Thessaloniki Student Housing

A brief Thessaloniki student housing guide

Based on the Greek Ministry of Education, there are approximately 330.000 students at Greek public universities at any one time. Thessaloniki accounts for nearly 1/3 of the total number of students in Greece with an estimated 100.000 students (including those attending private colleges and other higher education establishments).

For a city of 800.000 people (city population 2011) this means a particularly high proportion of students, which is evident from the lively atmosphere and nightlife. The majority of the students are coming from other Greek cities, from Europe via exchange programs and from the Balkan countries in order to study at high quality private colleges. Estimating that on average a full-time student spends about 4 years in Thessaloniki (excluding exchange students), this means that there are approximately 25.000 new students in the city every year. And they all need a place to stay…

This article will provide a brief guide to the types of available student housing, the areas, prices, and things to be aware of regarding student accommodation in Thessaloniki.

1. Types of student accommodation

1a. University public dorms.

The University of Thessaloniki offers dorms to students, based on need and mainly on financial criteria. They are provided free of charge. In practice this means that it is pretty difficult to get a dorm room even if you are eligible to get one. The dorms are mostly located close to the university campus, but their quality is very low and maintenance is a big issue, along with issues about safety etc.

1b. University Student Hostels.

These are private properties (entire buildings) which are subleased by the University and are provided mainly to exchange students requiring accommodation for a few weeks or months. These are usually ERASMUS students. As of 2011 there are two student hostels, “Matsi Street 7” and “Kassandrou Street 134”, both very close to the university. They offer fully furnished “dorm-style” rooms with ensuite private bathroom and kitchenette (Kassandrou 134) single and double rooms, a laundry area and wireless internet access.

1c. Private hostels.

For students wishing to stay only a few days/weeks, these hostels are more appropriate and a better solution than a hotel. However, these are hard to find as private hostels that rent rooms/beds by the day/week are not legal in Greece unless they are Non-Profit Organizations.

1d. Private rental flats.

These are standalone flats (studio, 1 or 2 bedrooms) located all over the city that students can rent from private owners. You can usually find them through real estate agents (beware) or online ads. You will need to find the appropriate one to suit your needs. Most of them are unfurnished or partly furnished and are more suited to students who plan to stay in Thessaloniki for a few years (as you’d have to buy electrical appliances, fridge, cooker, etc).

When you move in you will need to enter into a contract with the electricity company DEI, the water and sewage company EYATH and the gas company for heating (or oil if there is petroleum central heating). Be aware that apart from the rent you will need to pay for the monthly “communal” expenses (i.e. elevator maintenance, cleaning, communal lighting, repairs, etc.), so check for the rough monthly amount beforehand as this can vary wildly. This is obviously not the best solution for a student coming to Thessaloniki for a few months or a year as the hassle is too much.

1e. Rental student studios.

This is a new breed of student housing that is very popular with both full time students as well as exchange students. This trend began in the late 90s with just a few companies offering this type of accommodation. The main concept is that of a building with rental studios, where each student has his own private fully furnished room with en-suite bathroom and fully equipped kitchenette. This creates in effect a private high quality dormitory with single bed studios. The student atmosphere is maintained along with the feeling of privacy and safety.

Some companies offer additional amenities such as a laundry area, gym, storage for bulky items, bicycle parking, etc. This solves the main problems a student would have if he rented a studio from a private owner. In addition to this, some companies offer an ALL IN rent which includes the cost of heating, electricity, water, communal expenses, etc. even a fixed line ADSL internet connection. This way students won’t have to deal with the Greek public authorities in order to get a contract for everything. This is especially suitable for exchange students who don’t have the time or knowledge to deal with this.

Finally, some companies also offer a number of additional safety measures (fire alarms, access control cards, etc). There is usually a porter at these buildings for anything that the students may need. However, be careful which company you choose as few offer all of the above.

2. Student accommodation areas

Since the university campus is in the city center of Thessaloniki, the most popular student accommodation areas are also there. However, since the city center is expensive, most students look for properties to rent near the university above Egnatia street and mostly around the streets of Agiou Dimitriou and Kassandrou. This is also where many student shops and cafes are located.

Other areas popular with students are towards the east side of the city such as Depo, Toumpa, Harilaou, etc. These however are far from the center on foot and lack the distinct “student feel” of the areas near the university. In addition, traffic can be very bad at certain times of the day towards the university.

Overall, both the city center and the areas to the east are very safe all day long.

Lastly, there are the areas to the west of the city center such as Stavroupoli, Evosmos, etc. where rent prices are lower but these areas are not favored by students. They are very densely populated and traffic is also a problem, plus many students (and especially their parents) do not choose these areas as they have a reputation for higher crime rates.

3. Accommodation prices

Rent prices range from 200 euros per month for a standalone studio in Evosmos to 650 euros per month for a 2 bedroom apartment in the city center. The communal expenses can also range from 15 euros for a studio without central heating to 80 euros per month for an apartment with central heating. Of course rent prices can fluctuate depending on the condition of the flat/studio.

On average a student will pay about 350euros for an unfurnished studio near the university plus 30euros/month for communal expenses. Don’t forget to add the monthly cost of electricity, water, heating, telephone/internet, etc to this.

ALL IN prices for the organized student studios which offer all kinds of amenities and include electricity bills, water bills, heating, hot water, internet, laundry, gym, etc. can range from 390 to 460 euros per month for a furnished studio near the university. For the average student who wants to have the privacy of his own place, but also live the student life, this is the most economical option which also saves him the hassle and stress of dealing with the Greek public sector. One last advantage is that you can plan your budget ahead, as you know how much your living costs will be, so there will be no surprises at the end of the month…

4. Legal issues

In order to rent a private property you need to know the following:

If you are a EU citizen, you will need to get a Tax Registration Number (ΑΦΜ) from the local tax office. This is an easy procedure that takes 5 minutes and that only requires your passport. If you are a non-EU citizen you first need to get a residence permit and then get the above Tax Registration Number. This is absolutely necessary in order to legally rent a property in Greece.

If you stay at a hotel you need to know that you cannot stay for more than 3 months.

If you rent a property, you have to sign a lease.

Do not accept to stay at rental rooms without signing a lease as this could get you in trouble. You need to know that it’s illegal to stay anywhere without a lease, unless it is a hotel.

Always insist that the landlord hands you back a copy of the lease “stamped” by the tax office. It is not uncommon for landlords to rent properties without a lease or without an official “stamped” lease – this is illegal. Do not put yourself in a position where you could get in trouble. Always demand to sign a formal lease.

What Function Does the Bushing Have?

Generally speaking, the bushing is an accessory used by mechanical parts. It is a removable lining. It plays a very important role in seal effectiveness and wearing protection. Its application is very wide. It can be applied in a lot of industrial components. For example, the valves and the bearings often use the bushing.

Since the bushing is so important, it is of great necessity to introduce its function in detail. This bushing is very functional. It can play an important role in a lot of places. Generally speaking, the bushing is a kind of component that is used to protect the equipment. It is of great help to reduce the abrasion, vibration and noise. At the same time, it can have the corrosion-proof function. If the bushing is used, the mechanical equipment can be easily maintained and the structure can be simplified. In real work, the function of the bushing is closely related with the application environment and purpose. In the valve field, this bushing is installed in the valve cover. It can reduce the leakage of the valve and thus can realize the seal effectiveness. In the bearing field, the bushing can reduce the abrasion of the bearing. Meanwhile, it can stop the increase of the gap.

Then, let us talk about the material of the bushing. Generally speaking, it can be made of many materials, such as metal, rubber, nylon and non-metal polymer. These materials are relatively soft and at the same time their prices are relatively cheap. In different harsh environments the bushing protects the equipment by enduring the vibration, friction and corrosion. Because the manufacturing material is quite cheap, the bushing is quite economical.

Next, we will talk about how to choose the suitable bushing. As far as we know, there are a lot of different bushings, such as bronze bushing, Nylon Bushing. So it is difficult to choose the suitable bushing. When people choose it, they must take its purpose into account. According to different working conditions people should select different bushings. There are other factors that affect the bushing. For example, the bushing is affected by the pressure, speed and the load capacity. In addition, the lubricating state of the bushing is also related to its performance and service life.

In conclusion, the bushing is versatile. It can protect the spare parts and meanwhile it has the seal effectiveness. Therefore, there is no doubt that it is a very useful component.

Building the Perfect Male Body

Lets face it you never see big bodybuilders starring in hollywood action movies anymore. This is because this appearance is ‘try hard’ and is not considered desirable to women. Today the action stars are slimmer but still muscular. They have a GQ style to them where they look great in suits and stylish clothes because they are not too bulky.

After extensive research I have finally been able to quantify what this perfect build is. This is the very build that is considered to be the most ATTRACTIVE to women. It is also associated with POWER and MASCULINITY.

According to several studies on physical attractiveness in men,

The physique of a slim waist, broad shoulders and muscular chest are often found to be attractive. A near-universal sexually attractive feature of a man is a V-shaped torso: a relatively narrow waist offset with broad shoulders.”

A slim waist is not realistic for a Bodybuilder and Wide Shoulders and a Muscular Chest is not realistic for someone who is thin.

As a result being bulky is out and being lean and toned is just not quite enough.

Our goal should be to look like Greek Gods!

Well without further ado the perfect male body ratio’s are:

– A waist that is 45-47% of your height (multiply your height by 0.45 or 0.47)

– A shoulder to waist ratio of 1.618. (Divide shoulder measurement by your waist measurement)

– Arms, neck and calves of equal circumference

– A chest that is 10-12″ bigger than your waist

Lets take an average 5’10 man. His stats should be:

Waist: 31.5-33″ (45-47% of your height)

Shoulders: 51-53″ (waist x 1.618)

Arms: Same as Neck (roughly 15.5-16.5″)

Chest: 42-45″ (10-12″ bigger than waist)

Now that you guys have an understanding of what ratio’s to shoot for I’m gonna provide you with 5 of the BEST EXERCISES for achieving these ratios.

Here they are –

5 Exercises to Build the Body of a Greek God

1. Incline Dumbbell Bench Press:

This is my favorite chest exercise! It develops the chest perfectly with more attention on the upper chest. The upper chest is the most important region for guys to grow as it exudes a masculine appearance. When bodybuilders overdevelop their lower chest it looks like they have BOOBS. In addition a well developed upper chest creates a sweet line down the middle of the chest. You should aim to be able to do this exercise with 100% of your bodyweight for 6 reps. So if you are 160 lbs then you want to aim to do 80 lb dumbbells in each hand for 6 reps.

I do this exercise with 100 lb dumbbells in each hand for 6 reps at a bodyweight of 180 lbs.

2. Pull-ups

Pull-ups are one of my favorite exercises. They are the single best back exercise for creating a V-Shaped Torso. You should strive to do at-least 12 full range of motion pull ups consecutively. I have worked up to 20 pull ups in a row and my back is extremely well developed. I credit pull ups for this.

3. Lateral Raises

This movement is very effective at working the medial head of the deltoids. This will add width to your shoulders thus increasing your shoulder to waist ratio

4. Plank

The plank is a great exercise to strengthen your transverse abdominal (TVA). The TVA is like your corset muscle – it keeps your stomach pulled in tight and aids in stabilization. The goal to hit here is 3 consecutive minutes with perfect form. After you can do this then you can either raise your forearms on a stability ball or place your feet in suspension bands (TRX).

5. Bar Dips

Most people aren’t aware of the fact that your triceps take up 2/3 of your arm. Consequently when your trying to get your arms bigger you can’t neglect your triceps. Bar Dips are my favorite triceps exercise and in addition to working the triceps they also hit your lower chest and shoulders. They will build strong triceps and give you a nice sweep under your pecs. The target here to to work up to doing 6 reps of dips with 50% of your bodyweight attached. I do bar dips for 6 reps with 135 lbs.

Now lets take these 5 exercises and put them into a workout routine.

Greek God Workout Program

1a) Incline DB Bench Press: 3 sets x 5-7 reps

1b) Pull-ups (add weight if necessary): 3 sets x 5-7 reps

2) Lateral Raises: 3 sets x 6-10 reps

3a) Bar Dips (add weight if necessary): 3 sets x 6-10 reps

3b) Biceps Curl Variation: 3 x 6-10 reps

4) Plank: 3 sets x 60 seconds (contract abs as hard as possible)

Workout Notes

– If you want to add muscle than use the rep ranges that I provided you with

– If your satisfied with your muscle development than lower the rep ranges to 3-5 – this will harden up your muscles and increase tone (everyone gets this reversed)

– Perform this workout 2-3x per week with at least a day of rest in between.

– 1a and 1b means you perform a set of 1a rest than perform a set of 1b rest and repeat for 3 sets

– If you want to add muscle to your legs you can perform 3 sets of 4-6 reps of squats or deadlifts

Child Care Center Business Plan Template

If you are planning on seeking funding or investors for your daycare startup then a solid child care center business plan will be essential for proving the feasibility of your idea to them. There are also some other compelling reasons why you should take the time to prepare this important blueprint for business success. If you are going into business with a partner, a business plan will allow both of you to make sure that you are thinking along the same lines. And even if you are going it alone and have nobody to impress, a plan offers you a way of getting all your thoughts and research down on paper in one structured report.

A business plan allows you to see if your child care center is viable and helps you to set goals and benchmarks that you can later measure your progress against. Below we offer a child care center business plan template. The ideal way to put together a plan is to look at a few that have been done for other child care centers and then make adjustments to suit your unique situation. It can be an extensive report or something brief that fits onto one page.

What to Include in a Business Plan for a Child Care Center

1) Executive Summary

This is a summary of your daycare business plan and it should be written after the plan is complete. Detail the contents of your plan and declare some of the conclusions that you have made.

2) Company Mission

Put money aside for a minute and write a little about how you want to fit in with and impact your community in a positive way. Write about the importance of child care in society and your personal philosophies on early childhood development and daycare. What kind of image do your want to project?

3) Table of Contents and Introduction

Introduce the reader to your business plan and let them know what kind of daycare you have in mind. What is the basic concept? What services will you offer? What age groups will you care for?

Set out a contents page so that readers can easily navigate their way through the report.

4) Background

You should include some background on the child care industry to help readers to better understand the present state of the industry and how your business will fit into it. Personal backgrounds of yourself and other key players should also be included to let readers know who you are and what led you to the conclusion that you want to enter this industry. What skills, experience or attributes do you have that make you particularly well suited to setting up and managing a child care center? Attach any supporting documents such as your resume to the business plan as an appendix.

5) Objectives

Summarize your financial goals as well as any expansion plans that you have for the daycare over your first two or three years in business.

6) Startup Requirements and Financing

List out all anticipated startup costs and other hurdles that must be overcome before you open your doors to families. How you propose to finance the new business?

7) Business Structure and Legal Considerations

Will the child care center be a sole proprietorship, a partnership or a corporation? Include details on the daycare licensing process for the state in question as well as other local regulations that must be complied with such as zoning and building safety requirements. What insurance policies will be necessary to protect the business and its owners from property damage or liability claims?

8) Organization

How will your daycare be managed? Your daycare business plan should include information on the ownership structure (if there are other owners involved). Set out a plan for taking on and managing staff including hiring practices, necessary qualifications, wages and other policies. Outline job descriptions for each position and set out a clear hierarchy showing which managers are responsible for which employees.

9) Market Analysis

A good business plan will usually have an analysis of the local market. This is where you can present the findings of any market research that you have undertaken. Your market analysis should include information gained from surveys with prospective daycare clients in the area to find out more about them and about what they are looking for in a daycare service. You can include demographic data about your local market here and attempt to establish some typical customer profiles. Discuss your proposed location and why you think its location is strategically significant.

Look at a variety of niches within daycare such as infant care or after school care and decide on the niches that you will go after with your set up and your marketing. Give details on all local competitors and suggest ways that your daycare could offer unique services that differentiate it from these other market players. Look at their strengths and weaknesses and try to come up with the ideal service for your market that is an improvement on the services that are already available.

10) Marketing Plan

Put forward a marketing plan for gaining new customers. Outline a branding strategy, a pricing strategy and how you will consistently promote your daycare to local families. Try to identify precisely what advertising and marketing methods you would use to get leads and what sales approach you would use to turn prospective families into new clients. Write an online marketing plan discussing a proposed website for the child care center as well as a strategy for bringing targeted traffic to the site.

11) Financial Plan

Lastly, you should include some detailed financial forecasting. Estimate revenues and expenses over a period of two years and set these out in a spreadsheet. Profit or loss can then be projected based on these estimates. Put forward several different scenarios where for example costs are higher than expected or income is slower than expected. Identify the break even point or the point that the business becomes profitable.

A good child care business plan template along the lines of the one that we have outlined above will give you a clear direction of where you want to go, will help you to measure progress along the way and ultimately will help you to reach your personal and financial goals.

Pros and Cons of Aluminum Carport and Patio Covers

Aluminum carports and patio covers have become a popular and attractive home improvement. The product itself has been in use for years. As a light weight and durable material, aluminum can be a great alternative to stick built or steel structures. Features, colors, and styles have evolved over the years to give homeowners many choices. Today we will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of these popular aluminum structures.

Advantages:

1) Durability – My parents have been living in the same house for over 30 years. Their patio cover was installed in the late 1960s, and is still standing and functional. This product will stand the test of time with little more than a cleaning once a year. Most companies engineer their units to withstand wind and snow loads. As a result, baring natural weather disasters, your patio cover or carport should give you years of use.

2) Attractive – As stated above with a little maintenance your carport or patio cover will stay looking good for years. The aluminum pans will never rust. There are a variety of colors to choose from and several styles of framework that should satisfy any homeowner.

3) Structural simplicity – Because of the light weight nature of aluminum, a patio cover can be attached directly to your patio slab, and carports can be attached directly to your driveway. Also attachment to the house requires minimal anchoring. Note: some areas may require posts to be set in concrete, check with the codes department in your area. One of the best advantages of Aluminum structures is the minimum fall required for installation. Aluminum carports and patio covers require only ¼” of fall /ft. spanned. A shingled roof requires a minimum of 4″ of fall /ft spanned, which often creates problems with head room on the outside.

4) Functionality – Very few home improvement projects can provide the quality usefulness that an aluminum patio cover or carport can. Patio covers over decks and patios offer escape from direct sun and weather, and can make them much more useful and enjoyable. Aluminum carports (free standing or attached) can provide great shelter for your vehicles when a garage is not available .

Disadvantages

1) Bird Nests – The W-pan aluminum is notorious for attracting birds. There are several plugs that manufacturers offer and it is highly recommended you insist on these at the time of installation. They do add cost but will save you from the endless hassle of cleaning out the pans.

2) Trees – All Aluminum carports and patio covers come with built in gutters and downspouts, in the fall if you live in a wooded area leaves are a constant problem. Since aluminum structures do not require as much slope on the roof, leaves and debris is much more likely to accumulate. The most common problem I see is where this accumulation of leaves is left unattended, stopping up gutters, backing up water and ultimately causing the panels to bow and leak.

3) Rust on framework – Most aluminum patio covers and carports are installed with steel bar joists, and posts, and while painted before installation, the natural exposure to the elements will eventually cause the parts to show rust (especially at ground contact)

4) Hail – The single most, problem with aluminum carports and patio covers is hail. We replace several of these each year. Because of the light weight nature of aluminum a hail storm can leave small unattractive dings in the panels. Most homeowners insurance cover this and in most cases if hail is hard enough you will have other damage to your home

As a contractor for many years, I have learned to appreciate the functional beauty of aluminum carports and patio covers. The advantages of these products far out weigh the disadvantages. Almost all the disadvantages can be prevented with simple maintenance.

Hot Tubs – Do They Require a Special Circuit Breaker?

Nothing can rejuvenate you more than a leisurely bath in your hot tub/Jacuzzi after a hectic day at work. However, you may often experience circuit breakers/over-current protection device (OCPD) tripping whenever you switch on your hot tub. This is because this electric equipment draws a huge amount of power, and so, a hot tub needs a separate circuit breaker to operate efficiently.

Water and electricity is a deadly combination. Therefore, to enjoy your jacuzzi tub safely without any fear of electrical hazards, you should hire the services of an experienced electrical contractor for installing a hot tub and circuit breaker.

NEC guidelines to be followed for hot tub wire installation:

Generally, there are two different types of jacuzzi tubs available in the market. The smaller tubs need 120V/20 Amp power, while the bigger units run at 240V and 50 amperes. As per Section 680.22-A5 of the NEC guidelines, power supply to both the units should pass through a Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter. In addition, the NEC specifies that you maintain a distance of 5 feet between the hot tub and GFCI. You should also ask your electrical contractor to place GFCI breaker in the same room as the jacuzzi tub and not mount it on the outside doors or walls of the unit.

Many people end up using the over-current protection device as a switch for their jacuzzi, which can prove to be dangerous. This is because constantly flipping the breaker on/off can cause damage to the buss bar. Even a tiny gap in the buss bar can result in electrical arcing, which is one of the main reasons behind electric fires. Therefore, it would be a good idea to install a separate emergency switch for your hot tub along with an individual GFCI over-current protection device.

Reasons behind constant tripping of your hot tub circuit breakers:

One of the most common problems experienced by jacuzzi owners is the constant tripping of circuit breakers when they are using the equipment. Electricians suggest that you ensure you are using a right size circuit breaker for running your device. If the problem persists even after replacing your old circuit breaker and by using a new GFCI especially for your equipment, then you need to pull out your user manual and carry out some checks. Ensure that the filter of your jacuzzi tub is clean and that it is not damaged. The circuit breaker can also trip if there is a problem with the ozonator or air blower of your hot tub.

Keep these tips in mind and enjoy using your jacuzzi tub safely.

The Secrets of Zen Do Kai

Created by Bob Jones and Richard Norton, Zen Do Kai is a free style martial art, which originated from Melbourne Australia. After receiving their credentials from the G?j? Kai karate dojoin 1970, the founders decided on an open concept martial art that would include principles of boxing, Karate, Judo, grappling, Brazilian Jiujitsu, Muay Thai and Eskrima. What distinguishes Zen Do Kai apart from the rest is it implements a number of forms and styles of traditional Thai kickboxing. Before opening his doors to the first martial arts club on 48 Elizabeth Street in Melbourne, Bob Jones was prepping, training security personnel in the industry since 1960, and was involved in a number of high profile assignments. These included offering his expertise to protecting world renowned bands such as the Rolling Stones, the Beatles, Fleetwood Mac and Stevie Nicks. His book “Let the Good Times Roll” is a compilation of his experiences, and was a bestseller for martial arts enthusiasts. Commemorated with the Blitz Martial Arts Lifetime Tribute Award in 1997, Bob Jones featured in his own segment on Channel 10, also known as “Fighting Fit” on the Good Morning Australia Program hosted by Bert Newton.

Philosophy

Zen Do Kai is far from being a closed system of combat, but is rather influenced by distinct elements from other acclaimed martial arts. Since it conception, this defense oriented sport has gone through constant changes, which simply keep it up to par with current strategies and trends. After the jet Black System was introduced in the 1970’s, the Freedom Forms Tournament System was put in place in 1983, which was not only one of the most competitive styles in the region, but also one with the most emphasis on competition. The training modules were amended in 1984, which focused on techniques that would work immediately and a number of practical postures. To add to this effectiveness, Zen Do Kai was combined with Muay Thai Boxing in 1984, and subsequently featured in the Australian kickboxing Event. During this period, a number of world champions were born and the international team’s event and three more world titles were pinned to the map. Bob Jones, who is one of the highest ranked martial artists in Australia or 8th degree, still plays an active role in creating and administering new Zen Do Kai techniques to over 20,000 students and 1000 schools in Australasia alone.

Training

The training methods followed by Zen Do Kai have inspired those of older martial arts and is still open to new ideas and changes. The official Bob Jones website states that official Zen Do Kai clubs are located in Australia, Israel and New Zealand, which together place a large emphasis on holds and grabs and use Kata as a form of training and discipline. Zen Do Kai does not promote violence or fighting but rather focus on self defense techniques. Practitioners are awarded Zen Do Kai Crosses upon successful training, which is an evaluation of dedication, strength and loyalty to the sport. Crosses are awarded only by authorized instructors, who at times may need the approval of their instructors to bestow the honor. This hallmark of excellence is considered to be the stepping stone into the Zen Do Kai family, and is based on the understanding that the student will provide utmost loyalty and respect to colleagues in higher ranks.

There are number of levels of recognition given through crosses, which are divided into four categories. These categories are Bushido, Ishoa, Tomadachi and Kyunnin. The Bushido cross is the highest ranking of them all, and was awarded initially to those training six nights a week in the Soke Bob’s business, and is now a symbol of protection of the junior brothers and sisters in the Zen Do Kai heritage. Next is Ishoa, which is a round cross that is awarded for fierce determination in the ranks and is often celebrated at Zen Do Kai ceremonies. Tomachi is a rectangular shaped cross that is earned by lower rank Zen Do Kai practitioners, who demonstrate leadership and promise during their training. Lastly is the Kyunnin cross, which is triangular in shape and is a rare commemoration furnished to those who demonstrate exceptional business acumen and a diligent drive to succeed.

Techniques

Since the system is constantly evolving, practitioners of Zen Do Kai look forward to learning new techniques periodically. This unique mode of learning has not only made Zen Do Kai a pronounced form of martial art, but one that is far more efficient than others. The styles taught are notably similar to modern principles of defense, making it more interesting and valuable to learn. The grappling techniques and similar to the ones practiced in Brazilian Jiujitsu, while the punches and kicks are inspired by Karate or Tae Kwon Do. Kicking, boxing and punching are all used intuitively, with the use of weapons such as Katana, Arnis, Kendo and Bo in extreme circumstances. The basic principles of Zen Do Kai teach students to overthrow the assailant, irrespective of their shape, size or strength. Zen Do Kai does not only focus on maneuvering kicks and punches, but also on respect, self discipline and inner strength. The most significant techniques that are taught during the learning period and ones that must be mastered include throwing, grappling, punching, holding, locking and kicking.

Competitions

There are a number of Zen Do Kai competitions held every year and in different parts of the world. These competitions are geared towards children and adults of all walks of life, and are governed by the rules of most renowned martial arts.

Homemade Chocolate Orange Ice Cream Recipe With Optional Orange Liqueur

When I was a child we lived in Yorkshire, in the countryside between Leeds and York. Saturdays were shopping days and so my parents used to put my sister and me in the back of the car and drive in to the nearest town York to do the weekly shop.

For a child it was pretty boring, I used to hate Saturday mornings. This was well before the days of children’s in car entertainment and so me and my sister used to have to amuse ourselves by playing games. I Spy was a favourite, as was a bizarre game we had of trying to spot car registrations alphabetically. Anyhow long before York the games used to turn from fun amusement in to some sort of childish argument and so the journey through the outskirts of York was invariably done in silence with me in one corner of the back seat and my sister in the other.

Because there was nothing for me to do I used to spend the last part of the journey looking out of the car window. Every week we used to pass the Terry’s Chocolate Factory, a big red bricked building with a clock tower. It was a very imposing building and I used to fantasize that it was like the chocolate factory in Roald Dahl’s book and I was being given a tour through all the different chocolate rooms ending of course in a room containing nothing but chocolate oranges on trees. I also used to fantasize that my sister was pushed in to a big chocolate machine by the Oompah Loompahs but when I turned 40 I stopped fantasizing about that.

Unfortunately the Terry’s Chocolate Factory has now gone, moved I think to some giant production factory somewhere. I’m not sure what has happened to the old factory as I haven’t been to York in years but I hope the facade has stayed the same, even if it has probably been turned in to executive flats.

Below is my homemade recipe for what I call Boozy Chocolate Orange Ice Cream. I have to confess there is no chocolate orange in it but it reminds me of chocolate orange, albeit a very potent one. I love eating this at Christmas as it always reminds me of Christmas morning in the days when I used to wake excited at the prospect of what was in my Christmas stocking. Now I wake up on Christmas morning worrying about what time I need to put the turkey in the oven and if I have got enough bread to see us through the holiday. A few scoops of this ice cream takes your cares away.

I hope you enjoy it

Recipe for Boozy Chocolate Orange Ice Cream

450ml Double Cream / 2 Cups Heavy Cream

150ml Full Fat Milk / 1/2 Cup Milk

1 Vanilla Pod

4 Large Egg Yolks

100g / 1/2 Cup Fine Brown Sugar

150g / 5 oz Dark Chocolate (good quality with a minimum of 70% Cocoa)

1 tablespoon Cocoa Powder

30ml / 2 tablespoons Orange Liqueur

1 tablespoon Orange Juice

Scrape the seeds from the vanilla pod in to the milk and cream, add half the sugar and heat until the liquid almost reaches boiling point, DO NOT LET IT BOIL. Take off the heat and let it cool.

Mix the remaining sugar in to the egg yolks until all the sugar crystals have dissolved. Reheat the milk and cream, add the egg yolks and sugar and heat gently over a low heat for about ten minutes until the liquid has thickened and easily coats the back of a spoon.

Break the chocolate in to chunks in a bowl, add the cocoa powder and place the bowl over a saucepan of boiling water until the chocolate has completely melted. Add the orange liqueur and orange juice to the melted chocolate and stir.

Add the melted chocolate to the cream and pour in to your Ice Cream Maker, churning as per the manufacturer’s instructions. Place the ice cream in the freezer and eat within 1 week.

Xbox 360 and Xbox 360 Slim Disc Read Errors

You finally picked up that new game you’ve been wanting to buy and it’s been that kind of week, you just need to get away. There is no better escape than melting into your favorite chair, grabbing your favorite snack and beverage of choice and then flipping on the Xbox 360 console for some game time. You carefully tear off the clear plastic wrap on your new Xbox 360 game, pop out the disc and place it in the DVD tray. You hit the close button, sit down with great anticipation and then “gasp”, nothing. The game disc isn’t loading, the onscreen menu just shows “reading” and then it stops attempting to read and shows “open tray”. You get up, annoyed and hit the eject button and then hit the button again to close the tray, but again it just shows “reading” and then goes to “open tray”.

This most aggravating problem is commonly known as “disc read error”. Even though it is very fixable it is nonetheless a major interference in your game play. The cost to get this repaired is around $50.00 USD and about one day turn around depending on whether you can find someone local to do the repair. If you have to ship it out for repair, the time and cost will definitely increase. To find someone you can either check your local Craigslist ads or do a Google search for local repairs. You will want to find someone with verifiable electronics repair experience who has a legitimate business license and insurance. There are no actual Xbox 360 Repair Certifications since there are no programs offered by Microsoft to repair the Xbox 360.

Once you have found someone to repair your Xbox 360 for the disc read error, then you will be back on the road to game play recovery. But, what if you cannot find someone local that you are willing to pay to repair your disc read error on your Xbox 360? There is always the possibility that you may want to try and repair this problem yourself. It could be just a dirty laser lens; the repair would take about a half hour to an hour to repair yourself. (We do not recommend this repair to anyone who is not experienced with repairing electronics) The first thing you will need to do in order to repair the disc read error problem is break open the Xbox 360; this link will walk you through opening your Xbox 360 console (you can search for disassembly of the Xbox 360 console). Once you have opened the Xbox 360 you will need remove and open the DVD Drive. We are assuming at this point that you have know-how in opening your drive. Now that you have opened the DVD Drive you can clean the laser lens with a Q-tip and a very small amount of rubbing alcohol. Put the drive back together and you will want to test the drive before you put the console back together.

If after you have cleaned the laser you are still getting the “open tray” on your monitor or TV you will need to determine if the laser is bad or if something else is wrong with the DVD Drive. Most of the time the laser will be the culprit that stops working. But, just to make sure it is the laser you are going to want to test a couple of other parts on the drive first. With the top and bottom DVD Drive cover removed, and the DVD tray in the closed position, move the laser forward and then backwards to see if the worm motor is moving freely. If the lasers moves back and forth smoothly, then you can assume that the worm motor is working properly. Next we want to test the disc spindle motor, this is the motor that spins the disc when the drive is engaged and reading your DVD’s. Again, with the tray in the closed position you will find the spindle motor in front of the laser and manually spin the motor using your finger. If the motor is spinning smoothly then you can assume that the spindle motor is operating properly. The last thing you will want to check is the spindle magnet on the top of the top drive cover to check to ensure that the spindle is not damaged and isn’t stuck. If it isn’t damaged or does not feels stuck then you can assume that it is functioning properly.

At this point we have eliminated everything except for the laser. Where to get a laser for your Xbox 360 DVD Drive? First we have to determine what laser we need; here is a link to determine the drive that you have: (you should find a guide on the internet that will help in Identifying your DVD Drive). One drive missing from this list is the Phillips LiteOn drive, but it looks just like the Phillips BenQ drive and takes the same laser; the internal drive is different but as stated uses the same laser. If your Xbox 360 has the Samsung or the Hitatchi DVD Drive, you will need to find and purchase the HD63 Laser Lens, if your Xbox 360 console has the Phillips BenQ or the Phillips LiteOn drive you will need the iHop-141x Laser Lens. To purchase one of these lasers you can search eBay or Amazon, the cost will be around $6.00 USD to $15.00 USD.

One thing that you cannot do with the Xbox 360 DVD Drive is swap the DVD Drives due to a keycode that is on the drive controller board which is married to the motherboard. The keycode on the controller board will only work with that motherboard and if you do swap the drives then your Xbox 360 will not read any Xbox 360 Game Discs, it will only read DVD’s at this point. If you do decide to purchase a new drive, you can purchase the same drive that you currently have and take the drive controller board out of the original drive and install the controller board into the new same drive. The Samsung and Hitachi drives do not require any soldering, but to swap the controller boards of the Phillips BenQ or the Phillips LiteOn Drives you will need to desolder the original board and solder to the new same drive. The last alternative is to copy the keycode from DVD controller board via your computer and some special software and serial card and install the keycode onto any working drive made for the Xbox 360.

Note: Using a different drive than the original drive with the Xbox 360 may keep you from updating your console with Xbox live or updates from game discs.

One last bit of information is you choose to try calibrating the pots on the Laser this will be the easiest way of getting your console up and running. You will have to do a search for “calibrating pots on the Xbox 360 drive” to get the information and walkthrough.

What Every Property Owner Should Know About Pipe Replacement

Trenchless sewer repair

In most cases, a professional plumber can be trusted when in need of sewer repair. Replacement is a huge cost, and is unavoidable unfortunately. It’s important to note that before a property is sold, the owner has to report any potential issues to buyers, so it’s smart to get it taken care of and avoid any drama.

When it comes to an expensive repair like this, it’s important to shop around for the best deal. One should also make sure any contractor is bonded, licensed, and has references that can be checked. Expect most bids to be thousands so there is no shock.

History of Piping

First off, if there is any clay pipe it needs to be removed. Cleaning is never a good option and will only delay the inevitable which is replacement. Use of copper sulfate or rock salt is not a great idea as it will create more work by the owner having to remove the tree permanently, and then fix up the yard.

Clay sewer pipe has not been used for a very long time, as joints were packed by mortar and movement of the soil breaks them with ease along with tree roots. They are just not a smart choice, of course builders had no way of knowing this decades ago.

After clay pipes came iron and they featured a similar bell joint to the clay pipes. They were joined using hemp oil and molten lead. Though the joint was stronger, it still didn’t withstand the eventual movement of earth. After clay and iron, no hub cast iron and rubber couplings with steel bands were used. They couldn’t withstand root infiltration though.

The Pipes of Today

Today most locations use plastic piping. Plastic pipe uses glued joints, and many are looking into trenchless sewer repair. For trenchless sewer repairs, a cable is pulled through the existing pipe after careful examination, and hooked to a bursting head. That head is hooked to the new pipe. It splits the current pipe and pushes it out-of-the-way as the new one is pulled in. It has the same diameter as the old or can be increased in size if the home or business owner decides.

This way of trenches sewer repair only needs one hole at each end of the line, and no trench which is usually a mess. Hence, why many prefer it over traditional methods.

Downsides of Trenchless Sewer Repair

While being the perfect option to other methods, there are some downfalls to trenchless sewer repair. If the company is fairly new and not knowledgeable about how to pass inspection, it may become a headache that no one wants. One of the main concerns is pooling water at a low spot in the line. However, if discussed before installation this can be avoided.

Other issues are deflection and sag which cause concerns. Experienced crews know what deflections in the current line can be taken out, but it depends largely on soil conditions, and the degree of deflection. A less brutal soil like sand allows for deflections to be removed but soil like shale is not so kind.

Further, proximity of utilities is an issue in some cases. The method used can damage other lines depending on how close they are to the action when the outer pipe is pushed away. No one wants gas leaks or cut water lines. Contractors must mark existing lines and formulate a plan to make sure there’s enough room for the installation.

Yet, trenchless sewer repair is still the most cost-effective and least disruptive method today. Simply taking care to verify the experience of any contractor before signing on the dotted line will make sure that it’s done effectively.

Different Types of Christmas Lights

There are a huge number of different types of Christmas lights to choose from that can used to decorate the home and garden during the festive season. At Christmas time, nothing brings more Christmas spirit into the home than fairy lights so it is important to get it just right. That means you should get lights for the tree, around the home and, if possible, across the garden too. There are many inventive ways you can use Christmas lights to decorate your home at Christmas time. This article provides more information about the types of Christmas lights available and what you can do with them to create a beautiful display at home. You won’t want to take the lights down in January!

Outdoor Christmas Lights
There are huge selections of outdoor Christmas lanterns available of all different shapes and sizes. It is possible to purchase white, coloured, battery operated, LED lights and plenty more besides. You can choose to have your bulbs on green wire, black wire, white wire or a clear wire too to help keep it carefully hidden, and even different light shapes. Nothing says Christmas is here more than icicle lights displayed outside. These look sensational when displayed up against the house. Warm, white bulbs give a very elegant look, but if you want a more fun display then coloured bulbs work extremely well. If you choose LED lights for displaying outside then you can enjoy a multitude of different effects. They can flash on and off, fade and perform other effects too. These brighten up a house very well and provide an outdoor Christmas centrepiece.

Indoor Christmas Lights
Displaying lights inside the house is another great way to celebrate Christmas. You can choose to wrap fairy strings around the banisters or line mirrors or large pictures with them too. LED multi effect lights include a twinkle effect, flash effect, wave effect, slow glow, slow fade and sequential pattern too. Displayed in the window your home will truly stand out from the crowd. If no power sockets are available then you can use battery operated lights. Battery operated Christmas lights mean they can be displayed anywhere you want around the house, regardless of whether there is a power socket available or not. Indoor starlights look particularly festive. These are available in clear, blue, multi-coloured or red. They can even be used on the Christmas tree if you so choose. Net and rope lights also provide beautiful Christmas lighting effects.

Christmas Tree Lights
Christmas just isn’t complete without a Christmas tree. How you light the tree is an important decision to make too. It is possible to choose a coloured effect, plain white or something extremely bright and multi-coloured. A good way to use lights on a Christmas tree is to have strings with slightly larger bulbs on the bottom with smaller bulbs at the top. A tree that is decorated with white or clear bulbs can look very stylish and elegant. This is especially true if you use all white decorations to match. If you want something fun and bright then you could use multi coloured lights with different colour baubles and tree decorations. Sometimes it can be nice to have one large tree displayed in the main sitting room of the house with a smaller tree placed somewhere else. That way you can enjoy two different styles of lighting.

There are so many ways you can brighten up your home and garden at Christmas time. Rope lights, net lights, curtain lights or icicle lights are just some of the different lighting displays available. It is nice to light up both the inside and outside of the home at Christmas time to get the most out of this festive time of year. With so much to choose from, the hardest decision is knowing what to use. The great thing about lanterns is that they last for many years and so can be reused for years to come.

When it comes to Christmas lights, there is a very large variety available, from sets for the Christmas tree to ropelights, festoon lights and more. All Xmas lanterns in the home look great, as do any displayed outside too.

What is a Colema?

One natural method of detoxification that is regaining its popularity in the modern society is colon hydrotherapy. It is the process of thoroughly removing pounds of impacted waste matters accumulated in the colon by pumping water into the colon, gently using regulated pressure or simply gravity. Also, massages or reflexology techniques are applied on the abdomen during the procedure to encourage muscle contraction or peristalsis and foster the final elimination of the accumulated wastes.

There are licensed hydrotherapy clinics where trained therapists administer the procedure. There are two types of machines that are used in colon irrigation treatments: the closed-tube system and the open-basin system. The United States law considers the equipments as medical devices since it is used to examine and treat certain medical conditions that in effect, alter the function or structure of the human body. Both types of machine are approved by the FDA.

Also, there are home colonic kits, otherwise known as colema kits, available in the market. Most colema kits have been checked and approved by the FDA. However, there are a few that are being released in the market without the approval of the FDA. Thus, it is best to check the validity of the company producing the colema you intend to purchase.

Typically, a colema kit includes a 5 gallon gravity tank, colema board, tubing, and speculum. The colema board has an opening at one end with a protective shield for elimination and contamination purposes. The end of the board with the opening must of course be placed on top of the toilet while the other end must be supported by a chair or any supportive device to keep it from toppling over.

The colema is performed with the individual lying on the board with his buttocks positioned at the opening, against the shield. The 5 gallon gravity tank must be elevated 2-4 feet higher than the colonic board. The elevation creates a safe and comfortable pressure of 1psi., flowing into the whole length of the colon. The water that is to be used for the procedure must be sterilized or purified and preferably close to the body temperature. Moreover, the speculums used in colemas are similar to the ones used in open-basin system colonics. It is as slim as a pencil, or perhaps narrower, and 4 to 12 inches long.

The speculum is designed to stay in the rectum for the entire duration of the session. The narrow design enables water to flow in and at the same time allows the water and waste to be released around it and into the toilet. Abdominal breathing techniques as well as abdominal massaged may be performed to aid in the cleansing. Although the procedure may be self-administered, assistance will prove to make the procedure less difficult. The entire colonic session could last in between 30 to 60 minutes, depending on the condition of the colon. Instructions regarding the proper usage of the equipment as well as in disinfecting the equipment after use may come with the kit.

The downside of colemas is that there might be individuals who may perform the procedure incorrectly. Another case is the misuse of the treatment. Professional medical advice is actually essential in this procedure.

Indian Lakes – Thousand Trails in Batesville Indiana Review

Indian Lakes is part of Thousand Trails, Naco. Camping grounds located at 7234 Indiana 46, Batesville, Indiana located about 30-40 miles from Cincinnati Ohio. We have been a UDI member for about three years. If you are thinking about getting a membership or visiting Indian Lakes on your next camping trip I hope this review helps.

The campground consists of phases. Phase one is for people who keep their campers on site all year, most of these people do not move their campers. Some of the campers have permanent decks, sheds and custom lots. There are two or three other phases but I do not know which is which but all are open to anyone for camping. One is full hook-up, this phase has 44 campsites. Full hook-up consists of power, water and sewage. The other phases is power and water only, these phases have 682 campsites per the Thousand Trails website. Indian Lakes also has 52 cabins that can be rented. Prices range from $25 per nigh during the week to around $75 per night depending on your membership and what days you will be staying.

Indian Lakes campground also has many lakes on property that are said to be stocked with bass, catfish and bluegill. You may take a boat on the main lake but is trolling motor only. The lake also has a small beach. New this year to the campground is an in-lake water park with the big inflatable water toys to climb, jump and slide on for all visiting campers to use free of charge.

Indian Lakes campground has a pool along with infant pool, adult center, free Putt-Putt and a large playground.

There is an Indian Lakes 9 hole Golf Course that is only $1 per hole if walked. Golf carts cost extra. No personal golf carts are allowed on golf course.

Okay, now to the pros and cons of Indian lakes Indiana:

Pros:

  • Large lake along with many small ones.
  • Open fields to play in, kids play area.
  • DJ at adult center most weekends.
  • Kids movie night some weekends.
  • Can camp on big lake.
  • Pretty many bath houses.
  • Campground has its own store/gas station.
  • The duck issue looks to have been cleared up.
  • Free Putt-Putt.
  • Nice 9 hole golf course (cheap too).

Cons:

  • The people who run this campground have been very rude for years.
  • Gas station pumps went out last year and to date they still have no gas. If you have a golf cart you can get gas down the road. The pumps are now working.
  • Not all power and water sites have water turned on.
  • Store closes early.
  • Could have more child activities but they do an Okay job here.
  • Can be a wild campground with parties.
  • Workers are rude, oh wait did I already say that? Well worth another mention.
  • Lakes do not seem to be stocked well.
  • Smaller lakes have very heavy vegetation and are hard to fish.
  • All the lakes have a snake issue, they are all over and the Water Moccasins are very bold.
  • You will be charged to use your own golf cart.
  • Full hook ups are always full, you will need to wait for someone to pull out and then grab it quick unless you luck out and show up at the right time.

This campground has had a bad wrap for many of years but I must say, since it was sold a couple years ago things seem to be getting a little better every year.

Dhyanyogi Madhusudan Dasji – The Great Master of Kundalini Yoga

Throughout the centuries there have been geniuses and illuminated souls who have been able to unlock secrets of universe. They tapped strata of mental and spiritual power to achieve the elevated heights of achievements. Cosmic consciousness is achieved when we are able to align our individual consciousness to God’s cosmic consciousness.

Generally a person lives an unhappy, confused and depressed life. He has no purpose or direction of life due to lack of knowledge of his true self. When a supreme master or guru awakens the dormant kundalini Shakti, the person start to experience the truth and realize the potential of his own being.

Dhyanyogi Madhusudan Dasji born in Bihar [1878-1994] was an exceptional master of mystical science. He left his home in childhood for the search of ultimate reality.

After years of austerities and intense searching, Shri Madhusudan dasji still had not achieved goal of self realization. Mastering different yogi philosophies and sciences for 30 long years he was yet not satisfied with his spiritual advancement.

Finally in 1921 he met Shri Parmeshwar Dasji his final teacher and a great yogic Guru in the mountains of Mt.Abu. Shri Parmeshwardasji gave him shaktipaat initiation, he immediately went into meditative state lasting for 3 days.Shri Parmeshwar Dasji was a divinely appointed, self realized immortal yogi, who always radiates a perceptible glow and super fine vibrations of divinity and cosmic consciousness.Parmeshwar dasji was a mystical, immortal and a supreme yogi.

Later on the Parmeshwar Dasji gave him the vision of Hanuman. This clearly indicates that Shri Parmeshwar Dasji was none other than the lord Hanuman, the epitome of ultimate devotion and consciousness.

Shri Dhyanyogi Madhusudan Dasji was a unique being. As a result of his own spiritual quest, and more specifically, through the grace and guidance of Shri Parmeshwar Dasji, he became a master of Kundalini Maha Yoga, with the power to awaken the dormant Kundalini in spiritual aspirants.

Dhyanyogi Madhusudan Dasji was a Kundalini yogi and had initiated only those who were spiritually ripe and receptive to yogic marg. The method of this yoga is awakening of Kundalini by Shakti – Paat, whereby transmitting his yogic powers to the disciple. The yoga is known as Kundalini Yoga or Laya Yoga.

The saint community in India equated his status to that of Shri Ramakrishna Paramhamsa. He was an adept who could transfer his own energy and awaken the Kundalini Shakti of another person by touch, mantra or even intent from distance.

3 Advantages of Using Occupancy Sensor Controls

For many years, interior lighting design has existed within the confines of the light switch. The nature of the traditional light switch has created societies bad habit of leaving the lights on. Businesses noticed a hefty portion of their operating costs were being contributed to lighting their buildings. The solution to this problem was the introduction of automated lighting controls, and the most notable component of them all would be the occupancy sensor switch. An occupancy sensor replaces or supplements a traditional light switch to turn the lights on when an occupant is detected in a room and turn the lights off automatically when no one is detected in the room for a designated period of time. First introduced for commercial buildings, occupancy sensor controls are now being developed for residential applications, and deliver proportional benefits at an affordable price. Three advantages of employing these controls in your home include; convenience, energy efficiency, and versatility.

Convenience

There are many instances in our daily lives that we become troubled by flicking a light switch to illuminate a hallway or room we are entering. For example, entering a room where the light switch is far away and hard to find in the dark. Another would be entering a room where our hands are often full, such as a laundry room or walk-in storage closet. Installing an occupancy sensor switch is an easy solution to eliminate the hassle of putting down what you are carrying and hitting the light switch. Also, on your way out, don’t worry about leaving the lights on because they will turn off automatically after you are no longer in the room.

Energy Efficiency

Perhaps the sole reason for developing the occupancy sensor is to create a more energy efficient lighting system and inherently contribute to the whole building’s energy efficiency. The concept is clear; make it impossible to leave the lights on when a space is not occupied. This is exactly what an occupancy sensor switch does. Not only is reducing energy consumption good for the planet, it is also good for your monthly budget. Residential wall switch occupancy sensors can cost less than 20 dollars, and provide a lifetime of savings on your energy bill as it lowers unnecessary consumption.

Versatility

Versatility is an advantage of occupancy sensors that is often overlooked. The main reason for their use is to control lighting, but they are also just as capable of controlling other equipment and appliances in your home that operate on an outlet controlled by a light switch. Creative thinking may lead to unconventional additional uses for your occupancy sensor, and save you more money on your utility bills. To begin thinking of uses look around a room in your home and consider what is plugged in but never used when you are not in the room. Some examples could include a fan or space heater, or possibly a coffee maker or toaster. While not much, some of these appliances draw power even when not in use. Controlling these household items with an automated light switch is a perfect solution to cut down on unnecessary energy consumption.

These three advantages of occupancy sensor controls can improve your home in many ways. The convenient and luxurious nature of this automated lighting component is enough to justify its use. However, some building codes are starting to require the use of occupancy sensors in many cases; for example, Title 24 regulations for California energy efficient homes.