2000 Calorie Diet Menu and Meal Plan

The 2000 calorie diet plan limits a person’s daily intake of food to 2000 calories. This is almost close to the normal amount of calories a person consumes in a day. But the difference between a 2000 calorie diet plan and a normal everyday eating is that the 2000 calories from a diet plan come chiefly from fruits, vegetables, nuts and other nutritional food stuff rather than from foods that contain saturated fats. Following the 2000 calorie diet will keep you hale, healthy, energetic and brisk. With this 2000 calorie meal plan, your odds of reducing your weight and maintaining it at the desired level is more because you don’t have to worry about adjusting calories and food stuffs after the weight is lost. Against normal conceptions, a healthy diet like this can also be very tasty and so sticking to the diet plan will not be a difficult task at all. Consequently all the pieces those are required to achieve a healthy weight loss and to maintain a perfect body shape fall into their places correctly with the 200 calorie diet plan.

Sample 2000 calorie diet plans:

In general terms, a 2000 calorie diet plan can be made up using two servings from the fruit group, seven servings from the grain group, eight servings from the vegetable group, three servings from the dairy group and eight servings from the meat and bean group. This comes to around six ounces of grains, two and a half cups of vegetables, two cups of fruits, five and half ounces of meat and beans, three cups of milk and six tea spoons full of oil. In a 2000 calorie meat plan, you should limit the sugar intake, avoid trans fats, eat lots of whole grains, limit the intake of saturated fats by consuming mono-unsaturated and poly-unsaturated fats. Moreover around 20% to 35% of your calorie intake per day should come from dairy products. Now we will have a look at two simple, tasty 2000 calorie diet plans which will give you an idea of how the actual diet must be framed.

Sample Diet 1:


Two scrambled eggs, two slices of bacon, two slices of whole wheat grain toast, a single cup of skimmed milk and one serving of jam and preserves will make the ideal breakfast for a 2000 calorie diet plan.

Morning Snack:

The morning snack can be anything of your choice but the total calorie content of your morning snack should be around 100 calories.


You can dine on anything you like as long as the total calorie count for lunch comes around 450 calories. Three crunchy tacos would be an excellent choice for lunch.

Afternoon Snack:

Enjoy any dairy product for an afternoon snack. Low fat cottage cheese, low fat cheese and low fat yoghurt are a few suggestions. Just a keep an eye on the calorie content so that it does not exceed 110 calories.


Three ounces of steak (oven roasted, grilled or pan roasted), a small baked potato, margarine, half a cup of beans (baked), whole grain bread and a mixed salad made of lettuce or spinach with a little lemon, a table spoon of shredded cheese, a slice of tomato and cucumber and a 60 calorie salad dressing of your choice.

Bedtime Snack:

You can have a bedtime snack of a cup of skimmed milk blended with half a cup of strawberries.

Sample Diet 2:

Breakfast: (570 calories)

Omelet from three egg whites and one yolk with chopped onions and garlic, two slices of whole wheat bread with jam, natural fat-free yogurt and a small piece of fruit. This will make up the mouth watering breakfast for a 2000 calorie diet plan.

Lunch: (530 calories)

Lunch comprises of chicken pasta salad, four tablespoons of whole wheat pasta and fruit juice worth 90 calories.

Snack: (200 calories)

Two slices of malt loaf with a thin smear of butter.

Dinner: (800 calories)

Chili Con Carne, salad with light dressing, and one small low-fat fruit trifle.

Whatever the diet you follow make sure that you drink lots of fluids. Water is the best option to keep your body hydrated. You can also drink liberal amounts of green tea and other zero calorie beverages. Always say a strict no for alcohol, coke and even diet coke. Drinking a lot of calorie less fluids cleanses your body of all toxins and it keeps your body’s metabolism ticking.

This 2000 calorie diet plan does not supply very low calories like other diet plans and hence are considerably trustworthy to follow. But it is always safe to consult with your doctor or dietician and tell them about your diet plans and get their approval of the same before you start with your diet. This will put your mind at ease as you will be sure that you are headed on the right path. Happy Dieting!

Hammock Ratings – Trying Them All and Living to Tell the Tale

Ratings for hammock comfort and aesthetics by their very nature are going to be a bit subjective, or even a lot subjective. Our reviewer is a North American male, 6’4″ tall, weighing in at around 220 lbs. Size and capacity are important facets of his review criteria. The ratings are listed on a scale of 1-10 with ten being the best possible. We are reviewing for all around comfort, for durability within the expected use category, and aesthetics.

First up, we consider the Mayan hammock. This hammock has a light airy feel that many believe qualifies it to be considered the most comfortable hammock in the world. It expands effortlessly to support the user in any position. While it is very strong in its weight handling capacity, in the cotton, which is the most comfortable, snagging on buttons and belt loops can be a problem. Aesthetically it is simple and unadorned

Mayan Cotton Hammock

  • Comfort–10
  • Durability–7
  • Aesthetics –8

The Mayan Nylon Hammocks have a firmer feel than the cotton. The difference is similar to that between a firm mattress and a pillow top mattress. They are strong in the shade, but prone to deterioration in the sunshine. These are best chosen for damp environments.

Mayan Nylon Hammock

  • Comfort– 7
  • Durability– 8
  • Aesthetics– 9

The Mayan style heavy cord hammocks, whether cotton or nylon, rate 10 for comfort and durability, 8/9 for aesthetics.

Brazilian Hammocks are hand loomed of 100% cotton, into rich, strong bedding that combines rugged durability with extreme comfort. Brazilian families by the millions use hammocks for sleeping. Consequently these hammocks are very comfortable, extremely durable, and gorgeous. Because of their all cotton fabric construction, they are best kept out of the rain–at least if you are planning to use them.

Brazilian Hammocks

  • Comfort–10
  • Durability–9/10
  • Aesthetics–10

The Nicaraguan style hammock has a cozier and sturdier feel that the Mayan. It is preferred by many for its solid comfort, durability, and good looks. It is longer and springier feeling than the Mayan hammock and is the interior decorator’s hammock of choice.

The Nicaraguan Hammock

  • Comfort–9
  • Durability–9
  • Aesthetics –10

Last in our considerations is the rope hammock. It has finally dawned on this reviewer that when a lot of nice folks are looking for a hammock they are looking for something with wooden bars on each end and a lattice work of rope in between. Hammocks of this style lie festering unused in the front yards of many American homes, promising rest and relaxation that, alas, they cannot deliver. Many times this reviewer in the past innocence of inexperience has become excited by the sight of a rope hammock swaying invitingly under a couple of trees or in a stand on the deck of some summer resort. Then the truth hits–five minutes in, one is sagging, being dumped out, or developing waffle marks on the back and limbs. Not to be too cruel here, the best of the rope hammocks are not all that bad. But compared to a true hammock they just don’t rate very high. But they can linger on for years.

The Rope-a Dope

  • Comfort-4
  • Durability–10
  • Aesthetics–7

Shoretel’s IP Phones 110 and 115 Put Together and Compared

IP 110 Vs. IP 115

The IP phones are designed to work in an intuitive and easy to install manner. Teleconnect magazine and others stressed that these systems due to their powerful features and applications, look and feel in many ways like a much more expensive central, but at a price affordable for small businesses. Support features also save you and your clients extended downtime if service issues arise. Shoretel’s legacy of reliability can be traced back for over decades, with it’s roots located in the telecommunications sector beginning. Shoretel’s design and development are what give these IP phones their unmatched reputation for reliability. Technical assistance is available on a 24 / 7 when ordered together with the hardware, if the customer needs help with the operation of these units. Onsite service is available too locally in the domestic United States. IP phones of Shoretel are the ultimate VoIP PBX for small and medium enterprises.

Save money using applications formerly reserved only for large corporations. The IP Office phone systems have a full range of communication tools that have been integrated into these cost effective platforms. Remote access LAN, computer telephony integration, management of customer relationships, access to broadband Internet and voice mail are just some of the communication needs of small and medium enterprises which can be easily solved by using IP 110 and IP 115.

The single-line IP 110 is a convenient phone that fits easily in open spaces such as lobbies, classrooms and dormitories. It has six feature keys for common operations of a line or also displays caller ID, date and time, and a one-way intercom speaker. Like all the ShoreTel IP phones, IP 110 is an integrated Ethernet switch, which allows the network to share functions with a desktop PC.

Meanwhile the also single lined IP 115 is an ideal phone for profitable open areas, including hallways, classrooms and dormitories but it’s built in Ethernet switch supports 10/100 already. Otherwise has almost the same feats as the IP 110 does, like same number of feature keys for common operations, a line screen caller ID, date and time, but instead of the one-way intercom of the 110, it has a speaker for two way communication with hands free. Like all of ShoreTel IP phones, the 115 has an integrated IP Ethernet switch allows network downtime to be shared with a desktop PC.

Take full advantage of converged voice and data networks while retaining the convenience and user-friendliness you expect from a business phone. These IP Phones can help improve productivity by meeting the needs of users throughout your organization. Advanced media endpoints are the strength of these innovative units of Shoretel, and they enhance the end-user experience greatly to the benefit of the customer.

If any time your unit will be malfunctioning, consider sending it to Baynetwork.com for repair. This way you will not only spare some bucks for yourself, but you’ll also spare our eco-system some precious time by buying used and refurbished equipment instead of new.

Sinus Disease Symptoms Explained

Sinus disease symptoms are very common during a common cold or flu. This happens because the viral infection due to a cold causes the lining of the sinus membrane to inflame creating sinus like symptoms. Though this form of sinusitis is easily curable by the medication taken for the cold or flu, other forms of sinusitis are not.

Sinus disease symptoms vary from person to person. They basically depend on what sinus is affected. There are four sinus cavities in the skull. They are the frontal, the ethmoid, the sphenoid and the maxillary cavities.

If the person’s frontal cavities are affected, it causes pain across the forehead, especially in the lower region. In case of the ethmoid cavities, a patient feels pain around the eye region especially behind the eyes. The tip of the nose may also become red and tender. If a person’s sphenoid sinus is affected, pain can be felt behind the eyes, across the forehead and the whole face in general. Maxillary sinuses cause pain in the teeth and the jaws. This pain may increase on bending the head.

Other sinus disease symptoms include greenish yellow nasal discharge. This discharge consists of pus and infected mucous. It may also contain blood in cases of acute sinusitis. Post nasal drip i.e. the infected mucous draining into the mouth. It can cause the patient to clear the throat frequently. It causes bad breath and taste. Chronic cough also occurs in many people. This cough increases during morning and evening time. Facial pressure may also be felt.

Sinusitis can be termed as chronic if the sinus disease symptoms last for more than four weeks. A doctor should be consulted as soon as the symptoms of sinusitis are observed. Some methods of treating sinusitis are decongestants, anti-inflammatory drugs and anti-allergic medicines. Nasal sprays and irrigation are also used specially incase of children. A surgery may be considered if the sinus becomes acute.

It is advisable that people should consult a doctor at the first sign of sinusitis. Sinus disease symptoms can also be life threatening at times. Certain precautions can also help avoid sinusitis. Taking medication at the first sign of a cold, staying away from allergens, dust and smoke can help avoid sinus.

Challenges of Adopting IFRS in Developing Nations


Accounting methods vary around the world. The environments that allow the prominent methods, such as U.S. GAAP and IFRS, to flourish tend to be in the First World countries such as the United States, European nations, and Russia, or nations that closely use these areas as business models. The First World has the resources available to research the best options and continue innovation in financial reporting. They have the money, the man power, intelligence, and a significant amount of government connections to apply and enforce the guidelines chosen.

This is not the case for developing countries. They face several problems concerning accounting principles. The Third World does not always have access to these privileges. It’s not only limited resources that prevent proper reporting; a force that must be acknowledged is local culture and governments.

The main goal of accounting, anywhere in the world, is clear: presenting a business’ financial information clearly and honestly to investors and creditors in a timely fashion (Zahirul 2009). If the Third World is to keep up, each of their accounting branches must take the prior statement to heart, then unite under it and then under IFRS. This will “bring about accounting quality improvement through a uniform set of standards (Zahirul 2009).” They must educate accountants and auditors to become experts in IFRS so they may have global representation and be taken seriously in the accounting and business worlds.

Development and Solidarity

The biggest problem facing these developing countries in the business world is just that, they are developing. These countries face large obstacles such as lack of infrastructure, volatile governments, and corruption. Furthermore, the lack of set standards in accounting practices can lead to more corruption and a disincentive for foreign investors to move capital and resources to these countries. When foreign investors are in the process of planning their investments, an important step is studying the accounting system in the country of interest. They look for a uniform set of accounting standards like IFRS. Using a uniform set reduces confusion, error, and fraud which leads to a greater amount of transparency and most importantly trust in the investments. Developing regions need this growth to continue to survive and eventually prosper.

Most are not united under set standards, though, or do not have standards to call their own. The Third World is extremely impressionable by “Western Influence (The United States, Europe) or Eastern Influence (Russia).” The First World has developed their own principles right in their own nations, by their own people, for their own businesses. Through colonial influence, or the influence of large investors and corporations, the accounting systems of the First World have trickled down to the Third World countries (Perera 1989). The concern of the Third World is that foreign influence will not benefit and reflect the needs of specific localities. In the case of Bangladesh, accountants and academics believed “highly sophisticated rules like IASs is not suitable for the less sophisticated economic and regulatory structure of Bangladesh (Zahirul 2009).” Middle Eastern countries are also having difficulties making IFRS “workable” within their national standards (Razik).

Ultimately it is not IFRS itself that is not workable for the Third World. Hidden behind the façade is the fear of losing control. That fear is completely justified for these small nations that don’t have much to barter with. For a set of standards as vast as IFRS to work in developing countries, proper representation must be established. These nations need a voice of their own to speak for their concerns. In the Middle East where local Islamic culture plays a huge role in daily life and in their business world, representation is extremely valuable. Presently they do not have it. From 2001 to 2005 the Middle East was only represented by two members in the Standard Advisory Council and not represented at all in IASB (Razik). Local councils and governments need to work, hand in hand, with IASB and the SEC for the ability of customization in favor of developing localities while still conforming to IFRS.

In reality, to accomplish all of this, the Third World needs access to the most valuable resource of education. Skilled accountants that have the knowledge of the correct construction and use of financial statements and the policies that must be followed, are the core to success. Nigeria is another example of a developing country trying to fix the accounting situation at home. Nigeria is facing a shortage of skilled accountants and auditors competent enough to implement and continue the use of IFRS (Madawaki 2012). To ensure an acceptable amount of quality in financial reporting, Third World governments must implement an initiative to proper training in the academic and practical portions of IFRS.


The Third World is struggling to use modern accounting methods that investors would rather see than localized forms. They have many setbacks including lack of funding, knowledge, and government support. Solving the lack of proper accounting will first take education. Education is the base that keeps the accounting structure together. When accountants and auditors of developing countries show expertise in IFRS it will lead to more representation in large groups like IASB. From there they can try to implement some localized methods and help their nations succeed with IFRS. Funding from investors, large corporations, and wealthier nations will soon follow. Success will not be easy and it will take time, but it is essential for national growth.


Amged Abd El Razik. Scientific Bulletin- Economic Sciences. Challenges of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) in the Islamic Accounting World, Case of Middle Eastern Countries. Vol. 8.

Bhattacharjee, Sumon; Zahirul Islam, Muhammad. International Journal of Business and Management. Problems of Adoption and Application of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) in Bangladesh. Dec 2009, Vol. 4, No 12.

Madawaki, Abdulkadir. International Journal of Business and Management. Adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards in Developing Countries: The Case of Nigeria. Vol. 7, No. 3, p. 152-161. Canadian Center of Science and Education. Feb, 2012.

Perera, M. The British Accounting Review. Accounting in Developing Countries: A Case for Localized Uniformity. Vol. 21, Issue 2, p. 141-157. Elsevier Ltd. 1989.

Learning From the Leadership Styles of Alexander the Great

I recently finished Partha Bose’s, Alexander The Great’s Art of Strategy. In my humble opinion it’s a must read for anyone who is interested in developing any type of successful strategy be it for business or how to win at the game of love. Well maybe not the game of love. But hopefully you get my drift. I particularly enjoyed the chapter I just finished, Seven Distinct Leadership Styles. As I read this I was struck by the level of clarity and succinctness Mr. Bose laid out how Alexander use each of the seven leadership styles which are:

  1. Trusting Leadership Style
  2. Inspirational Style
  3. Connective Style
  4. Aggressive Style
  5. Humanistic Style
  6. Commanding Style
  7. Marauding Style

I’m going to go out a limb and say that many who consider themselves leaders would have difficulty in determining if they have a leadership style. Let alone even if they have one that is recognizable in any meaningful way. I’m won’t spend a lot of time going through each of the styles, I will save that for future blogs. But let’s consider one that anyone considering a leadership role could stand to learn how to implement The Connective Style. Prior to going into battle Alexander would ride up and down the front of his troop formation and call out to familiar faces and extol them on their bravery in previous battles. He would call these people by name. He knew the names of many of his solders. He knew their accomplishments on the field of battle. He provided inspiration and confidence because he knew they where trained well he trained with them as a young man and he fought side by side with many of them. 

Alexander fully understood what his men could and couldn’t do and it was a short list of what his army couldn’t do.  Some of our modern day leaders could learn something from this. By connecting with their employees, acknowledging some of their accomplishments can go a long way toward getting them to put in that extra effort when needed. For those who would argue that the company size or the fact there company is global and it’s impossible to know the names or accomplishments of everyone are missing the point. Alexander called out those he recognized. The troops standing around them became inspired by the fact their commander thought enough of their brother-in-arms to call him out they felt as if Alexander was talking directly to them as well.  Alexander the Great was and extraordinary person. He was a brilliant tactician and strategist. He benefited from having the best of teachers and had a keen intellect. He was able to connect with his troops and get them to perform amazing feats on the battlefield.  

We can all learn from his connective style of leadership, the question is do we want to. Paying attention to what people accomplish can go a long way in getting them the do more.    

© Timothy A. Wilson 2008. All Rights Reserved All Rights Reserved

Buying Essential Jewellery and Fashion Accessories Online

Is the website you are viewing secure when it comes to payment?

You browse any website using the standard http:// protocol but when it comes to paying for your goods online you want to be sure that your card details are safe and can’t be intercepted by anyone. All online stores should use the Secure Socket Layer Protocol which encrypts your card details automatically when processing your payment. The way to make sure that the website you are using uses this function is when you go to pay for your goods make sure that the URL at the beginning changes from the standard http:// to https://, this means that the server is using the Secure Socket Layer and you will know that your card details are transmitted safely and securely.

If you are not sure about this then the website you are visiting should either display that they are using a secure server or you may have to read the websites Privacy Policy or Payment Information and look for the section about security and payment and whether they use Secure Payment/Secure Socket Layer. If you are unsure whether the website does use Secure Socket Layer then please email the company for confirmation.

Shop Around/Discounts

Don’t just buy from the first site you go on. There are hundreds of Fashion Accessory shops online selling the same or similar products and you want to make sure you are getting the best deal. Spend time looking round different online shops to see if you can find the same product cheaper.

Also like most high street shops, online shops have deals on all the time like 10% off orders and so on so shopping around can get you even better deals.


When you shop on the high street there is no delivery charge and no charge for returns so you want to find a website that offers this service online to if you can. All online shops should have a policy which tells you delivery costs and returns policy. Delivery varies from shop to shop when buying online so check to see what delivery charges are as sometimes this can cost you more than if you just went out and bought on the high street. If you can’t find prices then please email/phone the company for clarification.

Also make sure you check the returns policy for the shop you are buying from as you don’t want to pay for delivery and then have to pay for your returns or even worse find out that the shop doesn’t take returns.

Of course there are drawbacks if you buy online like you can’t physically see or feel the item you are buying but the images on the website you visit should be good enough for you to make a judgement and make a purchase.

So if you follow the advice above you should have a hassle free buying experience from a secure online shop that you will use again.

Writing Effective Sales Messages

A sales letter is a document designed to generate sales. It is a distinctive type of persuasive letter. It persuades the reader to place an order, to request additional information, or to lend support to the product or service or cause being offered. For most sectors other than retail, a sales letter is the first and most important way of reaching new customers. The purpose in writing a sales message is to sell a product. It influences the reader to take a specific action by making an offer-not an announcement-to him. Sales letter attempts to persuade readers to spend their time and money on the value being offered. To sell, the sales letter must be specific, go to the right audience, appeal to the readers needs, and it must be informative.

Before writing the sales letter you need to plan about the type of sale campaign that you will conduct. Whether you will send a letter only or will you include brochures, reply forms, special inserts, samples, response cards etc.? How do you plan to market the product or service? Through the Internet, direct mail, email, direct sales, print advertising, etc.? Do you need other advertising or literature to support the sales letter? Who is your competition? How are they marketing this product or service? What is your advertising budget? Are your marketing hopes realistic? Another important decision is to determine the specific purpose of your letter. Whether you want your reader to call for a free video, presentation or demonstration? Or you want your reader to fill out an order form? For these you need to know and analyze your audience and the purpose for writing. Try to form a mental image of the typical buyer for the product you wish to sell. Ask yourself:

o Who is your prospective buyer?

o What motivates a person to buy this item?

o What might the reader want to know about this product?

o What does the product or service do for the one who needs it?

o What can the reader gain from buying it?

o What is unique selling point of the product or service?

o Does your offer appeal to the reader?

o Can you transform him from prospect to buyer?

A sales letter is one of the important instruments of sales promotion. The principles of effective sales letter depends on your communication skill and your ability to convince your reader to accept or act on your recommendations. You may be promoting a product, a service or an idea; your sales letter should catch the reader’s attention, build interest, and motivate him to buy the product or service offered. A good sales letter should possess the following qualities:

Emphasize good looks

Design your document for visual impact. Make it easy to navigate so your reader reaches for it first-ahead of the competition’s. You can create professional-looking templates for your sales letter that use your company logo, branding and colors.

‘You’ Attitude

The most effective word in a sales letter is “you”. Never begin a letter with “I” because chances are the reader won’t get to the second word. It all comes down to selling benefits – your prospects are not interested in the features of your products services, but in what how your products or services can benefit them. Then it must build a reader’s trust. It should make generous use of “you” and “your” – so it is clear the customer’s needs come first, not your desire to sell something.

Use bullets

The body of your letter should contain key points, shown by bullets. Use bullets because it makes the letter easy to read. As the writer or seller, you benefit by immediately pointing your reader in the direction of the important points you want to make.

Keep your letter brief

It’s rare that someone is going to read anything past the first page, so keep your letter to one page. Staying at one page will also force you to be to the point, since a wordy letter is an ineffective letter.

Use statistics

Using statistics shows that you understand the issues of their business, while demonstrating that your product or service can solve a problem. It also gives your prospect a reason to support your product or service within the company.

Show your prospect’s needs

Your sales letter is a very brief sales proposal, so you need to show that you are thinking about your prospect’s needs. You might be hesitant to put your best ideas in your letter, fearing that your prospect will use them but not hire your company. That’s a mistake. By putting your ideas in your letter, you will make your prospects feel like they are getting something already, and that they will benefit from your products or services. More importantly, you will be demonstrating that you are creative and have your client’s best interests in mind.

Use right tone

Use the right tone in your writing. Use active voice. Use the present tense. Be positive. Avoid negatives. Keep sentences and paragraphs short.

Proof read

Proof read your letter before you send it out. This will help you determine if your letter is clear and if you’re getting your point across. Also, misspelled word or other careless mistake will give bad impression to the reader.

One of the most effective strategies to plan and write effective sales letter is to follow the four steps in your letter which are:

o Catch attention

o Build interest

o Establish credibility

o Motivate action

Catch attention

To be effective, a sales letter must catch reader’s attention. Design your document for visual impact to catch the reader’s attention by using graphics such as layout, colour scheme or illustrations. You can grab attention with an eye-catching headline or an interesting opening. This might be a question or statement. The opening should be short, honest, relevant, interesting and stimulating. Keep it quite general to appeal to as many people as possible. There are many possibilities for opening your sales letter that could persuade the reader to buy. Make a compelling promise for the reader, tell a story that the reader can identify with, make an announcement of a new product or service showcasing your unique selling point or ask a question.

The headline encourages your prospects and leads them to your next line. There you start to build their interest and ensure they read the next sentence and each subsequent one.

Build interest

Besides a powerful headline, your sales letter must have an immediate clear benefit for the intended audience. To build interest in your sales message you should highlight your product’s central selling point, the single point around which you will build your sales message. Be upfront and bold about promising a prize or a tangible reward in exchange for time and attention. Whatever product or service you are selling you need to position it so that its benefits provide one or more of the following common desires:

– To make or save money

– To be healthy

– To be popular or to maintain a social status

– To have security

– To have free time or save labour

– To get entertainment, comfort or amusement

– To take advantage of opportunities

– To be good looking

– To achieve inner peace

Show them how your product will benefit them in making their lives better, safer or easier. How will it save them time, trouble, worry or money? Look at their ultimate goal and relate it to that. Why should they buy from you?

For example, state what makes you an expert in your chosen field. How can you prove what you are claiming is true? Once you have listed down the key benefits of the service or product and positioned yourself as the person to deliver it, the time is right to deliver your sales pitch. Persuade your reader to buy based on the grounds of what the product or service does for him or her (benefit), not what the product or service is (feature)!

A benefit is what the product or service does, and what the buyer gains from the feature. A benefit is the specific outcome of the feature. A feature is something the product or service already has. Benefits are what motivate people to buy. Bullet point each benefit to make it easier to read. Think about every possible benefit your reader may derive from your product or service. In many cases, people will buy a product or service based on only one of the benefits you list.

Besides the benefit stated at the letter’s opening, you can bolster interest by adding high-profile testimonials from associates or former clients. Testimonials from happy customers are very useful for this purpose, as are quotes from established third parties such as industry leaders or reputable specialists. Opinions, figures and independent statistics are also likely to reinforce your message. Ultimate motivations are what people “really” want. The product or service is just a vehicle to providing these benefits so make sure your sales letter focuses on these motivational factors.

Establish credibility

You need to establish credibility and be believable by the second paragraph. You must anticipate the reader’s objections and doubts and offer counter arguments. There are several ways of overcoming reader’s doubts which must be used with good judgment and should be related with the main appeal of the letter. You can provide testimonials, money-back guarantees, trial offers, attractive warranties or free samples. Using too many points to establish credibility will not be effective. To gain credibility for you and your request, present just one fact, strengthened, if necessary, by an opinion or fact as a proof.

Motivate action

It’s important to remember that people are motivated to buy based on their emotions and justify their purchase based on logic only after the sale. This means that each step in the sales letter process must build on the reader’s emotions to a point where they are motivated to take action. Encourage the reader to act by an easy and clear method of responding. Close with summarizing the central selling point and clear instructions for an easy action to be taken. To motivate, you can offer a gift, limit the offer, guarantee satisfaction, or promise an incentive.

End with an action: What result do you want from your letter? Are you looking to get a face-to-face appointment? Are you answering questions raised at a previous meeting? Do you want to make your prospect better informed? Do you need to get a signed contract? You need to close your letter by requesting a specific, quantifiable action. For example: “I will call you on Thursday, May 18 at 10 a.m. to schedule meeting” or “Please return the enclosed contract by Friday, April 21, or call me if you have any other questions”.


Like any other business letter, a sales letter has three parts – introduction, the body of the letter and the concluding paragraph. Let us examine in detail how to draft these three components of a sales letter. The important thing in a sales letter is the sequence which is as following:


Body of the letter



The introductory paragraph of a sales letter starts with an opening sentence which has a vital role to play. In many instances, the opening sentence is the only sentence that is read, so it must immediately appeal to reader’s interests. There are several ways of writing an opening sentence in a sales letter, some of them are listed here with the examples:

A provocative question: What would the leaning tower fall for? The leaning tower of Pisa would only be put to shame by architectural splendor that outshines its own like the new range of luxury bathroom accessories.

What can you get these days for Rs. 15? Enjoy the finest that life has to offer just for Rs. 15 every month!

A striking information: We are the Number 1! We are the number 1 in revenue, customer base and customer satisfaction.

A story or an anecdote: Mr. Bala went shopping with his saving with our VISA credit card. What will you do with yours? Our credit card offers 5% bonus savings on all purchases for first six months.

A significant fact: Hearing Loss – you may not be aware of… Only about 25% of people who need hearing aid use them.

Most people have a vocabulary of 2-3,000 words and even a scholar uses no more then 5-6,000 words in his daily life. But there are around 500,000 words in English language and you can use many of them to enrich your vocabulary by using our ‘Vocabulary Builder’.

Split opening: You know English, but are you quite fluent in it? It may sound incredible but classrooms can’t help you achieve fluency. No, they can’t. No! Nor can audio video sessions. Nor translation. But ‘Rapid English Fluency’ can help you.

A conditional sequence: If home is where the most number of accidents take place, think of Woodcoat Paint as insurance.

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Body of the letter

You may have a lead paragraph in the body of the letter. This part of the sales letter can be used to expand the promise made in the headline or used to deliver a second major benefit of the product or service. A sub-headline can also be used as the second part, to answer a question posed in the headline. For example, Part 1 could say: “Want to learn Kannada in 30 days?” Part 2 could say: “Well, here’s how to . . .”

In the body of the sales letter you will begin to offer proof. You expand the theme, fill in details, offer proof, and show how you plan to fulfill the promise you made in the headline. Here, you give details of your unique selling point. You continue talking about the benefits and offer proof of the claim you made early. You share the details of the benefits. Prove your claim or statements by facts, logic or testimony. There are several ways of doing so, choose one that suits your products best. Following are some examples:

Trial offers: Get on the fitness trail! Enjoy our free offer to use our machine in comfort of your house for a week. If you are not satisfied we will take it back, no questions asked.

Guarantees: Guarantee of satisfaction

You always come first with us and your complete satisfaction is our prime concern. If you are not delighted with our product you may return it anytime for 100 % refund.

Free samples: To enable you to see for yourself how convenient it is to handle closet organizers, we are sending you a free sample.

Testimonials: Ritu Sharma, Bangalore: “How the web changed my world! It can change yours too. The Sify internet connectivity provided me the ability to communicate with people all over the planet and gave me access to information all around the world.”

You need to explain the qualities of your product and its special features and convince your reader that your claims are true. Remember, by the end of the body, the goal is to create an emotional response that will cause the reader to do what you are now going to tell him to do.


In the closing part of your sales letter your goal is to motivate action. Recapitulate your points and make a final appeal. You may give a limited time offer, or limited quantity offer or special bargain etc. Use a Post Script. For example, “If you order before March 1, we will include a free . . .” Or “Money back guaranteed . . .” Or “Discount is good until . . .” If you ask the reader to order, support, or to contact you for the specified reason you must make it easy for him to reply. Support the sales letter with a post card or an order form. If appropriate, supply a toll free telephone number, an Email link, and or your URL. Always close with a thank you and use a signature at the end of the letter. Save one of the best points for last.

How to Host a Cornhole Game Tournament

A cornhole game tournament is a great idea if you are having a backyard BBQ, tailgating party, or even having a fundraiser for a charity event. A cornhole tournament can be played anywhere there is flat surface, like at a park, a backyard, or even a parking lot. A cornhole tournament can be played by people of all ages and requires no special skills, so it can be played by young children as well.

Here are some guidelines to consider when thinking about hosting your own cornhole game tournament:

* Announce the Cornhole Tournament in the Invitation

If it important that guests know that there will be a cornhole tournament at the event so that they can prepare and also RSVP to let the you or the host know that they are interested in participating in the tournament.

* Decide if there it will be Singles or Doubles Tournament

Cornhole is a game that can be played one on one or in teams of two. Decide ahead of time whether you will be hosting a singles or double tournament. And it is also important that you let prospective participants know if the host will be choosing the teams (if playing doubles) or if the teams need to be signed up together.

* Gather Necessary Equipment

It is important to know how many participants will be playing the tournament so that you know how many cornhole sets to gather. Cornhole sets can be collected from friends and family members or can be purchased online.

* Decide on Cornhole Game Rules

Every area plays cornhole a little different. When hosting a tournament, you should be sure to figure out what the ground rules will be for the players before the tournament so that there is no confusion. There are official rules that can be found online and forwarded to registered participants before the tournament. And the rules can be established by the host before the tournament even begins so that every player is on the same page and so there are no questions.

* Registration Fee?

If you predict that the cornhole tournament will become quite large, then you or the host may consider a nominal registration fee. If you are hosting the cornhole tournament for a fundraiser or other charity event, then it is expected that there be a registration fee. The fee can be used to purchase cornhole sets, to help purchase a prize for the winning individual or team, or given to the charity. If you are choosing to require a registration fee, then you should certainly let prospective participants know in advance or on the invitation so that they are not caught off-guard.

* Get the Prizes Ready

A cornhole tournament is not complete without prizes. A prize can be something silly if you are hosting a tournament for family and friends. It can also be a percentage of the registration fee because having a cash prize is always fun. Also, before starting the tournament, on the tournament announcement you or the host should let the participants know what the prize will be and if there are prizes just for first place, or for first, second, and third place teams.

In Indian Astrology, Moon is the Mother

In Indian astrology, Moon and sun are generally mentioned as planets although neither is a planet although neither is a planet in the strict dictionary sense.

Moon is the planet nearest to the Earth. It is the only planet in the solar system revolving round and round the earth. Sun is said to be generator of power whereas Moon is considered as the conductor of power lent by sun. Only one half Moon receives light from Sun and this portion alone gets illuminated at any one time. Moon shines only by the reflected light of the sun.

The rays of the sun reflected by the Moon dispel the darkness of the night on earth just in the same manner as light reflected from a mirror placed in the sun removes the darkness inside the house.

Therefore the nature of Moonlight is the same as that of Sunlight but it is not self-luminous. The distance between the Earth and Moon is approximately 2, 38,000 miles. It moves round the earth which revolves round the sun.

Indian astrology describes obviously about lunar eclipse with example, Suppose a child holds the hand of its mother, the child goes around her rapidly. But the mother with child makes a big round, around a lighthouse. The child will be on some occasion, in between the mother and the lighthouse. One some occasion, the mother will be between the child and the lighthouse. When the child is in the line joining the mother and the lighthouse, the mother cannot see the lighthouse. In this manner, the solar eclipse is caused. But if the mother is in between the child and the lighthouse in the same joining line the mother prevents the light from falling on the child. That is, the earth is in between moon and sun and moon does not perceive light from the Sun. Thus Lunar eclipse is caused; Eclipses are formed in this manner, whenever all the three are in one line.

The moon is small in size. The diameter of the Earth is approximately 7,800 miles whereas that of the moon is only 2,200 miles. From beginning Indian astrology studied no water is said to be found in the moon. But at the time of the full Moon we notice the tides rise even as high as 40 feet. Actually the ebb and tide of the oceans are caused by the influence of Moon on earth.

What You Didn’t Know About Neon

We are all familiar with neon in its most widely used form, neon signs. However, what do we really know about it? It is the purpose of this article to present a wider view of neon through some commonly asked questions about neon, neon signs, and other forms of neon usage that are not so well known.

Let’s start with a question that voices a safety concern.

Does neon get hot and can I get burned if I touch it?

No, to both parts. The lit neon tubing is cool to the touch. It does not give off heat in any way. The transformer does give off some slight heat, but this is minimal and safe.

What is a transformer?

A transformer is a device used to step up, or step down, or transform voltages by magnetic means.

How long will a neon sign last?

Many factors are involved in the life span of a luminous tube, including the environment in which it is placed, the quality of the power feeding the transformer, quality of installation, and acts of GOD(lightning, storms,.etc.). Luminous tubes may last for decades in the perfect environment, but in more realistic terms most luminous tube signage should last from eight to fifteen years.

Can neon tubes be repaired?

Yes, neon tubing can be repaired and/or recharged.

Are the gases in neon tubes dangerous?

Neon and argon are inert gases and are not, by themselves. a threat to persons or the environment. Argon/mercury filled tubing contains a small amount of mercury, which creates no danger as long as the tubing is intact. EPA approved disposal methods must be followed for the disposal of argon/mercury filled tubing. You should check with the Environmental Protection Agency on the proper disposal of tubing containing mercury.

How does a new neon tube produce light?

The idea behind a neon light is easy to understand. Inside the glass tube there is a gas like neon, argon. or krypton which is kept at low pressure. Both ends of the tube have metal electrodes. When a high voltage is applied to the electrodes the neon gas ignites, and electrons flow through the gas. These electrons activate the neon atoms and cause them to emit light that we can see. Neon emits red light when energized in this way. Other gases emit other colors.

How is a neon tube lighted?

A tube of glass, containing a small amount of neon(or other inert gas) is sealed tight with electrodes at each end. An electric arc is struck through the tube using a transformer to activate the molecules causing them to emit light.

What are some of the other uses of neon besides neon signs and neon lighting?

It is used in vacuum tubes, television tubes, high voltage indicators, lightning arrestors(devices that protect pieces of electrical equipment from damages by lightning or some other electrical source by diverting the electricity to the ground), and water meter tubes. Neon, combined with helium, makes a gas laser. Neon is also used in the medical world. Liquefied is used as a cryogenic refrigerant in certain cases, such as when the use of the more expensive liquid helium can be avoided. Ionized neon can serve as a propellant in space, when used with an Ion Engine. Neon can also be used as a chemical weapon, which is not done because it is highly toxic. Neon lighting is used to enhance home and business decor. It is even used on the inside and outside of cars and trucks. It is widely used in theme parks, amusement places, and arcades(in electronic games that test in dealing with real and imaginary adventurous and dangerous situations.

What is neon?

Neon is an element that is found in gaseous form in the atmosphere, but it is rare on Earth. However, it is abundant in the universe. In fact, it ranks fifth on the list of the most abundant elements in the universe.

How is neon made into usable form?

Since neon is gaseous it takes 88,000 pounds of liquefied air, which when processed yields one pound of neon.

How much does neon cost?

Pure neon costs $33. for 100 grams.

What is the unique characteristic of neon lighting that is not found in other forms of illuminated lighting?

Neon, unlike LED lighting for example, can be bent and twisted into any number of shapes and designs.

When was the first neon sign made?

The first neon sign was made in Paris in 1912 by Georges Claude. He had patented the neon light in 1910. The world’s first neon sign was placed in a Paris barbershop.

How and when did the first neon sign come to the US?

Earle Anthony, the owner of an auto dealership in Los Angeles brought two “Packard” neon signs in 1923 from Paris, which he purchased from Georges Claude. He reportedly paid $2,500. for them. Other sources say $5,000 and $24,000.

What cities have the largest displays of neon signage? Times Square in New York City and the Las Vegas Strip are often referred to as the world’s top showcases for neon signage. Each of these places has thousands of neon signs and receives millions of visitors annually. Las Vegas Strip signs last longer than their Times Square counterparts because casinos will always be there since that’s what makes Vegas.

Times Square is a location where businesses often change, thus causing a change in the neon signage. However, the amount of neon signage basically stays unchanged.

When did Russia get its first neon sign?

It was erected 198 in Puskin Square in Moscow and was an advertisement for a world-famous soft drink.

Are there cities that ban the use of. neon signs?

Yes, some US and foreign ban the use of neon signs for such reasons as appearance, energy conservation, and also ban those neon signs that have mercury.

What is the difference between the terms luminous tube and neon signs?

There is no difference between the two. They both mean the same thing and are used interchangeably.

What was did Las Vegas get its first neon sign and when was it installed?

The city’s first neon sign was a Oasis Caf home sign that was installed in 1929.

What was Times Square’s first neon sign and when was it installed?

It was the Willys-Overland sign and it was installed in 1924

How long is the operational life of a neon bulb?

The operational life of a neon bulb, according to some sources, usually ranges from 20,000 to 30.000 hours of useful life. It is not uncommon for a neon tube to operate for 80.000 hours or more.

How do you create the colors in neon?

There are methods available to obtain different colors with neon. The use of a different gas is the most basic way. When you use clear glass tubes it produces two colors that are practical-neon, which produces a bright red-orange, and when argon gas is combined with mercury vapor, produces a pale blue color. Straight argon(without the mercury vapor) is used it produces a faint purple, and krypton emits a very pale white.

Neither of these colors is bright enough to be used commercially. Colors can also be created by coating the in side of the glass tubes with phosphors. When argon and mercury are combined an ultraviolet light is emitted which causes the phosphors to glow, somewhat like a fluorescent light. Phosphor-coated tubes are available in a wide range of colors ranging from purple to green, plus warm and cool whites. In case a more saturated color is needed, tubes made of colored glass can be used. There are names like Bromo Blue and Ruby Red, for the rich colors that are emitted by these tubes. This type of glass commands a premium price since it is more difficult and costly to make.

Are neon signs dangerous?

Neon signs operate at a very high voltage, although with a very low current. If you received an accidental shock it wouldn’t be dangerous. Signs that are improperly wired can start a fire, but the same applies to any electrical device that is improperly wired.

What is a neon sign and how does it work?

A neon sign is a very simple device. It consists of a vacuum-tight glass tube that is fitted with an electrode at each end. The tube contains a small amount of rare gas. A high-voltage electrical power source is connected to the two electrodes. Turning on the current

makes the tube glow with a steady, piercing, light.

What is the major use of neon?

Neon signs for businesses. Neon signs that say “OPEN” let people know that the store is open and ready for business. This neon sign extends a personal welcome. People are usually in a hurry. A business logo neon sign draws almost instant attention from pedestrian or vehicular traffic. The warm colors of a neon sign are a subtle way to attract attention Store signs are geared for the potential customers on the street, who can be prompted into making a quick decision to enter a business. They may often mention price, which is an important consideration for prospective buyers. On our nation’s highways they display a welcome “Vacancy” to weary travelers. They also give quick notice that lottery tickets are sold in a store.

Who made the first neon wall clock?

The first neon wall clock was made in the 1930’s by the Electric Neon Clock Co. of Cleveland, Ohio. They produced neon clocks in different colors and came in many types, and they were extremely popular.

What and where is the world’s largest neon sign?

It is the Hilton Hotel sign on the world-famous Strip in Las Vegas, Nevada. The letters are 164 feet high and 29 feet high, and it has a total surface area of over 70,000 square feet. At a cost of approximately $9 million it could also be the world’s most expensive neon sign. Las Vegas is also home to the world famous iconic “WELCOME TO Fabulous LAS VEGAS NEVADA” neon sign.

Is it true that modern neon lights are made with plastic instead of glass?

Yes, plastic has been used to make neon tubes when it was discovered that plastic was better.

What are some of the newer uses that have been developed for neon?

Neon is now used in phones and cameras. A small amount of neon can be found in some fluorescent lights today. Neon, in the form of low power neon glow lamps, is used to show on/off settings and other functions in small appliances and electronic instrument panels. Many wall switches in homes are illuminated by neon. Computers, voltage regulators, and industrial equipment have also found a use for these small, lightweight, neon lamps. Now it is possible to produce more colors with neon gas. This is done by varying not only the gas filling but also the coating inside the tube and the tube material itself.

Is it true that the original neon light influenced fluorescent lighting development?

Yes, fluorescent lighting technology which was developed in the 1930’s owes its birth to the original neon light.

Could it be possible that neon lighting played a role in the development of color television?

Yes, this is not only possible but in fact true. At the first practical demonstration of color television in 1928 the light source at the receiver consisted of a neon tube for the color red plus mercury-vapor and helium discharge tubes for blue and green. Today’s color television owes its existence to the employment of neon lighting.

Is it true that modern neon lights are made with plastic instead of glass?

Yes, plastic has been used to make neon tubes when it was discovered that plastic was better.

What are some of the newer uses that have been developed for neon?

Neon is now used in phones and cameras. A small amount of neon can be found in some fluorescent lights today. Neon, in the form of low power neon glow lamps, is used to show on/off settings and other functions in small appliances and electronic instrument panels. Many wall switches in homes are illuminated by neon. Computers, voltage regulators, and industrial equipment have also found a use for these small, lightweight, neon lamps. Now it is possible to produce more colors with neon gas. This is done by varying not only the gas filling but also the coating inside the tube and the tube material itself.

Is it true that the original neon light influenced fluorescent lighting development?

Yes, fluorescent lighting technology which was developed in the 1930’s owes its birth to the original neon light.

Could it be possible that neon lighting played a role in the development of color television?

Yes, this is not only possible but in fact true. At the first practical demonstration of color television in 1928 the light source at the receiver consisted of a neon tube for the color red plus mercury-vapor and helium discharge tubes for blue and green. Today’s color television owes its existence to the employment of neon lighting.

When did the theory behind neon sign technology originate?

Surprisingly, this theory dates back to 1675, which is well before the age of electricity. The French astronomer, Jean Pichard, observed a faint glow in a mercury barometer(a barometer is a device used to measure atmospheric pressure). When the tube was shaken a glow called barometric light occurred, but the cause of the light(static electricity) was not understood at that time. Even though the cause of barometric light was not yet understood it was investigated. Later, when the principles of electricity were discovered scientists were able to move forward towards the invention of many forms of lighting.

However, it wasn’t until 1912 when Georges Claude made the world’s first neon sign, which was placed in a Paris barbershop. Then in 1923 Earle Anthony, the owner of an auto dealership in Los Angeles, purchased two “PACKARD” neon signs from Georges Claude and brought them to America. The price reportedly paid was quoted at $2,500., $5,000. or $24,000. according to various sources.

It is indeed strange that the theory of neon signs evolved at the time that it did(1675), and that the idea did not become a reality until 1912. when scientific knowledge had advanced to the point that a centuries old discovery was able to be put to use in a way to benefit mankind. Thanks Jean Pichard, Georges Claude, and let’s not forget Benjamin Franklin, who can add the discovery of electricity to his many other great accomplishments.

Solutions for Overcoming Learned Helplessness

The feeling of helplessness or being out of control in any situation is uncomfortable and can cause secondary feelings of stress, depression and anxiety. If such feelings continue to occur in response to any adverse environment, people sometimes develop a condition known as learned helplessness.  In this article, I explain what learned helplessness is, and I provide solutions for overcoming learned helplessness so you or a loved one can lead a happier, more productive life.

Psychologists Martin E.P. Seligman and Steven F. Maier observed the learned helplessness behavior while conducting a study on dogs they conditioned to expect an electrical shock after hearing a tone. After the dogs were conditioned, they were placed in a shuttle box that contained two chambers separated by a low barrier. The floor was electrified on one side, and not on the other. The dogs previously subjected to the conditioning part of the experiment made no attempts to escape, even though avoiding the shock simply involved jumping over a low barrier.

After observing this amazing behavior in the dogs, Seligman began to extend his research to behaviors in other animals as well as in humans. What he found is that some people react in the same way under repeated and difficult situations where there is a perceived lack of control. Like animals, some people simply give up in the face of adversity, or when they feel certain there is nothing they can do to change things or their outcomes.

Examples of Learned Helplessness in People

Learned helplessness is a fairly common behavior seen in abusive relationships. The abused individual believes that they are powerless to change their lives, and like the dogs, they make no attempt to remove themselves from the electricity. Children often show signs of learned helplessness in school. An often-used example refers to a child who performs poorly on math tests and assignments may begin to feel that nothing he does will have any effect on his math performance. If no type of intervention occurs, the child’s feeling of helplessness faced with any type of math-related task will carry over into adulthood.

Learned Helplessness and Mental Illnesses

Learned helplessness has often been associated with several different psychological disorders. Depression, anxiety and certain phobias are the most common. When people feel a lack of control over their feelings and emotions, sometimes they quit trying to be anything different than depressed or anxious.

Learned helplessness is dangerous in mental illness because it implies that the disease has control over the individual. Unfortunately, the individual is also controlled by the medication being used to treat the disease and is terrified of not having it. In some cases, the feeling of helplessness can lead to hopelessness, which can then lead to suicidal thoughts or attempts.

Why Some People Develop Learned Helpless and Not Others

We can’t say that learned helplessness is always the result of feeling out of control. There are some undeniable patterns, including the fact the people suffering from depression, anxiety of bi-polar disorder are more prone than others to develop the condition. But even among people with mental illness, learned helplessness does not occur in all people across the board.

One explanation for the difference has been relegated to differences in personality. Specifically, people who are more pessimistic by nature tend to think about things in a more negative light. Not only do pessimists often castastrophize events, they may make one negative event into something that is all encompassing. For instance, someone who performs poorly on one thing may come to believe they are globally incompetent. Whereas an optimistic person might believe that other people or circumstances caused the problem. Their focus on the event is fleeting and they soon move on to other things.

Solutions For Overcoming Learned Helplessness

When it comes to learned helplessness, the most important factor seems to be control. Humans need to feel they have some level of control over their lives. When someone feels as though they have no control, the feeling comes from a perception and perceptions are formed as a result of sensory input from our experiences in the world. The truth is that there is no such thing as reality, only perceptions.

The good news is that because the feelings and behaviors associated with learned helplessness are the result of negative perceptions, they can be changed. Negative thinking may bring negative results because your thinking dictates who you are and where you’ll go. Changing perceptions involves changing thinking, but not just from negative to positive. It also requires changing the response to a stimulus from the one you have already learned (learned helplessness) to something positive by associating it with a new response.

There are some powerful NLP techniques that can help facilitate the development of new perceptions.


Reframing was one of the first NLP techniques developed and is still quite useful today. Part of its power comes from the fact that reframing can be performed with language alone. With reframing, you are training the part of the mind that causes a behavior (or response)  to one that is more appropriate. Reframing works best when someone is doing it with the person who has acquired learned helplessness.

Steps of NLP Reframing (Source: Planet NLP)

  • Identify the unwanted behavior. In the case of learned helplessness, the unwanted behavior is the immediate negative response to your perceived lack of control.
  • Initiate communication with the ‘part’ of the mind that is causing the behavior.
  • Ask the ‘part’ to identify what the positive outcome of the behavior is (every behavior should have a positive outcome)
  • Ask the ‘part’ to find several other ways to achieve the same outcome
  • Gain the ‘parts’ agreement to try out the other behaviors to find a more useful behavior.

As you can see, this technique would be difficult to do on yourself. Someone slightly skilled in language use could easily create the context you need to reframe the negative response to a positive outcome.

NLP Belief Change

Since learned helplessness is a limiting belief about oneself; changing the belief can eliminate the limiting belief. One NLP technique that is used in this context is called the Belief Change technique. 

Steps for Belief Change- (Source: The Salad Blog)

  • Identify a limiting belief you’d like to change. (E.g., I’ll always be overweight; I don’t ever have enough money, I can’t be happy because I have a mental illness). These beliefs are ‘negative affirmations’ that people with limiting beliefs reinforce on a constant basis every time they pop into their mind.
  • Construct a positive affirmation using the following form: I am xxxxx.

The keys to creating powerful affirmations are as follows:

  1. Make them positive (What you want, not what you don’t want)
  2. Make them identify-based (‘I’)
  3. Make them present-tense (‘I am… ‘)
  4. Make them emotionally powerful
  • Say your new affirmation. Notice what thoughts and feelings are triggered and accept them. (The first time you say your new affirmation it will not seem ‘true’ to you. It is likely you’ll have certain sensations and thoughts as a result, so be especially aware of any pictures that pop into your head, voices in your head, and feelings in your body. Often it is the feelings that keep an old belief in place, resisting the new one.)
  • Reinforce your new belief by repeating your affirmation daily, allowing yourself to feel how you’ll feel when it’s true, and by noticing proof that supports it.

These strategies are not miracles that change feelings or beliefs with a swish of a magic wand. Rather, they are approaches to behavior change that require time and consistency. If time and consistency are applied, the desired change will occur.


While learned helplessness is a behavioral response to certain perceptions we form about the world we live in, it is not a terminal illness. Learned helplessness is a behavioral response that can be changed through the use of NLP techniques that work toward changing perceptions from old negative thought patterns to new positive affirmations.

The Importance of Safety Signs and Hazard Signs in the Workplace

The proper use of safety signs is a compulsory requirement for all businesses, commercial organisations and public access buildings. Legislation is in place to enforce the proper use of these signs. The enforcement of this legislation is within the remit of The Health and Safety Executive (The HSE).

The content of health and safety signs is split into the following categories.

1. Prohibition.

A predominantly red and white safety sign which denotes that a certain behavior or activity is prohibited. “No smoking” and “No access” are common examples.

2. Hazard.

A warning triangle which is yellow with a black border signifies all potential hazards. Signs can be generic and just state “Danger” or can be more specific, such as “Caution slippery surface” or “Danger High Voltage”. The symbol within the triangle varies according to the hazard. An exclamation mark denotes a general hazard, whereas a lightning strike denotes an electrical hazard.

3. Mandatory.

A blue and white sign denotes that a certain action must be taken. By far the most common use is to signify that certain types of protective equipment must be worn or used. “Hard Hats”, “Safety Footwear”, “Hi-visibility clothing” and “Eye protection” are essential in nearly all areas of industry and construction.

4. Fire Equipment.

A red and white sign is used to denote all fire equipment such as extinguishers, alarm call points, and fire hoses. Extinguisher signs are further coded to denote the type and its proper use. For example, CO2 (black) signifies safe for use on electrical fires but should not be used in a confined space.

5. Safe condition.

A green and white sign that denotes safe conditions. These are predominantly used to inform people of escape routes and escape procedures. The normal style is wording such as “Fire Exit” or “Exit” along with a running man symbol and a directional arrow. Other common uses are for “Assembly point” and “Push Bar to Open”.

All of these signs are usually available in a choice of materials. Self adhesive vinyl, rigid plastic, dibond and aluminium are the most usual materials. Self adhesive vinyl is for internal use, and should only be applied to smooth flat surfaces. Rigid plastic can be used externally but is predominantly for internal use. These can be fixed using appropriate double sided tape or can be pre-drilled for screw fixing. Dibond and aluminium are more suitable for external use and have the appropriate fire ratings for signage in high risk areas, such as chemical or gas cylinder stores. For buildings without emergency lighting, the use of photoluminous signs is essential particularly for Fire Exit and Fire Equipment signage. This too is available in all of the above materials but as only suitable for interior use, most commonly in Self Adhesive Vinyl and Rigid Plastic.

The size of the signage required is determined by the viewing distance of the sign. For example, as a rough guide, signs visible up to 10 metres away should be 300mm x 100mm, up to 20 metres, 600mm x 200mm and up to 40m, 1200mm x 400mm.

There are many British Standards governing the design of signs, but with particular reference to “Fire exit” and “Fire equipment” signs, BS5499 or 92/58/EEC should be used.

Sign buyers should also be aware of their responsibilities under the Disability Discrimination Act (DDA) where it may be appropriate to provide signs in “Tactile” or “Braille” formats.

In short, signs are an essential part of every business and advice should be sought when determining what is needed in terms of content, size and material.

Was Napoleon Bonaparte Poisoned?

The official cause of death for Napoleon Bonaparte is generally listed as stomach cancer. It is true that Napoleon did indeed have stomach cancer when he died, but there are several pieces of forensic evidence collected over the years that cast doubt on this conclusion and lead to new questions. Arsenic is the major player in this hundred-year-old death investigation.

Arsenic Poisoning

Forensic scientists cannot conclusively prove arsenic (chemical symbol, As) poisoning in the case of Napoleon Bonaparte, however using data obtained from several studies a general conclusion can be inferred. In the article by Hindmarsh and Corso, “The Death of Napoleon Bonaparte: A Critical Review of the Cause”, it has been noted that it is not possible to differentiate arsenic levels internally vs. externally when using hair as the sample. This is one major caveat with all laboratory conclusions regarding the mode of Napoleon’s death.

The Napoleon Bonaparte Death Studies

As noted in the Hindmarsh and Corso review, many tests have been run using state of the art techniques such as atomic absorption spectroscopy, neutron activation analysis, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. All of these led to conflicting results. While most studies did find highly elevated levels of arsenic in hair samples presumed to be from Napoleon Bonaparte, they could not agree on whether the contamination was due to chronic long-term internal exposure, chronic long-term external exposure, acute internal exposure, or acute external exposure.

Natural Arsenic Contamination

It has been noted in the Hindmarsh and Corso review that external factors such as burning coal indoors or being around wallpaper containing a green pigment called Scheele’s green, which leaks arsenic fumes when exposed to a damp environment, could be the reasons behind the arsenic contamination of Bonaparte. According to the article “Who Murdered Napoleon? Probably Nobody!”, by Victor Blair, Scheele’s Green is a solution of copper sulfate mixed with a solution of sodium arsenite. When these chemicals are exposed to dampness, a mold will form on the wallpaper containing the Scheele’s Green pigment. This mold can convert the copper arsenite pigment into a vapor called arsenic trioxide, which is highly toxic when inhaled.

Chronic Arsenic Exposure

In a study done by the University of Milano-Bicocca and the University of Pavia using “Samples taken from Napoleon’s son in 1812, 1816, 1821 and 1826…”, all showed higher than normal levels of arsenic after evaluation. This convincingly illustrates that there was a source of arsenic exposure in the family and begs the possibility that Napoleon was not poisoned by arsenic, but was instead exposed to the chemical over the course of his lifetime.

Autopsy Pathology

Copies of the original autopsy survived and one authored by Francesco Antommarchi, an anatomist and pathologist, observed that “Almost the whole of the remainder of the internal surface of the stomach was occupied by a cancerous ulcer, whose center was in the upper part, along the small curve of the stomach…”. This appears conclusive, except that Napoleon was considered “fat” at the time, a characteristic not consistent with death from stomach cancer.

Napoleon’s Cause of Death

All the post mortem investigations have serious limitations. For example, the hair samples may not have been from Napoleon’s children and the arsenic levels may have contaminated the body at any type after death. In addition, the idea that Napoleon was “fat” might have been left over from his pre-cancerous days. There was absolutely no verified chain of custody of the samples, making any conclusions unacceptable in today’s courtroom. Thus, the cause of death remains inconclusive.

Mind Altering Drugs, Murder, and Ignorance

Could Napoleon have been murdered? Could he have been self-medicating himself due to high pain levels? In the article titled “Was Napolon a Junkie?” by Bob Elmer, the possibility of using arsenic as a recreational drug is described as highly probable. In addition, the article states that Napoleon was being treated with a mixture of calomel and orgeat, two chemicals that can mix together with stomach acids to produce cyanide of mercury.

There is no way to state with 100% accuracy that Napoleon was murdered, died of natural causes, or overdosed on dangerous recreational drugs, but one things remains certain; there is quite enough evidence to ensure that forensic science classes for many years to come will keep this essay question on the test.

Hardwood Floors – Easy to Keep Lustre and Beauty

Hardwood floors present a floor surface that teases and almost dares you to slide or move furniture on it. Remember our younger days when we use to run a bit just to slide on the wood floors and even sometimes slide down the wooden stair rail? Well those days were fun, beautiful and aren’t really gone. However, I definitely warn against the stair rail slide. Free of many allergens found in other floor types, hardwood floors are healthier for the ambient air, quite strong, durable, beautiful and easy to keep their lustre.

First I should highlight that there are three things which will destroy your wood floors.

  1. Dust — particles in the air that come from endless sources – it has non-controlling qualities.
  2. Grit — minute granules of sand or anything that creates a grinding effect when pressed or dragged against a surface.
  3. Moisture — liquid usually water based or mixed with dirt and other compounds or elements.

Indications of these three things are first seen at entrances or high traffic areas of your wooden floor. Avoid excessively worn areas and scratches on your floor by ensuring casters or furniture coasters are below the resting points of your furniture. Some furniture may have casters that ease its movement while others do not. You can apply a special type of material to the bottom of furniture legs which allows the furniture to easily glide without doing any damage on your wood floor.

Dust, Grit and Moisture

Dust, grit and moisture are gifts of nature and we all have to deal with them. Grit which stems from sand or dirt being tracked from the outdoors on the surface works like sandpaper on the floor finish. Dust mites, balls and the like are merely pulverized bits of dirt which in essence acts in the same way as grit over the long haul on your floors. Once your floor finish gets damaged grit and dust left on the surface tend to discolor the hardwood while being ground into the surface pores with each step made on top of it like a hammer pounding stroke after stroke.

Moisture is definitely a no-no when it comes to your hardwood floor. Even though you know that trees are grown from a major ingredient of water, you also know that water aids wood in changing its shape. Just for kicks, ask yourself this question: Would you wash down your intricately etched wood and antique finished dresser, curio or bedroom suit with any type of water solution? Your wooden floor needs that same type of care and attention in order to yield many years of comforting wood floor sheen, elegance and beauty.

Great for Your Body Not Your Wood Floors

Water is universal, natural and great for your body’s good health when used for bathing, having fun, consumed or combined with other minerals, compounds or elements – even to cook foods in. However, this awesome resource sometimes called moisture is not the least bit healthy for your wood floors. Water and moisture become tricky with mingling after milling and designing trees into a wooden floor. It’s like this — when your wood floor gets wet, there is no way of knowing whether it will curl, bow down, shrink or expand once it dries again.

Undoubtedly you’ve seen wood floors where it seems that the edges or seams of boards joined together curl up or the width of a board creates a bow like upward arc in the middle. These are indications of moisture damage to a wooden floor. For example, there have even been instances where moisture damage caused floor boards to arc together to raise a full length sofa about three feet into the air. That was merely from the curl effect and strength of water on wooden floor boards. So, by all means do dry any spills to keep moisture and liquids away from your wooden floors.

Furniture Coasters

You can choose furniture coasters from a vast array of styles at most any hardware, home improvement or house ware shop. Styles and techniques range from special materials that are circular, oval, and rectangular or square which peel and stick to smooth surfaces with special materials attached to metal frames which can be used in your wooden floor surface’s care by hammering them into the legs’ bottoms of furniture. An alternative would be to make furniture coasters for your hardwood floors and wooden floors’ care. Coasters can also be used to protect the tops of wood furniture against circles which form from glasses or cups containing liquids.

Wooden Floors Easy to Keep, Extra — Extra

Another way to prevent undue and excessive wear on your hardwood floors or wooden floors is to use scatter or throw rugs in high traffic areas. You may even be tempted to use a center rug piece for decor. Now that you and I have gotten past the fun stair rail slide and onto the floor, it is utterly important that we stay clear of injury — Ensure that your throw, scatter or centerpiece rug either has sufficient non-skid backing or that you lay a non-slip material between it and your wood floor.

I encourage you being cautious about potential discoloring of the wood floor in direct proportion to the shape of the center rug piece over time. Discoloration will occur not as a result of the throw rug or center rug piece but as a result of sunlight beaming on the wooden floor in areas around the center rug piece. You see, underneath the center rug piece sunlight cannot get to the wood. So, the color of your wooden floor beneath the center rug piece would be lighter in color over time than the exposed areas. I recommend you use throw/scatter rugs instead of center piece or area rugs as these would be more readily removed, freshened or relocated to minimize a lengthy tenure in one location.

Rugs Location is key

An ideal place for a throw rug is at the entrance to a room, passage or vestibule that is fairly close to the outdoors which enables it to catch grit and grime before it gets on your floor. A throw rug can get the job done without being on the wooden floor. A keen suggestion might be to go stocking feet to enhance maintenance of the hardwood floor shine.

Save With Your Wood Floor Sheen

Your hardwood and wood floor shine can be different tones for decor like paint on your walls or ceilings. Available tones include:

  • Matt – quite similar to flat or eggshell tone paint;
  • Satin – similar to semi-gloss tone paint;
  • Hi-Gloss – shinier than gloss tone paint; and
  • Super Hi-Gloss – shinier than Hi-Gloss.

The economy of all this is that the shinier your floor is the more resilient or bouncy it is with light. When the day is light and bright you have lots of light in your room because it bounces off the floor to other decor to yield an essence you can only get from the wood floor sheen in your area which creates savings on your electric utility costs.