Steel Fence Posts for Wood Fences May Be the Most Economical Choice

When building a wood privacy fence there are two types of posts that are typically used: wood and steel. The choice of posts will in large part determine how long the fence will last. Be sure to compare the quality, price and longevity of the posts. Keep in mind that the cost of the posts is actually only a small portion of the total cost of the fence. Wood posts are usually thought to be the most cost efficient but that may not always be the case.

Wood Posts:

A wood post is often the most popular choice for a cedar privacy fence. The posts are usually cedar or pressure treated pine. Most commonly they are 4″ x 4″ or 6″ x 6″ inches in size.

Cedar is a naturally rot-resistant species of wood. A cedar post can make for a beautiful wooden fence. But even cedar posts will decay when in contact with warm moist earth. And cedar posts are not inexpensive either.

Treated posts are usually made out of pine, hemlock or fir and are then soaked with chemicals to resist decay. This type of post is usually the most economical choice initially. The chemicals used are often copper based because copper has anti-microbial properties. Many of them are complex compounds that go by acronyms such as CCA, ACQ, CA or Copper-Nap. Some of these chemical treatments contain elements which are known to be toxic to living things. There is some concern that these chemicals can leach into the soil and water.

For maximum wind resistance it is recommended by most fence professionals that the diameter of the hole be 3 times the diameter of the post itself. This means that a wooden 4 x 4 post requires a 12″ diameter hole. When installing wood posts gravel should be placed below the concrete to improve water drainage.

Steel posts:

A steel post usually costs more than a wood post. But that extra cost may be offset by the fact that it will never rot or decay. And because a steel post requires a smaller diameter hole it will use less concrete. A steel post does not need any gravel for drainage and they use 6″ diameter holes that are easier to dig.

Steel posts are usually galvanized to resist corrosion and will last a lifetime. They come in three basic shapes: round posts that require brackets and a cap, hat-channels and C-posts. Unlike a wood post a steel post will never twist or warp.

The only major drawback to using steel instead of wood is the fact that steel posts do not look very nice with a wood fence. There are however metal posts available that can be covered to look like wood. By using this type of post you can get the attractive look of wood with all the benefits of steel.

When choosing the posts for a wood privacy fence be sure to compare their quality, price and longevity. Wood posts may seem to be the better buy at first glance. But when the price of concrete and gravel are included, a steel post can actually cost less than a wood post. And a steel post will make the fence last longer giving it added value over time.

Ensure Uniform Color Quality Of The Fabrics With Color Matching Cabinets

The textile market has seen overwhelming growth in last several decades. With the increasing awareness among people about fashion has been a great factor leading to this growth of textile industry. In today’s world, there is an enormous demand for high-quality textile products, and hence it is important for the manufacturers to make sure that best manufacturing and quality control processes are adopted in their manufacturing units.

A major problem with fabrics is Metamerism. It is the phenomenon due to which fabric appears different in different lighting conditions. This can be a significant problem for consumers as well as the manufacturers of the products as it becomes very difficult to maintain consistency of the products. For elimination of metamerism, it is important that the fabric is matched under different light sources and lighting conditions so that it exhibits uniform appearance regardless of the lighting conditions.

A color matching cabinet is used for matching fabrics under different light sources. A color matching cabinet is a compact box provided with various light sources which replicate the actual lighting conditions. Once a fabric is matched with all the light sources offered in the color matching cabinet; it becomes definite that the fabric will now give a uniform appearance in every lighting condition.

There are three types of color matching cabinets used in industries that are Asia Spectrum, Euro Spectrum, and US Spectrum. Different models of the instrument are incorporated with various light sources that replicate the actual condition of their respective places. Each light source has an individual switch for operation. In this way, the test sample can be viewed in individual lights. Additionally, two or more light sources can also be illuminated to see the combined effect of the light on the test sample. There is also a time totalizer provided with the instrument which depicts the usage of color matching cabinets.

The different lights that are used in the device include D65, IncA, TL84, CWF, TFL and Ultraviolet black light. D65 is used for normal daylight matching of the fabrics. IncA is used where you need reddish light. The Ultraviolet light is used for studying whiteness of fabric. CWF is a cool daylight with green energy emission. TL84 is used where there is a need of white light with a grayish hue.

With proper use of color matching cabinets, it becomes easy to provide good quality of fabrics and product to customers with a uniform appearance in every lighting condition.

How Light Pollution Can Affect the Environment

We have all heard of water pollution and air pollution. Furthermore, most people would not argue the fact that they are indeed a problem. However, light may be the only source of pollution that is overlooked by the average consumer. That may be because the average person does not think “light” when the word pollution comes up in the news or in conversation. After all, it is just light right? No, it is actually not that simple. Light pollution is defined as the lightening of the night sky due to artificial light being scattered about, it is also known as sky glow. Unnecessary light not only wastes massive amounts of electricity, but it adversely affects wildlife as well.

Light pollution, also called sky glow, is defined as light wastefully escaping into the night sky and causing a glow over urban/suburban areas. It also refers to light that is

being refracted in the surrounding atmosphere. This refraction is strongly related to the wavelength of the light. Rayleigh scattering, which makes the sky appear blue in the daytime, also affects light that comes from the earth into the sky and is then redirected to become sky-glow, seen from the ground. As a result, blue light contributes significantly more to sky-glow than an equal amount of yellow light. Sky glow is of particular irritation to astronomers, because it reduces contrast in the night sky to the extent where it may even become impossible to see the brightest stars.

So, what kind of lighting is harmful? The truth is that there are indoor and outdoor lighting that can be harmful in the long run. Research has been being done on the subject for years and it is well known that indoor fluorescent lighting can cause many health problems such as migraine headaches, fatigue, irritability and many other health conditions. But as for the outdoor environment, nighttime security lighting poses the biggest threat in terms of light pollution. Moreover, studies have shown that outdoor security lighting does not reduce crime, and uses approximately 800 pounds of coal each year per light. Have you ever looked up into the sky at night only to see a haze of dim light? This is the perfect example of light pollution. Researchers have been studying this problem for years and have produced actual photographs of landmasses, cities and rural areas around the world at nighttime. The results spoke for themselves; nighttime light is definitely a problem.

Light that is considered annoying, wasteful or harmful causes damage to the environment and health, as do other forms of pollution.Some indoor and outdoor lighting are considered harmful in the long run, It is well known that indoor fluorescent lightning can cause many health problems such as migraine, headaches, fatigue, irritability and many othe health conditions. Approximately 800 pounds of coal each year is wasted on per light. Outdoors, light pollution harms nocturnal wildlife.

Constant lighting could destroy crops, trees and even wildlife. Plants depend on the cycle of light and dark for proper growth. The onset of darkness is crucial to the flowering and reproduction process. Birds have been known to fly into towers and windows at night due to the confusion caused by nighttime lighting. The fact that night should be dark in not always the case nowadays. In some places like Las Vegas, you cannot even tell

if it is night or day because the billions are so bright you feel like you are in another dimension.

Life existed in fixed natural cycles of light and dark, so disruption of those patterns influence many aspects of animal behaviour. Light pollution confuses animal navigation, alter competitive interactions, change predator-prey relationships and influence animal physiology. Studies suggest that light pollution around lakes prevents zooplankton from eating surface algae, causing algal blooms that kill off the lake’s plants and lower water quality. Nighttime light also interferes with the ability of moths and other nocturnal insects to navigate. Night blooming flowers that depend on moths for pollination will be affected by night lighting. This leads to species decline of plants that are unable to reproduce and change an area’s long-term ecology.

Lights on tall structures disorient migrating birds. The number of birds killed after being attracted to tall towers is estimated to be from 4-5 million per year. The fatal Light Awareness Program (FLAP) works with building owners in Toronto, Canada and other cities to turn off lights during migration periods to reduce the mortality of the birds.

Contrary to misconception, sea turtle hatchlings are not attracted to the moon. Rather, they find the ocean by moving away from the dark silhouette of dunes and their vegetation, a behaviour that artificial lights interfere with. Lights may also disorient young seabirds as they leave their nests and fly out to sea.

Nocturnal frogs and salamanders are also affected. Since they are nocturnal, they wake up at night. Light pollution causes salamanders to emerge from concealment later, giving them less time to mate and reproduce.

So to do your part for the environment, make sure that your exterior lighting is ordinance compliant lighting. By this, is meant that only light the ground beneath them and never shine across onto a neighboring property or into the night sky. Secondly, by making sure that your outdoor lights are only on when needed. Dusk to dawn lighting is to be strictly avoided. Thirdly, reduce the wattage of your bulbs. The human eye is remarkable in its ability to adapt to the amount of light present. Too much light can be overwhelming and glaring, actually reducing visibility. Even a small reduction in wattage will reduce light pollution.

Installing Roof Deck Protection – Shingle-Mate Or Deck Armor?

Roofing experts agree that installing shingle roof deck underlayment is essential to a leak proof and long lasting roof system. Why install shingle roof protection? Here’s why. Roof deck protection serves as a secondary water shedding protection in case of roofing leaks. Shingle protection, roof deck underlayment keeps wood resins away from the shingles. Some resins can damage the shingles, so be mindful of what touches the shingles. Deck leveler, shingle roof protection helps to create a flat and an even deck surface. Breathable layer which helps prevent inside moisture from becoming trapped within the roofing system itself. Finally, roof deck protection is needed to obtain a UL class A fire rating on shingles. The reason you need breathable underlayment protection on the roof which goes under the shingles is to make sure your roof breathes to reduce excess moisture and assure maximum protection against hard rains and heavy winds.

Today’s modern houses are built weather-tight, so common moisture form cooking, bathing, cleaning, etc. has less of a chance to escape. Using non-breathable roof protection on the deck can create a barrier that traps harmful moisture inside your roofing system. Over a period of time, this can cause roof rot, mold, mildew, and very costly structural decay. Many homeowners do not know that moisture can travel turning into vapor, the moisture can travel through the ceilings, once airborne, and it will migrate through the ceilings using natural convection. Moisture stops at first waterproof barrier, in this case, the non-breathable roof deck protection. The moisture condenses between the roofing and deck, changes from vapor to water, and then can settle between the deck and the non-breathable roof deck underlayment.

When there is trapped moisture, your roof protection does not breathe, it may trap moisture between the top of the roof deck and the underside of the roof protection. The risks of trapped moisture can be that the plywood can delaminate and rot, OSB can expand and also rot, structural frames can warp and rot, shingle blow-off can happen, roofing nails can rust and lose their ability to hold the shingles in the correct place. There are some synthetic roofing deck protection that does not breathe. Their very makeup does not allow the moisture to pass through them. Manufactured from plastic/polymers, these products are not the asphalt roll roofing that many individuals may think of when they hear the term roof deck protection.

The reasons to use a roof deck underlayment are because of fewer buckles on the roof due to its fiberglass construction. It can straighten itself with sunlight, if it does not wrinkle. Acts like a breather so attic moisture can breathe through it.

Basic Information About Abrasive Garnet Processing

Garnet is a mineral that is abundantly present in the earth and can be extracted from the soil with careful processing. The term describes a large family of minerals that are chemically related. The garnet can be said to be like a grain, and grain like crystals are found embedded in the stone. It is obtained from the silicate based stones and is formed when natural forces like wind, water, and natural shifts of the Earth’s plates wear away at stones. Garnets are generally found in river beds, which indicate that water is the important force in forming garnet minerals. The stone is then harvested and processed to get abrasive garnet. Through geological history of erosion and deposition the highest quality garnet is made available. There are many industries located all over the world for abrasive garnet production.

There are many types of garnet with the same chemical formula and they are found naturally all over the world. The abrasive garnets have different characteristics depending on their natural region. The largest deposits of the highest quality are found in North America, Australia, East Africa, and Asia – specifically in India and Russia. The garnets are available mainly from river beds and mountain regions of these places. Many garnets are mined in an open pit and the shallow overburden, or soils over mineral deposits, is removed using large bucket shovels and dump trucks. This is the appropriate method of extraction for shallow deposits of garnet.

Highly refined, non-toxic garnets are obtained from mining and wet-processing operations. In a wet concentrator, spiral classifiers are used to separate abrasive garnet from lighter trash minerals and shell sands. The garnet is passed through a vacuum filter belt with several stages of final washing with freshwater for very low level of chloride that is internationally accepted.

The remaining sands are shifted back to the mined paddies and reshaped with original top soil for rehabilitation. The quality of the semi-refined garnet concentrate is tested at the laboratory from the sample and then it undergoes dry processing. Final impurities are removed with rare earth magnetic separators using natural gas fired rotary dryers. Non-magnetic minerals spin off in the outer cut and magnetic minerals fall below. At the end of dry processing the garnet is packed in an automatic twin-spout bagging machine and the bulk garnet is stored in large storage sheds for shipping.

The price of garnet is decided based on the type, source, quality purchased, quality and application. The world industrial garnet production has reached a total of about 335,000t. To get a quality product of garnet abrasive, the mining and processing tasks are complicated and need careful supervision.

DIY Wallpaper: Questions to Ask To Avoid Costly Mistakes

The Pros and The Cons About Wallpaper

Pros: Wallpaper allows you to be more creative and innovative. There’s faux wood, brick, metal and the possibilities go on. Wallpaper can also cover up imperfections on the walls unlike paint. Overall, wallpaper is durable. Lower quality choices may last for up to 6 months but good quality papers can last for years.

Cons: Wallpaper may fade over time and become hard to clean once there’s built up residue. Also, since some wallpaper patterns are trendy, that style may be impossible to replace.

Narrow Your Options

So now that you know the pros and cons about wallpaper, there are more things to consider. This will help you narrow down your options to make it easier. Narrow done by thinking about your lifestyle and budget.

Questions of Your Lifestyle

– How long are you planning on staying in the current home/apartment?

– Do you own or rent your home/apartment?

– What would you like to accomplish the most with wallpaper?

– What room in the house are you considering?

After answering a series of these questions, learning how to choose wallpaper will be easier and hopefully fun. How here are possible answers and choices of wallpaper, starting with the question, “How long are you planning on staying in the current home/apartment?”

If you plan to stay in the home long, then go with a pre-pasted wallpaper which will be easy to install and remove but will last longer. If you won’t be staying long, go with self adhesive wallpaper.

If you plan to stay in the home or apartment for less than a year then choose a wallpaper that will be easy to remove. Choose wallpaper with self adhesive paper. Self adhesive paper can be peeled off from the back and placed on the wall. Removing the wallpaper is also easy to do and usually comes off as one large strip.

“Do you own or rent your apartment?”

If you own the apartment then you don’t have to worry about spending extra money removing non pasted wallpaper before moving out. For renters, stick with a self adhesive installation. Easy clean up and removable. If you plan to stay in a home or apartment permanently, then consider pre-pasted or non pasted.

“What would you like to accomplish the most with wallpaper?”

If it is to add value to a home, then getting a great quality long lasting non pasted wallpaper will be the best choice. If you just want to experiment with wallpaper patterns, the self adhesive is the least inexpensive. There are also a lot of great options to choice from.

“What room in the house are you considering for wallpaper installation?”

If it is a small room like a laundry room or dining room, taking chances are fine. Rolls of wallpaper can be expensive and over seen so larger rooms need to be well thought out. It is also suggested to buy one extra roll just in case.

The Advantages and Disadvantages of Marble Tile Flooring

When it comes to flooring, there is no dearth of innovative materials and designs. One can select from numerous options when it comes to flooring. Marble tiles are one of the most popular choices for flooring. Though many other options like linoleum, vinyl, hardwood etc are available for flooring; marble flooring is one of the most elegant flooring styles around. If you are one of those people who would like to have marble flooring in their house or office, then keep reading on –

Tips for getting the best flooring done

When choosing flooring options keep the following tips in mind

* Your budget.

* Selection of the right quality and design of marble tiles. They should be durable and the design should be such that its appeal lasts for a long time.

* You should visit the reputed stores in your area where you can get to know about the variety of marble tiles available in the market, as well as their prices. You can also research about it on the internet. Doing such research would give you a reasonably good sense of what is available in the market and what is the best you can afford within your budget.

Marble flooring as a better flooring option

Marble flooring is recommended by many interior designers because it is one of the most lasting flooring options and can give a stunning bright look to the floor. One of the best features of marble tile flooring is that they are scratch-free and stainless, and retain their fresh look for years.

However like other flooring options, marble tile flooring also has some drawbacks. These are –

* Marble is so heavy that the floor needs extra support for carrying the load. So before flooring with marble tiles, one should take appropriate measures to ensure that the floor can bear the weight of the tiles.

* Marble floors demand regular maintenance. So you have to spare some time regularly to maintain the beauty of your flooring.

*Marble tile flooring can be quite expensive and the flooring cost may be more than what you have budgeted. However if you have still desire to install marble tile flooring then you have another option that is synthetic marble tile flooring. Synthetic marble tiles are cheaper than the original marble tiles. But at the same time you cannot expect the durability and bright beauty of original marble tiles from the synthetic version.

What Are Some Causes Of Heartburn And Diarrhea Issues?

The number of people suffering from frequent bouts of heartburn is on the rise. We are now aware that it is our lifestyle that is causing the pain behind the chest bone and unpleasant feeling of burning in the esophagus and throat. Heartburn and diarrhea is a perfect example of how eating the wrong kinds of foods can bring about a variety of problems which keeps the body imbalanced.

Heartburn is created by acid reflux. The foods we eat, mixed with stomach acid, goes up to the esophagus and creates pain in the chest and burning in the throat. It’s because of a weaken muscle between the esophagus and stomach that is the cause of heartburn. The muscle between the stomach and esophagus is softened when it comes into contact any food that irritates it. This muscle won’t function right and acid escapes into the esophagus,

The increased production of acid in the stomach, caused by different types of food, can cause heartburn to be intensified. Some of the excess acid can back up into esophagus, but it also often causes acute diarrhea. Since diarrhea occurs at the same time as heartburn, we feel like they are causing each other.

Food moving slowly through the stomach may also trigger heartburn because more stomach acid is needed for digestion and this extra acid could wind up in the esophagus. What we eat could cause diarrhea as well as slow movement of food in the stomach.

If you plan to take any drugs to battle your heartburn, be careful because some of them have aluminum hydroxide in them which has been known to cause diarrhea in some people.

Diarrhea can also be caused proton pump inhibitors. A proton pump inhibitor job is to slow down the production of stomach acid but one possible side effect that may occur is the possibility of developing a case of diarrhea.

While diarrhea happens in the lower part of stomach and heartburn in the esophagus. The issue can be felt throughout the entire digestive system. Multiple health issues can be traced to an inability of vitamins being absorbed in the body because of an imbalance in stomach acid production.

When heartburn and diarrhea occur at the same time, we might be looking at two completely different health issues. For instance, a person could be experiencing Irritable Bowel Syndrome and heartburn at the same time. It’s very important to go see a doctor if heartburn and diarrhea happens regularly. A proper diagnosis and treatment are necessary. There are many health issues that can be the result of prolonged diarrhea.

Heartburn can come with a wide variety of other digestive conditions. While these other conditions may not be directly linked to acid reflux, poor eating habits and bad nutrition will still bring about problem to the digestive system. Before resorting to strong drugs, it is best to try to regain digestive system balance by switching to a healthier diet, rich in fruits, vegetables, whole wheat grains, lean meats and a lot of water. Caution with regard to eating is the best rule of thumb.

How Much Protein Do You Get Or Consume on the Medifast Diet?

At it’s core, medifast is really a low carb diet. I find that a lot of people are a bit surprised by this, myself included. I used to think that this was your basic low calorie, restrictive diet, but there’s a bit more to it than that. All of the foods are very high protein and fiber, while being relatively low in carbohydrates and sugars. This is the formula that puts your body into fat burning mode and it’s a very important part of the equation. The other day, I had someone ask me exactly how much of all of each part of the equation you take in on each day that you’re on medifast. I’ll answer this in the following article.

Sample Medifast Menu With Daily Protein Content: Probably the easiest way to make the point is to go over a typical day on medifast and then figure out the daily content from there.

Below is a sample menu with protein, fiber, sugar and calorie content (in grams.) Keep in mind that every day you’ll consume five of the diet’s smaller prepackaged meals and you’ll make one “lean and green” meal on your own. You have quite a bit of freedom with this and you can make your own choices. But, the company does give you some guidelines. They want you eating lean meat or vegetable alternatives and they want you eating three servings of vegetables that are glycemic friendly.



Chocolate Shake————-11———————–3———————————–9————————90


Crunch Bar——————12———————–4———————————–2————————110

Lean And Green Meal ——-This varies, depending upon the meal you chose.———————-

Cinnamon Chips————–4————————1———————————–3————————70

As you can see, on this typical day, we’ve consumed 49 grams of protein, 18 of fiber, 15 of sugar, and 490 calories. But, we haven’t yet figured in our lean and green yet. There are many options here and so long as you eat a small portion of meat or meat substitute and 3 servings of vegetables, you’re fine. Some people will do this with stir fry. Some will make a casserole or one pot meal. And, some will do a more traditional meal with side items. No matter how you slice it though, they want you to eat 5 – 7 ounces of meat or it’s substitute. In general, each ounce will have 7 grams of protein. So, if you had a six ounce portion, you’d consume 42 grams. Put this with the smaller diet meals you’ve already eaten and you have a grand total of 91.

This is pretty close to diets like South Beach and Atkins on which many people will aim for around 100. As you can see, you’re getting a very generous amount of protein which should have no problem getting you in fat burning mode (ketosis) unless you cheat an awful lot on your lean and green meal and load up on carbs at that time.

Feeding the Elderly When They Can’t Feed Themselves

Sometimes the elderly encounter problems when eating. They may be unable to physically manipulate utensils. They may be unable to understand how to get started eating. They may be unable to continue feeding themselves after starting because of fatigue. When you are helping someone by feeding them or helping them to feed themselves, there are several things to think about.

Always sit to the side of the person you are feeding. If you are right-handed, sit on their right side. If you are left-handed, sit on their left side. However, if you are working with them to provide assistance (i.e. having them hold the utensil and guiding their actions) sit on the side that they are using. Try to sit next to the person in such a way that they are still able to see you. Never sit in front of the person and feed them as if they were an infant – this is demeaning. Never feed a person while standing up. This makes the person feel rushed and contributes to a head tilt backwards that can cause choking. This is also true when giving a drink or pills to someone. You should always be on the same level.

Encourage the person to feed themselves when possible. They may be able to pick up finger foods such as french fries, bread, fruit slices, etc. Sandwiches are an excellent way to encourage self-feeding. Cream soups placed in coffee cups are also easy to handle. Some people may continue to feed themselves if you help them get started by putting your hand over the top of their hand, scooping the food, and helping them to get it to their mouth. This is particularly true of people who have dementia.

Whenever possible, try to serve foods that can either be picked up with the fingers or eaten with a spoon. Trying to switch back and forth between utensils can be confusing and physically challenging. Look at the size of the utensils that are being used and be sure that they are the right size. If the person has a tendency to take very large bites, try using a smaller spoon. If you are feeding someone, the spoon should only be half full.

Encourage the person to tell you what they would like. If they are unable to tell you what they want, try to present the more nutritious items first. Be careful about presenting a lot of liquids early in the meal or putting a dessert out before the main course has been eaten. The elderly often fill up on liquids or sweets before they have had a chance to eat healthier items. If there is something that the person really does not seem to like, try to provide another item.

Pay close attention to the temperature of the food. When in doubt, use a food thermometer to check. Keep in mind that the person you are feeding may not be able to tell you if something is wrong with the food. They may also have reduced sensation due to medical conditions. A good rule of thumb is to take no more than 45 minutes for a meal. After that much time has gone by, the food is no longer tasty and the person that you are feeding is probably getting very worn out. It is better to give smaller meals more frequently or provide snacks between meals. Eating should always be a pleasurable experience.

Be sure to note any problems with chewing or swallowing. These may be related to ill-fitting dentures, declining mental status, or physical problems. These should be reported to a physician quickly so that appropriate steps can be taken to insure that the person can eat safely.

Ancient and Modern Delhi

A thousand years of history are to be found in Delhi, capital of India and its third largest city. Located in the north where the country narrows between Pakistan in the west and China and Tibet in the east, Delhi was the capital of Moslem India from the 12th to the 19th century. It has historically been the hub of vital trade routes and held a strategic position at the gateway to the fertile plain of the Ganges — the social, religious and cultural lifeline of India.

There are two Delhi cities now, the New and the Old. There have been at least eight recorded cities on and around the site, the oldest being Indraprastha, in existence since the third or fourth century B.C. There are many legends regarding the founding of the city and some archaeological dates as to its age. The Tomar Rajputs founded and fortified the walls of Dhillika, the first of the medieval cities, in the 9th century A.D. and were overthrown in the 12th century by the Cauhans of Jaipur who built a second defensive wall. Turkish invaders in 1193 ended Hindu rule and began the new Islamic era of the city. Subsequent cities were added adjacent to the more ancient ones. Shah Jahan, famous creator of the Taj Mahal, was responsible for the seventh Delhi, which he named Shahjahanabad. It was the Mughal capital until 1857. As the Mughal power waned to be replaced by that of the British East India Company, so Delhi lost its prestige and became just another provincial city.

In 1911 the British chose Delhi as their capital, transferring the viceregal headquarters from Calcutta. Plans were soon underway to build New Delhi to the south of Shahjahanabad and Edwin Lutyens and Herbert Baker, two British architects, were brought in to design it. The center of the plan consisted of the Rashtrapati Bhavan or Viceregal Lodge (which is now the Presidential Residence), Parliament House, the Secretariats, Memorial Arch and Connaught Circus. The city was designed in a mixture of European Renaissance and Oriental styles to provide a gracious garden setting for the colonial rulers, but after Independence in 1947, the city began a surge of both horizontal and vertical growth and now incorporates all the older cities, continuing to expand as the population increases.

Thanks to its long history, its many rulers and religions, Delhi is a paradoxical city. It has within its limits many of India’s most ancient and revered buildings and monuments, illustrating all the stages of its development, and is also a bustling modern metropolis of almost six million people.

The Red Fort

On the west bank of the Yaumana River, on the eastern perimeter of Delhi’s walled city, stands the Red Fort. Residence and administrative center, it was built from 1639 to 1648 under the supervision of two architects. It is a formidable war-like structure with octagonal and round bastions and two symmetrical watchtowers overlooking its red sandstone walls which surround an irregular octagon 3,200 by 1,600 feet and reach 100 feet high. It is surrounded by a deep moat fed from the river to the east. Only two great gates, the Lahori Gate (the main entrance) in the west wall and the Delhi Gate in the south wall, remain of the original five.

Inside the Lahori Gate is an arcade of shops, called Chata Chauk, which was originally housing for Shah Jahan’s court. Beyond this is the Drum House, or Hathipol, a parking place for the elephants of visitors. Intricate carvings in the sandstone are typical late Mughal design and were originally painted in gold and bright colors. Much of the original structure of the inner fort has been destroyed, especially during the Indian Mutiny in 1857, and lawns and gardens now replace the galleries which were built inside the walls.

The Hall of Public Audience, located between the inner court and the royal palaces, was the administrative center of the capital, but it was an overwhelming showplace too. Much of its sumptuousness must now be imagined, but the marble canopied throne with its backdrop of marble inlaid in the classical style still remain. Six miniature palaces stood along the eastern wall of the fort and contained apartments for the royal household, including the harem. They were connected by the Stream of Paradise, a small canal of scented waters, the Nahri-Bahisht. Five of these gem-like buildings remain intact. Also situated along the east wall but secluded behind a sandstone wall are the royal baths, which face the Pearl Mosque built by Aurangzeb. The outer walls are aligned with the walls of the fort, but the inner walls are at an angle so that they are correctly aligned facing Mecca.

The Life Bestowing Gardens, originally to the north of the mosque, were designed to imitate the gardens of paradise and contained pavilions, fountains and plants in a formal arrangement. Silver swings were hung on silk cords inside pavilions for the ladies of the court to sit and watch the rains during the Hindu festival of Teej, which celebrates the onset of the monsoon.


Taj Mahal — “The Crowned Palace”

Probably the most recognized structure in the world and also one of the most beautiful, the graceful lines of the Taj Mahal are among the many architectural splendors attributable to Shan Jahan, which have brought him worldwide recognition.

Built in memory of and to enshrine his first wife, Mumtaz Mahal, the building was begun on her death in 1631. An influential and beloved companion and advisor, Mumtaz Mahal was always consulted on affairs of state and was in fact the one to affix the royal seal on official documents. She died during the birth of their fourteenth child and was sadly mourned by her husband who, as a widower, radically altered his lifestyle. He handed over much of the responsibility for state functions and military endeavors to his sons and devoted his energies to his life-long interest in architecture.

From his teen years when he had remodeled his apartments at Kabul with great skill and taste, Shah Jahan had always actively participated in the impressive building projects of his reign. He designed the structures and decorations, made scale working models and supervised the building. Experience had well prepared him for what was to be his crowning achievement, the Taj Mahal. There has been much speculation as to who could have been the architect and various people have been suggested, from a Venetian goldsmith to a Turk named Usted Isa Afandi (onetime pupil of Sinan, the best known Turkish architect), and an Indian from Lahore named Usted Ahmad. It is quite probable, though, that while many architects, artisans and craftsmen contributed to the construction and modification, the concept and controlling hand was that of Shah Jahan. The style is a synthesis of existing traits of Mughal architecture. The use of gardens and stone water courses is reminiscent of the style prevalent in Kabul which had been utilized by Babur. The slender minarets and inlays in marble are seen on other tombs such as that of Akbar, while the swelling dome and arched alcoves are Persian in style. The Taj Mahal is felt to be the epitome of Mughal architecture.

Work on the project had progressed so well that by 1643 the annual memorial service to Mumtaz Mahal was held within its walls, though it would be a further ten years before the complex was complete. The builders and designers of the Taj Mahal were conversant with the rules of perspective and successfully incorporated many features which heightened the symmetry and grace of the structure by optical illusion. Although the height and width of the building are equal, the appearance is one of towering height. Reflections in the water add to this illusion while rows of cypress and evergreens accentuate the perspective.

Constructed of white marble, the outer facing of the main octagonal structure is decorated with Koranic verse carved into the stone. Designed and executed by a Persian, Amat Khan Shirazi, the most talented calligrapher in the empire, the decorative writings are further enhanced by panels of floral patterns in a realistic style, geometric designs and graceful arabesques. The base is also white marble 300 feet square and inside are mosaics inset with semi-precious stones. The central chamber stands above the burial vaults and houses two cenotaphs surrounded by openwork alabaster screens, also decorated with semi-precious stones. The interior is illuminated in the daytime by diffused light filtered through the translucent alabaster dome and the intricately perforated window screens of the same material.

A terrace surrounds the main structure and is guarded at each corner by a slim, exquisitely proportioned minaret, each 133 feet tall, which give balance and grace to the massive central edifice. A rectangular lake in the foreground acts as a reflecting surface and adds to the perspective. The Taj Mahal is reminiscent of the exquisite two-dimensional Persian and Mughal miniatures depicting ethereal fairy tale palaces, while its size, architectural complexity and scientific accuracy of perspective and symmetry have caused it to fascinate and delight all who visit it.

Jaipur, “The Pink City”

The Pink City of Jaipur in Rajasthan was built in 1728 by Maharajah Sawai Jai Singh II. It was not pink at its inception. It was painted the traditional color of welcome in honor of Prince Albert, Queen Victoria’s consort, who visited in 1883. The city is an eclectic mixture of Hindu, Mughal, Persian and Jain styles. It replaced the old capital of Amber which was more vulnerable to attack. It was arranged on a grid of eight squares around a central square which contained the palace and administration buildings. North of the central block was the Brahmapuri (the City of God), home of the priests and scholars which was protected by gardens and lakes. The northwest quadrant was actually a hill from which the Nahargarh, or Tiger Fort, overlooked and protected the city. From this vantage point the layout of the city may be clearly seen. The streets are laid out in perfect proportion, the main thoroughfares are 108 feet wide (a Hindu holy number) and decrease in size according to use. Standardization of shop sizes, wide even sidewalks, houses of an even height (half the width of the street) all give the city a gracious, elegant appearance. Deep stone awnings protect the shop fronts from the merciless sun and create a pleasant atmosphere in which to browse.

A bustling commercial center, Jaipur is reminiscent of the ancient Middle East, the people straight out of the “Arabian Nights.” The women’s abundant jewelry represents the wealth of the family and can be quite overwhelming. This is one of the last strongholds of the practice of sati, the custom of Indian wives immolating themselves on the funeral pyre of their husband. Though this has been illegal since 1829, a recent recorded case was in 1980 and received much support from local women.

Fatehpur Sikri, “Victory City”

For four hundred years pilgrims, both Hindu and Muslim, have visited the tomb of Shaikh Salim Chrishti at Fatehpur Sikri. It was built by the Mughal Emperor Akbar to honor a Muslim mystic who, having assured him that his lack of heirs was not permanent, promised not one but three sons to the emperor. When the first of these sons was born the next year, a great mosque and a new capital were built at Sikri to honor the occasion, and when the shaikh died in 1572 his mausoleum was added to the site.

Akbar’s fortunes had changed for the better and in the next year he succeeded in conquering the immense kingdom of Gujarat in the west. To commemorate this achievement he built the biggest gateway in India, 176 feet high, to grace his new City of Victory. This city became a focal point and home to artists, artisans, soldiers and priests — a huge population all working directly or indirectly for the comfort and splendor of the emperor.

During the year of 1584, just fourteen years after the inauguration of the new capital, Akbar left on one of his campaigns to the north and never returned to stay. The reason for this abandonment is not known, though theories have been put forward — lack of water and the ingrained nomadic instincts of the people are two, but the mysterious abandoned city keeps its own secrets. The battlements are crumbling, farm animals graze and peck in the ruins. All signs of human habitation are gone; the rooms give no clue as to the people who lived there, the courtiers, the five thousand wives, the noblemen, all are gone without trace.

A thousand elephants and an immense army were based here and were led on numerous invasions, often not as bloody as those of the emperor’s ancestors, and the lot of the conquered was often much improved after conquest. Akbar was an able administrator, innovative and well before his time — his postal system of runners was capable of delivering a letter 78 miles in a day. His justice was swift and punishment was designed to fit the crime. Torture was believed to ensure truth in evidence while executions were held only after a few days of consideration. Meals were sumptuous, the main one each day boasted forty courses served on Chinese porcelain (legend had it that this fine ware would break in the presence of poison). Water from the Ganges, sent in sealed jars, was the only beverage the emperor drank.


Madhya Pradesh, the geographical heartland of India, is primarily high plateau country. In a remote corner of this state, far off the beaten track, lie the state’s most extraordinary attractions – the temples of Khajuraho. Superb examples of Indo-Aryan architecture, these structures are embellished with beautifully wrought stone carvings, primarily celebrating the pleasures of sex. This Kama Sutra carved in stone commemorates the beauty of the “celestial maidens,” of gods and goddesses, and real and mythological animals.

Built during the Chandala Period, the temples date from a century-long burst of creativity which lasted from AD 950 to 1050. It is still a mystery why these immense structures were built in this isolated spot which, as far as can be determined, never was a population center and is not a comfortable place to live, due to its long, hot, dry season. It is also a subject of intense speculation as to where the work force came from to accomplish such a monumental building project in just one hundred years. One advantage of the site choice emerged years later when, due to its remoteness, the Khajuraho Temple escaped the ravages of the Muslim invaders in their zeal to destroy all the “idolatrous” temples in India.

The temples of Khajuraho are built in three groups, the largest and most important being in the western enclosure, which is also the best-kept. Following a plan that shows little variation, each temple is approached through an entrance porch, ardhamandapa, behind which is the hall or mandapa. A main hall, mahamandapa, follows, which is surrounded by a corridor supported by pillars. A vestibule, antaraloa, leads into the inner sanctum garbagriha, where the image of the dedicatory god is found.

The exterior of each building is impressive as wave after wave of towers culminate in a soaring sikhara, which tops the inner sanctum. The baroque line of the vertical is offset by ornate horizontal friezes of sculpture, which form a carefully integrated element of the entire building.

Most of the temples are aligned east-west and are made of granite and sandstone. They lack the enclosing walls of contemporary structures in other locations, but often had four smaller shrines at the corners, many of which have not survived. One of the best preserved of all the structures is the Lakshmana Temple, in the western group. This temple was dedicated to Vishnu and is one of the earliest built on the site (between AD 930 and 950).


One of the most important pilgrimage sites in all of India, Varanasi, the “Eternal City,” has been a center of learning and civilization for some 2000 years. Nearby, on the banks of the sacred Ganges, the Buddha first preached his message of enlightenment 25 centuries ago. The city was sacked frequently by Muslim invaders from the 11th century on, and later became a center for Muslim worship also. Moghul Emperor Aurangzeb destroyed the majority of the temples in existence or converted them into mosques.

Varanasi has, over its history, been called “Kashi” and “Benares,” with the present name translating as the “City between two rivers.” Situated in the middle of a poor, backward, agrarian, and overpopulated area, it is a shining jewel of learning and literature for Hindus and Sanskrit scholars, and one of the most preferred and auspicious places in all of India for the devout to go to die. The many ghats that line the riverbanks are always crowded with pilgrims who bathe in the murky waters of the Ganges in religious purification ceremonies.

Laying Pavers – A DIY Or A Professional Job?

Many homeowners opt to lay pavers either inside or outside their home to enhance its appearance. Have you always wanted a sandstone pathway or a granite entryway? Do you think that travertine would make a fantastic driveway material or that bluestone would really work in your bathroom? The question faced by many homeowners is whether laying pavers is a do-it-yourself job or whether you need a professional’s assistance.


If you would like to lay your own pavers (perhaps you’re trying to save some money or you like the personal touch), there are a number of questions that you should ask yourself first:

  • Have you ever worked with natural stone before? If yes, how successful was that project?
  • Do you know how to cut through the pavers, or will you need to get a professional to do this part for you?
  • How much experience do you have with landscaping and manual labour around the home?
  • Are you willing to watch tutorials and read instructions that will help you to lay the stone properly?

Once you have answered the above questions, you will be in a much better position to determine whether you have the skills and expertise necessary to lay pavers yourself.


If you would like to have a professional lay the pavers for you (perhaps you like the polished finish or you don’t trust your own abilities), there are also a number of questions that you should first ask yourself:

ยท Can you afford to have a professional come out and undertake the project for you? If yes, what is your budget?

  • Do you know exactly what you want from the paver project, and can you convey this to the professional?
  • Do you need the project finished as soon as possible? If so, what is your timeframe or schedule?
  • Have you found a professional who is available when you need them and who can explain the process?

Once you have answered the above questions, you will be in a much better position to determine whether hiring a professional is actually the best decision for your needs.

Whilst there can be no denying that pavers are an aesthetically pleasing addition to any home, it is important to determine early on in the project whether a do-it-yourself or professional approach is the best one for your needs. Make sure that you answer the questions related to your preferred paver choice – you might find that you were about to make a wrong decision with disastrous results.

Must Have Billiard Table Accessories – Must Know Facts For Pool Table Shoppers

The game of billiards is only as fun as the equipment that you have with you. Without the right stuff to play with, just having a pool table in your game room can turn awful dull. So here are the key things that you absolutely must have in order to play a good game of billiards.

Pool Cues – You will obviously need a good set of cue sticks in order to smack the cues around with. You can get a few one piece “sneaky Pete” pool cues cheaply, but if you really want to get something personal, consider getting a two piece cue with good looking inlays and a hard rock maple shaft.

Billiard Balls – Whether you want to play 8 Ball or 9 Ball on your pool table, a good set of billiard balls is a must have. What’s neat about modern billiard balls is the sheer variety that you can get from them. Do you want something really classic? There are plenty of billiard ball sets that look exactly like sets from a hundred years ago. Do you want something really flashy? There are pool ball sets that are sparkly or are even camouflage. No matter your taste or inclinations, there are sets of billiard balls to meet your taste.

Bridge Head – Sometimes a shot requires you to reach all the way across the table. That’s when a bridge head can really come in handy. Just attach it to one cue and rest another cue on the bridge head. When you finally have to make that tricky shot, you’ll be glad you have one.

Pool Cue Stand – You don’t want to just pile your pool cues underneath your table do you? A pool cue stand helps protect your cues while displaying them attractively while they are not in use. If you are worried that you are short on floor space in your game room, you can get a wall mounted pool cue stand.

Diamond and Triangle – If you are going to rack up for the two most popular billiard table games, these are essentials. While the cheapest ones are plastic, you can actually get fancier ones that are made of stained wood. Some advanced models actually have ball bearings on the bottom so that you can smoothly roll them around on your billiard cloth.

Chalk – Chalk is one of the biggest developments in the sport of billiards, as it allows you to control the amount of spin on the ball. Getting a box of chalk cubes is essential if you really want to get good at your game.

Table Brush – How smooth and even your billiard cloth is can be essential to the quality of the billiard ball roll. That’s why it’s just good policy to invest in a a good table brush and use it on your table regularly.

Table Cover – Protect your table from stains and dust with a good quality table cover. Covering your table whenever it isn’t in use can increase the longevity of your table and make it perform better whenever you use it.

Fortunately, there are a good selection of billiard accessory kits that allow you to all this kind of equipment in one easy package.

The Blacklisting of Dorothy Parker: The Pendulum of Power Swings Against the Bill of Rights, Again!

It is ironic today we are witnessing the intended power of the Bill of Rights being whittled down to nothing more than meaningless words. It appears that whatever political party is in power they find the Bill of Rights an inconvenience. Today with the TSA setting up road blocks on the interstate harassing travelers with probing searches and probing questions it is no wonder Americans are totally numb to the fact they have no more rights:

Probably the strongest law, signed by President Obama and passed by the Democratic Senate, was NDAA. Essentially this law allows the federal government to pick up any United States citizen and detain them without charge indefinitely. It is by far the most oppressive law against the Bill of Rights ever. What’s ironic is this has been done before! Back in the 1950s the Republicans (with some Democratic help) pursued perceived Communist in our government and the arts (mostly writers and actors). In particular they basically accused 150 actors and directors in Hollywood for being communist (i.e. socialist).

Remember, no matter how much we disagree with another person being a communist, fascist, evangelical zealot, or any other true believer ideology, it isn’t against the law. You have, under the Bill of Rights, freedom of speech, freedom of assembly, and freedom of association (i.e. the Amish don’t have to hang out with you). Under the witch hunt of the McCarthy era people were brought before Congress and were forced to testify under oath what they believed. Yes, many of these people were socialist and communist in their beliefs but, guess what, it’s not against the law.

When members of this list were brought to the House Un-American Committee or Senator McCarthy’s Senate Committee they were basically blacklisted from further work in Hollywood for refusing to answer questions (First Amendment Bill of Rights). What these committees did was to attack the principle of Freedom of Speech and Freedom of Assembly, as it was enshrined in the Bill of Rights.

Finally, Congress threw ten writers in jail for a year and about 150 were blacklisted from further work in Hollywood. (The blacklist was derived from a private publication titled the Red Channels). This blacklist was totally unconstitutional and illegal.

The list was derived from a right wing Republican group who saw all liberal Democrats as anti-American Communist. Dorothy Parker, who’s name was on the list, saw her career in Hollywood completely destroyed. She never recovered and never got to defend herself in a court of law. Essentially the big Hollywood studios caved in to the political pressure of the day and just ignored those who were on the list. About 11 years later some of the bigger writers eventually got to work under their real names again. In the meantime they had to work under pseudonyms for a fraction of the fee. In fact, why they put Dorothy Parker on the blacklist probably had more to do with her being a founding member of the Writers Guild with eight other Hollywood writers. It’s interesting to note that half of the founding Writers Guild members were blacklisted. Sure looks and smells like union busting.

It wasn’t until Otto Preminger produced Exodus that a blacklisted screenwriter received a screen credit with his real name. (This was one year before Kirk Douglas’ Spartacus which some researchers mistakenly believe was the first film to break the blacklist). Today the pendulum has swung to the other extreme with the far left of the Democratic party attacking the Bill of Rights. The NDAA is only one example of laws being passed by congress (in particular the Democratic Senate). A citizen can now be picked up off the streets and held without charge. They can also be tried by a military court! The list of lost rights that have been removed goes on and on.

Why is it that extreme political believers always want to attack the Bill of Rights? Don’t fret, the Bill of Rights always survives these attacks, because, in the end there is nothing else that works better for the people. The most effective tool in any world economy has been the freedoms stated in the Bill of Rights. As soon as they are restricted, as they are today, and Dorothy Parker’s day, the economy starts to slow down. In the near future many of these restrictions on the Bill of Rights will be turned back and freedom loving people will get this economy moving again as they did back in Dorothy Parker’s day.

Few people remember Dorothy Parker today but in her time she believed in helping the poor, the blacks, the anti-Franco forces in Spain, and the anti-Nazi groups in the late thirties. More then ever, we need the humor and wit of Dorothy Parker today! The pendulum of power may have moved but the need for the Bill of Rights is needed more than ever.

Outdoor TV Options Compared

When planning for an Outdoor TV or Digital Signage display you have 3 choices to compare, standard TV, Weatherproof TV, Outdoor TV Enclosure. I will attempt to give you a brief overview of the options. The best advice is to do your research to be sure you understand the options and to make the proper choice for your application.

As Americans continue their migration to warm weather states industries associated with outdoor living have seen a significant growth in business as well. Companies that supply outdoor kitchens, outdoor furniture, outdoor entertainment and landscaping have experience a steadily growing market during the past decade. We relocate to more tempered climates to enjoy the outdoors for longer stretches of time. Even in the colder northern states we see growth in outdoor living. Since my expertise is in Audio Video Integration I will focus this writing on a growing segment of the market, outdoor TV.

Over my 20 year career in Home and Commercial entertainment products outdoor TV screens went from a small majority of wealthy clients to basically a standard feature in every home. The desire to extend living space outdoors, watch the game while barbecuing some burgers or maybe watch a night time movie while relaxing on your patio has been a driving force in the expansion of outdoor living products.

Going back to my early experience with outdoor TV the only choice we had was to select an inexpensive TV, do our best to protect it from the elements and hope for the best as far as durability and longevity. A few TV mounting manufacturers introduced protective outdoor enclosures but the pricing was very high and again only for the wealthy. When you combined the high price of Plasma or LCD TV’s at the time with the high price of the TV enclosure the cost became prohibitive for all but a few clients.

When placing a standard TV the expected lifespan of the TV was greatly reduced due to moisture and particle infiltration in to the electronics and possible damage to the TV from airborne debris. Some clients had great luck and their TV’s lasted for a few years. Many were not so lucky. That is one reason the market was restrained to the more wealthy clients who could afford to replace their outdoor TV when necessary. Of course TV manufacturers would void any warranty on an indoor TV used in outdoor conditions. This is still the case today.

You have three options for outdoor TV and Commercial Digital Signage applications.

1) As discussed above, purchase an inexpensive indoor TV and hope for the best.

2) Purchase a value added third party weatherized outdoor TV.

3) Purchase an outdoor TV enclosure.

There are pros and cons with each solution. I would suggest that you do your research to select the best solution for your application.

Option #1, Standard TV placed outdoors;

The main change from what we have already discussed with option #1 is the huge reduction in the price of flat panel TV’s. Anyone who purchased one 10 years ago and has gone shopping for a new TV has experienced this first hand. Beyond that the same potential issues still exist. If you choose this option be prepared for the possibility that your TV may just go “poof” one day never to shine again. Ironically this of course will occur in the middle of the game or during the climactic scene of the movie neither of which is a fun experience. I can’t tell you how many times we would get calls from clients whose TV’s decided to stop working at the worst possible times.

Option #1 Summary; for those with a limited budget and that have a bit of a gambler in them this is the right solution. Just keep in mind that the clock is ticking from the first day you mount your TV outside. I would recommend buying a new TV for your family room and moving the old TV outdoors. It will hurt much less when it decides to go “poof” on you.

Option #2 Weatherproof TV;

As the market for outdoor living continued its growth a few companies introduced the Weatherproof TV. The weatherproof TV offers an attractive self contained package that fits nicely into most designs. Most of the weatherproof TV models offered were from “value added manufactures”. These are manufacturing companies that take an already existing product and customize it for more specialized applications.

The process;

1) utilize a standard indoor TV

2) disassemble it

3) weatherize the components

4) reassemble it under their brand name.

One outdoor TV manufacturer lists; LG, Hitachi, Vizio, JVC, and Hisense as “model donors” for their TV’s.

The weatherproof TV offers a solution to the protection from rain or water infiltration but offers little or no protection against vandalism or airborne debris striking the screen. A review of their websites shows no mention of the protection capabilities of the

The weatherproof TV also comes at a premium price. The price could be 5 times or more of the price of a standard TV. This is still the case today. While these TV’s offer protection against the weather they.

Here is an example from the Best Buy website on 9-10-2014.

Outdoor TV – SunBrite TV Signature Series – 55″ Class – LED – 1080p – 60Hz – HDTV $4,100.00.

Standard TV – VIZIO E-Series – 55″ Class – LED – 1080p – 120Hz – Smart – HDTV $680.00.

Option #2 Summary; when design aesthetics are the most important element of your project, price/budget is not a concern and protection from vandals or debris is not an issue then the weatherproof TV is the right choice.

Option #3; Outdoor TV Enclosure;

In recent years a popular alternative has emerged, the outdoor TV enclosure or outdoor TV cabinet. The benefit of the outdoor TV cabinet it that you can place any flat screen TV outdoors and have it protected from the elements and potential vandalism. The pricing on these units range from a few hundred to a few thousand dollars depending on the size, quality and level of protection offered.

Let’s take our 55″ TV from above at $680.00. The price for a weatherproof,vandal resistant outdoor TV cabinet will range from $1000 to $2000. Add that to the price of the TV and you’re still well below the cost of the weatherproof TV. When we look at commercial applications for restaurants, sporting facilities, digital advertising where multiple displays are required the potential savings could be substantial.

The two main construction materials used for the enclosure/cabinet are;

1) Polyethylene, is the most common plastic. Polyethylene is a thermoplastic polymer consisting of long hydrocarbon chains. a durable plastic with good outdoor use properties.

2) Powder Coated Steel, Powder coated products are more resistant to diminished coating quality as a result of impact, moisture, chemicals, utraviolet light, and other extreme weather conditions. In turn, this reduces the risk of scratches, chipping, abrasions, corrosion, fading, and other wear issues.

The proper research to address your specific requirements is required you ensure you make the correct choice.

Outdoor Plastic Cabinet

Pros; plastic is waterproof, durable, large operating temperature and light weight.

Cons; the material can’t support heavy loads and has then tendency to flex or bend in larger sizes. This limits its effectiveness to smaller size TV’s.

Steel Cabinet

Pros; waterproof, strong rigid material, large operating temperature, durable when powder coated, can be manufactured to accommodate large TV’s.

Cons; steel cabinets are heavier than the plastic enclosures.


Pros; strong material, used in bullet proof glass applications.

Cons; lower light transmission then glass, tendency to scratch which can’t be repaired, will yellow over prolonged exposure to sunlight, high reflection and glare from the material.

Optically Bonded Tempered Glass

Cons; heavier then polycarbonate, will shatter with severe impact

Pros; high visibility, high light transmission, hard to scratch, can repair scratches, low reflection.

Option #3 Summary, when a balance between performance and appearance is required there is no better choice than an Outdoor TV Enclosure.