10 Ways to Repurpose Old Traffic and Parking Signs

“Go green.” It’s a phrase that’s thrown around often these days, but you might be wondering what old traffic and parking signs have to do with this. How can you recycle these old and rusted signs? Here are ten creative ways you can reuse your old signs.

1. Decoration for your space. Old parking and traffic signs are a great way to add some pizzazz to any attic, basement or man cave. Even if the signs are slightly rusted or tarnished, that only adds more character to your decoration.

2. Construct unique furniture. Since traffic and parking signs are often made of aluminum or other bendable materials, you can form old signs into furniture fairly easily. For example, you might choose to create a chair or desk.

3. Recondition the signs. Depending on how much wear and tear your traffic and parking signs have been through, there are instances in which your signs could be resurfaced and cleaned to be brought back to life.

4. Create innovative household items. Besides constructing furniture out of old traffic and parking signs, you can also create other household items. For instance, some green artists have taken to cutting up old traffic signs to create things like coasters, light switch plates and much more.

5. Make one-of-a-kind wall art. Whether you choose to hammer an old parking or traffic sign directly into your wall, or opt to create a collage or mural of old signs, this type of artwork can be a great addition to any space.

6. Cut house numbers. Another innovative use for old traffic or parking signs is to cut out your house number from them. With house numbers like this, you’ll stand out from other houses on your block.

7. Make jewelry. You can create jewelry out of just about anything these days, and old signs are no exception. Since they’re easy to bend, take your old signs and make bracelets out of them.

8. Jazz up your refrigerator. Eco-friendly artists have been taking old traffic and parking signs and molding them into magnets for your refrigerator.

9. Make dinnerware. If you’re looking for a great conversation piece for your next dinner party, consider making decorative and usable platters out of old traffic signs. You’ll need to make sure they are cleaned and sanitized before serving any food.

10. Recycle them. If you can’t find a particular use for them yourself, most traffic and parking signs can be recycled. Contact your local government for information on how and where to recycle your old signs.

When it’s time to replace your old traffic and parking signs, don’t just throw them out. Get creative and find ways to repurpose your old signs.

The Pentateuch, Law of Moses or Torah


It is believed that the name Pentateuch “the first five books of the Old Testament, the book of the Law” (The Columbia Viking Desk Encyclopaedia, 1964, p.1402) was first found in the letter of Elora of a second century Gnostic, Ptolemy and passed into Christian use. These books are called The Law (Torah) or the Law of Moses by the Jews. (Everyman’s Encyclopedia, 1978). It would be difficult to overestimate the role that the Pentateuch has played in the course of biblical scholarship. In all likelihood, these first five books in the Bible – Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy- have been subjected to scrutiny more than any single block, with the sole possible exception of the Gospels (Knight and Tucker, 1985).


The word Pentateuch derives from the Greek pentateuchos “five-volumed (book)”, following the Jewish designation “the five-fifths of the law”. Jews call it the Torah, that is instruction, often rendered in English Law as it is called in the New Testament (Greek nomon; example, Matt. 5:17; Luke 16:17; Acts 7:53; 1 Cor. 9:8). According to Lasor, Hubbard and Bush (1982), the Pentateuch was “the most important division of the Jewish canon, with an authority and sanctity far exceeding that attributed to the prophets and writing” (p.54). They observe that the books of the Pentateuch are not ‘books’ in the modern sense of independent self-contained entries, but were purposefully structured and intended as part of a larger unity; therefore the term Pentateuch is not only convenient but necessary. However, granted this fact of the unity of the larger corpus, the conventional five-fold division is important not simply as a convenient means of reference to the material, but because there is clear editorial evidence establishing just these five books as genuine subdivisions of the material. Despite marks of real disparity and complexity in structure and origins, far more primary and important is the overarching unity which the Pentateuch evidences. A careful reading of the Pentateuch will reveal, beside a definite unity of purpose, plan and arrangement, a diversity – a complexity – that is equally striking.


The traditional view according to Halley (1962) is that “Moses wrote the Pentateuch substantially…with the exception of the few verses at the close which give an account of his death, and occasional interpolations made by copyists for explanatory purposes” (p.56). This is in consonance with the view of Childs (1979). A modern critical view is that of a composite work of various scholars of priests made about the eighth century B.C., for partisan purposes, based on oral traditions, the principal redactors of which are called J (for Jahweh/Yahweh, the personal name of God), E (for Elohim, a generic name for God), D (for Deuteronomic) and P (for priestly). Each is claimed to be unique. However, “this view is not supported by conclusive research or evidence, and intensive archaeological and literary research has tended to undercut many of the arguments used to challenge Mosaic authorship” (The NIV Study Bible, 1984, p.2). Jews and Christians alike have held Moses to be the author/compiler of the Pentateuch.


The Pentateuch consists of the first five afore-mentioned books of the Bible. It must be observed that the first phrase in the Hebrew text of Genesis 1:1 is bereshith [in (the) beginning] which is also the Hebrew title of the book. The English title, Genesis, is Greek in origin and is derived from geneseos ‘birth’, ‘genealogy’ or ‘history of origin’. Genesis therefore appropriately describes its contents since it is primarily a book of beginnings. ‘Exodus’ is a Latin word from Greek exodos, meaning ‘exit’, ‘departure’. Leviticus receives its name from the Greek translation of the Old Testament (Septuagint) meaning ‘relating to the Levites’. It mainly concerns the service of worship at the tabernacle which was conducted by the priests who were the sons of Aaron, assisted by many from the rest of the tribe of Levi. Exodus gave the directions for building the tabernacle and Leviticus the laws and regulations for worship there including instructions on ceremonial cleanness, moral laws, holy days, the Sabbath year and the Year of the Jubilee. The English name of the book Numbers comes from the Septuagint and is based on the census lists found in it. The Hebrew title of the book (bedmidbar, ‘in the desert’), is more descriptive of its contents. It presents an account of the thirty-eight year period of Israel’s wandering in the desert following the establishment of the covenant of Sinai. The word ‘Deuteronomy’ (meaning the repetition of the law’), the name of the last book of the Pentateuch, arose from a mistranslation in the Greek Septuagint and the Latin Vulgate of a phrase in Deuteronomy 17:18, which in Hebrew means ‘copy of the law’. The error is not serious however since Deuteronomy is, in a certain sense, a repetition of the law.

Generally, the unity of the Pentateuch must be stressed when discussing the content. This is created by an interest in the historical narrative forming the Pentateuch’s backbone and framework and into which the blocks of legal texts have been placed. A clue to this narrative’s central role and importance is the fact that the Old Testament events most frequently cited in the New Testament as the background and preparation for God’s work in Christ are precisely that sequence of divine acts from Abraham’s call through the kingship of David. Summaries or ‘confession’ of this sequence of divine acts plays a central role in Scripture. The basic details confessing God’s saving acts on behalf of His people could be illustrated thus:

i. God chose Abraham his descendants (Acts 13:17; Josh.24:3) and promised them the land of Canaan (Deut. 6:23)

ii. Israel went down into Egypt (Acts 13:17; Josh. 24:5-7; Deut. 6:21ff; 28:8)

iii. God brought Israel into Canaan as promised (Acts 13:19; Josh.24:11-13; Deut. 6:23; 26:9).

This is but the narrative backbone of the Pentateuch in miniature. The plan that unifies the different elements forming the building blocks of the Pentateuch includes: promise, election, deliverance, covenant, law and land. It is realistically observed that “the one element universally present and central to these credos…is the Exodus, representing Yahweh’s deliverance and the historical realization of His election of Israel as His people” (Lasor, Hubbard, Bush, 1982, p.55).

The Pentateuch has two major divisions: Genesis 1-11 and Genesis 12- Deuteronomy 34. The relation between them is one question and answer, problem and solution; the clue is Genesis 12:3. This structure not only elucidates the binding unity of the Pentateuch but also reveals that the structure began stretches far beyond the Pentateuch itself. The end and fulfillment lie beyond Deuteronomy 34 – indeed beyond the Old Testament. It could be safely asserted that probably no where does the Old Testament set forth an ultimate solution to the universal problem which Genesis 1-11 so poignantly portrays. The Old Testament indeed does not arrive at full redemption. When the Old Testament ends, Israel is still looking for the final consummation when hope shall be fulfilled and promise become fact. The juncture of Genesis 10-11 and chapters 12ff., is not only one of the most important places in the whole Old Testament but one of the most important in the entire Bible. Here begins the redemptive history that awaits the proclamation of the good news of God’s new redemptive act in Jesus Christ; only then will be found the way in which the blessing of Abraham will bless all the families of the earth. The Pentateuch is truly open-ended, for the salvation history which commenced awaits the consummation in the Son of Abraham (Matt. 1:1) who draws all people to Him (John 12:32) punctuating the alienation of humanity from God and from one another.


The purpose of the Pentateuch was a leading into the realization by God that He was the Creator and Sustainer of the universe as well as the Ruler of History. It testifies to God’s saving acts, the central act being the exodus from Egypt. God invaded the consciousness of the Israelites and revealed Himself as the redeeming God. Knowledge of God as Redeemer subsequently led to a knowledge of Him as Creator; understanding the Lord as the God of grace consequently prompted an understanding as the God of nature after He displayed control over nature as evidenced in the plagues, the crossing of the Red Sea and sustenance in the wilderness. It must be stressed that God’s grace was evident not only in deliverance and guidance, but in the giving of the law and the initiation of the covenant. Israel’s supposed pledge of obedience, oath of loyalty to God and His will is her response. One must hasten to note that this response is a gift of God’s grace. The Pentateuch stands or better still possesses a rich inner unity recording God’s revelation in history and His Lordship over history and testifying to Israel’s response and disobedience. It generally witnesses to God’s holiness which “separates Him from men, and His gracious love, which binds Him to them on His terms” (New Bible Dictionary, 1962, p.909).


Although several themes could be identified between Genesis and Deuteronomy, unique but inter-related, intertwined and invaluable ones could be identified. These include election, creation, fall/sin, covenant, law and exodus. Israel was God’s elect. According to Stott (1988), the Bible is “sacred history – the story of God’s dealing with a particular people for a particular purpose” (p.45). They were convinced that God had done this for no other nation (Ps. 147:20). Great thinkers of Greece (including Plato, Socrates and Aristotle) are not the focus but scriptural record concentrates on men like Abraham, Moses, David, Isaiah and the prophets to whom the word of the Lord came, and on Jesus Christ, God’s Word made flesh. Abraham’s call has a present day significance to us and should not be slightly regarded as an event of the past. Election – God’s special choice of individuals- basically contains two subsidiary features; promise and responsibility. Abraham is promised descendants, given the land of Canaan as his children’s inheritance and promised a great name in the future. God’s special favour was to rest not only on Abraham and his family but to all men through him (Gal. 3:29).

God’s promises to Abraham therefore were not for the selfish enjoyment of a selected few but could benefit others if used responsibly. It is incontrovertible that God’s choice of Israel has a missionary purpose. A covenant, in the Hebrew context, covered all human relationships and not a limited definition of a matter of legal documents and sealing-wax in the modern mind. This bond united people in mutual obligations. Naturally, people’s relationship to God should be expressed in covenant terms. Covenant terms could be used to describe three unique occasions in the Pentateuch:

i. God’s promises never again to destroy the world with a flood (Gen. 9:9)

ii. God’s promises to Abram (Gen. 15:18; 17:4)

iii. The Sinai Covenant established with Moses and summarized in the ‘book of the covenant’ (Ex.24:4).

It must be borne in mind that although covenants were generally between equals, religiously it denotes a relationship between Creator and a lesser partner. However, the theological significance of the covenant must be highlighted. Based on initiative of God and implying a new revelation of the Creator, it made moral and ritual demands upon the people.

Taylor (1973) realistically observes that “the idea of law is central to the Pentateuch and…it gives its name to the book as a whole” (p.124). It basically covers the Ten Commandments (Decalogue – Ex. 20; Deut.5) and associates with these various collections of laws classified as:

i. The book of the Covenant (Ex. 21-23)

ii. The Holiness Code (Lev. 17:26)

iii. The Law of Deuteronomy (Deut. 12:26)

Since Israel was part of the Eastern Mediterranean culture and shared in the ideas and experience of her neighbours, several similarities could be noted especially with the Code of Hammurabi. The differences however made Israel’s laws distinctive. They could be summarized thus:

i. Uncompromising monotheism (that is relating everything to the one true God)

ii. Remarkable concern for slaves, strangers, women and orphans (the underprivileged)

iii. Community spirit based on the covenant relationship shared by all Israel with the Lord

In a brilliant summary, Cornfeld (1961) observed that “Hebrew law appears from its earliest times to stand on a higher ethical level and postulates moral human relationship which do not seem to be equalled in other Near Eastern Legislations” (p.213). Israel must approach God with a due sense of His moral and spiritual distinctiveness. The elaborate sacrificial system generally found its fulfilment in the solitary sacrifice of Christ – the perfect Lamb of God- through whom sins are not only forgiven but atonement made for all men eternally (Heb. 10:1-18).

The exodus must be put in proper perspective. Described in Exodus 1-12, the Jews view it as the great intervention or saving act of God which later generations reminisced. This miraculous intervention was God’s act of victory of the gods displaying total supremacy. Recalled annually in the Feast of the Passover, subsequent generations were reminded that they were initially members of a slave community mercifully redeemed from bondage. They were encouraged to use this as a deterrent, especially when curses reward disobedience. The historical significance was definitive. God could repeat His initial act. In Isaiah 51:9-11, Israel looked for a second exodus while in exile in Babylon.

The afore-mentioned themes are never submerged in the Pentateuch. Probably, the only other theme (which recurs in depressing regularity) is Israel’s obstinate and persistent sinfulness. Among other things, they were slow to accept Moses as their deliverer, grumbled about hardship and desired to ‘go back to Egypt’. Not even Moses was immune and was punished by not being allowed to lead God’s people in the promised land.


Together, the five books trace Israel’s origin from the earliest times, through the patriarchs; then the Exodus and Sinai periods prior to the entry to Canaan; they also contain much legal instruction. God’s response to sin is consistently a blend of judgement and mercy. Beyond the immediate discipline of Adam and Eve, and confusion of tongues at Babel, God tempers justice with salvation. It is understandable therefore that in spite of man’s path, God called Abraham to be the channel of grace and revelation to all mankind.


Childs, B. (1979). Introduction to the Old Testament as Scripture. Philadelphia: Fortress Press.

The Columbia-Viking Desk Encyclopedia (1964). New York: Dell Publishing Co.

Cornfeld, G. (1961). Adam to Daniel. New York: The Macmillan Company.

Everyman’s Encyclopedia, Vol. 1. (1979). London : Dent and Sons.

Halley, H.H. (1962). Halley’s Pocket Bible Handbook: An Abbreviated Bible Commentary. Minnesota:

Zondervan Publishing.

Knight, D.A. and G.M. Tucker (1985). The Hebrew Bible and its Modern Interpreters. Minnesota:

Fortress Press.

Lasor, W.S., D.A. Hubbard and F.W. Bush (1982). Old Testament Survey: The Message, Form and

Background to the Old Testament. Michigan: Williams B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.

The New Bible Dictionary (1962). London: The Inter-Varsity Fellowship.

NIV Study Bible (1984). Michigan: Zondervan Publishing House.

Stott, J. (1988). Understanding the Bible. London: Scripture Union.

Taylor, J. (1973). The Five Books. In The Lion Handbook to the Bible. Herts: Lion Publishing.

His Most Famous Painting (Dance, an Objectless Composition) – Alexander Rodchenko

Aleksander Mikhailovich Rodchenko or Alexander Rodchenko (1891-1956), was a Russian artist, sculptor, graphic designer, and photographer. One of the co-founders of ‘Constructivism’ and ‘Russian Design,’ he started his career as a painter, with ‘Abstraction’ as his forte. Dipped heavily in ‘Constructivism’ and ‘Productivism,’ his works were sophisticated, thoughtful, and some were even weird. At the beginning, he got abstract ideas from natural forms, which he would finally condense into geometric forms, with the help of compass and ruler. The geometric elements in Rodchenko’s paintings had all the minute details and were mathematically accurate. His first most famous painting was “Dance, an Objectless Composition,” created in 1915.

This painting was Alexander’s pre-revolution work, purely ‘Abstract’ and ‘Non-Objective,’ far more dynamic and influenced by the ‘Suprematism’ of Kazimir Malevich. A ‘Suprematist’ work was composed of geometric shapes, mostly circles and squares. Rodchenko always portrayed bold thoughts in his paintings. This can concretely be seen in his most famous painting, “Dance, An Objectless Composition.” The painting displayed Aleksander’s inclination for ‘European Modernism,’ ‘Italian Futurists’ to be specific. ‘Futurists’ always believed in moving speedily towards the promising future. They had a strong liking for depicting motion in their paintings.

Though, “Dance, an Objectless Composition” is a ‘Futuristic’ work however, coincidently Aleksander Rodchenko anatomizes the subject. The painting appears as his emotional outburst. In consonance with the title (Dance, An ‘Objectless’ Composition), no recognizable dancer can be seen in this painting. Only a divine spark of dance comes across. Probably the disturbing elements of this painting reflect the state of unrest of the then Russian society, which was moving close to revolution. Alexander endeavored to paint emotions and feelings. “Dance, An Objectless Composition,” appears roughly painted, with white background, where pencil lines were drawn, colored using primary & sub-primary colors, and beautifully spaced. The three components lines, color, and space played a vital role in Rodchenko’s painting.

After “Dance, An Objectless Composition,” at 22, Alexander Rodchenko drew his other most famous painting “Black on Black” in 1918. This painting was a good example of ‘Constructivism,’ blending art, design, science, and engineering together to strike an ultimate ‘supremacy of feeling.’ “Black on Black” exhibited an effective use of black and brown colors. It dealt with the physical qualities of painting, including the affect different pigments and mixtures had on the appearance of paint on canvas. In 1921, Alexander Rodchenko reduced most of his work and logically concluded it. This time his paintings were exhibited in ‘5×5=25’ exhibition, in Moscow, showing his three famous canvases:

o Pure Red Color

o Pure Yellow Color

o Pure Blue Color

Vases – a History

The development of art has been considered as one of the hallmarks of human evolution. Not surprisingly, most of the artworks man has made have been created to adorn his home, be it painting, sculpture, pottery or photography.

Vases that are made of crystal and glass are just the same; they were made for the function of providing adornment to space. Man has been using techniques to make glass for vases and other adornments since the dawn of history, with the earliest evidences dating back to more than three thousand years ago, found in Mesopotamia.

The manufacturing techniques used for making crystal and glass vases as we know it today, however, were inherited from the Romans. Trading and commerce in the Roman Empire has made the use of crystal and glass vases popular among the citizenry, ranging from clear glass to colored crystal, and this prompted glassmakers to develop more sophisticated techniques for creating crystal and glass vases other than the basic core-form method of wrapping molten glass around a sand bag tied to a rod. Related manufacturing techniques created for more ornate and more beautiful crystal and glass vases are enameling, gliding and staining. The skill achieved by glassmakers during the Roman times is embodied in the world-famous Portland Vase, a vase made of violet-blue glass with seven white-glass cameo figures.

Unfortunately, just like most bodies of knowledge, many manufacturing techniques used for creating crystal and glass vases were lost and forgotten during the Middle Ages. The knowledge of glassmaking were thankfully kept and retained in the island of Murano, then in the Republic of Venice. Murano has a rich source of pure silica sand. The glassmakers of Murano learned how to mix silica sand with soda ash to create a superior form of glass used for vases and other adornments. The skill of Murano glassmakers gave Venice a monopoly on vases and adornments made from glass and crystal.

Today, the art of making crystal and glass vases are among those being preserved and perpetrated by glass artists. Among the major proponents in the development of this art are Harvey Littleton, founder of the American Studio Glass Movement, and Louis Comfort Tiffany, known for his handmade Favrile iridescent glass. Other well-known and influential glass artists are René Jules Lalique, Dale Patrick Chihuly and the Murano-born Lino Tagliapietra.

Card Magic Trick – Royal Mounties

This is one of the very easy card tricks that you can perform with your friends. No special deck of cards is required. All you need is just an ordinary deck of playing cards.

Before performing this trick, you need to secretly look at the bottom card of the deck and remember it. This will be your key.

Then, allow the spectator to select a card from the deck and have him look and remember his selected card and replace it on top of the deck. You cut the deck and complete the cut, this will place your key directly on top of the spectator’s selected card.

Then you say “There is an old story about the Canadian Mounted Police, who boast that they always get their man. This deck has two Kings who are actually retired ‘Mounties.’ Please remember the name of your card while I find my policemen.”

Turn the deck with faces toward you. Spread the cards, pretend to look for the Kings, but actually, you are looking for your key (the card which you secretly look and remember before performing the trick). After that, you cut the deck to make your key to the bottom of the deck. Also, this will make the spectator’s selected card be the top card of the pack.

Then, you go through the cards again and remove the two black Kings (Clubs and Spades). Place these two Kings on the table, face up.

You then say “Here they are, two of the Royal Mounted Police. I’m going to put them into the middle of the deck, face up.” Now, place the deck behind your back. Pick up the first King and place it face up under the top card of the deck (the selected card). Pick up the second King and put it face up on top of the deck. Then, cut the pack.

Then you say “The two boys are now in the deck and hopefully they’re hard at work looking for their man.” Then, you ask your spectator for the name of his selected card. After the card has been named, place the deck on the table and spread the cards. The two Kings will be face up in the middle, with the selected card face down between them.

Have the spectator look at the card and you might say in the end that the tale was true that the Mounties always get their man.

The Best Ways to Clean Up an Oil Spill

The recent oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico has brought oil spill prevention and cleanup to the forefront of public attention. When considering the amount of environmental and economic damage a spill of this nature can have, there is no way to overstate the importance of cleaning up the mess as quickly and as effectively as possible.

This article will explore some of the many concepts floating around that might be able to assist in removing and cleaning up the oil. Some of the options are environmentally friendly, others are not. This article leaves it to the reader to judge which might be best implemented or focused on.

Physical Removal

The following tactics can be used to physically remove the oil or stop it from spreading.

Booms – Booms are flotation devices that can form a barrier to stop the spread of oil. They are readily accessible and often used to try to create a containment area. Oil has been known to slosh both under and over booms.

Skimming – Skimming is the physical act of taking nets or other such devices to strain the top of the ocean, catching the oil but allowing the clean water to sluice through.

Vacuums – Large suction devices just as you might imagine that are used to suck up oil, which can then be loaded into a tanker and hauled away to a storage facility.

Sorbents – Sorbents are large sponges designed to retain oil but allow water to be filtered back out.

Shovels and Hand Tools – Once the oil reaches shoreline, shovels and other traditional devices are used to collect and transport the oil.


Another tactic for handling massive amounts of oil is to put it in contact with an absorbent. Absorbents are materials that suck up the oil but leave clean water behind. The absorbent can then be collected much more easily through physical removal methods.

Hay – Hay has been known to very effectively absorb oil and separate it from water. Hay is a readily available resource and is low cost.

Pine Shavings – Pine shavings, much like hay, are an available commodity that can be used during oil spills. Shavings are a cheap and effective byproduct of many industries.

Hair – Although it sounds a bit unusual, hair (especially human hair) turns out to be an extremely effective absorbent material. It is sometimes used in a patty form for beach cleanup.

Chemical / Biological Agents

Sometimes for large spills chemical and biological agents need to be deployed. These help change the composition of the oil and help it break down into more manageable compounds.

Dispersants – Dispersants are chemical agents that mix with oil. The goal of a dispersant is to loosen the chemical makeup of the oil so that it can more quickly absorb into water. The trouble with dispersants is that there are often negative environmental side effects to their mass usage.

Oyster Mushrooms – This special fungus can break oil down and convert it into environmentally friendly waste products. They are used to help clean up oil that has made its way to the beach, and is sometimes combined with hair patties in order to create a culture that can become valuable mulch.

Bioremediation – Utilizing microbes that naturally eat oil particles, bioremediation offers a unique opportunity to clean up oil in a natural way. Current bioremediation microorganisms feed on the oil, break them up into byproducts that are edible to marine life, and then die when their food source (oil) is depleted.

Alternate Methods

The following are methods that don’t particularly fit into other categories.

Burning – Controlled burns offer a quick solution to patches of oil, but offer environmental risks when used near land or in large doses.

Inaction – Allowing the oil to naturally and slowly blend with the water. Harmful if wildlife is abundant.

Tips For Shipping A Lifted Truck

Located an affordable lifted truck for sale? Just what are your shipping options?

A lot of people utilize the Internet to locate trucks for sale. Immediately after they make their purchase, they usually require help getting the lifted truck to a particular place. Utilizing a vehicle shipping business makes buying a cheap lifted truck just about anywhere across the country doable. If perhaps this is something you plan on undertaking, it is essential to understand what shipping choices are offered when shipping lifted trucks across country.

A basic Google search will turn up numerous vehicle shipping businesses to choose from. A great deal of the companies will currently have advertisements that pop up with the search results. Often you can get a special price or offer from these advertisements. This could possibly help save you some money. You also want to look for a business willing to cater to the special requirements required for shipping a lifted truck. Anticipate the vehicle shipping firms to charge extra fees for these accommodations.

Generally vehicle shipping charges will vary based on the type of vehicle transferred, the mileage the vehicle is being transported and how the client desires the vehicle delivered. As a word of warning, you need to be leery of any vehicle transporting firm that offers incredibly low price. Typically shipping quotes ought to be relatively close for the majority of trustworthy vehicle transporting firms. It typically is the customer support, scheduling, etc. that will end up distancing the firms.

Generally there are two primary methods you can get ones truck transported across the country. You may well have your lifted truck hauled upon a carrier or have it literally driven to the destination.

When somebody drives your truck to the desired destination, you can count on it becoming more costly. The firm will bill you by the mile for this and the expense of gas, insurance coverage and other misc. fees will be added in. There are essentially to options for this based on the firm you use. Delivery service may be door to door or the truck is dropped off and picked up at a terminal. Typically you will get a more affordable price utilizing the terminal option.

Whenever you get the truck hauled on a carrier, you can have also delivered to the place you want or it may be taken to a terminal, too. The terminal drop off will be the more affordable of the two options. With this option, fuel and other fees are included in the total cost. You will receive both your quote and be billed by the mile for this.

Whenever you are seeking to purchase a truck, do not rule out purchasing it from owner that may well be across country if the selling price is right. Just remember you need to add it the transport costs when looking at affordable trucks for sale.

Commercial Real Estate Jargon Investors Should Know

Commercial real estate investment is a new territory for many real estate investors. The following is the alphabetical list of most commonly used terms in this area.

Anchored tenants: big brand-name national tenants, e.g. Albertsons, Longs Drug, Walmart that bring in lots of traffic to the shopping center.

CAM: Common Area Maintenance. Associated with CAM is CAM fees. For NNN leases, the term CAM fees refer to the money tenants pay landlord to cover property taxes, insurance and maintenance.

Cap rate: Return of investment in the first year of ownership. Capitalization rate is the ratio of 1st year Net Operating Income over the purchase price. The higher the cap rate, the higher the rental income. For people who invest in the stock market, cap rate is the inverse of P/E ratio.

Cash on cash: annual percentage return of your down payment not including appreciation. First year cash flow divided by your initial down payment.

Conduit loan: also called Commercial Mortgage Backed Securities (CMBS) loan often with the lower rate than traditional commercial loan but either has high pre-payment penalty (called defeasance or Yield Maintenance Penalty) or does not have payoff flexibility.

CPD: Car Per Day or traffic volume on a road.

CPI: Consumer Price Index. It’s often used to calculate annual rental increase to compensate for inflation.

Due Diligence Period: the duration after acceptance normally 15-30 days to allow buyer to investigate about the property. Buyer can cancel the contract during this time for any reasons and get full refund of the deposit.

Estoppel Certificate: a letter provided and signed by tenant confirming the current rent and terms.

Full-service lease: lease in which tenant pays rent that covers everything including utilities.

Gross income: total annual income before any expenses.

Gross lease: lease in which tenants just pay rent. Landlord pays tax, insurance, & maintenance.

GLA: Gross Leaseable Area or total rentable area. This is the space that can be leased and receive rental income. It does not include spaces for utilities room, elevator, etc.

GRM: Gross Rent Multiplier for apartment. Ratio of purchase price over annual income.

LLC: Limited Liabilities Company. A legal entity many investors formed to own commercial properties.

LOI: Letter of Intent/Interest or the normally non-binding offer letter used to make an offer to buy a commercial property.

MAI appraiser: Member Appraisal Institute commercial appraiser.

Master lease: lease signed by the seller to rent the vacant space to provide rent guarantee.

Mixed Use: commercial properties with retail on 1st floor and apartment on upper floors.

Triple Net (NNN) lease: lease in which tenants pay base rent plus property tax, insurance & CAM fees. Absolute NNN lease is NNN lease that tenants also pay property management fee.

NOI: Net Operating Income. Annual income after all expenses (property taxes, ins., & maintenance) except mortgage payment.

Pad: stand alone building in a prime location of a big shopping center.

Pass Thru: see reimbursement.

Percentage lease: lease in which tenant pays base rent plus a percentage of tenant’s revenue.

Phase I Report: inspection report that provides an assessment for soil/environment contamination. It’s normally required by the lender as part of loan approval process for a commercial property.

Phase II Report: inspection report for soil & groundwater subsurface investigation. This inspection is more extensive which involves testing to see if there is any soil and water contamination.

Proforma income: potential, i.e. higher, income when the property is 100% leased.

Proforma Cap rate: potential cap rate assuming property is 100% leased at market rent.

Reimbursement: the share of property tax, insurance & CAM fees that a tenant has to pay the landlord besides the base rent.

Rent guarantee: rent paid by the seller to buyer for vacant spaces until they are leased.

SBA Loan: a government-guaranteed loan for owner-occupied properties.

SNDA: Subordination, Non-disturbance, and Attornment. it’s an agreement required by lender, signed by the tenants agreeing: the new lien in 1st position; lender as landlord in case of foreclosure; lease as valid as long as tenant is not in default.

TIC: Tenants In Common. A way for small/self-directed IRA investors to own a fraction of high-valued properties as tenants in common.

Car Stalls With the AC Turned on – AC Compressor Could Be Locked Up

One of the leading causes of a car stalling with the A/C on is a seized compressor. If there’s screeching, smoking, stalling and the air blows warm out of the vents whenever the AC is turned on it’s a good guess that the compressor has locked up. If there is just a belt squealing but the car doesn’t stall and the AC cools, more than likely the belt or the tensioner is worn. The most likely cause of a car not idling high enough and sometimes stalling with the A/C turned on without any of the other issues mentioned can be an IAC (Idle Air Control) motor.

*Keep in mind the compressor could be hot to the touch when checking.

How to check for a locked up or seized compressor

  1. Try to turn the clutch plate (on the end of the cpompressor).
  2. Using a socket on the nut that holds the clutch plate on – see if it can be turned.
  3. Look for signs of the clutch plate over-heating; discoloration.

If the belt is loose it may be because of a worn serpentine belt tensioner, but this alone won’t cause the car to stall. A sticking IAC motor can cause the car to stall. An IAC motor typically gets carbon build up that can cause sticking. If the idle doesn’t go up when the AC is turned on the engine can stall. Many times if this is the problem, the IAC motor can be removed from the throttle body and cleaned with a brush and fuel injector spray and then re-installed.


The Dangers of Formaldehyde in Everyday Products

Formaldehyde is an odorless and tasteless gas that does not leave a smell and this makes it extremely difficult to locate. This gas tends to collect in homes and causes a range of medical problems, from eye irritations to respiratory problems, but most people do not even know it’s there. So, how do you find out whether this toxic gas is secretly entering your home? Simply turn to the products in your kitchen or your bathroom; chances are you are buying it and bringing it in.

Formaldehyde: the Toxic Gas Used to Manufacturer just about Anything

The gas that sends chills up most people’s spines is used in so many different manufacturing processes that it can now be located in everything from the furniture in your home to the shampoo you use. The glues that are used to put furniture together contain Formaldehyde, and so do many paints that are used on walls. When it comes to products in your home, if it does not say “biodegradable” on the product, then you are probably exposing yourself and your family to this toxic gas.

Formaldehyde in the Kitchen

If you cook on a kerosene, gas or wood stove, this gas is being released in your home without your knowledge. Unfortunately, there are not many ways in which you can prepare your food without creating some form of this gas, and so the best way to prevent a buildup of this gas in your home is to keep your house properly ventilated, especially during the winter when you tend to keep your home insulated from outdoor elements.

The Toxin with Many Names

Manufacturers have become crafty when it comes to hiding the toxic chemicals used to manufacturer their products, and so it might not always help to look to the label to find out whether the product contains Formaldehyde or not. Manufacturers who want to hide the fact that this toxin is being included in the manufacturing of their products simply rename the toxin, so when you read words like “Formalin”, “methanal or “methylene oxide”, you should be cautious about purchasing it.

The Health Implications of Formaldehyde Exposure

Constant expose to this chemical can cause a range of health problems, from eye and skin irritations to respiration problems. Lethargy, nausea and headaches are also common issues related to Formaldehyde exposure, but the severity of the reactions will range from mild to more severe, depending on the individual in question.

Limiting your Exposure to Formaldehyde

There are various ways in which you can limit your exposure to this chemical, but proper ventilation is one of the most effective ways. Being cautious about the products you purchase is also extremely important, and you can make sound decisions concerning the purchasing of everyday products by being aware of the items that contain Formaldehyde and all chemicals that are associated with it.

The department of health and safety in the U.S provides guidelines for people who want to make themselves aware of the products containing this gas, and it is worth going through the list to make sure that you are not putting yourself or your family at risk.

Is an EXO Super Pizza Peel Worth Buying?

Many budding home pizza chefs know the satisfaction that comes from a delicious homemade pizza. However, these same people also know how frustrating it can be to successfully transfer a lovingly created pizza to and from a hot oven. All the time and effort that has gone into making dough and organising your favourite combination of toppings can go to waste when a sticky pizza base decide to stick to your bench top or ends up in a heap on a pizza stone.

Thankfully, over the centuries that people have been making pizza there has developed a realisation that a pizza peel can eliminate many of the these frustrations and maximise your success. A pizza peel provides a low friction surface from which an uncooked pizza can slide onto a scalding hot surface, and a thin, flat surface to successfully separate a cooked pizza from the cooking surface and transfer it to a cutting board. Pizza peels come in various shapes and sizes however the primary differences are that there are pizza peels designed from placing pizza into an oven, and those that are designed removed a cooked pizza form an oven.

It is widely accepted amongst home pizza aficionados that there is no better pizza peel for a novice pizza maker than the EXO Super Peel. However, the EXO Super Peel is generally a more expensive option than other varieties, so is it really worth you buying one?

The EXO Super Peel performs its job so well thanks to its use of a cloth material that acts as a conveyor to move an uncooked fully laden pizza from the peel to a hot oven. In this regard it is essentially the primary peel of this type in the market. The other examples available are of the more traditional variety – a wide flat surface with an integrated handle. However not all are created equal.

The primary difference in alternate pizza to the EXO Super Peel lies in the materials they are made from. The most common pizza peel variety is a simple wooden peel. A wooden peel is cheap, durable and has a low propensity for dough to stick to it. This makes it a good option for moving sticky uncooked dough.

Another common type is the metal pizza peel. Unlike those made from wood, a metal peel is solely designed to remove a pizza from a pizza stone or cooking surface and is not suited for moving uncooked dough. A variety that can fill both roles is a wood fibre pizza peel. These are both strong and thin, and like wood they have a good natural non stick property. Their thinness and the addition of a bevelled edge means that a wood fibre peel can also easily slide under a cooked pizza and separate it from a pizza stone.

Whilst a wooden peel can also be used in this way, a wooden peel is generally quite thick which makes this task more difficult. So is an EXO Super Peel worth buying? Well if you are looking for the best in the market for moving an uncooked pizza then the Super Peel is for you. However, if you prefer an all round device that can perform all functions pretty well, then a wood fibre peel, such as the ones made by the Epicurean brand, is the way to go.

Automotive Fasteners – A Number of Items Included on the List

Some people think that automotive fasteners are only useful in automotive industries because of its name. However, such items are also depended upon by aerospace, petrochemical, waste processing, pharmaceutical and even machine industries. Typically, a fastener is derived from materials most specifically metals like iron, aluminum, brass, nickel and stainless steel.

Automotive fasteners are defined as mechanical components in order to hold two or more structures together. They are classified further as nuts, screw, rivets, studs, pins and tie rods. Each of these classifications has its own distinct characteristics. More facts on some of these types of fasteners are discussed in detail through the succeeding paragraphs.

Automotive nuts

Nuts are examples of fasteners used in order to secure a bolt or screw to a certain surface. Depending on the application where it is to be utilized, the nut is classified. Some examples of nuts are also classified depending on its shape and design. In this regard, subcategories include hex nuts, wing nuts, cap nuts and t-nuts. Lug nuts, plate nuts, jam nuts and self-locking nuts are also popular in a lot of automotive industries.

Automotive bolts

These are generally classified as threaded automotive fasteners with threaded pins or rods. Typically, it is easy to detect a bolt because it contains a head on one of its end. Bolts are offered in the market in different sizes and may only be placed depending on the hole’s size where it is to be used. The most common types of automotive bolts are wheel bolts, U-bolts, mounting plate bolts and hub bolts. Rod bolts, lug bolts and radiator bolts are also included in the list.

Automotive washers

Just by hearing the term washer, one may not be able to comprehend well about why it is classified under the list of auto fasteners. Well, automotive washers are those that have small and flat dishes containing holes on its center and are used to hold a load of automotive bolts. It is often found below the nut or the joint in order to prevent leakage as well as distribute pressure. Common examples of automotive washers are bolt lock, hardened, cylinder head, lug nut and radiator washers.

Other types of fasteners

Aside from the three types elaborated above, there are yet other forms of fasteners offered in the market. Studs, for instance are those that have double-ended features and are fastened at both ends. These fasteners are classified according to where they are used and the material utilized to make up such industrial products. Other automotive fasteners are rivets, screws and tie rods.

3 Steps to Awesome Lower Abs – Lower Ab Workout

“Why can’t I see my lower abs?”

Maybe have asked yourself this question. You might have the latest ab gadget, whether it’s an “Ab Lounge,” “Easy Ab 2000,” or “Get Abs While You Sleep!” Or maybe you skipped the gimmick route and instead are doing hundreds of crunches and situps every day.

Regardless, despite your dogged and determined efforts, your lower abs are still covered by a layer of flab.

What is missing?

Is there some secret abdominal exercise contraption or exotic abdominal routine that will give you ripped lower abs and make your midsection look like Brad Pitt’s in Fight Club?

You Already Have Six-Pack Abs

Well, let’s just start with this simple fact: you already have ripped lower abs. They justĀ  happen to be covered up by a little bit of fat.

Lower Ab Fat – First to Come, Last to Go

First, a little SCIENCE. (Don’t worry, it will be over before you know it!)

Fat cells are more than just little balloons that fill up with more grease every time we eat a burger. They are actually glands that are in constant communication with the entire body.

To burn fat, two things have to happen. First, the body releases the hormone adrenaline (epinephrine), which travels to the fat cells. This triggers the cells to release fat, which is eventually burned by muscle activity (aka exercise).

Sounds pretty simple, right? Well, there is a small catch…

Evil Alpha 2 Receptors

Released adrenaline contacts the fat cells through one of two kinds of receptors: Beta 1 (B1) or Alpha 2 (A2). When adrenaline contacts a B1 receptor, the fat burning process begins, just as we saw above.

BUT, when adrenaline contacts an A2 receptor, no fat loss occurs. The little bugger blocks the fat burning process for that particular fat cell!

Ok, Why is This Important?

This is why: the fat cells in a man’s lower abdomen typically have a higher concentration of A2 receptors than other places in his body. As a result, that lower ab fat is the first to arrive and last to leave. Interestingly, the fat cells in a woman’s hips and thighs also have a higher concentration of A2 receptors.

Spot Reduction Doesn’t Work

So, in order to really get those lean, cut lower abs you are looking for, you need to get rid of that last bit of lower belly fat. All the crunches or situps in the world won’t make that flab go away.

And in order to do that, you need to burn more calories than you take in. We will approach this from two angles.

Step 1 – Eat Less

There are SO many approaches to fat loss dieting out there, and many of them work. My approach has been pretty simple:

  • If you eat until you are full, you will gain weight.
  • If you stop eating while you are still hungry, you will lose weight.
  • If you finish your meal when you are just barely satisfied, you will maintain your weight.

Don’t get to crazy here and starve yourself, just pay attention and eat a bit less than you normally do.

Also, I try to drink a lot of water. Some experts say that salt trapped under the skin leads to water retention. Drinking plenty of water supposedly helps to flush out any water weight you might be holding under your skin. Plus it’s just a good healthy habit in general.

Meal timing is also worth considering. I try to not eat for 3-4 hours before a workout. Many people have found this to help with fat loss.

Step 2 – Lower Ab Workout – HIIT/Cardio Mix + Resistance Training

Resistance training such as pushups, pullups, squats, and other bodyweight variations (or free weights and machines if you have access to those kinds of equipment) will help to maintain your muscle mass while you are eating a little less.

High intensity interval training (HIIT) alternates periods of intense activity with brief active rests. One example would simply be to run fast for one minute, then walk for a minute, and repeat for a total of 10-15 minutes.

HIIT helps to release fat into the bloodstream, as we discussed above. Doing 20 or more minutes of moderate intensity cardio exercise immediately after your HIIT session will help to burn the fat that has been released.

Here is a sample schedule that I have found helpful: (Always make sure to warm up properly before each session, and consult your physician before beginning any new exercise routine)

  • 2-3 days per week – HIIT (sprinting for 1 minute, slower pace for 1 minute, for a total of 10-12 minutes) followed by 20 minutes of moderate intensity cardio
  • 2 days per week – Cardio (moderate intensity) for 20-30 minutes
  • 3 days per week – Resistance training -15 minutes of pullups, pushups, and squats, taking 60 seconds rest between sets

Try to vary your workout methods for HIIT and Cardio. Don’t just run or just ride a stationary bike. Mix it up to prevent overuse injuries. Likewise, for resistance training, work on variations of pulling, pushing, and lower body motions as well.

Now, you might be asking yourself, “But what about ab exercises?” Don’t worry, here is the next step…

Step 3 – Lower Ab Workout – Ab Exercises – Forget Crunches!

With all of this talk of fat loss, don’t think that actual ab exercises aren’t important. The moves described below will develop your ab muscles as your body fat slowly drops to reveal your ‘new’ six pack and ripped lower abs. Plus, targeting your core muscles in the following ways will help to prevent lower back injuries.

Two or three times per week, mix in these exercises:


Support your weight on your elbows and toes, keeping your body straight. Work up to holding this position for 2 minutes.

Side Planks

Support your weight on one elbow, with your body in a straight line. You can stack your feet or place one foot in front of the other.

Keep your body straight, without bending at the waist. It can help to do this exercise with your back against a wall for the first few times, to get a sense of proper alignment.

Try to build up the strength and endurance to hold this position for 2 minutes.

Abdominal Vacuum

This exercise develops the innermost abdominal muscles, the transverse abdominis, which are critical to providing support for your spine. Plus, doing the abdominal vacuum will shrink your waistline!

There are some good videos on youtube detailing this move, but the basic idea is this: exhale fully, then draw your stomach to your spine. Hold for a few seconds, then inhale, catch your breath, and repeat a couple more times.

When you are just starting out, it can be helpful to try this exercise while laying on the floor, to really feel the muscle engage and contract against the spine.

To Summarize…

So, as counter-intuitive as it might seem, here are the three steps to an effective lower ab workout:

  1. Eat a little less
  2. Workout a few times per week – resistance training, HIIT, and cardio
  3. Do the three ab exercises above to develop your abs and prevent injuries

Creating a Parenting Plan From a Template

Having an effective parenting plan helps ease the anxiety of divorce, separation and child custody. Creating a plan from scratch can be time-consuming, difficult and overwhelming. Fortunately, there are templates for creating plans that make it much easier than trying to do it on your own.

Parenting plan templates come in a variety of styles. Some simply have suggestions as to how to create a plan with basic information while others are much more specific with step-by-step guidelines as to how to make the most effective plan for your child.

Parenting plans are essential for making separation, divorce and child custody situations work better and with less stress. Templates make creating a plan more simple especially in a nasty divorce or separation situation.

When looking for sample plans or templates, consider things that will be the most beneficial to your situation. A good template should include different sections for:

  1. your child’s expenses or financial information;
  2. medical information or special needs of your child that need to be addressed;
  3. how the splitting of holiday, vacation and regular visitation will occur;
  4. how social gatherings, events and doctor appointments are split up;
  5. determining which parent is responsible for the primary care and residence of the child;
  6. how custody is split, either solely or jointly;
  7. possible ways to confront arising issues between parents; and
  8. any other important documents or information about your child.

While looking for a good template and then in creating an effective plan, it is vital to remember the reason you working so hard: your child. Your child’s well-being and welfare should be first and foremost on your priority list.

Having a plan is a great idea not only for both parents to know how custody and visitation are outlined, but also for child custody hearings or court proceedings to help them end more quickly and run more efficiently.

You may not know where to begin in creating an effective plan, but there are many styles of templates and samples that can help you develop a good plan for both parents.

There are many common parenting plan templates that you can use to help you and your child’s other parent. Find a parenting plan template that works for you so you can make the best life for your child and have better relationships with both your child and your child’s other parent. Keep your child’s best interests in mind with an effective plan.

Pergola – Roofing Options

Pergolas have been used in dwellings for centuries, classically, to add a shaded walkway, to link pavilions or to allow a sitting area which allows the breeze and sun to filter through. This amazing addition to a home will not only add to comfort, it can be an attractive bonus to the resale value of the home. Any open space around the home may be used as an invitation for a pergola. Over the years, pergola structures have adapted to the area so that there is a large variety in designs. While traditional pergolas were intended mainly for beauty and comfort, the current designs place more emphasis on providing protection from the harsh elements of nature such as rain and snow and ultra-violet radiation.

The design of a pergola depends on the geographical location. Depending on the area, the grade or the direction of the sun, a pergola may be a gazebo, an extension of a building, an open terrace or a veranda that has grapevines criss-crossing a latticed roof. One of the most important considerations when designing a pergola is the roofing structure and shape

The roof design on a pergola depends on the availability of direct sunlight as well as the geography and natural features of the region. Although, in earlier times, pergolas were constructed using brick and stone pillars, modern designs employ weather resistant woods such as western red cedar or coast redwood. Pergola roofs may range from simple, flat, traditional roof, elaborately curved roof, pitched roof, gabled roof or a gazebo style roof.

Roofing materials

There is a variety of materials that may be used to roof a pergola. The choice of roofing materials depend on the size, shape and style of the structure. The durability and robustness of the construction depends on the materials that are selected for this purpose. Currently the materials that are used for roofing include metals, plastic, fibreglass, polycarbonate, fabric, etc.

Metal Roof

The advantage of a metal roof is that it can be adjusted to the exact size and shape of the structure. A choice of metals such as copper, aluminium or tin also helps to make an easy decision. Metals not only easy to cut and shape, they also provide excellent protection from the weather conditions. However, they also have some disadvantages such as disallowing light to enter the area or enabling the temperature to get too hot inside the area.

Plastic and Fibreglass

Another variation of roofing for pergolas includes using plastic or fibreglass. The advantage of these options is that they are lightweight and inexpensive. They may also be easily cut to size and allows the light to filter in depending on the colour of the roof. They also protect the pergola from the harsher elements of the weather including the rain and snow. Also, ultraviolet radiation may be reduced when using these two options. Although plastic may not be a green choice, Fibreglass can be manufactured from recycled materials.


Polycarbonates are thermoplastic polymers which can be easily moulded and has a high impact resistance along with other advantages such as heat resistance, ease of shaping, flame retardancy and toughness. They are available for varying needs of heat transmission and transparency. Polycarbonates are also highly reputed for their protection from ultraviolet radiation. Along with a wonderful combination of colours to choose from, Polycarbonate can be manufactured to resist very specific and harsh environmental conditions in Australia. The two popular brands that are in use are Astrolite and Laserlite.


Everyone loves a colourful and pleasing roof that can uplift our spirits and enable us to enjoy the day. For this reason, fabric pergola covers which are also highly insulating may be an amazing choice. Depending on the type of fabric used, these pergolas may avoid the transmission of heat which could cause fading or damages to the roof. A tough and durable fabric that may usually be used in the making of the sails of a boat can also be used to filter ultraviolet rays and other harmful natural elements such as sunlight and heavy rain so that people can enjoy their investment for a long time.

Comparative Study of Roofing Materials for a Pergola

Permanent structures like metal roofs are difficult to change but they can be repainted. Fibreglass and clean plastic materials may change colour after a period but they can be discarded and new ones can be installed easily. The choice of materials to cover or roof the pergola depends on the buyer’s instincts as to the choices for durability, permanency and availability. In tropical Australia, zinc-galvanized corrugated sheets do not reflect infrared or ultraviolet much. White roofs reflect better. White or soft shades are better colors for a cool roof. As the Earth seeks to get greener, the best choice, of course is to enjoy traditional, open roofed pergolas.

Painting your Pergola

Anything that is exposed to the harsh elements of nature will eventually need protection. Painting is one of the best ways to provide this protection. It gives colour to the wood and also conceals some of the natural defects and characteristics that may stand out obscuring the real beauty of the wood. Paint is also beneficial because they prevent moisture damage and rust. Acrylic paints are the best choice for painting pergolas as they provide the best protection.

The durability of pergola depends on the materials chosen for its construction. As the roofs are permanently exposed to the elements of nature, the paint chose may fade easily. Also, materials such as fabric may fray or fade and plastic or fibreglass roofs may get warped or change colour.

To paint a pergola for lasting protection, it is important to follow the traditional procedures such as preparing the surface which include removing old paint, using sandpaper to permit absorption and applying preservative towards the end of the painting. Preparation of the surface is very important before painting as it decides how much time the effect of painting will last. Any remnants of oil or dirt on the surface of the wood should be removed thoroughly. Using sand paper with 50-60 grit, create an appropriate surface for good absorption of paint. If the wood is more than two weeks old or if it had been lying outside in rain, sanding, brushing and cleaning becomes essential. Application of a water repellent preservative with fungicide is an excellent idea before painting because it prevents absorption of water by wood which may cause decay.

Here are the steps to paint a Pergola:

  • Remove the furniture and any decorations you may already have.
  • If there are growing and climbing vines, protect them with plastic sheets and tie them up so that they will not be in the way. Also remember to water them if the painting takes more than a few days.
  • Wear a mask, a head cover and protect your eyes with safety glasses. Also wear an apron or old clothes to protect from paint splashes.
  • Using sand paper, remove all paint until the surface is completely prepared.
  • Apply a water-repellent and fungicide if necessary.
  • Using a paint-sprayer, spread evenly from the farthest end to the back. High Volume Low Pressure (HVLP) sprayer is more efficient and smooth.
  • Use a paint roller to get a smooth finish.
  • Give a light coating on the roof of the Pergola.
  • Fill in the gaps and allow the paint to dry for up to four hours.
  • Apply a second coat of paint on the roof of the pergola.
  • Allow the paint to dry overnight.

Causes of Discoloration of Pergola roofs

Over time, Pergola roofs may get discoloration due to dirt, fungus, mildew or moisture. Also, any iron fittings may rust and cause red stains which may react with other pigments or stains. To prevent this, stainless steel nails may be used and a constant vigil kept to encourage the Pergola to stay dry. A commercial mildew remover or other multi-purpose cleaners and help keep the roof spotless. Stains that are caused by the reaction of water deposits on the wood may also be removed by washing it with cleaners. Chalking is another form of discoloration which is caused by weathering of paint or disintegrating of pigment particles, which appear as a powder. Restoration painting necessitates cleaning by paint strippers, bleachers and oxalic acid based solvents to remove stains.