influence.

The greater degree of contact with the rest of the world had a significant influence on Western arts, such as the influence of African and Japanese art on Pablo Picasso, for example.

American Wildlife artist Carl Runguis spans the end of the 19th and the beginnings of the 20th Century. His style evolved from tightly rendered scientific-influenced style, through impressionist influence, to a more painterly approach.

The golden age of illustration includes mythical wildlife “The firebird” by Edmund Dulac, and “tile design of Heron and Fish” by Walter Crane.

George Braque’s birds can be defined as Analytical Cubist (this genre was jointly developed by Braque and Picasso from 1908 to 1912), (as well as Fauvist). Fernand Leger also depicts birds in his “Les Oiseaux”.

There was also accurate scientific wildlife illustration being done at around this time, such as those done by America illustrator Louis Agassiz Fuertes who painted birds in America as well as other countries.

Expressionism (1905 – 1930, Germany). “Fox”, “monkey Frieze, “red deer”, and “tiger”, etc by Franz Marc qualify as wildlife art, although to contemporary viewers seem more about the style than the wildlife.

Postmodernism as an art genre, which has developed since the 1960’s, looks to the whole range of art history for its inspiration, as contrasted with Modernism which focuses on its own limited context. A different yet related view of these genres is that Modernism attempts to search for an idealized truth, where as post-modernism accepts the impossibility of such an ideal. This is reflected, for example, in the rise of abstract art, which is an art of the indefinable, after about a thousand years of art mostly depicting definable objects.

Magic realism (1960’s Germany) often included animals and birds, but usually as a minor feature among human elements, for example, swans and occasionally other animals in many paintings by Michael Parkes.

In 1963, Ray Harm is a significant bird artist.

Robert Rauschenberg’s “American eagle”, a Pop Art (mid 1950’s onwards) piece, uses the image of an eagle as a symbol rather than as something in its own right, and thus is not really wildlife art. The same applies to Any Warhol’s “Butterflys”.

Salvador Dali, the best known of Surrealist (1920’s France, onwards) artists, uses wild animals in some of his paintings, for example “Landscape with Butterflys”, but within the context of surrealism, depictions of wildlife become conceptually something other than what they might appear to be visually, so they might not really be wildlife at all. Other examples of wildlife in Surrealist art are Rene Magritte’s “La Promesse” and “L’entre ed Scene”.

Op art (1964 onwards) such as M. C. Escher’s “Sky and Water” shows ducks and fish, and “mosaic II” shows many animals and birds, but they are used as image design elements rather than the art being about the animals.

Roger Tory Peterson created fine wildlife art, which although being clear illustrations for use in his book which was the first real field guide to birds, are also aesthetically worthy bird paintings.

Young British Artists (1988 onwards). Damien Hirst uses a shark in a tank as one of his artworks. It is debatable whether this piece could be considered as wildlife art, because even though the shark is the focus of the piece, the piece is not really about the shark itself, but probably more about the shark’s effect on the people viewing it. It could be said to be more a use of wildlife in/as art, than a work of wildlife art.

Wildlife art continues to be popular today, with such artists as Robert Bateman being very highly regarded, although in his case somewhat controversial for his release of Limited-Edition prints which certain fine-art critics deplore.

His Most Famous Painting (I and the Village) – Marc Chagall

One of the famous twentieth century French ‘Modern Art’ masters of Jewish-Belarusian origin, Marc Chagall (July 1887-March 1985), employed primary and secondary colors with different techniques to come out with a unique painting. He would use various shapes and symbols to gather the attention of the viewers for a detailed analysis. One of the most famous paintings of Marc Chagall is “I and the Village,” painted in Paris in 1911.

Marc Chagall’s most famous painting “I and the Village” seems like relating a small fairy tale in a rural area, his native village precisely. This oil on canvass painting, measuring 192.1 cm × 151.4 cm (75 in × 59 in), portrays the artist’s memories of Hasidic Community, a native community present outside Vitebsk. This painting is inspired by Marc’s Jewish life and his Russian childhood. Reflecting his emotions well, “I and the Village” is truly non-imitable and can be described in many beautiful words. At first, this remarkable painting perplexes its viewers, owing to its superimposed images. Upon analysis however, it unfolds as a beautiful horizon of fantasy.

Marc Chagall’s most famous painting “I and the Village” interestingly describes about the nature and its importance to human beings. Through different symbols and graphics, Chagall showed the give and take relationship of humans with the nature. He has depicted the mutual interdependence of humans, peasants here, animals, and plants on each other. In the foreground, a green-faced man, wearing a cap and holding a tree in his dark hands, can be seen staring at a goat, with its cheeks depicting the image of a smaller goat being milked. The background shows a violinist woman and two houses on the top, placed inverted, as Chagall did not give any importance to logical sequence. There is a series of houses, next to an Orthodox church. In the front of the violinist woman, a man, wearing black clothes with a scythe in hand, is shown.

Marc has also used a variety of large and small circular forms to show the sun’s revolution in the orbit, earth’s revolution around the sun, and moon’s revolution around the earth. Marc Chagall’s most famous painting “I and the Village” depicts an eclipse in which moon is situated at the lower left. The noticeable tree in the middle of the painting, balance it out to impart symmetry. The geometrical structures, such as lines, angles, triangles, circles, and squares used in “I and the Village” are inspired from ‘Cubism,’ the art of urban avant-garde society. Chagall’s paintings covered a particular geometric frame. Similarly, “I and the Village” is a scene of a particular area of the village, covered in a particular imaginary frame.

Considered a gem in the world of creativity, “I and the Village” of Marc Chagall is valued high. It presently graces the Museum of Modern Art, New York. Integrating Eastern European folk culture, both, Russian and Yiddish, this masterpiece is a smart star on the lines of creative fantasy. Truly, Marc Chagall was a marvelous painter, who could put all his emotions and qualities in the form of art.

Activating Your Eight Life Aspiration Sectors in Feng Shui

After determining where the Eight Life Aspirations sectors are in your house, you will need to decorate and place items that correspond with those sectors. Remember that activating these sectors will benefit all the people living in your household.

Please do not confuse this with enhancing your PERSONAL directions. Personal directions must be enhanced by using your KUA number.

Don’t spend a lot of money!

You don’t have to go out and spend a lot of money to “Feng Shui” your house! How many people who have a specialty store will tell you THAT?? : ) Just look around your home and see what items you have in various places. I am speaking of figurines, plants, wooden objects, metal objects, photos, candles, oil burners, flowers, etc. Then look at your layout of your house that you have done, and move the object to the sector that you think best suits it.

When I first started activating my sectors, I found that there were MANY things already in my home that worked great for certain sectors. Problem was, sometimes they were not in the RIGHT sector. So, all I had to do, was rearrange things a little – and boy, what a difference! For example, I use aromatherapy a lot in my home. I have an earthenware crockpot potpourri burner that I had to move to my Northeast area because of the earth element. I have another Sterling Silver oil burner that I had to move to my Northwest sector – the Metal Element. Didn’t cost me a dime – just the energy to move them to different areas.

Become color conscious.

If you have blue curtains in your Northeast sector and they will fit a window in the North sector, move them and replace them with some beige curtains. Keep the colors for each sector in mind as you go about the house rearranging things.

“Feng Shui” your MIND.

Get yourself used to looking for items that will help you. Also, keep in mind that Feng Shui is not about oriental art. It is about where you place certain objects – doesn’t matter who made it – it just matters what it is made OF, what color it is, what shape it is and/or what it represents. If you go to a garage sale and find a beautiful picture of a waterfall and bring it home, THINK about what sector that should go in – Water – Career – North! Reversing that situation, if you are wanting to activate your Career Sector in your home, go to the garage sales and look for things that have to do with WATER. It is really easy to do, once you get used to it. Make yourself a little 3×5 “cheat sheet” card that has your sectors and what colors, etc to use and carry it around in your wallet if you need to.

NORTH Sector:

The North part of your home is considered your Career Prospects Sector

Use the colors blue and black as much as possible in this area. Do not use those colors so much that they are overwhelming.

Have water features here as the element of the North is water. Some examples of water features are: water fountains, paintings of a lake or river, water globes, animals that live in the water (turtles, fish, etc) whether live or ceramic, anything that has wavy lines.


The Northeast sector governs education, spirituality, knowledge and self-growth

Use the color beige or very light brown in this area

Use Earth type decorations here. Examples could be plants, brown colored objects, globe, and map of the world. Hanging crystals and a Buddha is also good for this area.

EAST Sector

The East Sector governs family relations and health. I am going to break the two of these down a bit further:

Family Relations – Harmony

Clearing the clutter is the most important way to create harmony in your home. I have found personally that when my office is cluttered, my children seem to get a little unruly. (They spend a lot of time in my office because that is usually where I am! LOL) Also, sounds silly, but when I get behind on the laundry they tend to get unruly as well. Coincidence? I doubt it! The second most important way is to KEEP the clutter gone.

Use green and brown colors in this area.

Activate this area with: dragons, wooden objects, crystals, objects representing family unity – like a dog family, turtle family, figurine of children playing, pictures of your family in wooden frames, plants in earth tone pots or pottery

Take steps to activate all the sectors in your home by placing objects and using colors that correspond with those sectors. If all sectors are energized it should create harmony in your home.


Green and brown are good colors to use here, as well as black and blue.

Follow the guidelines above under Harmony. Also, check around the house for what is called “poison arrows” – anything sharp, pointed and angular that seem to be threatening. Exposed beams are considered poison arrows. Redirect the bad shar chi by using crystals, bamboo flutes or wind chimes.

Displaying a Happy Buddha in the living room of your home is said to bring happiness and health to all that live in your home.

Bamboo plants are symbolic of good health

Display a tortoise or turtle in the East corner of your living room for good health.

Use aromatherapy to enhance your health, relieve stress, create harmony and promote overall well being


The Southeast corner of your home is the Prosperity and Wealth Sector.

Try to use as much green as you can in this area without over doing it.

Flowers are great in this area. The best types of flowers and plants to use according to Feng Shui are bamboo, orchids, chrysanthemums and plum blossoms. However – any type of plant will do. Don’t use dried flowers, bonsai plants or cactus they are not good to have in the home.

If your bedroom is in the SE corner of your home, do not place plants or flowers there. Just try to find curtains, rugs, pillows, etc that have green tones to them to enhance the room.

Put a Lucky Cat in the SE corner of your home to bring about good fortune.

Create a wealth vase to put in a cupboard somewhere in your Southeast Sector. See the previous newsletter for tips on creating a wealth vase

Prosperity – General Guidelines

Hang a set of doorknob coins activated with red thread on the knob on the inside of your front door. This helps to keep the money in your home. Do not put either of these on a back door – which will bring about the opposite effect. Also, this needs to be on your front door whether you actually USE that door or not.

Hang a prosperity bell on the outside of your front door knob to invite prosperity into your home. Make sure it is tight against the doorknob – otherwise it may get bent when closing the door if it gets caught in between the door and the door jam. I will be introducing a bell with a stretchable cord this month on my web site.

Placing a small Buddha directly across from the front door will also create positive chi and welcome prosperity into your home. Do not put the Buddha the floor. Try to have him at eye level if possible.

Place 3 Good Luck coins in your wallet or in your purse to signify that it will have money in it at all times.

Place some 3-Legged money toads in various places around your house. These can go on the floor and be very inconspicuous if you want them to. You need to put one right beside your front door facing into the room. Then, if you can, put another one diagonally across from it – not facing the front door – but off to the left or right of the opposite wall that your front door is on.

Place FuDogs right inside your front door. They symbolize protection of the family and protecting your wealth.

SOUTH Sector

The South sector governs recognition and fame. This also covers popularity and reputation.

Use red and various shades of red in this area including burgundy, pink, hot pink, maroon. Take it easy on the bright red as it is a very powerful color and could overwhelm things.

Place a crimson bird sculpture, eagle in flight, dragon, rectangular shaped crystals, fire features like candles, oil burners, bright lights, crystal chandeliers, plants, a fire place, wood burning stove in this sector. Do not display water features here.


This sector governs Marital Happiness and Romance

Use yellow, beige, red and orange colors in this sector, being very careful not to overdo the red and orange colors. Do not use green or brown in this area if possible.

For plants, use earth tone or pottery for the planters.

Make sure when enhancing this area that you always put things in pairs. Not one and definitely not three – just two of different items that symbolize love and romance to you. Mandarin ducks, love birds and peacocks are good symbols here

Crystals in the SW sector of your home or bedroom will activate the earth energies of that sector. You can hang these in a window or just have crystal ornamental items there.

WEST Sector

This sector governs the luck of children and also new projects, hobbies, stages of life and pleasure.

Use white, silver, yellow and gold in this area.

Place white, silver or yellow flowers, hollow wind chimes, bells, metallic or earth objects, round objects, ceramic objects, quartz crystal, a sleeping white tiger (MUST be sleeping or don’t put it here), TV, computer, stereo, soapstone objects representing family in this area.


This sector governs mentors, networking, beginnings, meeting influential people and important meetings.

Use metallic colors here like white, silver and gold.

Place hollow wind chimes, stone and metal sculptures, any objects that are metallic in color or in material, metal candle holders and picture frames in this area.