Uses for Copper Foil

Copper foil is a relatively rare product among the many different household products that are bought and sold each year. But, nevertheless, uses of the foil remain numerous and it has many applications throughout the home and in industry as well. It isn’t used in most homes because it was largely replaced by aluminum foil because of its better flexibility and heat resistance. However, copper foil still exists and it still has some applications that aluminum foil simply can’t compete in.

The first application that copper foil excels in is in creating stained glass art. Stained glass art is the process of cutting stained or colored glass and then joining the pieces together to form beautiful designs. Copper foil plays a large role in this process because it is used to join the glass pieces together.

First, the glass pieces are cut out and laid into an intricate design that will later be glued together. After this, the foil is cut into strips and is placed between the two pieces of glass. The glass edges are then wrapped with copper tape that is adhesive and then they are soldered together to bond the two pieces of glass together. This creates a strong bond between the glass pieces which will last for years.

In addition to creating beautiful stained glass projects, the foil can also be used in repairing windows and creating new windows. Since Copper Foil is so good at bonding pieces of glass together, it is often used when windows are damaged or cracked. The window pieces are usually separated while a piece of the foil strip is placed in between the two pieces of glass. After this, the strips are soldered together to form the windows together. This will create a strong bond that will be virtually indestructible.

Another application in which the mentioned foil is sometimes used in is protecting and preserving some products and other chemicals throughout the house, although the foil has lost most of its use in the home because of aluminum foil’s rise in popularity.

The main use of copper foil as mentioned earlier is in creating stained glass artwork. The foil is used here because it is lightweight and easily seals the two pieces of glass together with minimal effort. Copper foil is also used to repair broken windows and is sometimes used in the household to preserve non food products and chemicals.

Racquetball After 40 – How to Beat the Younger, Faster Player

My return to racquetball started six months ago, shortly after my 42nd birthday. After one session in the 4-wall ping-pong chamber, I quickly remembered why I love this game. Action. Speed. Aggression. Strategy. Lateral Movement. Body Slams. Trash talking…Racquetball has all that – plus a great cardio workout. After an hour, I was spent.

The next day, I also remembered why I stopped playing. Ouch. Sore in places I forgot I had. However, within a few weeks of regular play 2X a week – and with a diligent warm up routine – my body quickly acclimated.

I am not a doctor or a professional athlete, but I love to play sports and stay active, and I’ve learned what to do to keep my aging body in the game. If you want to get back into racquetball (and c’mon…I know you do!) here are three areas you need to focus on to keep playing… and winning.

1. Don’t Write Checks Your Body Can’t Cash

The adrenaline of the game can motivate you to make plays that are going to punish your body. The two most common body wreckers are: diving for the ball and running into a wall. Add to that hyperextending your joints and hitting the ball too hard and you have a recipe for a seriously taxed body after your court session. If you play several times a week, these nagging bumps and pulls can turn into serious injuries that will take you significant time to recover. If you’re over 40, you probably have a few more LB’s than you did when you played in your 20’s. Extra weight combined with hard impacts and lunges will lead to either heel bruises, knee strains, or back pulls (or all of them!). I’ve had them, and the only way to recover is usually to do NOTHING for a long time – and that just aint no fun.

Don’t let your pride get the best of you. I’ve lost a lot of playing partners who put up a good fight for one game, but couldn’t come back next week to play again.

Use your head. Stretch out for at least 15 minutes before you play. Precede your stretch with a short jog. Play against the side walls for at least 5 minutes. Practice playing low to the ground – it’s the low lunges that lead to muscle pulls, so warmup that muscle behaviour before you play.

Deal with your post-game battle wounds ASAP. Don’t be a hero and limp around for a week – if you do you’re starting down the path of a long-term nagging injury. Ice it, jacuzzi it, asprin it, wrap it, etc. Get sleep so your body can heal. Take glucosamine for your joints. If you take care of your body, it will acclimate…just don’t expect it to spring back like it did in your 20’s!

2. Gear Up

Goggle, Shoes, Racquet glove and Knee Support. This is your required battle gear.

Yes, goggles can fog up…but eyeballs cannot be replaced. Every time I contemplate peeling off my goggles – I end up taking a shot to the mug. A compressed racquetball hitting your eye socket can suck your eyeball right out. Enough said. Bring 2 pairs and rotate them when one fogs up.

Shoes. You need good shoes, that fit snugly. Don’t grab your ancient nikes – get some new shoes. You don’t need to spend a fortune. Get 2 cheap pairs that you can rotate so the shoes have time to recover. If your ankles are a bit out of practice, you may want to consider basketball shoes for extra support. If you turn an ankle you are on injured reserve for quite a while. Or, you can wrap your ankles before you play. Hey! It ain’t about lookin’ pretty…it’s about winning!

Racquet glove. Keeps your wrist from getting carpal tunnel from straining to grip the raquet. Worth the small investment.

Knee support. I’m not a big guy…170 pounds, 5′ 10″ – and I’m in OK shape. But, I wear knee supports, and I’ll tell you why. Because my knees were taking a pounding. If you want to play hard, you will end up diving for the ball or scrambling off the floor. You’re a warrior – you can’t help it! In the heat of battle, your knees will take the hit, but the next day you’ll be hurting. And each following game…they’ll get worse, and worse. Soon, you’ll have to stop playing for a while. Let’s face it – you’re not 20 anymore. Your body needs time to recover. Plus you need to go to work on Monday and still be a pack-mule for all of your families’ junk! Make sure you have enough body left over for your family!

Don’t show up with velcro knee pads…you’re not laying tile! Simple slip-on, breathable latex type knee supports that aren’t so tight that they restrict movement will help your knees survive.

3. Winning Strategy: Placement & Positioning. Especially important if you’re playing younger bucks that have energy to burn. To conserve your energy, you need to play smart. Playing smart involves placing the ball in the right spot, and positioning your body in the right spot on the court. Hitting the ball hard doesn’t win games. Putting the ball where your opponent is not does. Make the bastard run. Make ’em dive. Make ’em beg for mercy!

Here are a few playing tips I’ve learned that increase your odds of winning.

1. Quiver O’ Serves. You should have 3 or 4 good serves in your arsenal. Vary up your serve. Look back before you serve to see where your opponent is. Hitting into the backhand corner is good, but have it play off the side wall before it lands. Hit one that goes to your opponents ankles – fast. Mix in a dying high-corner lob that you can’t play off the back wall. Include a fast ball wall-hugging backhand. Once you get your opponent striking out on your serve, keep varying it and feed the serves fast. Don’t give them time to get set.

2. Body Positioning. Generally, with regards to position, try to stay in the middle of the court. If you’re against a wall, hit a cross wall shot so the ball returns back to where you are – which forces your opponent to your wall. Don’t hinder the ball. If your opponent is up front in the court, drive him back with a ceiling-first shot that forces him back. If you find yourself in a corner, get out of it and return to the middle as quickly as possible. Stay in the middle.

3. Wait for the Ball. When you get a good forehand shot, don’t blow it. If you see a lane where you can hit the ball, make sure you are ACCURATE in your shot. If you’re all juiced up, you’ll hit it too hard and the ball will bounce too high, which allows your opponent to recover with a back wall return.

If the ball goes past you, no big. Turn around and play it off the back wall. Play your game, not you opponents game.

4. Find the Achilles Heel. Play a variety of shots early in the game to find your opponents weakness. But don’t experiment when you have a kill shot. Take the kill. Toy with your opponent when you can afford it.

5. Keep the Serve! You can’t score if you don’t have the serve. If you are are returning a serve, it is GAME ON time. Get the serve back at all costs. Don’t let your opponent run up a tab. How do you do this when they have a wicked serve? Learn how to read your opponents body language. Usually a server will ‘telegraph’ their move with a switch of the feet, a turn of the wrist grip, a drop of the shoulder. These little ‘reads’ will give you that extra milli-second to get a jump on that serve and get that SOB out of the server box.

6. Placement, placement, placement. Make your opponent run, scramble, dive. EVERY shot should be hard to return. That doesn’t mean it has to be a kill shot, or a hard hit ball. To place the ball where your opponent isn’t, you need to know where they are! Which leads to my next tip.

7. Watch the ball and watch your opponent. Develop your kung fu senses. If your opponent is scrambling, they are generally going to hit weak returns (except for the occasionally LUCKY kill shot!). Try to anticipate where their next shot is going.

8. And lastly, my favorite tip. If you really want to get better, play at least 2X a week, and play with someone who is better than you! My regular partner beats me pretty much every game. He is simply Ninja good. A huge arsenal of deadly serves. A wicked kill shot (forehand and backhand). And an excellent strategic player. This guy played competitively when he was younger and never stopped. BUT, I’m gaining on him and I’ve beaten him a few times. I prefer a challenge to a win. I also beat other racquetball players easily.

BUT… I don’t recommend getting obsessed and playing 5+ times a week. You’ll beat up your body and burn out your thirst for the game. Find some regulars you can play with and stick to a schedule.

Have fun, cross-train, play hard, and keep those young guys RUNNING!

How To Prepare A Speech Using The Hamburger Sandwich Approach

“Help! I have to give a speech. What do I do?” my business colleague asked me.

Business people are asked frequently to speak in front of a group. New authors

must speak to organizations and businesses so that they can promote their books.

Speaking in front of an audience can be scary if it is new to you. The following four

simple steps will help you plan and prepare your next speech.

The four elements used to prepare your speech are:

  1. The creative idea
  2. The attention getting opening
  3. The purposeful body
  4. The powerful close/conclusion/climax

Now let’s take a deeper look at the four elements and visualize a hamburger

sandwich as we go through the parts.

1. The creative idea. (The planning and preparation of the hamburger.)

  • Identify and know your topic clearly. Choose something you know real well.
  • Choose a subject that appeals to your audience’s mind, emotions, and senses.
  • Write down the conclusion you want to reach.
  • Once you have all of the above information, you are ready to prepare your

2. The opening. (Top hamburger bun.)

  • Catch immediate attention. Open with a question, some startling
    statement, or a fact that will catch your audience’s attention.
  • Arouse your audience’s interest with your opening statement.
  • Tell them the purpose of your speech. Many times inexperienced
    speakers ramble on and the audience doesn’t know where the speaker is going with
    the speech.
  • Let them know early the purpose of your speech and the
    audience will follow you just like they would follow the ball players in a baseball

3. The body. (The meat of the hamburger.)

  • Contains support for your purpose. Present your first key point and
    have your supporting information following-usually 2-3 supporting ideas under
    each key point. Do this with every point and you will not get lost. Just remember
    that you are working on the “meat (middle) of the hamburger.” Use three key points
    for every 15 minutes. This is a good way to measure your time.
  • Include stories, personal experiences, examples and anecdotes when
  • Include facts, proof, or rebuttal of opposing views.
  • Use visual aids (handouts, overheads, slides, video, etc.) when
    appropriate to help your audience remember your points. But don’t overdo it. If
    you use lots of visuals then your audience will remember the visuals and not you.
    Unless it is a technical presentation use visuals only when you feel it is needed to
    reach a point.

4. The powerful close/conclusion/climax. (Bottom bun.)

  • Tie in the ending with your opening. Take a look at your opening
    again and here is where you will tie it in to the ending. Your audience will
    remember this. Make it a well-remembered ending.
  • Finish forcefully and confidently. That doesn’t mean shout. It means
    get your point across with confidence. That you know it and believe it.
  • May be the only thing the audience remembers. That’s right. After
    hours of planning and preparing your speech and honing it down to a 15, 30 or 45-
    minute presentation, your conclusion/close/climax may be the only thing the
    audience remembers so make it memorable.

The next time you have to give a speech remember the “hamburger sandwich

approach.” It is an easy way to remember the parts of your speech. If you follow

the tips here your audience will love you. Do not memorize your speech. Use an

outline or keywords while giving your speech. Speak from the heart. If you miss

something the audience will not know it-just keep on going. Always remember to

end your speech on time or earlier-they will love you and REMEMBER you for it.

What Causes Penis Odor and How to Stop It

Several recent emails from clients have brought up a common penis problem that most men are not willing to talk about – the issue of penis odor. Even with men who take reasonably good care of their penis often encounter an unpleasant, fishy penis smell that is understandably a source of embarrassment. For instance, one woman writes:

My boyfriend showers every day and washes the area under his foreskin, but his penis always has an unattractive odor – the best way to describe it is that it smells like fish. I’ve tried to ignore it, but it is really getting in the way of our sex life, and going down on him is out of the question. Is he doing something wrong when he cleans down there?

Actually, his problem had nothing to do with poor hygiene, and this issue is not uncommon. In this case, the couple was able to solve their problem through applying a specialized formula containing a combination of penis vitamins and minerals that are helpful in maintaining the body’s natural chemical balance. While a foul smell in the genital area can certainly be the result of lack of attention to personal care, the following issues can cause a fishy penis smell.


Most unpleasant body smells – morning breath, underarm odor, smelly feet, and so on – are caused by bacteria interacting with body chemistry, and the penis is no exception. The skin is home to millions of microbes – everyone is covered with them. Most of these are harmless (some are even beneficial), and most of them don’t cause any symptoms at all. However, when certain bacteria proliferate, they can cause that familiar fishy odor, even in men who cleanse their genital area carefully. This can be especially problematic for uncut men, because the area under the foreskin is an ideal environment for bacteria to flourish.

Yeast infection

An unpleasant smell that is accompanied by itching or burning of the penis skin, redness or rash, and/or a cheesy discharge may be caused by a yeast infection. Like bacteria, yeast spores grow easily in warm, moist places, especially in men whose immune system is compromised, either due to the use of antibiotics or as a result of an autoimmune disorder such as diabetes. In this case, eliminating the yeast infection should solve the odor problem.


This condition, which ordinarily affects uncut men, presents as redness and swelling around the head. Itching, burning and soreness may also be experienced, and a smelly discharge may also be present. If the area around the urethra (the opening at the tip of the penis) is affected, painful urination may also occur. Balanitis, which has similar symptoms to yeast infection, is frequently associated with poor hygiene.

Getting rid of a fishy penis smell

Eliminating penis odor is relatively simple if these suggestions are followed:

1. Wash regularly with a gentle cleanser. Avoid the use of soaps that strip away the skin’s natural oils, which may upset the normal pH of the skin and actually cause problems like yeast infection.

2. Make sure the area is dry before putting on clothing.

3. Wear underwear made from natural fabrics such as cotton.

4. Eat a balanced diet, with plenty of fruits, vegetables, grains, and lean protein. Men who are prone to yeast infections may find that eating yogurt helps to prevent this common problem.

5. Treat the penis skin with a specialized penis health formula (most health professionals recommend Man1 Man Oil) that contains vitamin A, a natural antibacterial, vitamins C and D for immune system support, and natural moisturizers that help to maintain the skin’s natural suppleness and tone.

Walking In A Methane Wonderland

Far, far away, in the distant suburbs of our Solar System, where our Sun’s intense heat and light can do little to warm and illuminate this eerie region of frigid and perpetual twilight, a sparkling host of icy objects–some large, some small–dance in orbit around our Star. Here, in our Solar System’s deep freeze, our Sun can shine with only a weak, dim fire, and hang in the alien sky looking like an especially large, silvery-bright star swimming in a twinkling sea of a million, billion, trillion stars. On July 14, 2015, after making a treacherous ten-year journey through interplanetary space, NASA’s New Horizons spacecraft succeeded in becoming the very first space mission to reach this mysterious and unexplored remote corner of our Solar System–the home of the ice dwarf planet Pluto, and its five bewitching moons. New Horizons has sent many revealing images back to Earth of the Pluto system, solving one mystery after another about this strange place. In February and March 2016, New Horizons astronomers announced some additional findings: Pluto’s largest moon, Charon, shows signs of once having had a subsurface ocean, and Pluto itself sports a chain of exotic mountains capped by methane snow.

The New Horizons spacecraft has now traveled well past Pluto, on its way to making still more historic observations of what dwells in the far suburbs of our Solar System. New Horizons made its closest flyby of Pluto on the morning of July 11, 2015, almost 8,000 miles above its exotic, alien frozen surface. Indeed, the July 2015 flyby over the ice dwarf planet and its quintet of moons is providing a close-up and personal view of our Solar System’s Kuiper Belt, a remote region in the outer limits of our Sun’s family. This very successful spacecraft, zipping into a new frontier in space, will enable scientists to obtain a greater understanding of how our Solar System was born and how it evolved through time. The very distant Kuiper Belt is the home of a glittering multitude of tumbling icy worldlets and other frozen objects that range in size from boulders to dwarf planets, that are about the same size as Pluto. Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) preserve in the dark deep-freeze of our Solar System’s outer region, some very important information about the primordial Solar System.

Mysterious and mesmerizing, the Kuiper Belt is located far beyond the beautiful, banded, deep blue, gaseous ice-giant Neptune–the outermost of the eight major planets from our Sun. Astronomers are only now first beginning to explore this far and frigid frontier, where literally trillions of icy, sparkling objects twirl around our Star. Pluto is a relatively large denizen of the Kuiper Belt, and it was classified as the ninth major planet from our Sun soon after its discovery. However, in later years, many astronomers came to the conclusion that Pluto should be reclassified. This is because more recent observations revealed that this captivating, frozen little “oddball” is just one out of many similar objects. In 2006, the International Astronomical Union (IAU) was forced to formally define the controversial term planet. As a result, poor, pitiful, unlucky Pluto, was booted out of the pantheon of major planets and demoted to dwarf planet status. Nevertheless, this strange, small world continues to draw both attention and affection from planetary scientists.

According to the IAU’s definition, a planet must be in orbit around its parent-star, must possess a sufficiently hefty mass for its self-gravity to overcome rigid body forces so that it assumes hydrostatic equilibrium, and becomes spherical in shape–and it also must have cleared its neighborhood of other objects lingering around in its orbit.

Pluto is circled by a quintet of moons: Charon, Nix, Hydra, Kerberos, and Styx. Charon is by far the largest of the quintet, and it boasts a diameter approximately half that of Pluto. The little icy world, that is Pluto, was named for the Roman god of the underworld.

The Pluto saga began in the 1930s, when Clyde Tombaugh (1906-1997), who was then a young American astronomer, was given the task of searching for a mysterious, elusive, and possibly non-existent Planet X. Planet X was, at the time, considered to be a hypothetical, well-hidden, giant world, inhabiting the frigid darkness beyond Neptune. Tombaugh did indeed discover a faint and remote point of light–but it was not the sought-after Planet X. Instead, that little speck of distant, dim light was tiny Pluto.

For most of the 20th century, astronomers considered Pluto to be an isolated, icy, small world, dwelling in the distant twilight region of our Solar System, far from the madding crowd of other objects that are in orbit around our Star. However, a change in perspective came in 1992, when a large number of other small icy denizens of the Kuiper Belt were discovered. At this point, it became apparent that Pluto had not cleared its neighborhood of other objects lingering around its orbit. Therefore, Pluto lost its major planet status in 2006, when the IAU found it necessary to come up with an acceptable definition of a planet. Pluto was not as far away from the madding crowd of Solar System denizens as once thought.

Since 1992, a significant number of additional small, frozen worlds that are akin to Pluto–showing similar eccentric orbits–have been detected. Pluto displays a highly inclined and eccentric orbit that carries it from 20 to 49 astronomical units (AU) from our Sun. One AU is equal to the mean separation between Earth and Sun, which is about 93,000,000 miles.

New Horizons was launched on January 19, 2006, on its unprecedented, historic decade-long dangerous journey to our Solar System’s as yet unexplored distant twilight zone. The successful spacecraft began a year-long download of new and revealing images, as well as other data, over the Labor Day weekend in 2015. Images that were then derived more than doubled the area of Pluto’s mysterious surface observed at resolutions as good as 440 yards per pixel. The images showed strange surface features, on that distant small world, such as nitrogen ice flows, believed to have oozed out of mountainous regions down onto the planet’s network of valleys. These may have been carved by slushy material gushing all over Pluto’s surface. The images also unveiled dunes, as well as bizarre regions resembling the chaos terrains on Europa, a moon of Jupiter. Europa’s chaos terrains were once thought to be unique in our Solar System, but Pluto is now known to possess very similar jumbled and chaotic mountainous regions.

The images also displayed the most heavily cratered–and therefore oldest–terrain yet detected by New Horizons on Pluto. This ancient, cratered terrain is intriguingly located next to the almost crater-free–and therefore youngest–icy plains. Heavily cratered surfaces suggest an old surface, while relatively crater-free surfaces suggest a young surface that has been rendered smooth and almost entirely unblemished by craters, as a result of recent resurfacing that erases older craters.

Charon’s Primordial Ocean?

Pluto’s largest moon, Charon, was discovered in 1978 by the American astronomer James Christy. The new observations show that this large companion of Pluto may have once had a subsurface ocean that has long since frozen over and expanded, pushing outward. This outward expansion is thought to be the cause of widespread stretching and fracturing of the icy moon’s surface. This is because water expands as it freezes.

The side of Charon, viewed by the New Horizons spacecraft in July 2015, displays what has been described as a system of “pull apart” tectonic faults. This observation is expressed on Charon’s surface in the form of valleys, scarps and ridges–with the valleys sometimes over 4 miles deep. Charon’s tectonic landscape reveals that the moon somehow managed to expand in its past. Charon’s surface fractured as it stretched. For example, a feature named Serenity Chasma is part of an extensive equatorial belt of chasms on Charon. This system of faults and fractures is at least 1,100 miles long and in places some chasms are 4.5 miles deep. As a comparison, Earth’s Grand Canyon is 277 miles long and just over a mile deep.

The outer layer of Charon is primarily made up of water ice. This layer was kept toasty when Charon was a young moon, as a result of the decay of radioactive elements–as well as Charon’s own internal heat of formation. Many planetary scientists think that Charon could have been warm enough to force the water ice to melt deep down, thus forming a subsurface ocean. As Charon cooled off over time, this subsurace ocean would have frozen and expanded. Because water expands when it freezes, this could have lifted the outermost layers of the large moon and created the massive chasms observed today.

Walking In A Methane Wonderland

In March 2016, the New Horizons team announced the discovery of a chain of exotic snowcapped mountains extending across an enormous dark region on Pluto’s surface informally dubbed Cthulhu Regio (pronounced kuh-THU-lu). Cthulhu is a vast region that stretches almost 50% around Pluto’s equator, starting from the west of the great nitrogen ice plains named Sputnik Planum. Cthulhu is slightly larger than the state of Alaska, and measures about 1,850 miles long.

Cthulhu’s appearance is known for its dark surface, which planetary scientists suggest may be the result of being well-coated by a layer of dark tholins. Tholins are complex molecules that form when methane is exposed to sunlight. Cthulhu’s geology displays a great variety of differing landscapes–from mountainous to smooth, and to heavily cratered and fractured.

There is a mountain range located in southeast Cthulhu that is 260 miles long. The mountain range is located among craters, with narrow valleys dividing its peaks. The upper slopes are covered with a bright material that dramatically contrasts with the dark red color of the surrounding plains.

Many planetary scientists suggest that the mysterious bright material may be mostly methane that has condensed as ice onto the peaks originating from Pluto’s thin atmosphere. “That this material coats only the upper slopes of the peaks suggests methane ice may act like water in Earth’s atmosphere, condensing as frost at high altitude,” explained Dr. John Stansberry in a March 3, 2016 NASA Press Release. Dr. Stansberry is a New Horizons science team member from the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, Maryland. Compositional data obtained from the Ralph/Multispectral Visible Imaging Camera (MVIC) aboard New Horizons indicates that the location of the bright ice on the mountain peaks correlates almost precisely with the distribution of methane ice.

Ensure Uniform Color Quality Of The Fabrics With Color Matching Cabinets

The textile market has seen overwhelming growth in last several decades. With the increasing awareness among people about fashion has been a great factor leading to this growth of textile industry. In today’s world, there is an enormous demand for high-quality textile products, and hence it is important for the manufacturers to make sure that best manufacturing and quality control processes are adopted in their manufacturing units.

A major problem with fabrics is Metamerism. It is the phenomenon due to which fabric appears different in different lighting conditions. This can be a significant problem for consumers as well as the manufacturers of the products as it becomes very difficult to maintain consistency of the products. For elimination of metamerism, it is important that the fabric is matched under different light sources and lighting conditions so that it exhibits uniform appearance regardless of the lighting conditions.

A color matching cabinet is used for matching fabrics under different light sources. A color matching cabinet is a compact box provided with various light sources which replicate the actual lighting conditions. Once a fabric is matched with all the light sources offered in the color matching cabinet; it becomes definite that the fabric will now give a uniform appearance in every lighting condition.

There are three types of color matching cabinets used in industries that are Asia Spectrum, Euro Spectrum, and US Spectrum. Different models of the instrument are incorporated with various light sources that replicate the actual condition of their respective places. Each light source has an individual switch for operation. In this way, the test sample can be viewed in individual lights. Additionally, two or more light sources can also be illuminated to see the combined effect of the light on the test sample. There is also a time totalizer provided with the instrument which depicts the usage of color matching cabinets.

The different lights that are used in the device include D65, IncA, TL84, CWF, TFL and Ultraviolet black light. D65 is used for normal daylight matching of the fabrics. IncA is used where you need reddish light. The Ultraviolet light is used for studying whiteness of fabric. CWF is a cool daylight with green energy emission. TL84 is used where there is a need of white light with a grayish hue.

With proper use of color matching cabinets, it becomes easy to provide good quality of fabrics and product to customers with a uniform appearance in every lighting condition.

Top Six Mistakes People Make in Basement Remodeling Projects

Almost everyone who owns a house with an unfinished basement, dreams of having it finished. How can you not think of it? After all, an unfinished basement is a whole floor’s worth of space that can be easily turned into any type of room your family needs.

However, basement finishing projects are hardly inexpensive and, because basements are like no other room in the house, there are special challenges when it comes to choosing the best finishes and configuration. Basements usually house utilities, plumbing, wiring. They are also quite prone to moisture and water accidents. All of which must be taken into consideration before you tackle your project. Making the wrong choices, can literally spell disaster.

Below are the six most common mistakes homeowners make in basement remodeling projects:

1 – Finishing a Wet, Damp or Flood Prone Basement

Because of the way they are built, basements are always prone to moisture and floods.

Your basement is basically a box of porous concrete, buried in wet ground, and when that ground gets saturated with water, the resulting hydrostatic pressure pushes the water against the foundation walls. That water will eventually find its way into your basement, through cracks, the joint between walls and floors, as infiltrating the concrete through capillary action. To make matters worse, basements can also be flooded by plumbing leaks, broken water heater tanks and other water accidents. Without proper drainage, a reliable sump pump system, and proper dehumidification, no basement is dry enough to be finished.

2 – Using wood studs, fiberglass insulation and drywall.

While these materials work well when finishing rooms above grade, in a basement they usually spell disaster. Basements are naturally humid, and all these materials have the tendency to absorb moisture. They are also made with organic compounds: wood, paper and, in the case of fiberglass, a urea based adhesive is used to hold the batch together.

When you combine moisture with organic matter, you create ideal conditions for mold to develop. In addition, fiberglass loses all its R-Value when damp and drywall, in contact with water, will begin to decompose and release toxic fumes. Basement walls should be finished with 100% inorganic and waterproof materials that will survive a basement flood or water accident.

3 – Using wooden subfloors, hardwood floor, cork or bamboo.

Basically, anything that is made with organic materials is a bad idea for basements. Manufacturers might tell you that these products are either naturally “mold resistant” or are chemically treated to be so. Some wooden basement subfloor manufacturers might claim that the product has a vapor barrier and it is raised from the floor to keep the wood from soaking the moisture from the slab. However, read the small print. None of them really stand a chance to survive a flood, which can be caused by a plumbing leak, for example. Look for basement flooring solutions that are specifically engineered to withstand all sorts of basement moisture conditions.

4 – Improper use of vapor barriers

Many contractors will tell you that if you attach poly sheets all over the walls and the floor of the basement, you can pretty much use any type of finish you want, because the “vapor barrier” will protect the materials. Some will have an even worse suggestion: Placing the vapor barrier over the studs and the fiberglass, and then attach the drywall. According to the US Department of Energy’s Building America Best Practices recommendations, moisture from basement walls and floors should be allowed to evaporate and dry to the interior. This kind of vapor barrier will only do one thing: trap the water vapor between the concrete and the barrier, where it can condensate, and can cause mold to grow.

5 – Not having a backup sump pump

Every year in Wisconsin, millions of dollars are spent on basement flood cleanup, restoration and replacement of flood-damaged property. To make matters worse, the damage is never covered under homeowners insurance, and even special flood insurance establishes coverage limits when it comes to basements. Even if your basement is properly waterproofed and has a good working sump pump, without a battery operated backup sump pump, you are at risk for a basement flood. Keep in mind that the same storms that have the potential to flood your basement can also cause power outages. No power, no pump! Battery backups are also useful in case of a primary pump failure or other electrical malfunction.

6 – Disregarding moisture control.

You did all the right things when finishing your basement. You provided drainage, a good sump pump with battery backup. You chose all the right materials for the walls, floor and ceiling. Yet your basement smells musty or you found some mold spots growing in the furniture, fabrics or paper. Although proper waterproofing and good basement finishing choices can greatly improve conditions in the basement, in some cases they will not suffice to control the moisture in the basement.

Basement moisture levels tend to be higher because of temperature differences between the basement and the areas above grade. When basement moisture levels go above 60% mold will start to develop, especially in organic surfaces. Even if you don’t see it, if the basement smells musty, the mold is present. Basement moisture levels should be closely monitored and a dehumidifier should be used to keep RH levels at or below 55%.

Journeyman Welding Techniques For TIG Welding Thin Wall Stainless Steel Pipe

Before beginning I do want to say there are not many places that will give you the chance to learn how to TIG weld thin wall stainless steel pipe. I was lucky enough to have Fluor train me and am very thankful for being able to attend their training program! Fluor is the only reason I got to learn this skill!

What I can share is that TIG welding stainless steel pipe is not much harder than carbon steel pipe. There are a few rules to follow and you should be able to pick it up quickly! The rules are as follows:

  • Purge your pipe well.
  • Everything must be clean.
  • Keep your tungsten moving at all times.
  • Allow the pipe to cool before the next weld.

Stainless steel pipe must always be purged. The result from a less than perfect purge will cause the root to get contaminated. The slang term used in the field for root contamination or oxidization is “sugar”. Sugar is caused from the weld being exposed to oxygen in the atmosphere. The weld joint must be taped off and only untapped when you are ready to weld that part if the pipe.

In general TIG welding requires a very clean weld joint but with stainless steel this is an absolute must! The tungsten must be clean. That means cleaning it after every restart and pass. The weld joint must be filed before every pass except the root pass. Even the bevel needs to be filed on the hot pass and all color changes need to be filed to pure metal at all times. Failure to file all heat affected areas will result in the filler wire not being able to flow into the joint smoothly.

Moving your tungsten quickly is very important when TIG welding stainless steel pipe. The trick to avoid melt through and overheating the pipe is to move quickly. From the moment you strike the arc that tungsten needs to be moving. Don’t start and wait for the metal to heat up before moving. Ideally you want to start 3/4 of an inch before the area you will start adding filler wire too. This will allow enough preheat for the filler wire to flow properly. Ideally when the weld is finished it should have a copper color to it. If it is gray or dark in nature you are using too much heat or moving too slow!

When it comes to stainless steel the heat this metal absorbs and holds is unbelievable. Now add thin wall pipe to the picture and you have a radiator that is always ready to overheat! You need to allow the pipe to cool enough that you are able to touch it with your bare hand. TIG welding stainless steel pipe requires a lot of waiting for the pipe to cool. It only takes an extra inch of weld too soon to ruin the weld joint!

Removing Wallpaper – Maybe This Was a Bad Idea

Wallpaper, like many building materials has made some significant strides in design and application within the last few years. Wallpaper has gone through the traditional cycles of:

  • Birth as a new idea – being that cool new thing (long time ago)
  • Adolescence – not having a good time in the market, consumers begin to form negative opinions about the product.
  • Rebirth – new designs and applications helping it become a viable option once again

Whether you like wallpaper or not, there will come a time when you will want/need to remove it – what will you do? Keep in mind these basic truths about wallpaper:

  1. Most processes will require some degree of physical scraping, be careful when scraping not to gouge the wall as this will create the need for drywall repair.
  2. Liquid based applications (including steam) will soften the surface of the wall, making it that much more susceptible to gouging.
  3. Often times there are multiple layers of wallpaper.

The strategies for dealing with wallpaper basically fall into either of two categories, removal or covering. I have compiled a list of those basic strategies with what I have experienced as the upside/downside associated with each.

Removing Wallpaper:

There are several topical and chemical treatments that claim to be the cure all for removing wallpaper. These products seem to offer that you can spray this liquid on and within a short period of time the wallpaper will get the hint, back up its bags and basically walk itself out the door. How nice it would be if it were that simple but it rarely is.

Some have claimed that water alone will do the trick, I’ve never found this to be true unless it was an unsafe (from a potential water damage standpoint) amount of water. It may be worth a try, especially if your wallpaper is already peeling, just be careful not to wet the surface beyond what can be dried relatively quickly.

Steam processes can be helpful, which will require either purchasing or renting a steaming unit. A common problem that I have found is that many of the cheaper units don’t emit enough pressure or hot enough steam to disengage the wallpaper. To date, the right steaming equipment, hot steam (300*F) at a decent pressure (up to 75psi), has been the most effective tool that I have used when removing wallpaper. Using a wide head with a towel wrapped over it delivers the right amount of heat, pressure and moisture.

Covering Wallpaper:

Sealing/priming the wallpaper, I know of contractors who do this and have claimed that it works pretty well. I don’t recommend this route as I think it is a short term solution and in the long run could end up causing more work and cost. If you are going to seal the wallpaper:

1) Make sure that the wallpaper is in good shape – good bond with no bubbling;

2) Check the seams of the wallpaper, these can often telegraph through paint, use light coating of joint compound to conceal these before priming;

3) Use an oil-based sealing primer.

Some claim that they like to skim coat the wallpaper, using a topping compound to cover/seal the wallpaper and then apply texture. The problem with wallpaper is that the compound might not bond with the wallpaper or the moisture from the topper or compound may cause bubbling behind the wallpaper.

With the addition of better products and more contemporary design, you may be able to resurface your wallpaper with an updated version. Check the manufacturer’s recommendations for the product, but if you existing wallpaper is in good shape it may be a good candidate for recovering. Newer wallpapers offer a host of color and even texture options.

If you are handy with drywall or have someone that can install it within your budget, ¼” drywall can used to resurface the area. This may cause some concerns for the base, window and door trims of most walls, but may be effective for certain areas.

If the wallpaper is only on the bottom half of the wall, you could install wainscoting cut to height and trimmed with a chair rail. Another option would be to use ¼” drywall instead of wainscoting, the drywall could be adorned with picture frames constructed out of more drywall or wood trim, or just finished with a nice chair rail. Whenever you divide the wall into two sections, utilizing a different color can make for a nice touch of design, whether you use a shade darker or a complementary color.

In my experience, the most effective method for dealing with wallpaper is to remove it. Removing the wallpaper takes the risk of bubbling or texture/seam transfer out of the equation. Proper removal is often tedious but can be done effectively and in a reasonable time frame.

12mm Laminate Flooring – Durability With a Hardwood Look

There are numerous pluses to laminate flooring, including being water resistant (a customer favorite). One of the offers you can get for durability and resistance to moisture is 12-millimeter laminate flooring. The general rule of thumb for flooring is the thicker the core, the more resistant the material seems to become. Flooring, especially laminate, should be at least 12mm thick and be impregnated with water repelling chemicals even at the joints. This would save the day in case of accidental spills in the kitchen or bathroom. Very often there is a correlation between the terms of the warranty and the quality of the product, so be sure to consider this when making your choice.

Besides, when walking on a laminate floor that’s 12mm thick, you won’t notice the difference in sound after first having walked on a 6mm floor, for instance. The trick is that the thicker the core, the more your floor will sound like genuine hardwood. While everyone loves hardwood flooring, it is simply too expensive for some people. The 12mm laminate floor looks like real hardwood color – and finish-wise which can trick anyone into thinking it’s genuine.

Most laminate flooring on the market is within the thickness range of 6mm to 8mm. The locking system of 12mm laminate is heavier and will ensure your floor will hold up. Additionally, the 12mm floor can be placed on any type of surface. On the contrary, using thin laminate hardwood flooring is more difficult and time consuming to lay than thicker laminate hardwood.

All in all, a 12 millimeter laminate floor presents advantages over thinner laminate in that it is more water and swelling resistant, it carries longer warranty, it fools not only the eye but also the ear in resemblance to hardwood, it has a more reliable locking system and can cover almost any kind of surface to meet your needs. Choose the 12mm laminate flooring as the experts suggest and you can get up to 25 years warranty for your new floor.

What is the Definition of Cardiovascular Health and Why is Cardiovascular Health Important?

What is the definition of cardiovascular health?

Cardiovascular health is a perfectly functioning heart and connected blood vessels that include, arteries, veins, capillaries and valves. All these put together form the cardiovascular system in the body and together they are responsible for transporting blood and nutrients to the various parts of the body and carrying back waste products from the organs to other organs to get the blood cleaned.

Cardiovascular health is the condition of all the components of the cardiovascular system(CV). It is important to keep the cardiovascular system healthy in order to live long and healthy. Without the proper functioning of this system the vital organs will begin to malfunction and will soon fail. Death will occur within days if not hours.

The heart is the main component of the CV system. It is responsible for pumping blood to all the parts of the body. It pumps de-oxygenated blood to the lungs where the blood is oxygenated and then pumps this oxygenated blood to the other parts where the blood picks up nutrients and delivers them to the body organs that need them. The blood also carries impurities from the organs to the liver and the kidneys where the blood is purified.

Why is cardiovascular health important?

It is important to exercise the heart to strengthen it and keep it in a state that can be best described as the best of health. This is achieved by making the heart pump rapidly for a few minutes each day. The best way to exercise the cardiovascular system is through cardiovascular exercises. These exercises are designed to male the heart pump fast and furiously strengthening the whole cardiovascular system in the process.

Kaizen Methodology

All the manufacturing companies and industries have to deal with waste on a regular basis. Waste can include the idle time of employees or the equipment, defects, shipment issues, actual wasted product and so on. It has been revealed by research that most of the manufacturing companies waste about 70% of the resources. On the other hand, it has also been revealed that a company which has implemented Lean Manufacturing has been able to cut the percentage of wastage by half.

Kaizen Methodology has to do with change as it is a principle of continuous change that is meant for the environment. Kaizen methodology requires involvement from employees of the organization as well as from the management. It requires willingness from the staff to adopt the change and do things differently.

When all the employees of an organization are involved, it leads to a better work environment. However, methods need to be set up so that ideas and suggestion can be acquired, analyzed and finally implemented. The process needs to be standardized and guidelines need to be followed. It is essential to think about a number of methods of operation rather than limiting yourself to only one method of operation. This will help you find a better process which can lead to change in the standard of the operation and the environment of work overall.

A short and to the point housekeeping policy needs to be adopted. Being organized helps reduce the amount of time needed to find materials. A clean area needs to be maintained all the time as it is not only efficient, but safe as well.

There are 3 principles that need to be implemented so that the Kaizen methodology works properly.

1. Consider all processes with their results

2. Analytical thinking of all the process instead of the immediate problems only.

3. Approach Kaizen with a reasonable and learning method so that assumptions which were part of the current processes can be re-examined.

Pros and Cons of Using Flight Simulation Games For Pilot Training

Computers today have become extremely fast and virtual reality is taking full advantage of it. High resolution graphics can bring the virtual world alive. Gaming is one of the major industries today and more and more people are coming in to improve the shape of the present day gaming. Concepts that are very close to real are brought in as each day passes in the gaming. This makes the player to think and react exactly the same way as it would have been in a real situation.

Flight simulator games can give the player the real feeling of commanding an aircraft of his choice. Flight simulators are a first step for the pilot to learn the controls of the aircraft. These games have almost all the real controls the actual aircraft has. A person can learn to fly with flight simulator games as the basic process and event handling is same as in a real aircraft.

These flight simulator games are great in teaching the activities performed right from the take off to approach landing. It lets you get accustomed to the controls that are available in the real air craft and how they are used before, during and after the flight. Flight sim games also enhance your power to respond to adverse situations that can be encountered in the real flight. This has an added advantage of not risking the aircraft and the crew and at the same time testing the pilot.

Flight simulation has taken the place for judging the initial caliber of the pilot. With added hardware and cockpit interiors it is possible to build in almost a real cockpit ambience. With hydraulic jacks, the tilt and motion of the aircraft can also be simulated. This exposes the player with almost the real aircraft.

These games are available for different aircraft; the player has all the controls of that kind of aircraft. The handling of the aircraft and its physics is also incorporated in these games so you can take controls of a real aircraft. The range of flight simulators varies from passenger aircraft to olden biplane fighter aircraft. New age fifth generation aircraft simulators are also available which offer the latest features these aircraft are equipped with.

Apart from developing flying skills, flight sim games also help in gaining control and confidence in navigation techniques, weapon handling and fuel management systems. This is also a very important part of the actual flight of a combat aircraft.

To add to the importance of the flight simulation, all present day fighter aircraft are delivered with flight simulators for training purpose. Though flight sim games can not eradicate the need of real flying for learning, they can definitely reduce the time and money the pilot has to spend in real aircraft for learning to fly.

Choosing Outdoor Carpet

If you have a large outdoor patio or lounge area you may have considered installing outdoor carpeting; which can greatly add to it’s comfort. You’ll find that the majority of outdoor carpets are produced from fibers that are synthetic like olefin or polypropylene. Moreover, there are natural fibered outdoor carpets like jute or hessian. The types differ mainly in the way that they are manufactured or constructed. They consist of grass, needle, punch, and loop. Most people are familiar with the grass type of indoor outdoor carpet, because it’s green and is made to look like grass; however, you can get the grass carpet in other colors such as blue and many other colors. Some can get pretty wild looking but the thing to remember is you can find some other color besides green.

Some uses for outdoor carpeting is for around hot tubs, pools, screened in porch, or even your garage. As mentioned earlier, when thinking of indoor outdoor carpeting, most people think of the simple green colored grass plastic grass carpet, but there are actually some really nice carpets that are made specifically for outdoor. This is something I didn’t realize when we were thinking of putting carpet around our hot tub and pool. The options are a lot larger than I thought and you can really get some good looking (classy) carpet for certain areas that add some real pleasing aesthetics to an outdoor area.

As mentioned earlier, the most thought of outdoor carpet is what is referred to as marine outdoor carpeting. When I think of this carpet, I go back to being a kid and hanging out around the marina at the lake and all the marine carpeting all over. It always seemed to be faded and/or ripped and looked awful. Luckily it doesn’t look that bad if it’s kept in good shape and replaced when it get’s worn. Marine carpet is made to withstand being constantly wet and actually hold water as opposed to letting it run off.

Olefin or known as polypropylene, is created from synthetic resin. The best thing about olefin is it is extremely resilient to light and stains. Meaning it’s resistant to stain, fading, and mold. You’ll often see this carpet used as putting greens in a back yard, in the floor of sheds, and patios or other areas outdoor. This carpet comes in a huge variety of colors and gives you more choice for style and color than the traditional marine carpet.

How Do You Determine Fault in a Head on Collision?

In a serious head on car crash, serious injuries often result. In fact, fatalities are more common in a head-on collision. Statistics for the United States show that while this type of car crash accounts for only 2.0% of all accidents, a head-on collision is responsible for 10.1% of U.S. car crash fatalities.

A common misconception is that the police report will establish fault. It is actually the insured’s insurance company who determines fault, not the police officer who takes the report. Police officers may cite a driver if they have been found to have violated traffic laws; however, it is the insurance companies involved who will make the final determination. An investigation will be conducted to determine who was responsible, and if there were any contributing factors.

Once an auto insurance claim is filed, finding who is at fault is the top priority. Many times it is not obvious right from the start as to who caused the car accident. In fact, both parties may bear some responsibility, and that will be the job of the investigators to set the percentages of liability.

A head on car crash most often includes a lane departure which ends in serious injuries and property damage. One of the goals in the investigation will be to see if road conditions were at all contributory to the car accident. Things such as improperly marked roads, poor signage, rough pavement may all cause a head on collision.

Remember that it is the job of the insurance company to pay out as little as possible, they certainly do not have your best interest in mind. They have their bottom line in mind, and will want a quick, cheap settlement. This may not be what is in your best interest, however.

Head on car crash victims often have very serious, life changing injuries. An experienced personal injury attorney will be needed to help you maneuver your way through the complex legal system and get the right settlement from the insurer. If it wasn’t your fault, you need an expert team to help you reach a fair settlement in your head-on collision lawsuit.