Advantages of Cellular Glass Insulation

Not all types of insulation are used in residential buildings. Some more expensive and more high tech options are mainly reserved for commercial uses. Companies that have special, hard to insulate equipment, or that want to put in great roof insulation should look into cellular glass insulation. FOAMGLAS Insulation made by Pittsburgh Corning Corporation is one example of what is available. This is the main company that manufactures insulation of this type.

Crushed glass is heated to high temperatures and the melted glass is mixed with a cellulating agent and put into molds. The mixture expands to fill the molds as it cools, forming the cellular glass insulation. The main products that are made are blocks (either flat or tapered) and roof insulation boards (also either flat or tapered, and covered on the outside with a combination of Kraft paper and asphalt). However, since this type of insulation is used on all sorts of oddly shaped pipes and equipment, you can also get it specially made into whatever size and shape you need.

There are a number of advantages to using cellular glass insulation. First of all, it is moisture resistant and it floats. It is also naturally flame resistant, so it can be used in very hot temperatures without catching fire, and it can help to keep fires from spreading. It can also be effective in very cold temperatures, which isn’t true of most types of insulation. You can use this insulation within a temperature range of -450 degrees F to 900 degrees F. The range of temperatures gives it an advantage over other insulation such as calcium silicate, mineral wool, and fiberglass, which can be used in slightly higher temperatures but not in colder temperatures. Finally, it is very strong. When it comes to roofing insulation, gypsum board is the only type with a higher compressive strength. However, cellular glass insulation is a better insulator.

There are many uses for this type of insulation, especially among companies that need a type of insulation with its unique properties. In commercial buildings, it is used for fireproof building panels as well as for green roof insulation. Other uses include insulating specialty piping operations such as chilled water pipes and equipment, cold process pipes and equipment, ethylene plant pipes and equipment, hot oil piping and equipment, LNG piping and tank bases, stainless steel hot water lines, and underground steam distribution.

The Pleasures of Indoor Hot Tubs for People Living in the Big City

Isn’t it nice when after a hard days work at the office you go straight to a spa and have a dip into a nice relaxing hot tub? Drowning the day’s worries and tiredness, a hot tub is definitely one of life’s little joys.

It is a fact that most people living in the big city don’t have the time for this kind of luxury, except maybe for people who can afford to spend time at the spa. Most people take their work home to avoid getting work piled up on them the next day. Maybe this is the reason why they don’t find the time to relax.

Hot tubs are great. However, how can you install it when everywhere you look you’ll see buildings and not enough room outside your apartment building? You can’t even find the right place outside your building to place a hot tub amidst the tall buildings.

Outdoor hot tubs can be great in suburban areas where you have a lot of space and a lot of privacy. This is nearly impossible for city people who live in condo units or apartment complexes.

If you really want your own personal hot tub but you live in a condo unit or apartment complex where it is impossible to put one, you can still have your own by installing an indoor one that you can use with comfort and privacy.

Unlike outdoor tubs, indoor units are placed, as the name suggests, inside your home. With enough space in your bathroom, you can certainly enjoy the experience right at your own abode. Another great thing about indoor jaccuzi is that you won’t really need to redecorate the bathroom. This is because in outdoor tubs, you need landscaping and other things to make it look more interesting other than just a big bowl in your yard. With the indoor tub, you just need to add little details in your bathroom, such as a flower vase or repainting the whole bathroom wall or placing a new kind of wallpaper to enhance the appearance of the unit and its surroundings.

You can even try and build a sun or moon roof to really enhance the experience of soaking in a hot tub.

Before you go and buy yourself an indoor tub, you may want to consider two things. First, you need to know where the indoor unit is going to be placed. Most won’t fit in a regular sized bathroom; however, you can redecorate a room to place your tub in. You should consider if the room could stand up to any dampness. If it doesn’t, you can try and renovate the room itself.

The second thing you should consider is if the floor can withstand the weight of the full unit you plan on buying. For this you need to consult a structural engineer to determine if your floor can withstand the weight of the hot tub. You probably don’t want the floor to break while you are in the hot tub.

Hot tubs are generally very large and can be very hard to fit through doorways. And, you should also think about plumbing. You need plumbing to put water in the hot tub and drain it as well.

So, if you plan on buying a spa, consider these things first before you set out on your quest for that relaxing bath. It may save you a lot of money and a lot of frustrations.

How To Install Garage Floor Epoxy and Make It Last

One of the biggest growth areas in home renovation is upgrading the garage to provide more usable space. A typical residential two car garage is approximately 450 square feet with high ceiling height. In most garages wall space is plentiful and unused. Wall panels can be installed to hang everything from garden tools to gold clubs and skis.

The ceiling area is seldom used with lots of valuable space going to waste. There are many companies with pulley systems and shelving that can easily be raised and lowered. There are many choices for wall cabinets in numerous price ranges from simple shelves to high quality, portable steel shelving. There is just about any kind of storage system available whether you just need a little extra space for storage to creating the ultimate space for a car collection.

The biggest challenge for every garage owner, no matter what price point you are at is the garage floor. Here are the reasons why.

Concrete is Damp – The biggest battle for every floor coating is the common problem with moisture vapor. Moisture vapor is not visible to the naked eye but you can feel it when you walk into a garage or basement. Concrete is porous. Most people equate the hardness of concrete to granite but they are very different. When concrete is poured it is wet. As it dries and cures the moisture travels upwards and evaporates. As the moisture moves upwards, it leaves a porous trail behind. Moisture pressure from below your concrete slab pushes a vapor upwards through these tiny pores. This can cause paints and coatings to delaminate or chip.

Bond Breakers – Bond breakers are anything that can drop off your car, truck or machinery like oil and grease and penetrate the porous surface of your concrete floor. If this is not removed prior to application of garage floor paint or an epoxy shield coating, you are at risk of failure.

Efflorescence – If you’ve ever experienced a perpetual dust on your floor, efflorescence is the culprit. This is typically caused by moisture vapor pushing the calcium in concrete to the surface. In more extreme cases you will notice a white, chalky dust on the floor.

The solutions are to etch the surface first to open up the pores of the surface and create more surface area for your epoxy shield coating to adhere to. The more surface area, the greater the adhesion and process of capping off the moisture pressure.

If you find any areas where there is grease or oil, you will need a degreaser that will pull oils out of the floor. Etching with a liquid etching solution does not serve as a degreaser.

One of the best remedies for prepping the surface first, is to use a mechanical grinder or shot blasting machine to abraid the surface. These machines serve the same function as with a liquid etching solution but with superior results. Many local home improvement and tool rental stores carry this equipment. A small two car garage usually will take a few hours to grind or shotblast with very little cleanup and no water use.

If you choose to prepare the floor with an acid solution, allow a few days afterwards to let the floor completely dry. Avoid applying any epoxy shield coatings or paints to the surface of a wet floor. This will trap moisture, ultimately causing the floor to chip and peel no matter the quality.

Once the floor is fully prepped, the application of an epoxy shield coating or paint is a simple process of rolling on or using a squeegee and roller. Two coats are typical in a garage. The first is a primer and second a high build protective coat.

Once you let it dry it is recommended to let the new coating dry for about 6-7 days despite what the manufacturer says. Even though a new coating is dry to the touch or to walk on, it likely hasn’t had a chance to fully cure for at least 6-7 days. The wait is worth it considering that proper preparation and application of your epoxy shield coating or paint will last for years with a bright easy to clean surface.

RV Spring Preparation Checklist

Your RV has been sitting idle over the winter. Now the early signs of spring are here and it’s time to take it out of storage and prepare the coach and chassis for this years camping season. If you’re like me, you want to have some type of logical sequence to follow rather then haphazardly checking the unit out. I made a simple checklist to use so that nothing is overlooked. I prefer to do the majority of spring preparation myself. If you’re more comfortable having someone else do it you can schedule an appointment with a reputable RV service center to have it done.

* Depending on how your unit was winterized it will need to be de-winterized. If you used non-toxic RV antifreeze you need to run fresh water through the entire system until all traces of antifreeze are gone. To remove it from the 12-volt water pump add water to the fresh water-holding tank, turn the pump on and open all water faucets. When the antifreeze is out of the system turn the pump off and take the water heater out of the by-pass mode (if applicable). Re-install any water filter cartridges you removed for storage.

* At this point I like to sanitize the water system. Make sure all of the drains are closed and drain plugs are installed. Take a quarter cup of household bleach for every fifteen gallons of water your fresh water tank holds. Mix the bleach with water into a one-gallon container and pour it into the fresh water holding tank. Fill the fresh water holding tank completely full of water. Turn the water pump on and open all faucets, run water until you smell the bleach. Close the faucets and let it sit for at least twelve hours. Drain all of the water and re-fill the tank with fresh water. Turn the pump on and open all faucets until you no longer smell bleach. It may be necessary to repeat this process to eliminate all signs of the bleach.

* With the water system under pressure inspect for water leaks. Check the operation of the toilet.

* Wash the unit thoroughly. This is a good time to inspect the roof and body seams, and window sealants for cracking that would allow water to get in. Consult a dealer for sealants compatible with these materials.

* Inspect the operation of the awning and clean the awning fabric as required.

* Inspect the tires for signs of dry rot. Inflate all tires to the recommended COLD tire pressure.

* Lubricate all hinges and locks with spray lubricant.

* Remove any tape or protective covering you may have put over LP gas vents to keep insects and rodents out. Check any mousetraps you may have put out. Open all doors and compartments and check for rodent intrusion and water damage.

* Inspect and clean the interior.

* Plug in any appliances that you unplugged for storage and replace any dry cell batteries you may have removed. This is a good time to put new batteries in items like smoke alarms.

* Test the operation of the carbon monoxide alarm, LP gas leak detector and smoke alarm.

* Check the fire extinguisher. Be sure it is fully charged.

* Reset any breakers you may have turned off. If you removed any fuses for storage re-install them.

* Clean or replace air conditioner filters if it wasn’t done prior to storage and remove any covers that were put over air conditioners.

* Open vents and windows and air the unit out.

* If you removed the coach and chassis batteries for storage install them. Whether they were removed or not check the electrolyte levels, clean the terminals and clamps, and check the charge level in all batteries. Recharge batteries as necessary.

* Check the operation of the electric steps if applicable. Lubricate step mechanism.

* Test the operation of the hydraulic jacks if applicable. Check hydraulic fluid level.

* Test the operation of the back up camera and monitor if applicable.

* If you didn’t change the oil and filters in the generator prior to storage this is a good time to do it. Inspect the generator exhaust system for damage prior to starting. Start and run the generator for two hours with at least a half rated load on it. Consult the generators owner manual for load ratings.

* Turn the generator off and plug the unit into shore power. Turn the refrigerator on in the electric mode. Allow sufficient time to cool and check for proper operation.

* Check all 12-volt interior lights and accessories.

* Test the monitor panel for proper operation.

* Check the operation of slide outs if applicable.

* Check the remaining 120-volt appliances for proper operation.

* Test the Ground Fault Interrupter (GFI) for proper operation.

* Turn the refrigerator off, leave the doors open and allow sufficient time for it to get to room temperature so it can be checked in the gas mode.

* Before I use the LP gas system I have a leak test and gas operating pressure test preformed. A qualified technician with the proper equipment should do these tests.

* After this is accomplished turn the LP gas valve on and check the operation of all LP gas appliances. Be sure the water heater is full of water before testing the water heater. If a gas appliance is not operating properly have it inspected by a qualified technician. Insects are attracted to the odorant added to LP gas and build nests that can affect the appliance from operating properly.

* If your unit was in long-term storage and you didn’t change the engine oil and filter prior to storage this would be a good time to do it.

* Check all fluid levels in transmission, power steering, engine coolant, engine oil, windshield washer and brakes. Consult vehicle owners manual.

* Start the engine and check for proper readings on all gauges. Check for proper operation of dash air conditioner.

* Perform a complete chassis lubrication if it wasn’t done prior to storage.

* Check the condition of windshield wiper blades and replace them if necessary.

* Check the operation of all chassis lights.

* Make sure the vehicle emissions/inspection sticker is up to date.

* In addition to this if you have a pop-up or travel trailer the wheel bearings and brakes (if equipped) should be inspected at least once annually. Inspect any canvas for dry rot and tears; inspect all hitch work and the coupler for damage. Inspect the breakaway switch and pigtail for proper operation.

Happy Camping ,


Copyright 2006 by Mark J. Polk owner of RV Education 101

How Popular Is Bodybuilding Today

In today society, a lot less people have started bodybuilding, and more people have started fitness model programs. Not a lot of people want to be huge with massive biceps and big chest anymore. Instead, they would rather want to have a lean, ripped physique of a cover shoot model. How has bodybuilding popularity declined in the last twenty years? I’ll show you how and why people shun bodybuilding and how you can make a difference.

Back in the “Golden Age” of bodybuilding, people were fascinated at how men can develop their muscles in way that makes people want to start bodybuilding themselves. Take a look at Eugen Sandow, the “father” of bodybuilding. He had a lean, muscular, ripped physique with insane ab muscles. Then came along other bodybuilding icons, like Steve Reeves, Reg Park, and many other famous athletes. But the real bodybuilding craze began with Arnold Schwarzenegger, after appearing in the bodybuilding movie “Pumping Iron”. Widely considered to be the greatest bodybuilder ever, he made bodybuilding and himself a household name. From that point on, people opened many gyms everywhere to start bodybuilding, whether it’s to go professional or just to build muscle. Movie directors recruited bodybuilders like Arnold to star in their movies. For a long time, the bodybuilding era was spreading all over the world.

But what went wrong? How did this era slowly dwindle away? Simple. People started getting “too big, too muscular”, which made people think that it looks impulsive, overbearing, and to add it all up, disgusting. Today, bodybuilders want to be bigger and muscular than their opponents. Bodybuilders like Jay Cutler and Ronnie Coleman are perfect examples of people are “overdone” their muscle growth and development. What really put a stop to this era was the movie “Fight Club” with Brad Pitt, where the lean, muscular body was introduced, and people realized that you don’t have to big, you just have to get lean. My opinion is that men have become “feminized”, meaning they want a body that will look more attractive to a woman and people start modeling like women, which is easy to understand why men today wear pink t-shirts or shirts that say “Real men wear pink”. This is absurd!

Let’s talk about Arnold for a moment. Why do you think he was considered the best bodybuilder? Was it because he had the biggest muscles? Or than he had a confident presence when he went on the bodybuilding stage? Maybe it could be that he gave the best advice on building muscle? It was any one of these three reasons. In the movie “Pumping Iron”, Arnold talked about having the perfect physique. He said, “You have to get you proportions right. If you look in the mirror and say “Okay, I need a little bit more deltoids. So you would go to the gym and put those deltoids on. Where as an artist would just slap his brush on a picture there it’s done. We have to do it the hard way because we building the human body. Now some people will look at you funny like you’re doing something strange, but it’s not really something a lot of people know about. And once you find out about it, you understand so much about bodybuilding that you haven’t realized before”.

You see? Arnold had the perfect proportional body, and bodybuilding enthusiasts knew that. He differs a lot compared to today’s bodybuilders, who build their bodies out of proportion. So how can you make a difference in building muscle? Get you proportions right. Let every muscle be just right, not smaller or bigger than it needs to be. Hope you enjoyed this article and will properly make the best in building muscle.

Building a Panelized Home – Pros & Cons of Building With Panelized Walls

Panelized framing walls can be a godsend. Or, they can be a pain in the butt. With a little forethought and planning, you can ensure that you experience the advantages.


Most home builders use some form of panelization. Framers on site at a “stick-built” home, typically build the framework in panels and tilt them up and into place. But, that’s not what I’m talking about. A panelized home is where a factory pre-builds these panels, in various lengths, and delivers them to the building site.


Will Pre-Panelized Walls Work for You?


If you’re an owner-builder who is going to be involved in some labor and looking for labor cost savings, panelization may be ideal for you. If, on the other hand, you intend to hire a crew of experienced professionals to frame a complicated home structure, you should probably stay away from pre-panelizing unless the framers prefer and ask for them.


The following Pros and Cons will help you decide whether or not to use them as well as ensure quality if you do.


PRO: Speed. A well panelized home that the on-site framers are prepared to work with, can allow for the home to be framed in as little as one third the normal framing time. The benefit is money saved.


CON: Shipping & Handling. Panels must be shipped to your site … sometimes from great distances. This can be costly and cause damage during shipment. Also, the panels can be difficult to store, move around the site, and then into place – especially on two story homes.


PRO: Many Panel Choices. Traditional 2×4 & 2×6 wood studs are popular but you can choose steel framing studs, SIPs (Structural Insulated Panels), and other types as well.


CON: Dealing With Issues. Rarely is a panelized framing package error free. These mistakes will drive an experienced framing crew crazy if they were not in favor of using pre-built panels. And, getting the manufacturers of the panels to correct their errors quickly can be a real chore.


PRO: Quality & Uniformity. Panels are made in controlled environments to exacting specifications and usually utilize the better quality materials. They often incorporate better and more uniform framing practices than many homes built on-site. These advantages can give you a stronger home in the face of nature, and a more square home that makes it easier to hang cabinets and doors, and lay tile and wood floors.


CON: Difficult to Ensure Quality. While the advantages stated are extremely valuable, it’s difficult to ensure that you’ll receive what is promised. You may need experienced professionals to help you analyze their framing methods as well as inspect what is delivered to you.


PRO: Reducing Onsite Waste. Panelizing can be a green building approach. Limiting waste and/or using Structural Insulated Panels give you that advantage.


CON: Panelized Homes are not Always Kits. Just ordering a panelized framing package is not going to streamline your entire homebuilding process. If that’s what you want, use a kit home. Kit homes usually panelize your walls but panelization factories don’t always provide complete kits. Be sure you know what you’re ordering.


You Do Have Options


As you can see, you have options. But it pays to remember that you also have the option to not use pre-panelized framing walls. The advantages may be insignificant or even non-existent in your situation.


My advice is to honestly assess your situation and goals. Keep researching your options. Hire a home-building coach to help decide. Then go in the direction that best serves your needs.

Best Spotting Scope Under $600 – Nikon Prostaff Spotting Scope

The Nikon 8317 Prostaff spotting scope is in demand and with good reason. You’ll learn in a minute where to find fantastic bargains and free shipping, too, but first, let’s take a look at why these amazing Nikon spotting scopes are so popular.

Why Nikon Prostaff spotting scopes are so great

Whether you’re birding, hunting, shooting or stargazing, the Nikon 8317 scope will bring your target object right to your eye. With a 20 to sixty power zoom eyepiece, you’ll be able to find what you are looking for and then bring in for an incredibly close look.

Nikon quality is famous throughout the world and the Nikon 8317 continues the tradition. All of the lenses in this amazing scope are multicoated for clear, bright images. Early morning or late afternoon light? It’s no problem with Nikon’s 82mm objective lens designed for gathering maximum light. And forget about glare, flare or costly repair. This rugged scope is built to last through tough field work.

Weather will never be a problem. This Nikon scope is waterproof and fogproof. No more days ruined by fogged up lenses that send you home disappointed. And the 8317 Prostaff is lightweight. It’s easy to get where you’re going with the convenient carry case and set up when you get there with the full-size tripod that is included.

Last, but not least, the Nikon Prostaff spotting scope comes with a sliding sunshade built right in. No more holding your hat over the objective lens to see what you’re looking at.

There are several online outlets for Nikon scopes and binoculars. The best strategy is to find the one that offers the lowest price plus free shipping. There’s at least one source that offers free return shipping in case of a problem.

Repair Wheels the Quick and Easy Way

Repair work was never this easy! The HTS-2000 and HTS-528 high-strength brazing rods can repair wheels for cars, trucks, Rvs, trailers and other aluminum and steel wheels in no time. It’s easy, quick and long-lasting.

You must have seen those alloy wheels that lend a ride that swanky, sporty look. Much as these large diameter alloy wheels look good and improve performance, over time speed and road conditions cause a lot of wear and tear. The cyclical stress is high and the ventilation, disk attachment holes, the flange as well as the rim take a toll. The result? Cracks, dents, bends and scratches all start to show.

Trouble is, replacing these wheels by the dealer and work shops can be an expensive affair. The answer has come in the form of several niche repair shops that employ our hi-tech, state-of-the-art brazing rods. The repair is of superior quality, and the result is durable and tough.

Experts recommend our HTS-2000 for aluminum alloy wheel repair. It has high tensile strength, can easily penetrate past impurities, has better elongation and a low melting temperature. What’s more, with this no flux rod, you won’t need any machine. Plus you get a tougher weld than even the base metal. All you’ll need is a heat source (propane, butane, mapp or oxy-acetylene) and you’re good to go.

For steel alloy wheel repair, the HTS-528 is your best bet. With built-in flux, this rod works well on steel, copper, nickel, cast iron, brass, bronze. It’s great when it comes to melding two different metals. That’s why shop owners say, ‘Thanks to these brazing rods, I’ve never had to turn a customer down’.

The HTS-2000 brazing rod makes gas welding a breeze. Little wonder then that machine repair shops have moved to using these rods instead of the conventional Tig welding and heli-arc machines.

Traditionally, the welding of metals like aluminum require to be covered in flux to keep out oxygen from the hot metal, so there is no formation of oxides that decrease the strength of the weld. The great thing is that the HTS-2000 doesn’t need any flux for gas welding.

What’s more, since this rod doesn’t require the use of a welding machine, it offers you the freedom of mobility. You can carry the gas welding tank out into the field, or even on a truck or a trailer. You won’t even need an electrical outlet. Plus the equipment is self-sufficient and doesn’t cost you much at all.

With the help of a gas welding torch, this rod gives the weld more tensile strength, elongation, low melting temperature and even the ability to get past impurities like corrosion, anti-freeze and oil. In the end, the welding area will actually become tougher than even the base metal.

Plus, this second-generation brazing rod can even be put to use in the fabrication of diesel engines, automobiles, bikes, aero planes, boats, trucks, tractors, rivets, awnings, ladders and gutters.

To begin the welding, direct the flame on the thicker element so it can absorb more heat. Shield the thinner element from the heat by inserting the high-strength brazing rod as required. The rate of the deposition of the filter metal can be controlled by pushing or pulling the rod from the tip of the gas flame.

So steel or aluminum, your wheels will love this duo of brazing rods.

The Benefits Of Using Limestone Paving

Limestone is a naturally formed sedimentary stone, comprised mainly of calcite. Limestone takes many years to form underneath the surface of the earth by means of remarkable pressure. There is no any other stone that exhibits the unique features of Limestone, which makes it a popular option for all kinds of construction and landscaping projects.

Limestone paving is a great option for outdoor fixtures such as pool surroundings, terraces and more. It’s also ideal for indoor environments such as corridors and bathrooms in offices and homes. Limestone tiles are a perfect option for wet areas because they are non-slip and dry quickly due to their absorption of water. Limestone pavers vary slightly in appearance, giving each application an exceptional look.

Benefits of Using Limestone Paving

Limestone is a heavy, durable natural stone that has been used in the building industry for many years. Limestone is also common in landscaping and architectural applications.

For the exterior of your property Limestone pavers can be applied in areas like:

  • Pool area
  • Driveway
  • Patio
  • Walkway
  • Courtyard
  • Pathway
  • Landscaping
  • Stepping stones
  • Verandas

For the interior of your home limestone paving can be applied in areas like:

  • Countertops
  • Fireplace stones
  • Mantels
  • Tables
  • Flooring

Color Benefits

This naturally occurring stone offer a wide selection of colors. Their colors range from light beiges to dark greens. These colors are known to be more casual and are most suitable for the interior of your house especially places such as kitchens, laundry’s bathrooms and dining rooms.

This is an added advantage because these neutral shades of color will compliment all of your furniture and interior surroundings.

Add Property Value And Curb Appeal

Whether you are installing limestone pavers at a commercial property or a private residence, there is no doubt that your curb appeal will improve when you use natural occurring stones as opposed to concrete. Limestone landscaping is a far better investment than concrete equivalents. Using limestone will add greater value to your home vs. concrete every time.

Sustainable and Renewable

Limestone pavers are more sustainable and environmentally friendly than concrete options. Of course in order to shape, package and transport limestone, there are usually manufacturing costs, as well as shipping and aspects to consider, but in general these will pale in significance to the pollution, energy and carbon footprint of manufactured concrete products.

Natural occurring stone is one of the most sustainable building materials on earth, as resources of stone on the planet are vast, plentiful and date back millions of years. As a natural occurring product, limestone is recyclable and can be used as reclaimed paving.

Naturally Safe

A very important benefit of natural occurring stones such as limestone is that they generally have a non-slip surface. Limestone pavers are a great choice for patios and around swimming pools. Limestone pavers are also a durable frost resistance paving, meaning they are not susceptible to frost damage in the same way as manufactured concrete products.


Limestone is ideally suited for a variety of vehicle traffic and pedestrian applications. Provided installation instructions are followed and the correct substrate is put down to support the intended load, limestone pavers can be installed around paths, patios, driveways and pool sides in a variety of commercial and residential contexts.

10 Bungy Jumping Facts You Didn’t Know

Bungee Jumping is an exciting and thrilling adventure sport that is a must for all ages, but before you go on a your adventure, here are some interesting facts you probably didn’t know about the sport you are about to venture into.

  1. Bungy jumping was named after the strong elastic cords that are commonly used for securing luggage.
  2. The first activity that was similar to a bungy jump was done by young men from Pentecost Island in the Vanuatu Islands. These men would jump off wooden platforms with their legs fastened to vines to validate their manhood.
  3. April Fool’s Day 1979, Clifton Suspension Bridge- Unconventional Oxford students performed the firstjump using nylon woven rubber shock cords. Four members of the Oxford University Dangerous Sports Club who jumped off the bridge sporting top hats and tails were immediately arrested after the performance.
  4. Highest Commercial Bungy Jumpwas233m off the Macau Tower in China.
  5. Carl Dionisio used condoms for his bungee cord when he performed the feat off 100ft in South Africa.
  6. The oldest jump was performed by Mohr Keet at 96 years old, on South Africa’s Bloukrans Bridge, 160m off the 216m high bridge. He said that he tried it for the “thrill and to get rid of fear”.
  7. “Bungy” or “Bungee”? There are two spellings utilized for the extreme activity sport. The word “Bungee” was how it was originally called when the Englishmen of Oxford started the sport. The term also pertained to the use of shock cords. This was a manifold of rubber cased cords, which are popular in North America.However, the sport was made more popular in New Zealand and they spelt it “Bungy”. In this country they used all rubber cords that have no elongation limitation.
  8. The world’s first commercial location to experience the sport wasin New Zealand, at the Kawarau Bridge, which stands at 43 meters high. This is where AJ Hackett and Henry Van Ash started the sport.
  9. Alan John Hackett, a New Zealand entrepreneur is the father of bungy jumping. He developed the bungy cord in the 1980’s and launched his own company AJ Hackett Bungy.
  10. AJ Hackett Bungy on the Kawarau Bridge in Queenstown, New Zealand was opened in 1988 and became the world’s first commercial jumping site. With a height of 43 meters that boasts of the only bungy in the area where you can touch, bob or fully dip into the water. This site is also famous for its other tourist attractions and is rich historical heritage

Putting Together A Trampoline – How to Attach the Mat

If your kids have been asking you to buy them a backyard trampoline for quite a while, it’s likely that they’ll be beside themselves with excitement when you finally bring home the box that contains this new piece of equipment. In some cases, you might be able to find new or gently used trampolines at used sports equipment stores or yard sales, but either way, it’s likely that you’ll have to do at least some assembly to get it up and working in your yard. All trampoline brands are different, but for most there are some basic parts and a simple method for assembling them.

Pick a day when there’s good weather in the forecast to start setting up your trampoline in the yard, because the last thing you want is to have to run for cover while your trampoline parts get soaked in the rain. Spread all the trampoline parts out on the lawn and organize them into like piles.

Every trampoline brand is different, but for a basic round trampoline you should be able to spot four (or more) top rails that have leg sections attached. These will look like curved pieces of metal that have short tubes extending out from either end. You should also be able to see four leg bases (which are often shaped like the letter “W”), and eight straight metal leg extensions. In addition to these frame pieces, there will be hooks, springs, a trampoline mat, (the net-like fabric that will be stretched in the middle, and possibly a hook ladder attachment meant to make it easier to climb up and down from the surface of the trampoline. There will also be assorted screws and bolts for putting it all together, and possibly some trampoline accessories.

Once you’ve assembled the frame into its proper shape, it will be time to attach the trampoline mat, and this is usually the part where most home assemblers get very frustrated. The trick to properly attaching the trampoline mat is to keep the tension balanced all the way around the frame while you’re hooking up the mat to the springs, and the springs to the frame. People always want to work in a clockwise fashion, and when they get to the last hook, it’s far too hard to attach it. Instead, always work across the structure, attaching one hook, and then the hook directly across from it. This way it will be easy to attach the last part of the trampoline mat.

Impeller Logs and Compasses

Sailing and navigation…Measuring Direction and Distance

For Measuring distance at sea, the old type of log that gave us the knot as unit of speed has long since given way to more sophisticated mechanical and electronic devices.

Walker logs

One of the oldest is the Walker log. This uses a torpedo-shaped spinner a few inches long towed behind the boat on a length of braided line. As it moves through the water, spiral fins on the torpedo make it spin, twisting the line. The on-board end of the line is hooked on to the back of the log instrument, where it turns a shaft connected to a reduction gear box. This in turn moves the hands on a series of dials, rather like those of an old fashioned gas meter, to give Direct reading of the distance the spinner has moved through the water.

Advantages of the Walker log are its rugged simplicity and the ease with which weed or debris can be cleared from the pinner. Its disadvantages are that its display has to be mounted right at the back of the boat; that the log line (usually 30 or 60 feet in length) has to be streamed before the log can be used, and recovered before entering harbour; it tends to under-read at very low speeds; and at speeds over about ten knots the spinner is inclined to jump out of the water and skitter along the surface. There are definite techniques for streaming and recovering a mechanical trailing log, intended to reduce the risk of the line tangling. To stream the log, first attach the on-board end to the hook on the back of the display unit. Then, keeping the spinner in hand, feed out all the line to form a long U-shaped loop astern before dropping the spinner overboard, well off to one side of the loop. Some owners like to hold on to the line just astern of the display unit for a few seconds, just to absorb the snatch as the load comes on to the line.

When recovering the log, speed is essential, especially if the boat is moving fast. Unclip the inboard end from the hook on the back of the display, and drop it overboard, allowing it to trail out astern while you pull in the log line. Then holding the spinner, gather in the line, coiling it as you go. Trailing the line astern like this allows any kinks to unravel.

Electrical trailing logs

The electrical trailing log is superficially similar to a Walker log, inasmuch as it uses a spinner towed astern of the boat on a long line. In this case, however, the spinner is in two parts, and the ‘log line’ is an electrical cable. The front part of the spinner is attached to the cable and only the rear part is free to rotate. As it does so, an electronic sensor in the front part makes and breaks an electrical circuit, so the on-board display unit receives a short pulse of electricity each time the spinner rotates. These pulses are counted electronically and are presented as a digital display of speed and distance run.

The advantages and disadvantages of this type of log are much the same as for the mechanical Walker log except that it is dependent on electrical power from internal dry batteries, which in return allows the display unit to be mounted almost anywhere on board, and that because the line itself is not twisting, it is rather easier to stream and recover.

Hull-mounted impeller logs

On cruising boats, hull-mounted logs are by far the most popular type, though in principle they are much the same as the electrical trailing log: a rotating impeller sends a stream of electrical impulses to a display unit mounted in the cockpit or near the chart table.

The impeller – which can be either a miniature version of the trailing log’s spinner, or a paddle wheel an inch or so in diameter – is mounted in a fitting called a transducer, which either protrudes through the bottom of the boat or hangs down below the transom.

The disadvantages of this system are that an impeller so close to the hull can be affected by the water flow around the hull itself, and that it is difficult and potentially dangerous to withdraw the transducer to clear weed or debris from it at sea. The reason in-hull logs are so popular is primarily the convenience of not having to stream and recover 30 feet or more of log line at the beginning and end of each passage.

Other logs

At the top of the scale of price and sophistication are several alternative methods of measuring speed through the water:

Electromagnetic logs are based on the same principle as generators and electric motors: that electricity is created if you move a magnetic field past an electrical conductor. In this case the conductor is sea water and the magnetic field is created by the transducer. As the transducer moves through the water a small electric current is set up, measured by sensors on the transducer.

Sonic logs use accurate measurements of the speed of sound between two transducers mounted one ahead of the other. Each transducer emits a continuous stream of clicks, inaudible to the human ear, while listening for clicks transmitted from the other. When the boat is moving, the movement of the water past the hull slows down the clicks travelling forward whilst speeding up those travelling aft. The instrument accurately measures the time taken for each click to make the trip, compares them, converts the results into a display of speed through the water, and from this calculates the distance run.

Another type of sonic log uses sophisticated echo sounder technology to measure the rate at which plankton and debris are moving past its transducer.

The big advantages of all three types are that they are much less susceptible to fouling than ordinary in-hull logs and that they can go on working at very high speeds or in rough sea conditions, when turbulence or air bubbles make impeller logs unreliable.

Calibrating logs

No log can be relied upon to be 100 per cent accurate. This is particularly true of hull mounted logs because – quite apart from any inherent inaccuracies in the instrument itself – the gradual build-up of fouling as the season progresses means that the boat is dragging an ever-thickening layer of water along with it, so the water flow past the impeller will be slower than the boat speed through the water. Conversely, around some parts of the hull, such as alongside a sailing boat’s keel or near the propellers of a motor boat, the water flow may actually be accelerated, making the log over-read.

Errors can always be allowed for if you know about them, and most electronic logs have a calibration facility that allows them to be adjusted to take account of these variations. Finding, and if necessary, correcting, log error is known as calibration. In principle it involves measuring the time taken to cover a known distance, using this to calculate true speed, and comparing this with the speed indicated by the log. Any accurately-known distance can be used, though the best are undoubtedly the measured distances’ set up specially for the purpose. They consist of two (or sometimes three) pairs of transit posts, marking the start and finish of a precisely-measured distance, and shown on the appropriate chart. The course to steer to cover the Measured distance is also shown.

Settle the boat on course and at a steady speed before crossing the first transit line; note the time at which you cross the start ine and hold that course and speed without making any allowance for wind or tide until you cross the finish line, and note the time taken. Note the actual log reading at intervals of, say, 15 seconds so that you can work out the average log speed for the whole run.

As perfectly still water is rare, it is important to repeat the process in the opposite direction. Having found the speed over the ground in both directions, the speed through the water can be calculated by taking the average, by adding the two speeds together and dividing by two.

A more accurate result can be obtained by making four or six runs, but this can be a very

time-consuming process, especially as log errors are not necessarily the same at all speeds, so the calibration runs need to be carried out at a range of different speeds, and repeated as a double check after the log has been adjusted.

A common mistake is to work out the average time taken and divide the distance by this. The result invariably understates the boat’s speed, because it must have been travelling in the ‘slow’ direction longer than in the ‘fast’ direction.

Some large scale charts (harbour plans) have a clearly marked scale of distance – rather like the one you might find on a road atlas – usually printed somewhere near the bottom edge. But this is not always the case, and on the smaller scale charts used for coastal and offshore navigation it would be impractical to provide such a scale because the scale of the chart varies slightly from top to bottom. One sea mile, however, is by definition one minute of latitude, so the latitude scales on each side of the chart constitute a scale of distance.

The slight difference between a sea mile and an international nautical mile is so small that for normal navigation it can be ignored: what is important, on small scale charts, is the distortion caused by the Mercator projection, which means that distance has to be measured at the latitude at which it is to be used. The longitude scale on the top and bottom edges of the chart is useless as a scale of distance.

It is relatively rare to find ourselves faced with the job of measuring distance in an exactly north-south line, so we need some means of transferring the distance between any two points on the chart to the latitude scale. Dividers are the tool for the job. For classroom navigation the kind of dividers used in technical drawing are perfectly adequate, and their sharp needle points give a reassuring sense of precision, but for practical navigation, traditional bow dividers have the big advantage that they can be opened and closed with one hand, by squeezing the bow to open them, and squeezing the legs to close them.

Sometimes it is necessary to draw arcs of measured radius on the chart, for which it is useful to have a drawing compass. Again, the type intended for technical drawing can be used so long as it is big enough, but it is generally better to use the larger and less sophisticated versions intended for marine navigation.

Compasses and Measuring direction at sea

Direction at sea is measured using a compass – essentially an instrument which points north, and goes on pointing north regardless of the movement of the boat around it. In practice most yachts carry at least two compasses. One, steering compasses are relatively large, fixed to the boat, and used to measure heading. The other is usually smaller, portable and is used to measure the direction of distant objects, so it is called a hand bearing compass. Sometimes one compass can do both jobs: on many ships and a few large yachts an attachment called a pelorus allows the steering compass to be used for taking bearings, while on very small craft, a hand bearing compass clipped into a bracket can serve as a steering compass.

There are many ways of making an instrument that will stay pointing in one Direction, including gyroscopes, and what are called ‘ring laser gyros’, but although these have their advantages, they are much too sophisticated, and therefore expensive, to be of practical interest for yachts. The Overwhelming majority of yacht compasses Depend on magnetism, and in that respect can be seen as direct developments from instruments that were probably in use several thousand years ago. Compasses make use of the fact that the earth has a magnetic field, which is very much as though a huge bar magnet were embedded in its core and aligned with its North-South axis.

Any magnet that is free to swing tends to line itself up with the earth’s magnetic field. This effect is particularly obvious in the small, flat compasses used for orienteering and rambling on land, in which a single straight needle-like magnet gives a direct Indication of north. In marine compasses, several such magnets, or a single magnet in the shape of a ring, are mounted underneath a circular ‘card’, with a scale of degrees or compass points marked on it. The whole thing is suspended in a bowl filled with a mixture of water and alcohol, which slows Down the movement of the card, to reduce the swinging that would otherwise be caused by the pitching and rolling of the boat.

Compasses intended for fast motor boats are much more heavily damped than those intended for sailing craft; the rapid slamming of a planing boat can be enough to make the card of a sailboat compass rotate continuously.

Steering compasses

On a steering compass the fore-and-aft line of the boat is marked by a line or pointer on the compass bowl, called the lubber line, against which the boat’s current heading can be read from the card, so it is obviously important for the compass to be installed so that the lubber line is accurately aligned with, or parallel to, the centre line of the boat. Many compasses have supplementary lubber lines offset by 45° and 90° on each side, intended mainly for use in situations such as tiller-steered boats where the helmsman is likely to be looking at the compass from one side or the other.

Of course, there are variations intended to suit particular applications. On many small and medium sized sailing yachts, where cockpit space is at a premium, the compass is set into the aft bulkhead of the superstructure, so that the rear edge of the card is visible, rather than its upper surface. A compass intended for this type of mounting has an aft lubber line and a scale of degrees marked on the down-turned rim of the card. An even more extreme variation is occasionally found in compasses intended for steel craft, whose structure effectively masks the compass from the earth’s magnetic field. This problem can be reduced by mounting the compass as high above the hull as possible, so compasses have been produced that can be mounted on the wheelhouse roof, with mirrors or prisms arranged so that the helmsman effectively looks upwards at the bottom of the compass card.

Grid compasses

Grid compasses, intended primarily for aircraft navigation, enjoyed a surge of popularity after the Second World War, when many boats were fitted out from Army surplus stores! The claim that they were easier to steer by maintained their popularity for at least 20 years and several marinized versions were produced. A grid compass has a card with a particularly prominent north set in a flat-topped bowl. On top of the bowl is a transparent cover, marked with a grid of parallel lines and with a scale of degrees es around its edge. The required course is set by rotating the cover, and the helmsman then steers so as to keep the –. mark on the card lined up with the grid.

Hand bearing compasses

A hand bearing compass is basically a small, portable version of a steering compass, fitted with some form of sighting arrangement that allows it to be accurately lined up on a distant object. They can be subdivided into two groups: those intended to be used at arm’s length, which are usually fitted with a handle; and those intended to be held close to the eye, which are usually supplied with a neck strap. Which kind is best is very much a matter of personal preference, but anyone who uses spectacles or a hearing aid is well advised to go for an arm’s-length compass because even small pieces of ferrous metal such as the hinges of spectacles can cause compass errors if they are only inches away.

Sighting arrangements vary. The classic Sestrel Radiant, for instance, has a prism mounted above the bowl, with a V-shaped notch on top. When the compass is held up at arm’s length and eye level the lubber line and compass card can be seen in the prism. To take a bearing of a distant object, you line up the ‘target’ with the notch, rotate the compass until the lubber line appears in the prism immediately below the target, and then read off the bearing. Another common arrangement has two sights on top of the bowl, like the fore sight and back sight of a gun, and an edge-reading compass card. Close-to-the-eye compasses do not have such obvious sighting arrangements: instead they have a small prism mounted on top, whose optics are arranged in such a way that when you look at a landmark across the top of the compass, its bearing appears in the prism immediately below.

Fluxgate compasses

A new type of compass is rapidly gaining in popularity. Unlike a conventional ‘swinging card’ compass, a fluxgate compass has no moving parts, but instead uses electronics to detect the earth’s magnetic field and present that information on some kind of display. A fluxgate depends on the phenomenon of electromagnetic induction – as used in transformers and the ignition coil of a petrol engine. If you pass an electric current through a coil of wire wound around a suitable metal core, the core becomes a magnet. Which end is the north pole, and which the south, depends on the direction of the current flow in the wire, so if you apply an alternating current to the wire, the north and south poles of the core change places each time the current reverses. If you have a second coil of wire wound around this whole assembly the constantly-reversing magnetic field induces an electric current in the secondary winding.

In a fluxgate there are two cores side by side, with their primary windings receiving alternating current from the same source, but wound in opposite directions. This means that in a magnetically ‘clean’ environment (with no external magnetic influences) the induced magnetism in the two cores would be equal and opposite, so they would cancel each other out and produce no current at all in the secondary winding that surrounds both of them. The presence of an external magnetic field upsets the balance, causing a short surge of electricity in the secondary winding each time the primary current reverses. This effect is most pronounced if the two cores are parallel to the external magnetic field. In a practical fluxgate compass, several fluxgates are arranged in a circle. By comparing the voltages induced in the various secondary windings it is possible to deduce where north is relative to the ring of flux-gates.

At present, the most common use of this technology is to provide heading information for other electronic equipment such as autopilots or radars, but it can also be used to provide a steering display for the helmsman or as the heart of an electronic hand bearing compass. Apart from the ease with which fluxgate compasses can be connected to other navigational electronics, their big advantages are that they can be fitted with an automatic correction facility, and that because the sensor and display are usually separate from each other, the sensor can be mounted anywhere on board and well away from distorting magnetic Influences. Fluxgate hand bearing compasses also have the facility to ‘store’ headings, to save the navigator having to memorize them.

Their main disadvantage is that very large errors can occur if the fluxgate ring is not kept perfectly horizontal. There are electronic solutions to this problem, but the fact remains that the compass without moving parts actually requires more sophisticated gimbal arrangements than its swinging card counterparts.

Forearm Exercises To Slim And Tone Women’s Forearms

Slimming and toning are the main effects sought by women doing forearm exercises. Men generally want larger forearms and stronger grip strength. Athletes, whether men or women, seek better athletic performance through functional strength and injury prevention. Many older men or women use forearm exercises to improve functional strength for daily activities or to rehabilitate after an injury. These differing goals require different approaches to forearm exercise. A slim, toned forearm is obtained with a different exercise routine than the routine to produce a large and muscular or functionally strong forearm.

For most women replacing a flabby forearm with a slim and toned forearm is the goal of forearm exercise. They do not want muscular forearms or thick wrists. They have little concern for increasing forearm strength. The main exceptions are the female athlete and the woman who has lost adequate strength to perform day to day tasks. They will have the same goals as their male counterparts, but may not want as much strength or size.

The brachioradialis is the main muscle contributing to the appearance of a large forearm. Women not wanting a large, muscular forearm appearance should avoid exercising this muscle, unless the forearm remains flabby in the upper outer aspect where the brachioradialis is located. This is easy to do while still exercising the other muscles of the forearm to give a toned appearance while avoiding a large, muscular appearing forearm.

The hammer curl is the main exercise that develops the brachioradialis, so for most women this exercise should be avoided. If there still is some flabbiness in the upper forearm on the outside of the elbow (where the brachioradialis is) after doing the other forearm exercises for a while, the hammer curl can be done to help tone that area. Light weights and very high repetitions are best. They should not cause excessive tiredness in the muscle. Generally, high repetitions, light weight and light tiredness are the goals for any exercise in which tone instead of size and strength is the goal.

Exercises that work on the meaty part on the front side of the forearm are also to be minimized. These muscles are exercised most by thick bar exercises and heavy grippers. Using grip rings, lighter grippers and dumbbells are okay, because you can use higher repetitions without excessive tiredness in the muscles.

The best exercises for toning the forearm without excessive size are radial deviations, ulnar deviations, pronations, and supinations. Videos of a woman doing these exercises with a rubber mallet are on the blog mentioned below. For the athlete or anyone trying to increase strength or forearm size, these exercises are helpful, but are done differently than someone seeking improved tone.

To tone the muscles, the number of repetitions should be high and the amount of weight low. A good way to start is to use a broom stick or a dumbbell bar without plates. By doing them until a mild tiredness is felt after 100 or more repetitions, and being consistent, a toning effect will be achieved. If tiredness is felt before 100 repetitions, a lighter weight should be used. This can be done by using a shorter length of broomstick. If there is no tiredness with 100 repetitions, increase repetitions rather than weight. If 300 repetitions are done, then increase the weight by having a longer broomstick or by attaching a light weight to the end of the broomstick. For more information see

DIY Bathroom Floor Tile – Quick & Affordable Solution!

Did you know that DIY Bathroom Floor Tile remodeling can easily transform any surface and room setting modern and unique in just few hours of work? One of the most exciting things about these panels is how nature ‘sculptured’ each stone for millions of years transforming it decorative and appealing. The following quick article reveals the most updated information about these unique stone-tiles.

Short overview

Diy Bathroom Floor Tile redecoration is created by assembling together unified natural stones glued over supportive mesh backing that eventually creates a seamless tile. It is probably about the unique natural conditions that made the Indonesian beach pebbles the leading source of these ‘Nature-Made’ tiles. The most common applications with this tiling method include the following: Shower bases, bathroom walls & floors (including sink walls), kitchen walls, borders, patio floorings, fireplaces and even swimming pools and decks.

Important benefits

This solution provides several important advantages:

* Can be used on surfaces at home that have high traffic and that need to stand up to a lot of action.

* Impervious to water and other liquids.

* Installation process is quick and takes only a few hours.

Tips to go!

* Measure the designated area first, and then add 5%-7% more to your order just as a backup for future use and in case you may need to repair or cut small tile pieces in order to tile small /narrow spaces.

* Use only high quality materials such as grout and sealer – you don’t want your tiles to fall apart after few months just because you wanted to save a few dollars.

* If you want to enhance the color of the stones transforming it glossy or matte finish, use natural stone color enhancer right before applying the sealer.

We could count other important pluses provided by this trendy redesigning technique simply because most people find it extremely easy to install and maintain.


Diy Bathroom Floor Tile technique brings a true contemporary touch into any home’s surface with clear and effective advantages. Although this is a quick review, it is highly recommended to keep in mind the following advices just as you are ready to begin with installation.

Your Painting Business – How to Estimate a Painting Job Using an Excel Spreadsheet

The first thing I do when I estimate a painting job is to get a feel for the customer’s motivation for their paint job. Are they looking to sell? Are they fixing the home up for a special event, like wedding or birthday? Or is it just overdue and really needs a paint job?

The next thing I do after I have digested their reason for painting their home, is to look at the job and IMAGINE doing the job. Go through the job in your mind. Making notes about the job, things that may affect the time spent working. It could be anything like we can’t use a ladder to paint the family room ceiling because the room is too large and we have to cut in the lights, or there is a lot of spackling to do like cracks and nail pops. Try to get a “feel for the job”. Will it take longer than usual, or will it go faster than normal? Is the area cluttered? Will you be able to move fast or slow? Is there going to be a lot of traffic? Are there kids or pets? I do all this before I measure.

From here, I start my measuring and counting, better known in construction as doing a “take off”. I use a measuring wheel. I never use a tape measure any more. Tapes are too slow and usually only measure up to thirty-five feet. The measuring wheel can measure to one thousand feet and it costs the same as a big tape measure. Measuring wheels are usually made by the same companies that make tape measure, like Lufkin or Stanley, and they don’t break as often as tape measures. Once you use a measuring wheel, you probably won’t go back to a tape measure. I used to use the infra-red measuring device but I find them way too inaccurate.

Usually, I measure before I start counting things like windows. Once I begin to count windows and molding, I make note of anything that will add or take away time, which means adding to the cost or lessening the cost. When I count windows, I make three columns, one for windows that are located below eight feet, one column for windows below fifteen feet, and one for windows twenty feet and above. This also applies to molding or anything else heights above eight feet, like dormers, ceiling medallions or whatever.

I never guestimate a job. After measuring and counting I take my numbers and go to my office and prepare my estimate. If you do a search in Ezines, you will find other articles by me describing how I use the Excel Spread Sheet to total up and multiply high time factors to those elements of the job that are over eight foot high. Why? It takes you a lot more time to paint a window at twenty feet that it does at eight feet of height. After I total everything using the formulas built into the spreadsheet, I go to my estimating software and prepare the estimate. I itemize everything, I never do an estimate that says $2000 (or whatever amount it is), for painting the interior. I itemize everything, and it’s easier because that is how I count things. Also, because if I count 16 shutters and when I am painting them I count 20, I tell the customer that I only charged for 16, and they can see it in black and white, so they have to pay extra for the extra shutters, this way I don’t get cheated. Anyway the subject of itemizing your estimate is a whole new article.