Do You Know What a Robot Coupe Blixer Is?

Robot Coupe has manufactured all types of kitchen equipment to make cooking easier for the busy chef. Their range includes mixers, vegetable preparation machines, cutters, graters, dicing equipment and now a blixer. It’s clear to see that they specialize in food preparation machines that take the drudgery out of cutting, peeling, dicing, and grating. Now that they’ve extended their range to include a blixer, it makes the catering business so much more exciting.

But what is a Robot Coupe Blixer and what can it do for you?

Well, in short, it is a combination of both a blender and a mixer. It takes the best functions of a blender and a mixer and combines them into one piece of versatile kitchen equipment. This eliminates the need for two separate machines and is consequently space saving too.

The Robot Coupe Blixer’s features include:

• A stainless steel motor shaft that is hygienic and long lasting. It is built for continuous and regular use.

• It has a pulse function for the quick blending of tough or hard ingredients such as root vegetables.

• The induction motor is reliable and durable. It is a quality motor that is manufactured for regular use.

• It has a magnetic safety system and a motor brake that ensures your safety during use. It will cut-out when it is over capacity.

• It has a high liquid capacity bowl. So you can blend or mix ingredients of up to two litres.

• It includes a sealed lid. We all know how necessary this is. No one wants the ingredients to land all over you and your kitchen.

• The bowl and the lid scraper are made in two parts so that it is easy to dismantle and to clean.

• It is able to mix at 3000 revolutions per minute. That is quite a high speed setting for a blixer.

The Robot Coupe Blixer is manufactured to blend or mix fruit and vegetables. It has the necessary functions for the hard fruit and vegetables as well as for the softer ones. You can set it on the single speed setting to either blend the mixture to a smooth runny consistency or you could simply use the pulse function if you want to keep some chunks of fruit in the mixture. This innovative catering equipment is great for the modern kitchen and is especially suitable for the busy restaurant kitchen while it saves space and money.  

What’s the Difference Between Laser Engraving, Laser Marking and Laser Cutting?

At first glance this seems like sort of a basic question, but these terms get interchanged all the time. If you think it through, this could cause confusion on both the buyer and the equipment provider sides, causing mistakes and mishaps in configuring the correct machine for the job.

I’ve been involved in the laser business since 1986, presently with Trotec, but previously with different types of laser companies who provide both standard and custom equipment for a wide variety of applications. In that time I have always worked closely with the Applications Technicians who are tasked with determining the feasibility of a project and specifying the correct process AND laser for the job. So this is what I learned from them over the years.

Laser Engraving

This is the most common term and simply defined, means that in the process of creating the mark, material is removed or vaporized during the process. An example in our business is CO2 laser engraving plastic for signage. This is often a two-ply plastic with one color called the “cap” laminated to a contrasting color called the “core”. The engraving process removes the cap and exposes the core to create a sign that has an attractive look. There is also engraving in the processing of metals. Typically used to guarantee permanence, material is removed to create depth. Usually this is a process reserved for 1,064nm wavelength lasers (YAG for example) as those types of lasers couple well with metals. When engraving metals this way the laser is breaking the machined surface of the object, so oxidation or rusting can occur as a result. This would be a question at the time of feasibility testing. “Do you want depth? If so do you realize that the base material could oxidize? Depending on the answer the next option might be Laser Marking.

Laser Marking

Annealing or precipitation marking is commonly used when processing metal items where the surface of the part must stay intact. Often items like surgical implants, surgical instruments or high precision bearings require this type of marking. With laser marking, the heat of the laser actually redistributes the carbon in the material to create a jet black mark with only micron level surface disruption. If done correctly there will be no oxidation or rusting even under salt spray tests or autoclaving. Some plastics like ABS and Delrin also allow for a nice contrast when processed with a 1,064nm laser. If you processed the same material with a CO2 laser you would get an engraved marked with no contrast. This is all a matter of wavelength and how it reacts to the material OR the pigment in the material.

Laser Cutting

This is sometimes confused with laser engraving but really means totally sectioning a piece or cutting shapes directly through material. Most laser cutting is performed with CO2 lasers as again they interact with the material rather than the pigment within the material. We work a lot with acrylics which can be used for signage, retail displays and many other applications. While cutting, special attention is taken for smooth cuts and what is a called “flame polished edges”. There are times where high powered, pulse YAGs are used for metal cutting but even with these materials, high powered CO2’s seem to do the best job. In the cutting world, the other technology that is used is water jetting which also does a nice job on metal and stone. Cutting does not always mean thick materials though. Other common applications are paper cutting, leather sectioning and even things like gasket cutting.

So , in conclusion, understanding this basic terminology while you are shopping for a laser or a company to work with will go far to strengthen your communication with the vendor and will give him a better chance of meeting your needs and expectations.

Anatomy of a Bowling Lane

The game of bowling is played by rolling a ball along a bowling lane towards a set of ten pins, with the objective of knocking down as many pins as possible to score the most points. Bowling lanes are constructed under tight requirements to maintain their uniformity among all lanes.

There are four parts to a bowling lane. The approach leads up to the foul line at the beginning of the bowling lane. The foul line marks the end of the approach and the beginning of the lane. The lane is the majority of the planks where the ball is released and travels towards the pins. The final part of the bowling lane is the pin deck where the ten bowling pins are set. Bowling lanes were originally constructed of planks of hard maple and pine wood. However, lanes are now constructed of approved synthetic materials similar to wood. In total, the standard bowling lane is 41 to 42 inches in width and 77 feet, 10 3/16 inches in length.

The approach is a 15-foot starting point where the bowler takes aim and begins their movement forward towards the bowling lane. Two sets of approach dots assist bowlers in aligning themselves to the pins for proper aim.

The foul line is between 3/8 and 1 inch in width. This indicates the end of the approach and the beginning of the bowling lane. Players are not allowed to cross this mark; if they do, they are awarded no points in their bowl. The foul line must stretch the entire width of the lane at a minimum.

The bowling lane comprises 60-feet from the foul line to the center point of the head pin, or first pin. The bowling lane is regularly conditioned with an approved oil to reduce the friction and wear of the boards caused by the constant traffic and impact of bowling balls. Because oil is a slick substance, this causes less friction between the ball and the lane, and therefore minimizes any motion from the ball due to the spin the bowler applies to their delivery. There are several patterns by which to condition a lane, but the oil used must be the same from edge to edge of the lane. The oil is generally applied beginning at the foul line and continuing along the lane until a point several feet before the pin deck. This allows for additional friction where no oil is present to increase ball movement into the pins. The length of the bowling lane is bordered on both sides by a 9 1/4 inch gutter that catches balls that do not stay on the lane.

The pin deck is the final 2 feet, 10 3/16 inches of the bowling lane. This is the section of the lane where the pins are set equidistant from each other in equilateral triangle formations. Each pin is 12 inches apart from the next, measuring from center to center of each pin.

Maintaining uniformity from one bowling lane to the next is extremely important in order to allow a level playing field for all bowlers. Although the oil on the lanes can be pushed around the lane by rolling bowling balls, these guidelines give bowlers the confidence that each bowling lane they play on will offer the same consistency as the next.

Healthy Weight Loss Diet Plan

Keeping Your Weight Loss Permanent

Losing weight is a sometimes daunting task but when successful it is a cause for great pride. Keeping the weight off is also a hard job but with some key guidelines to help it is possible to keep the weight off and enjoy yourself at the same time.

How You Eat

First, it is important that in your original plan you accomplished the loss in a healthy way with a good variety of healthy foods and exercises that fit your lifestyle and attitude. This is important because to maintain your new healthy lifestyle you will need to permanently incorporate your new eating habits and exercise regime. Variety and things that suit your pace of life is the best way to stay the course with your new healthy lifestyle.

A Healthy Attitude

You need to reinforce a positive mindset in your new habits for eating and exercising. Making sure you keep with your new routine is important and keeping an upbeat view about your new habits is vital. Luckily the nutritious food and exercise will actually help in making you physically and mentally feel better and keep an optimistic outlook.


Exercise is a crucial step in maintaining your new lifestyle. There is a huge variety of exercises and styles of workouts. You have no excuse in not finding something to suit your schedule and temperament. It’s important to remember that while you can take off weight with just wholesome and nutritious eating habits adding a cardio and weight-lifting program greatly increases your chances of losing more weight and maintaining it over time.

Motivation and Support

Sharing your goals with some friends or your family can be a good motivator and an additional help in staying the course for a healthier you. Even better include them in your new weight loss arrangement, it’s an excellent way to keep up your enthusiasm and attitude.

Carefully Choose Your Weight Loss Plan

Remember to choose carefully in your weight loss ideas and plans as well as the people you let on to your intentions. You do not want any negative thoughts or feelings to hamper your goals. Losing weight can be fun and interesting if you approach it with a positive attitude. Learning about new foods and workout styles can be quite enjoyable. Learning to cook, meet new people and travel to new and different areas can all be part of your new improved life. Approaching weight loss with a fun and yet practical outlook can be extremely rewarding and life-changing.

How To Keep Birds Off Of Your Patio Furniture

Believe it or not, there are many different solutions for how to keep birds off of your patio furniture. Perhaps you have already tried to put up a scarecrow on your patio, but you know what? A scarecrow is much more likely to scare your guests than to scare any birds away. So, how do you keep birds off of your patio furniture?

Well, these days, there are many innovative ways to keep birds off of your patio furniture… ways that are a bit more high tech and much more effective than the classic scarecrow. One such solution is a magnet. A magnet that can keep birds off of your patio furniture?! Now, the idea may sound a bit odd, but it really works.

You can buy a powerful magnet whose main purpose is to keep birds away from your patio (in a safe and humane manner). How does such a tool work? Well, it disrupts the birds’ means of sensing direction, and they will therefore stay away from the 15-20 foot radius that such a magnet might cover. Birds cannot adjust to the effect of such a magnet. Of course, if you are going to use one of these devices to keep birds off of your patio furniture, be sure to keep your computer, pacemakers, or other magnetically coded devices away from it.

Another tool for keep birds away from your patio is a bird repellant. There are simple non-toxic bird repellants out there that you can apply to surfaces that you do not want birds to land on. Such a bird repellant is stick and birds do not like the “feel” of it. Of course, seeing as how it is sticky, you will not want to apply it to your patio furniture, but you may want to consider applying to branches that hang over your patio or a gutter that surrounds your patio. If a bird cannot land around your patio, it is much less likely to poop on your patio!

There are also more modern takes on the scare crow to keep birds off of your patio furniture. Birds really are afraid and nervous around things that remind them of a predator bird, and also sometimes bright colors and bold designs. Pick up some of these items at your local gardening store.

There are also many other ideas on how to keep birds off of your patio furniture that pertain to specific species. So, if these aforementioned hints do not help you with your bird problem, then there is still hope.

Wide Area Network (WAN)

Types and Characteristics of WANs

What is a WAN?

There are two prevailing definitions of a Wide Area Network (WAN). The book definition of a WAN is a network that spans large geographical locations, usually to interconnect multiple Local Area Networks (LANs). The practical definition of a WAN is a network that traverses a public network or commercial carrier, using one of several WAN technologies

What are its Main Components?

The main components for a WAN are routers, switches and modems. These components are described below in the hardware section.

CPE – Devices on the subscriber premises are called customer premises equipment (CPE).

The subscriber owns the CPE or leases the CPE from the service provider. A copper or fiber cable connects the CPE to the service provider’s nearest exchange or central office. This cabling is often called the local loop, or “last-mile”.

DTE/DCE – Devices that put data on the local loop are called data circuit-terminating equipment, or data communications equipment (DCE). The customer devices that pass the data to the DCE are called data terminal equipment (DTE). The DCE primarily provides an interface for the DTE into the communication link on the WAN cloud.


In a WAN you will need various types of hardware components for it to function. The typical items of hardware that you will need in a WAN are:

Router – An electronic device that connects a local area network (LAN) to a wide area network (WAN) and handles the task of routing messages between the two networks. Operates at layer 3, and makes decisions using IP addresses.

Switch – A switch is a network device that selects a path or circuit for sending a unit of data to its next destination. Operates at layer 2, and uses MAC addresses to send data to correct destination.

Modem – Short for modulator/demodulator, a modem enables a computer to communicate with other computers over telephone lines. Operates at layer 1, where signals are converted from digital to analogue and vice versa for transmission and receiving.

Wan Standards

WANs operate within the OSI model using layer 1 and layer 2 levels. The data link layer and the physical layer. The physical layer protocols describe how to provide electrical, mechanical and functional connections to the services provided by the ISP. The data link layer defines how data is encapsulated for transmission to remote sites.


Encapsulation is the wrapping of data in a particular protocol header. Remember that WANs operate at the physical layer and the data link layer of the osi model and that higher layer protocols such as IP are encapsulated when sent across the WAN link. Serial interfaces support a wide range of WAN encapsulation types, which must be manually specified. These types include SDLC, PPP, Frame delay etc. Regardless of WAN encapsulation used it must be identical on both sides of the point to point link.

Packet and Circuit Switching

Circuit switching and packet switching are both used in high-capacity networks.

The majority of switched networks today get data across the network

through packet switching.

Circuit-switching is more reliable than packet-switching. Circuit switching is old and expensive, packet switching is more modern.

General Routing Issues

What is a Routing Protocol?

A routing protocol is a protocol that specifies how routers communicate and exchange information on a network. Each router has prior knowledge of its immediate neighbours and knows the structure of the network topology. The routers know this because the routing protocol shares this information.


RIP (Routing Information Protocol) was one of the most commonly uses protocols on internal networks. Routers use RIP to dynamically adapt changes to the network connections and communicate information about which networks routers can reach and the distance between them. RIP is sometimes said to stand for Rest in Pieces in reference to the reputation that RIP has for breaking unexpectedly and rendering a network unable to function.

Routing Algorithms

Distance Vector

This type of routing protocol requires that each router simply inform its neighbours of its routing table. The distance vector protocol is also known as the bellman-ford algorithm.

Link State

This type of routing protocol requires that each router maintain a partial map of the network. The link state algorithm is also know as Dijkstra’s algorithm.


IGRP is a type of distance vector routing protocol invented by cisco used to exchange routing data in a autonomous system. Distance vector protocols measure distances and compare routes. Routers that use distance vector must send all or a portion of their routing table in a routing update message at regular intervals to each neighbour router.

Addressing and Routing

What does routing mean?

Routing is the process of deciding how to move packets from one network to another.

The directions also known as routes can be learned by a router using a routing protocol then the information is passed from router to router along the route of the destination.

IP Address’s

Every machine connected to the internet is assigned an IP address. An example of an IP address would be IP addresses are displayed in decimal format to make it easier for humans to understand but computers communicate in binary form. The four numbers that separate an IP address are called Octets. Each position consists of eight bits. When added to together you get 32 bit address. The purpose of each octet in an IP address is to create classes of IP addresses that can be assigned within a network. There are three main classes that we deal with Class A, B and C. The octets of an IP address are split into two parts Network and Host. In a class A address the first octet is the network portion, this determines which network the computer belongs to, the last octets of the address are the hosts that belong to the network.

Sub netting

Sub netting allows you to create multiple networks within a class A, B or C address. The subnet address is the address used by your LAN. In a Class C network address you would have a subnet mask of A subnet mask identifies which portion is network and which is host. For example the first octet three octets are the Network address and the last octet being the host(Workstation). It is important to subnet a network because gateways need to forward packets to other LANS. By giving each NIC on the gateway an IP address and a Subnet mask it allows the gateways to route packets from LAN to LAN. Once the packet arrives at its destination, the gateway then uses the bits of the subnet portion of the IP address to decide which LAN to send the packets.

Circuit Switched Leased Lines

A circuit switched network is one that establishes a dedicated circuit (or channel) between nodes and terminals before the users may communicate. Here are some terminologies associated with a Circuit switched network.

Frame relay is a telecommunication service designed for cost-efficient data transmission between local area networks (LANs)

Basic rate interference is a service used by small business for internet connectivity. An ISDN BRI provides two 64 Kbps digital channels to the user.

Primary rate interface (PRI) is a telecommunications standard for carrying voice and data transmissions between two locations

All data and voice channels are ISDN and operate at 64kbit/s

Packet Switching – _Toc80455261

Packet switching refers to protocols in which messages are broken up into small packets before they are sent. Each packet is then transmitted over the Internet. At the destination the packets are reassembled into the original message. Packet switching main difference from Circuit Switching is that that the communication lines are not dedicated to passing messages from the source to the destination. In Packet Switching, different messages can use the same network resources within the same time period.

Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is a cell relay, packet switching network and protocolwhich encodes data into small fixed-sized cells.

ISDN is used to carry voice, data, video and images across a telephone network. ISDN stands for integrated services Digital Network. Isdn also provides users with a 128kbps bandwidth. This is done through frame relay. Frame relay complements and provides a service between ISDN, which offers bandwidth at 128 Kbps and Asynchronous Transfer Mode which operates in somewhat similar fashion to frame relay but at speeds from 155.520 Mbps or 622.080 Mbps. Frame relay is based on the older X.25 packet switching technology and is used to transmit analogue signals such as telephone conversations.

PSDN stands for packet switched data network and is a data communication network. Packet switched networks do not establish a physical communication signal like the public telephone does (circuit switched network) Packets are sent on a fixed length basis and assigned with a source and a destination address. The packets then rely on the routers to read the address and route the packets through the network.

Mobile and Broadband Services

Digital Subscriber line(DSL) is mainly used to bring high bandwidth connections to homes and small business’s over a copper wire telephone line. This is can only be achieved if you stay within the range of the telephone exchange. DSL offers download rates of up to 6mbps allowing continuous transmission of video, audio and 3D effects. DSL is set to replace ISDN and compete with the cable modem in providing multimedia to homes. DSL works by connecting your telephone line to the telephone office over copper wires that are twisted together.

Asymmetric Digital Subscribers Line is most commonly used for home users. It provides a high download speed but a lower upload speed. Using ADSL, up to 6.1 megabits per second of data can be sent downstream and up to 640 Kbps upstream.

Symmetric Digital Subscriber Line is a digital subcriber line which runs over one pair of copper wires. The main difference between ADSL and SDSL is the difference in upload and download speeds. SDSL allows the same upstream data rate and downstream data rate as ADSL upstream can be very slow.


HDSL High bit-rate Digital Subscriber Line, one of the earliest forms of DSL, is used for wideband digital transmission within a corporate site and between the telephone company and a customer. The main characteristic of HDSL is that provides equal bandwidth in both directions.

IDSL is a system in which data is transmitted at 128 Kbps on a regular copper telephone line from a user to a destination using digital transmission.

The Local Loop enables operators to connect directly to the consumer via copper local loops and then add their own equipment to offer broadband and other services. This process involves operators accessing local exchange buildings to connect to a network of copper lines which connect them to homes and businesses. BT is an Example of a Local Exchange. The local loop connecting the telephone exchange to most subscribers is capable of carrying frequencies well beyond the 3.4 kHz upper limit.

Benefits of using DSL

DSL can provide virtually instantaneous transmission of voice, data and video over ordinary copper phone lines. A DSL connection can eliminate delays when waiting to download information and graphics from the Internet. It provides users with a cost effective high speed Internet connection. Another benefit is that a DSL connection is always on-line (like a LAN connection) with no waiting time for dialling or connecting.

There are now more than 10 million broadband connections in the UK. By December 2005 there were 9.792 million broadband connections in the UK and the average broadband take up rate during the three months to December was more than 70,000 per week.

4 Must Have Abdominal Compression Garments for Mothers of New Born

Childbirth is a blissful experience and all women look forward to this life changing experience with a lot of eagerness. The birth of a child however causes a lot of changes to the mother’s body, especially in terms of the physique. With weight gain, extended waistlines, and protruding bellies, a lot of ladies worry about getting back to shape post-delivery. Exercise and diet control are the most obvious means, but these take time. Thanks to shape wear products that are available in the market, mothers of new born can now look slimmer and more physically fit. These abdominal compression garments get the tummy back into shape and give the wearer more confidence.

There are many different kinds of maternity shape wear garments available, but here is a look at four important ones,

#1 – Postpartum panty

The easiest to wear among post-delivery shape wear garments is the postpartum panty. Designed in seamless and high rise style, the garment reaches high above the lower abdomen, thereby providing light compression and a natural and comfortable anatomical fit. It offers crucial support to the frontal lower abdominal and oblique areas. The panty can be worn during day and night time. It can be used either by itself or in combination with a postpartum corset or girdle.

#2 – Compression thong

For new moms who detest panty lines while dressing up for an evening or occasion, compression thongs are the best bet. These garments offer the same support as girdles, but without the trouble of panty lines. They are usually manufactured using the same inner support material as the girdles and corsets, and hence offer the same degree of compression and support in the abdominal area. They are generally designed to be pull-on, sans closures, hence making them easy to wear and move around in.

#3 – Compression tank

Post pregnancy compression tanks take shape wear to the next level and offer support to the entire upper body. The garment offers compression to the post-baby tummy through specially targeted sections that cover the low tummy, side handles, back bulge, and upper body. The tank tightens the mid-section, imparts right posture, and improves the silhouette of the torso by smoothing out the entire upper body. Compression tanks feature seamless design with clasp strap closures for easy nursing access and comfort through every day wear – even during exercise. The garment is ideal for layering and strongly reduces the appearance of bloating after childbirth.

#4 – Postpartum corsets and girdles

The postpartum corset and girdle provide support for pendulous abdomen after pregnancy and help straighten the spine after carrying the baby for nine months. They offer an optimal level of compression that prevents enlargement of fatty cells and helps the uterus go back to its shape in lesser duration of time. The garments differ from each other in design – the girdle is designed to be completely pull up, while the corset contains a few hooks that offer extra support. These compression garments aid in performing every day activities, and are especially useful after a C-Section, or in case of second or third pregnancy. They are great for lymphatic drainage and decrease the risks of fluid collection and thereby help reduce swelling. The garments are perfect to use after surgery not only for C-Section, but also Hysterectomy, Diastasis-Recti etc.

Abdominal compression garments, in current times, are recommended by healthcare experts worldwide. These garments not only function as lingerie, camisoles, body shapers or belly bands, but also as medical garments that help the uterus go back to its place in less time; providing back support and compression without causing discomfort.

How to Get Inside a Woman’s Mind – By Using 3 Little Known Psychological Seduction Tactics

Women happen to be complete experts in riling up a man’s feelings and then shutting him down. They are also experts at flirting and then instantly turning cold after they get everything that they want – from free rides home to free drinks at a bar. However, most women do not usually get played by men, so when it does happen to them and they get confronted with mind games from men, they usually will not notice – at least not until it’s too late.

If you are ready to discover how you can get inside the minds of women to completely revolutionize your entire approach to dating, keep reading to learn some awesome tactics…

How To Get Inside A Woman’s Mind – By Using 3 Little Known Psychological Seduction Tactics

Tactic 1: Cold Reading. Whenever you approach a woman, you should do so with the intent of telling her what her fortune is. When she agrees to get her fortune told, just pull some random things out of your head that are basic and general and could fit any woman. Or, if you were smart enough to watch your woman of choice from afar before approaching her, mention little things you may have picked up from that. Your accuracy is sure to impress her.

In order to perfect the tactic of cold reading, you need to understand just how female body language works and have the ability to tell whether you are going in the right direction with your words. This tactic happens to work extremely well if you opt to tell a woman’s fortune through palm reading. Getting to touch a woman as you try to seduce her will build up the attraction much quicker while getting to know what kind of woman she is at the same time.

Tactic 2: Games. Joking around with the woman of your choice always works and keep doing so until she starts pouting in an adorable way. Once she does this, joke around that she has a little crush on you. Do not worry too much if she starts acting stuffy after you do this. Although she may seem like this on her outer facade, she actually enjoys these playful approaches because it makes her feel like you totally understand the side of her that no other man does.

Tactic 3: Mind Hacks. With top-notch tactics of hypnosis, you can get a woman to feel emotionally addicted to you in no time. One particular tactic would involve making your woman of choice feel both happy and sad, as if she were living a soap opera of her life.

You need to understand that women enjoy this kind of emotional drama in their lives, so as to avoid boredom. If you can make things a bit more eventful for you, she will get emotionally addicted to you without her realizing it. Once this happens, you can then make her do whatever you want her to.

Mind hacking, however, has the ability to turn otherwise emotionally healthy women into complete stalkers. Therefore, if you simply must put this tactic to use, you need to ensure that you do not create any emotional damage to the woman. What you want to do is get her to fall for you without overdoing it, so that the results won’t come back to bite you in the back. Take heed!

Different Types of Tap

Bib tap

Usually brass finished but also available chromium-plated. Has horizontal inlet. Brass taps with a threaded outlet for a hose connector are often used as garden taps. Inlet has BSP male thread. The tap is often connected to a wall plate elbow fitting for mechanical security.

Sink tap

Often chromium finish. Has vertical inlet. A back-nut is used to bolt the tap to the deck of a sink so the plumbing connections need provide no mechanical strength. A sink tap should be tall enough to allow buckets to be filled so, before you buy check that the spout height (distance from top of sink to bottom of spout) plus sink depth will be enough. Inlet has 1/2 in BSP male thread -usual pipe fitting is a tap connector.

Sink mixer Mixers have separate hot and cold inlets, but a single outlet. Spout outlets can be pushed to either side – to feed two sink bowls or to make it easier to get things in and out of the sink. Usual spout length is 7in – but 9in spouts are better for double-bowl sinks. Most kitchen sinks are fed with cold water direct from the mains and hot water via the cold water cistern. Water by-laws do not allow the stored hot water to mix with the mains cold water inside a fitting, so sink mixers are usually divided-flow or dual-flow types. Non-divided flow mixers can be used only when the hot and cold supplies both come direct from the mains (ie where the hot water is heated by means of an instantaneous-type water heater) or both come from the cold water cistern (which is unlikely for a kitchen). Tap holes in sinks, and inlets on sink mixers, are usually a standard distance of 178mm apart. Inlets are 1/2 in BSP male threads -other sizes indicate the mixer is probably a continental type, which may not be suitable.


This is a type of tap designed so that it can be rewashered without turning off the water. Several designs were available, but Supataps are most commonly found in kitchens as individual hot and cold taps. Now discontinued, but spares should still be available – you need to know the type of tap you have.

Bath and basin tap

Separate taps for hot and cold water. Many different patterns are available with different handle designs. The type of handle often determines the price of the tap – ordinary cross-head is usually the cheapest. Check before buying that the handle is easy to grasp. If you want to be able to wash your hands under running water, make sure that the spout is long enough to project well over the edge of the bowl when it is installed. Taps have a vertical inlet with a BSP male thread 1/2 in for basin taps; I’m for bath taps. Other sizes indicate continental-type taps.

Bath and basin mixer Does not usually have divided-flow or dual-flow spout, and so must be connected to hot and cold supplies cither both coming directly from the mains or, more usually, both coming from the cold water cistern. A bath/ shower and a diverter for switching the flexible pipe is attached to go to the shower, and a diverter for switching the flow of water from the spout to the shower or vice versa (diverters may switch the flow back to the bath automatically when taps are turned off). The tap holes in baths and bath mixer inlets are usually a standard distance of 7 in apart you may be able to buy a mixer with adjustable inlets for non-standard distances. A basin mixer is sometimes called a 4in mixer because the inlets are a standard 4in apart. Taps have vertical inlets with male BSP threads – 1/2 in for basin mixer; 3/4 in for bath mixer. Other sizes indicate continental-type mixers.

Three-hole basin mixer

The hot and cold taps and the tap spout each fit separate holes in the basin. The connections between the spout and the valves are often flexible to accommodate different hole distances. A three-hole mixer with rigid connections usually has the taps 8in apart with the spout centred between them. A mixer which has taps 8in apart may sometimes be called an 8in mixer but the connections are not necessarily rigid. Does not usually have a divided-flow or dual-flow spout. Mixer usually comes with pop-up waste. Taps have vertical inlets with 1/2 in BSP threads.

One-hole mixer

Available mainly for basins and bidets. Fits into a standard single tap hole. Spout usually fixed and is not the divided-flow or dual-flow type. Inlets are usually plain-ended 10mm copper, and adaptor fittings are needed to attach them to the usual 15mm pipe supplies. The pressure of water from cistern-fed supplies may not be high enough to give an adequate flow rate. (These are often continental-type taps intended for use on direct high-pressure plumbing systems.)

Bidet set

Through-rim supply bidets, with spray, use a complicated tap arrangement. The hot and cold tap valves and the mixer body fit into separate holes in the bidet surround. The mixer body has a diverter to direct water to the rim of the bidet or, via a flexible tube, to the spray head in the base of the bidet. The mixer usually has flexible connections and a pop-up waste. A through-rim supply bidet has to satisfy particular regulations. An over-rim bidet can be fitted with single taps or a mixer lap.

Plastic taps

Cheaper than normal chromium-plated brass taps; manufacturers also claim that they are cooler to the touch. Some brands come in a range of colours to match sanitaryware. With most brands, only a restricted range of types is available. Plastic taps need extra care when fitting. No jointing paste should be used and no soldering should be done near them – even vapours from soldering fluxes can harm the plastic. The threads can strip easily – be careful when screwing metal nuts on to them.

Lever taps

Instead of a tap handle, which has to be turned several times from fully on to fully off, the lever has to be turned through only a quarter of a circle to turn the tap from full on to full off. Sink mixers come with one lever working clockwise and the other anti-clockwise. To get this arrangement with separate taps, a pair has to be ordered. Not often used in homes but might be useful in a kitchen, or for use by elderly people. Some authorities might not allow their use, because they may give rise to water hammer.

Ceramic disc taps

This latest type of tap also requires only a quarter of a turn to open it, which can be levers on kitchen mixers, for example or more conventional handles on other types of tap. Unlike an ordinary tap where a washer is lifted off a scat, a ceramic disc tap works by turning one circular disc so that its slots line up (or don’t line up) with the slots in a second fixed disc. The discs are claimed not to need rewashering, but the holding mechanism on some laps can go wrong.

Tap conversion kits

Tap conversion kits make old taps – with ordinary cross-head handles look more like new ones with shrouded handles. If your old taps are leaking because of a worn washer, a tap conversion kit will cure this but replacing the washer would be much cheaper and would involve no more work. The most common type replaces the whole spindle assembly.

The Enemies Of A Great Dane

How sad it is to think of the fact that the Great Dane is not a long-lived breed. Their lifespan is generally seven to ten years, perhaps longer if well taken cared of. However, a Great Dane may not reach his average lifespan due to some problems. Lack of nutrition, lack of grooming, owner’s negligence, lack of security and various diseases are some of the culprits that could cause your dog’s health to deteriorate and shorten his life.

Below is the list of diseases common among Great Danes. Owners should be well-informed about these diseases to help their dogs in their battle against these life- threatening problems.

– Bloat

Formally called Gastric Dilatation-Volvulus (GDV), bloat is one of the killers of large and deep-chested dogs like Great Danes. It is an emergency situation that could take away your dog’s life in less than an hour if not treated immediately. Bloat is a condition in which the stomach swells or becomes overstretched, often related to excessive gas content. The stomach may twist or rotate thus cuts off blood supply to other vital organs. The most common sign is an attempt to vomit every five to 30 minutes, but is usually unsuccessful. Other signs include swelling of the abdomen, abdominal pain, rapid breathing and excessive salivation. A dog may also seem to be restless all the time, frequently changing positions and doesn’t act like his usual self.

– Hip Dysplasia

Hip dysplasia is an inherited disorder characterized by a deformity of the dog’s hip socket. The socket and thighbone do not fit together properly, it is a loose fit. It will then cause wear and tear within the joint as it moves. As time goes by, the disease progresses causing great pain to the affected dog. Affected dog commonly reduces movement to reduce pain and may also exhibit stiffness or soreness after rising from rest, lameness, abnormal gait and reluctance to stand on rear legs. Early treatment of this disease, more particularly the clinical signs will save your giant Dane from being crippled.

– Hypothyroidism

The thyroid gland is a two small butterfly-shaped lobes known to regulate a dog’s metabolic rate by producing enough hormone. Hypothyroidism occurs when the hormone produced by the thyroid gland is not enough thus decrease your dog’s metabolism. Signs include skin problems, weight gain, excessive shedding, slow heart rate, lethargy and depression. Great Danes between four to ten years of age are more prone to hypothyroidism.

If your Great Dane is showing signs of any of these diseases, seek the advise of your vet as soon as you can. This article is just a guideline and is not intended to replace any vet’s diagnosis.

Three Phases of Value-Added Meetings

To accomplish valuable work during a meeting, the meeting should follow the three phases that a meeting goes through. These are opening the meeting, accomplishing the primary purpose, and closing the meeting.

  • Opening the meeting includes taking a few minutes to review and agree to the meeting purpose and agenda. This lets everyone know and understand the key objective for the meeting and the time allotments for group action necessary to accomplish the objective. Make sure the agenda is visible throughout the meeting to keep group on track.
  • Primary is the actual work time during the meeting. On the agenda, this phase is indicated by items listed with most important item to accomplish first so you are sure it gets done. If the important item requires some data or discussion first, then each step in the process will be listed with the estimated time to accomplish it. If decisions are to be made after a presentation or discussion, the type of decision making method needs to be written in the agenda. Since the agenda is visible to the group, use it to check off action items as completed in the meeting. This will keep the group motivated to continue working on the meeting purpose. It will also keep anyone from having to stop to catch up people who are late or had to step out for a portion of the meeting.
  • Closing of the meeting takes some minutes to review what was accomplished, assign outside actions, and do a meeting evaluation with the group. If another follow-up meeting is planned, creating a tentative agenda and setting a possible date for that meeting will be in this phase.

Utilizing an agenda and following the meeting phases of opening, primary, and closing will make the accomplishment of work during a meeting be more productive and therefore increase the value of the time spent.

Building a Fence Without Digging Post Holes and Pouring Concrete

Drivable post support anchors are galvanized metal spikes that you drive into the ground with a sledge hammer or jackhammer in to support your fence posts. Once in the ground, the post slides into the anchor and is secured with bolts or glue.

There are many benefits (other than eliminating the digging, of course) to using a drivable anchor:

1) They reduce/eliminate the effects of frost heave – Frost heave happens when the expansion of frozen moisture exerts pressure on your fence posts, eventually “heaving” them out of the ground, resulting in leaning or even broken fences.

2) They can reduce installation time – With little experience, the installation time for Oz-Post Post Support Anchors can be reduced to as little as 5 minutes per post.

3) They protect wood posts in the ground – Oz-Post Support Anchors are designed to allow water to drain through below the level of the wood post, prolonging its useful life.

4) They can cut through tree roots, small rocks, and asphalt (if you use a jackhammer) – When your digging a hole the old fashioned way, you never know if you’re going to hit a rock or a network of tree roots, forcing you to remove the obstruction before continuing. When using a drivable anchor with a jackhammer, most in-ground obstacles are easy to slice through or push around.

*Always contact your One Call Center to locate utility lines before digging on your property. Dialing 811 will route you to your local One Call center.

Support anchors are available for a wide variety of fence post types and sizes including: vinyl, treated wood, cedar, aluminum, and chain link. Even more than that, a drivable post anchor can be used on mailbox posts, sign posts, and deck posts, since nearly all projects use standard sized posts (ie. 4×4, 4×6, etc.).

Advantages of Video Borescopes

The borescope is an optical device featuring a rigid or a flexible tube with an eyepiece on one end, an objective lens on the other linked together by a relay optical system in between. Borescopes are used durin inspections for areas which are impossible to reach by other means. Depending on the tube, borescopes are either rigid or flexible. Rigid borescopes provide better image quality and are also cheaper than flexible models, but the problem with them is that can’t bend or twist so the object must be in a straight line. This makes rigid borescopes suitable for inspecting automotive cylinders, fuel injectors, hydraulic manifold bodies. The whole idea of all borescopes is that they allow you to discover the problem with a given device, without having to completely dismantle it and you can imagine how much time this can save you when you are dealing with an aircraft engine. Flexible borescopes can bend and access cavities with more complicted shapes.

In addition to that, borescopes can have magnifying capabilities to illuminate the work being inspected. The eyepiece of a borescope can be fitted with a coupler lens so that you can connect the borescope to a digital camera and record the images or view them on a large screen.

Special video borescopes have smaller imaging CCD chips replacing borescope optics. flexible video borescope insertion tube, with an articulating tip, houses a small CCD within its tip diameter. The year 2002 marked the introduction of fifth generation system case video borescope with live digital motion capture. Those models have USB fast digital communications port so that you can easily connect it to a PC. They also have a built-in removable storage media (memory card).

Video borescopes allows the viewer to to see more area and more distant or higher magnified detail, as opposed to a limited, cropped, darker traditional borescope optical image. Video borescopes also decrease the eye strain as it is much easier to watch higher resolution images on a big monitor with both eyes. Also, inspectors can record test results and perform instant image analysis and even apply multispectrum imaging, so you cans see wavelengths invisible to the naked eye.

Another thing to consider is that when you connect the borescope to the camera, some functions of the camera might not work properly like the auto focus or exposure features. It’s always a better idea if you can test all those things before you make any purchases. This is because some camera models sense the focus and light level through the lens, while others use external sensing (they will work correctly). To avoid this problem, buy a camera that has manual adjustment of the focus and exposure.

LED Lighting in Detail Shops – It Might Save Money But Cost on Quality

Well, I guess you know that our energy prices are going up, up, and away. And I have no doubt that you changed most of your light bulbs in your home to the more energy efficient light bulbs. Still, there are LED lights which are even more energy efficient, and many businesses are going to those. There’s only one problem with that if you happen to be in the auto detailing business, or have an auto detailing shop. I’d like to discuss this with you if you have a few moments, because it is a real concern.

As you know with the auto detailing industry you have to do a perfect job on every car. And that requires adequate lighting. It requires real lighting. It’s almost impossible to tell if you did a perfect job on someone’s windows unless you are looking at the window or through the window with actual sunlight. The types of lights that you have or use matter very much. I can tell you this, having been in the franchising business, and having franchised detail shops prior to my retirement; those detail shops which had fluorescent lights, because we didn’t have LED lights back then for these type of industrial applications, had the most complaints.

Customers got their cars back and they noticed a film on the rubber, plastic, rims, windows, or clear coat. It was something that the master detailer or detailing technician did not see. And it wasn’t their fault. In fact, the lighting was all wrong, and they could not see the flaws in their own work. Even though our teams used the best possible products in the auto detailing industry, they still made mistakes due to improper lighting. Now then, fluorescent lights and LED lights are quite different. Neither of those choices are as good as UV lights, and in some cases LED lights may be better than fluorescent, but nothing beats natural sunlight.

One thing I always looked for when our franchises went looking for locations, was for industrial buildings which had skylights because it let in natural light, not only did this save on energy, but it also allowed for better detailing quality. Of course there are days when there is overcast, or when you are working late into the night doing wholesale detailing for a car dealership, an auto auction, or you just can’t finish all the work before dark, because it’s daylight savings time.

What’s the solution you ask? Well it’s important to get the right temperature (note: temperature is a visual lighting term), and there are specific LED lights, and lenses which can help you with this. Before you put in LED lights in your auto detailing shop to save energy, make sure you get with someone that really knows lighting, and all the applications. Make sure they have a good understanding about the science of lighting; because it does matter. Trust me on this. Indeed I hope you will please consider all this and think on it.

Preparations For Getting Pregnant After Birth Control

Preparation is essential for getting pregnant after birth control prior to trying any technique. It may not be obvious, but a woman’s reproductive system may have undergone some major changes upon using birth control methods; thus, making it difficult to immediately conceive. Preparation is key if you want to get pregnant after birth control and it does need time.

Here are possible effects and waiting time if you plan on getting pregnant after birth control:

* After taking the pill

It is advisable to try to get pregnant after at least 3 months of stopping the pill. In some cases, it takes a year or so for a woman to get pregnant after taking the pill because her body needs more time to recover and her reproductive system to neutralize.

Your doctor may advice you to continue taking your last cycle of pills before fully stop taking them. You also need to wait at least 2 menstrual cycles prior to getting pregnant after birth control in order for your body and hormones to reach their normal rhythm once again.

* Barrier-type contraceptives

Barrier-type contraceptives such as the intra-uterine device and condom do not have a direct impact on the hormones or the process in the reproductive system. By simply removing them you can safely get pregnant without waiting for your body to neutralize or become normal.

* After Depo Provera shots

If you had Depo Povera shots, each shot usually take effect around 3 months. Pregnancy is close to impossible even after the 3-month duration and it may take longer if you had regular continuous shots. Some women wait up to 18 months before they get pregnant because of the potency and the number of months they received Depo Povera shots.

* Removal of implants

The effects of implants, such as Norplant, during and after it has been removed depends on a woman’s body and response of the reproductive system. Getting pregnant after Norplant may take months or years especially when you have your implants for a long period of time. Some women may get pregnant only after 6 months after the implants have been removed, while some would have to wait longer and others may become pregnant earlier.

Some practical tips to increase your chance of getting pregnant after birth control:

One of factors that can increase a woman’s chances of getting pregnant after using a certain type of contraceptive is timing. Natural pregnancy methods often require the right timing in order to ensure that the male’s sperm will meet the female’s egg. One such method is by using the fertile period of the woman when timing sexual intercourse. Having withdrawn from contraceptives, you can plan and time your intercourse during your fertile days to increase your chances.

Another factor that can help you increase your chances of getting pregnant is through proper nutrition. By avoiding certain foods and eating the ones that promote pregnancy can surely help your body prepare for the most awaited event. During your withdrawal from birth control, it is advisable to also avoid caffeinated and alcoholic drinks, and eating more foods that can help improve your chances on getting pregnant easily and fast.

Eat more foods that are high in folic acid (a B vitamin also referred to as folate and B9) such as fruits, whole grains, leafy green veggies, fortified cereals, breads, pasta and rice.

You may also take prenatal vitamins, calcium, Vitamins B12, C and D, Iron and Zinc. Consult with your doctor regarding these supplements and other natural methods of improving your chances to get pregnant.

By having these tips in mind, you can increase your chances of getting pregnant after birth control. Remember that patience and time are essential factors, and rushing things don’t prove any positive results. So plan your pregnancy ahead, stop taking or using any contraceptive properly, and talk to your doctor about it to be on the safe side.