What Is The Difference Between Normal and Portrait Photography?

The Uniqueness of Photography

Photography is an art that gives a unique and un-conceived view of each and every thing. Each photographer, being a unique artist tries to capture each and every photo in a unique way. In photography, each angle and pose is important. Based on these major factors, photography can be classified in various types. One of them is the portrait photography.

Main Features of Portrait Photography

For the professional photographers, portrait photography is not a new issue. It is basically portraiture of any person or object’s face. It also aims to highlight the expressions, moods and the personality of the subject. The entire body can be included as per clients request. Generally, the photos are clicked lengthwise making sure that the focus is more on the subject.

Portrait photography, being a part of photography has many distinct features that make them different from the normal photography. While the normal photography may include a focus on the person’s face or may focus on the background, portraitures make sure that the person whose photo is being clicked, have their face or the bodice exactly in main focus.

Role of Lighting as Difference

Lighting is another factor that plays a big role in portrait photos. In portrait photography, since the main focus is on the subject, photographers make sure that most of the light falls on the subject. Other kinds of lighting that are used in portrait photos are:

  • Three-point lighting that itself includes:

1. Key light,

2. Fill in light,

3. Accent light and kicker,

  • Butterfly lighting.

Normal photography includes lighting for different kinds of poses. Some of these important types are:

  • Natural lighting,
  • Window lighting,
  • Outdoor lighting,
  • Flash or Speed light,
  • Ambient lighting,
  • Interior lighting,
  • Studio lighting and many more.

Types Of Normal And Portrait Photography

Portrait photography itself gets divided in many subtypes which include the following:

· Traditional portrait,

· Candid portrait,

· Environmental portrait,

· Glamour portrait,

· Lifestyle portrait,

· Surreal portrait,

· Conceptual portrait and

· Abstract portrait.

Normal photography on the other hand, due to its wider scope includes many types and their respective sub-types.

  • Landscape,
  • Commercial,
  • Astrological,
  • Artistic,
  • Social documentary,
  • Vernacular,
  • Panoramic,
  • Underwater,
  • High-speed,
  • Food,
  • Lo-fi,
  • Fashion,
  • Wildlife,
  • Night,
  • Conceptual,
  • Old-time,
  • Straight,
  • Sub-miniature photography and many more.

Thus we can say Portrait photography is a specific type of photography where in main focus is kept on the subject being photographed. And as we have specific focus then we definitely need a specific lighting arrangement for that.

The Need For Workplace Organization

Workplace organization is paramount to workplace effectiveness and efficiency. It is the process of organizing the workplace so that all the needed items for a particular job or function are readily available and can be found and employed quickly and easily. The motto for workplace organization is “A place for everything and everything in it’s place.

Many companies have played with various forms of  organizating the workplace such as 5S, but have not seriously applied the concepts in a sustainable fashion. They became just another “Flavor of the Month”! This typically is the result of lack of real management commitment and a poor understanding of what workplace organization is and the benefits it brings to any company that implements it properly.

Lack of  organization in the workplace is a hindrance to finding anything (wasted time). In addition the accumulation of “stuff” presents a barrier to carrying out the essential tasks of business and also constitutes a safety hazard.

Workplace organization is about eliminating waste, predictability & standardization, as well as visual controls. How are workplaces structured and what implications does it have for people’s say over their own work lives. All employees from top management to the janitor must be involved and “walk the talk” to sustain Workplace Organization as a way of doing business..

The concept of changing the workplace was developed by Hiroyuki Hirano and comes from the Japanese concept of 5s – the five pillars of the visual workplace. Basically it is a five step process designed to achieve an orderly work environment. The five steps include:

1.      Sort: Determining what is in the workplace and removing those items which are not needed to support the daily work.

2.      Set-In-Order: Organizing those things which belong so that they are easy to find and use

3.      Shine: Cleaning and inspecting machinery and the workspace to ensure that quality product is produced.

4.      Standardize: Making sure that the workplace organization process is applies the same across the organization

5.      Sustain: Ensuring the program continues to contribute to the overall operation and the bottom line of the organization.

These organization programs must be properly planned and must be derived from strategic initiatives of the organization. Unless you build a sound business case for implementing workplace organization, you are unlikely to the results you desire.

There are a lot of workplace organization (5S) programs available, only a few properly lay the foundation for success through planning and linkage to strategic goals. If you are contemplating the implementation of one of these programs in your organization or if you have done it in the past and are thinking of re-establishing your program, make sure you determine the impact it will have on your organization. A good tool for this is the SWOT Analysis where you look at what it means to your organization in terms of Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats. Another way to look at it is in terms of three questions you need to ask:

1.      How will this help?

2.      How will it NOT help?

3.      What other problems will it create?

If you want to improve the productivity of your organization, you must have some form of workplace organization in play in your organization. If you do not have a workplace organization program in place, you will never achieve your potential.

Arkansas Wild Hog Inspires Wild Cat Formation – Running Back Duo Darren McFadden and Felix Jones

The University of Arkansas Razorbacks running back duo of Darren McFadden and Felix Jones made a very big impact on the Southeastern Conference (SEC) with their Wild Hog formation (predecessor to the Wild Cat offense in the NFL) before making a splash in the first round of the 2008 NFL Draft.

Darren McFadden and Felix Jones were teammates who both very successfully played the same position (running back) at the University of Arkansas. Both players were All-Americans and this abundance of talent at the same position put the Arkansas head football coach in the position of having the very desirable “problem” of how to utilize having too many good players for one position. The solution to the dilemma of how to maximize the abilities of both Felix Jones and Darren McFadden by getting them on the field at the same time was to implement what the University of Arkansas program called the Wild Hog formation.

The Wild Hog formation was not invented in the twenty-first century by the Razorback coaching staff but rather has its roots in the distant history of college football before spread offenses and passing the ball fifty times a game were common occurrences. Before Bill Walsh popularized the concepts of the West Coast Offense (lots of short, safe, high completion percentage passes) college football in its earliest days was a run dominated sport where offensive teams seldom utilized forward passes because of the relatively low likelihood that passing plays would be successfully executed.

The Wild Hog formation and its success on the college level with Darren McFadden and Felix Jones uniquely carried over to the NFL in a manner in which most gimmick or wrinkle plays do not usually do. Many casual football fans unfamiliar with the Wild Hog formation have heard of the Wild Cat formation which has spread throughout the NFL to the point that teams with systems not long ago thought to be conservative traditional offensive schemes are even implementing what some critics (like ESPN’s MNF analyst Jon Gruden) have deemed a gimmick play.

The Wild Hog formation and the Wild Cat formation are essentially the same thing with two different names. Different teams sometimes like to call the offensive scheme by a name unique to their mascot. Wild Hog formation was used at the University of Arkansas because their mascot / nickname is the Razorbacks (a type of wild hog). The crux of the Wild Cat formation (or Wild Hog formation) is that the normal quarterback is replaced with a running back that takes the shotgun snap from center. Typically a second talented running back is in the backfield with the first running back that took the snap. The combination of replacing the traditional quarterback with an extra blocker, showing the defense a look they are not used to, and the misdirection options at the offense’s disposal make the Wild Cat offense a very potent weapon when used properly.

DIY Installing Laminate Or Hardwood on Stairs

The first thing your going to need is patience. Installing laminate or hardwood on stairs can be tedious and time consuming. This is a little different than installing solid stair treads. In a lot of cases folks want their stairs to match the surrounding laminate or hardwood flooring. If you decide to take on the task, the main objectives is are to cut the treads and stair noses as close as possible to the sides and make sure the stair nose, treads and risers are attached securely. (I use glue, construction adhesive and nails).

A lot of times the stairs have carpet on them, so removing the carpet can reveal some surprises. Such as the over hang on each stair (which may need to be removed) or the zillion staples the carpet guys used when install the carpet. Or maybe the treads under the carpet are warped or loose.

When preparing the stairs I remove all the staples, scrap any debris of such as drywall mud paint over spray etc. I also check for any treads that may not be flat. Sometimes this can be corrected with screws which are better than nails, nails tend to work loose. Or using a belt sander to get rid of high spots. Worse case would be to replace the tread with the same thickness board. And removing the over hang on each stair or fill in the space below the over hang.

Deciding on what type of riser is something that needs to be considered. You can either use the same flooring your installing on the treads or use a painted wood as a riser. 1 X pine or polar are good for this. Some folks like the stairs all the same, whereas others prefer the stairs to stand out more with the painted riser.

Consider the cost of the materials. Stair nosing can be costly, but you can usually get two stairs done with one length of nosing. Shop around for the best price of pine or poplar for the risers if you want that look. As far as the amount of flooring you will need, a typical stair is about 3 feet wide by about 1 foot deep. This is 3 square feet for the tread or 6 square feet if your doing the riser with the flooring also. Always add 10 percent extra when ordering your flooring. This extra flooring is needed for waste and when mistakes are made. Its good to have extra left over also in case of repairs that may need to be done in the future.

Using good quality tools can make the job easier. I use a sliding miter saw, nail gun, circular saw and table saw as well as various hand tools.

I will not use quarter round on the stairs to cover gaps. It does not look good and it makes your stairs smaller. If you have to cover gaps get some matching putty to fill them in. You will need some anyway to fill nail holes.

Anyway you look at it, its a lot of work. The more educated you are when you start, the better the finished job will look. It can be very rewarding when done the right way.

Important Steps to Start A Septic Truck Business!

Today more than ever, as the economy remains unstable, layoffs have increased and rehiring has been slow. Many jobless individuals have turned to starting their own business which is a great way for many to make a living and have complete control over their livelihood; however, finding the right business to start is a key decision to make.

In a period when general spending and consumption of luxuries is down, business in the service industry can still do well and prosper, especially those niche areas within major industries that face little competition. Due to the very nature of the industry, starting a septic maintenance company has proven to be a profitable choice that is often made since beyond any doubts, there will always be a need for this very necessary service. Best of all, a service business such as this one can be started with as little as only one vacuum truck and some technical knowledge.

Household Necessity

Starting a septic truck service is a solid business plan because there will always be a constant need for this specific requirement. Over a third of all households and other buildings have septic systems that need regular pumping, cleaning, and maintenance; the need for maintaining the system is not going to disappear. With such a captive audience, a small septic company can do quite well as long as all operators are well trained, a high quality service is provided, and a competitive price is being offered. With good quality work ethics, word of mouth can spread quickly in neighborhoods and towns, and help smaller companies grow quickly in the septic service profession.

Low Start-up Requirements

Requirements for starting a septic service are fairly low when compared to other businesses, another plus when considering such an idea. Naturally, the largest expense is obtaining a reliable vacuum truck, closely followed by learning how to properly operate one. Used vacuum trucks can be found at great low prices through auction companies. If a good used vehicle that has been properly maintained is found, it can be more than enough for a fledgling company to start with while money is saved for a newer version. A brand new model can cost nearly $80,000, although it does have better features. Other than these two requirements, the only other necessity is to know where to dump septic waste as well as the cost and requirements to use a dump site for the disposition of the septic waste. The rest is a matter of advertising to attract customers and build a book of business.

Consider Creative Start-up Options

If the cost of buying vacuum trucks is too much at first, a recommendation is to look at businesses that are either selling or looking for partners as a means to expand existing operations. Additionally, some large septic companies offer franchise agreements to small business owners and can help with the initial financial outlay in order to get another franchise owner on the road to success. The reason why there are so many options in this type of business relates directly to the fact that, regardless of the economy, the need for septic services will always exist. Starting this kind of business merely depends on acquiring the necessary tools, then offering a competitive, reliable company to do the work.

Naturally this type of service requires the same sound business plan as any other start-up; however, when all things are carefully considered, it can be relatively easy to get started with a septic pumping service. It is one of the few cases when a less popular or unpleasant job has created a greater demand for those willing to handle it. With the right prior planning and the right septic truck, even an owner-operator type venture can do well and eventually grow to become a profitable endeavor!

Jeff Cavaliere’s Athlean-X Review – The Pros & Cons Of Athlean-X

The Athlean-X program by Jeff Cavaliere is creating a lot of buzz in these days.

In this Athlean-X review we will take a look at this product and see what you will find inside and what are the pros and cons of this training program.

Athlean-X Review – What Exactly Is The Athlean-X System?

AthLEAN-X is a 90 day home fitness program that was created by the strength training Jeff Cavaliere which is also a personal fitness trainer to a number of celebrities and professional athletes.

The program mainly uses the science of muscle confusion which is the frequent changes within your exercise program that stimulate muscle growth by avoiding a plateau effect. The Athlean-X program is based on the exact workout routines and diet management that Jeff Cavaliere’s professional athletes follow and now Jeff Cavaliere is allowing the general public access to the complete blueprint too.

However, with so many programs out on the market and on the internet today, what makes the Athlean-X program any different than all the rest?

To answer this question and to find if the Athlean-X program is really for you lets take a look at some of the pros and cons of Jeff Cavaliere’s Athlean-X program.

Athlean-X Review – The Pros And Cons

The Pros

Burn Fat And Build Lean Muscle In The Same Time

The Athlean-X program is most known for its effectiveness to burn fat and build lean muscle in the same time and in less workouts than some other popular fitness programs on the market.

Two Versions Of The 3-Month Program

When you buy the Athlean-X program you get two versions of the 3-month program – something that is quite unique today. Basically, you have two equally effective versions of the program; one that you can take to the gym and another to help you get ripped right at home.

Complete Diet Plan

A diet plan is essential for maximum results and that’s why Jeff Cavaliere includes a complete 90-day meal plan. He has broken down, each and every day for those 90 days of what he recommends you to eat for each of the 6 meals of the day and his plan is quite easy to follow.

Money Back Guarantee

The Athlean-X training system by Jeff Cavaliere comes with 60 days money back guarantee and if you are not completely satisfied with the results from this program, you will receive your money back.

The Cons

You Will Need Some Equipment

While it is true that you will not need any expensive equipment for the Athlean-X home workout program, there are a few basic essentials that you will need in order to get the best results from the Athlean-X training program. Some of the things that you will need are: dumbbells, chin up bar, jump rope and some more.

The Program Is More For Men

In my opinion Athlean-X seems to be geared more for men. However, I believe that women who wish to be more athletic can also use this training program.

May Be Too Challenging

The Athlean-X program may be too challenging for some people. This program might also not be suitable for anyone with a pre-existing injury or severe health problems.

Athlean-X Review – The Bottom Line

Overall the Athlean-X training program is a very good program for anyone who wants an athletic body by burning fat and building muscle fast.

There is a bit of marketing hype and also some cons that I mentioned before but if you want to seriously get into the best shape of your life and finally have the body of an athlete, then you may find the Athlean-X program by Jeff Cavaliere to be helpful for you.

Get Rid of Tonsil Stones – Gargling As a Natural Treatment to Keep Them Away Forever

If you have always felt like something is stuck in your throat, and you are suffering from bad breath that does not leave no matter what you do, you might just be a sufferer of tonsil stones or tonsilloliths. These stones are formed in the deep pockets of the tonsils when food particles, dead white blood cells, bacteria and mucous collect.

Although considered harmless, getting rid of tonsilloliths is important if you are probably tired of the embarrassment of bad breath. It is always advisable to adopt natural modes of treatment as there are safe and do not lead to any other complications. There are a number of simple natural remedies for tonsilloliths that can help you get rid of the problem.

Personally, I would consider gargling to be a very effective remedy to get rid of tonsil stones. Millions of people have tried this method and got tremendous relief from their complaints. Though extremely popular in the Asian countries especially India, this natural remedy is yet to catch on in the West.

How to gargle:

One should slightly tilt his/her head backwards and bubble the liquid in mouth for at least 45 seconds. Drop your head back down and spit the liquid out. The process when performed repeatedly will help to get rid of tonsil stones. It also helps to provide you fresher breath.

Substances that can be used for gargling:

There are many natural substances with medicinal properties that can be used for gargling. Most commonly mouthwash, table salt, cayenne pepper, hydrogen peroxide, grape fruit extract, zingiber officinalis, lemon and apple cider vinegar are used for carrying out this act. There are lots of medicines available in liquid forms which are particularly used for gargling. Beware that you do not swallow the liquid. There are numerous studies which are being conducted across the country that have demonstrated the effectiveness of gargling. You can implement this method into your daily routine to get rid of tonsil stones.

How does gargling help to treat tonsil stones:

Gargling has always traditionally been used to treat sore throats. But when performed by patients with tonsil stones, it helps to dislodge the hardened lumps from the throat due to the continuous flushing of the area. Gargling with medicinal substances is an added benefit as it helps to prevent infections. An important thing to remember is that gargling should be done regularly for a period of time to be effective in flushing out the stones.

Prevention is better than cure, so maintain good oral hygiene even after your stone is dislodged as it helps in correcting the underlying causes and prevents bad breath and new stones formation.

Window Display – A World Full of Opportunity


Window display is retailer’s most controllable element in relation to image of the store and that the merchandise displayed must match the target consumers. Windows may communicate style, content, and price point. They can be seductive, exciting or based on emotional stimulus through stimulation, or evocation of all five senses. The best store windows can generate great excitement and are a talking point. They contribute to the shopping experience by entertaining pedestrians, while simultaneously communicating the products and services on offer.

For a retailer willing to exploit the full potential that a window gives, the image-building process can be exciting and have enormous potential. A fashion retailer, for instance, will often change a window weekly to show the latest items on offer. A glance into a shop’s window by a passerby establishes the time of the year and, very likely, a timely contemporary event. It might combine seasonal and festive points of the year such as Spring, Summer, New Year approaching, Diwali, Valentine’s Day, Mother’s Day etc. At other times the propping may be based on color schemes, materials or cultural themes.

Themes: Popular Trends-

A winning window display should have a theme. The theme should be the flavour of the season. Window display, covertly displays the image of the store i.e., whether a store provides cutting edge technology, or does it give great discount offer etc. Choosing the right theme for the window is often the most challenging part of the whole display design experience. Selecting a single theme for all the store windows and some interior display spaces can create a cohesive and inviting appearance. A few popular ideas for display merchandising are:

Seasonal themes – Appropriately timed spring gardening displays, summer beach displays, or winter holiday displays are all going to appeal to people strolling by the store window, since they are currently thinking about these things.

Colour themes – A variety of items in all shapes and sizes can create a wonderful display when they are all shades of the same color. This gives the business a chance to showcase many different products at the same time.

Odd holiday themes – Have fun with strange holidays, from celebrations of the pets to a day set aside for the sale shopping. With the hundreds of holidays that fill each year, there is sure to be at least one that is a perfect fit for the business.

What’s new – Show people the latest and greatest items the store is carrying right in the window. The display has to be done in a manner that generates a sense of interest in the people along with informing them about the store merchandise. A well thought-out display requires huge amount of pre- planning. One should take time to plan a display. One should consider what one wants to accomplish, chalk out a budget and determine a central theme. One can develop a display as a shadow box with all visual display tools, the merchandise and props placed in miniature inside it or one can sketch out the display on paper. The display should correctly place all materials and location of tables, windows, racks, mannequins considering their dimension to the window display. The lighting and the angle of the display should well thought off.

Elements of Effective Display-

An effective display should be a harmonious blend of following elements. The window display should be able to communicate the message in most subtle yet creative and effective manner.

1. Balance: the props inside the window display should be placed in asymmetrical balance rather than symmetrical balance as both sides of the display having similar weight tends to make the display look bulky and cluttered.

2. Size of Objects: when the props are placed inside the display then the placement of large and bulky items should be done first. Since placement of such items affects the balance of the display, any change or shifting of such items can lead to unbalanced display. Placing objects in different heights creates visual interest and keeps a person’s eyes moving around the display.

3. Colour: they help in setting mood and add feelings to the display. The first attraction is often created by the colour. Right selection of colour according to the theme can make the display look appropriate and trendy. Often the philosophy of the store is also reflected by the colour of the display. A retail store selling goods based on a philosophy of being inspired by the nature then the colour palette of the window display carry colours of the nature.

4. Focal Point: in order to look as complete whole the display should have a focal point. A point of main emphasis to which all other props leads to. For this to happen, the product and props/signage and background should come together.

5. Lighting: lighting plays an important role in creating an ambience with in the display. In creating theme often the background is muted by spread lights and the specific product that is the focal point are accentuated with focus lights. In lighting there different lights that are used for day time and night time. The angle of lighting, the softness of brightness of the lights, luminosity of the display should be taken care of. The lights should be placed in such a manner that they don’t create shadows, until such an effect is required.

6. Simplicity: in want to display more, people often make blunders with their display. The display should also act an instrument of interest and surprise. The products showcased in the display should hold the interest of the consumers’ to an extent that out of curiosity they are forced to enter the store and check out what else is there in the store. It is important to understand that less is more and one should know when to stop adding any more items.

Window Display Types –

According to the size of the shop, the location and the desire of the retailer the display windows can be of following types-

1. Flat windows: storefront glazing is projected as far forward as possible and built in a straight line, with an entrance door aligned or set back from this line. Such window types are most commonly found.

2. Arcade window: they extend from a store’s entrance set back between two windows, which allow a store with less front space to increase its windows space in which to show merchandise.

3. Angled windows: they look similar to flat display windows but are angled out. This is often done to remove monotony of flat windows and the add interest to shop by giving three way look of merchandise.

4. Corner windows: corner windows are specifically designed for those shops located on corner properties. They have two sides of window to display their merchandise.

According to Kemal Yildirima 2007, consumers seem to have a more positive perception of flat windows than arcade windows with respect to promotion, merchandise and fashion. Compared to females, males evaluated the store window more positively.

According to the service that a window requires they can be divided into-

1. Closed Windows: they are most often used in department stores. They resemble a room, which have three solid walls and an entry door. They are the ones which require a lot of planning in order to transform them into “showstoppers”. They often require lots of merchandise and props to fill them up. As these windows can only be seen from the front a lot of detailing is done beforehand.

2. Open Back Windows: These windows have no back wall, but may have side walls. Some retailers prefer them because they let in lots of natural light and they make the interior of the store visible from the outside. One has pay to attention from to all angles when dressing this type of window as they can be seen from all sides, both inside and outside the store. Customers also have access to this type of window (meaning they can walk up and touch the display), since it is not enclosed in a room.

Major Points for Retailers-

Form the moment the concept of store is conceived, the understanding for creating an effective window display should be acquired. Starting from the type of window display, the materials used in construction and the glass used should be assessed and placed for easy and secured display. Besides constructional part, creative aspect should be planned meticulously in advance to create a dazzling effect. However, there are also practical concerns to address. Before one begins, there are certain practical points that retailers should be keep in mind.

1. Grab their attention. First and foremost, a retail window display must be eye catching. It takes only a few seconds to walk past a store window. If the display doesn’t grab their attention, the sale is lost. The priority should be to divert the focus of the shopper to one’s store. The store windows should be such that it differentiates one’s window with that of competition next door and also across the street. The onlooker even if not interested to buy the product at that moment should carry the display in their minds. Such technique adds a recall factor to the store and often leads to purchases in future.

2. Work with your vendors. Many retailers neglect to contact their vendors for help on retail window displays. This should be avoided. In order to create a more honest and updated window display it is essential that the vendors are contacted and recent posters, banners and retail POP displays should be acquired and placed in store windows. The vendors too would be delighted to have a retail outlet which likes to display their recent products. This form of alliance not only keeps both sides happy but also decreases budget of the display.

3. Work with artists. Hiring an expert can be costly, especially when one is starting a showroom. In such a scenario one can hire a new talent which can provide local, cheaper and newer concepts of window display. For example, a new retail outlet selling traditional handicrafts, might hire a local artist to create large paintings of old-fashioned textile designs. Alternatively, art galleries can be approached to hire interesting pieces that can express the theme and one can build a compelling retail window display around it.

4. Social cause. A good deed deserves another, if one allows a part of the windows for use to local non-profit organizations that are promoting a good cause; often such a display attracts more attention as people desires to know about the cause that is being promoted. Such window displays used for community projects creates good will for the retailer.

5. Show your holiday spirit. There is no other attraction then to see a coming holiday season display. People often love to see new products that will be launched for the coming season. If the retailer uses such holidays, even obscure holidays, then they can cleverly promote one’s store with marketing messaging that tie with the holiday.

6. Think outside the window box. When consumer enters the store after seeing a good display, the store should too carry the same vibrancy. Cleverly placed displays, posters etc. often help consumers to reach the product they want inside the store. Different and innovative ways should be used in order to use the outside of the building in addition to or in conjunction with the window displays.

7. Use of lighting. Retail window displays should be well-lit day and night. Even after the store is closed, lighting up of one’s window displays strategically, can create marketing even while one is not in the store. Good daytime lighting is also important as it helps to avoid shadows that can limit the effectiveness of one’s window display. Different lighting techniques can be used where, specific products can be placed under spotlight and if the window design simply features one’s brand/image, rather than specific products, then balanced lighting can be used throughout.

8. Be a quick change artist. Stale window displays are quickly be tuned out by passers by. It’s a good idea to change your windows at least every month. Smart retailers put in place a window display plan for the year and then execute the plan. In that way, one knows when there will be a changing of windows, and one can prepare accordingly.

9. Keep windows clean. Nothing ruins a retail window display faster than a filthy window. The windows should be cleaned to maximize the effectiveness of one’s window displays.

Like any other aspect of retailing, creating an attractive display takes a little skill and lots of trial and error. One should keep working at designing eye-catching and innovative ways to make retail store profitable through visual merchandising. Once the window display is installed, one shouldn’t forget to keep rotating merchandise with fresh merchandise and replacing any items that have become soiled.

A Tribute – A Mother Reflects on the One Year Anniversary of Losing Her Daughter to Breast Cancer

Gloria Glickman from Clifton, New Jersey remembers the day in 2000 when her 28-year-old daughter, Jennifer called her on the telephone to tell her she felt a lump in her left breast.


Gloria’s first reaction was to tell her not to worry about it, that she was sure it was fine, but to still be sure to get it checked by a doctor. Her daughter took her mother’s advice. But like most people waiting for results of a biopsy, she worried.

When she called her mom about her anxiety, Gloria recalls reminding her daughter that she herself had once had a cyst and it turned out to be nothing, so she reassured her daughter that everything would be okay.


One week later, Gloria was at home with her husband, Don and heard the words from her daughter that a mother never imagines she’ll hear in her lifetime. Her athletic, healthy, beautiful, full of energy daughter, Jennifer calling to say, “Mom it’s malignant. I have breast cancer.”


Jennifer was athletic and ate well and was in very good shape. This was more of a genetic predisposition to breast cancer than anything else. The only reason she even went in to have a mammogram was because of the lump she felt in her left breast. She otherwise wouldn’t have given it a second thought. Even with a family history, she never thought it would affect her. Jennifer’s grandmother on her father’s side had breast cancer, as well as several aunts.

But she still saw breast cancer as something far removed from her own life. She was healthy. She never once imagined it would strike her, especially not in her twenties. She was too young. She was too active. She was too fit. She took good care of herself and took pride in eating right and exercising regularly.

Gloria could barely hold the telephone in her hand. She remembers wanting to run as far away as she could from what the voice on the other end of the telephone, but her body was frozen in time. Her heart seemed to stop.


Gloria held her breathe and fought back the tears while listening to her daughter’s courageous words:

“Mom, I want you to be brave because I’m going to fight this.” Gloria could hardly believe how calm her daughter was at this moment. Their roles were suddenly reversed. Instead of a mother offering solace to a child, it was the other way around. Jennifer was comforting her mother. Jennifer reminded her mother that she was a fighter and she wouldn’t allow anything change her optimistic outlook on life. She intended to live a long and happy life.


That life included being engaged to be married just three months after her diagnosis. This meant she was faced with not only telling her mother, but telling her fiance about the news. How do you tell your prospective husband that you may die. That question, that life — that future flashed before Gloria’s eyes as she hung up the phone. Her hands shook uncontrollably and shared the news with her husband, Don who knew from the look on her face that something was terribly wrong. Her husband was supportive and told her, “We’ll get through this together.”

Next, Gloria called her own mother, who was in her seventies to say, “Mom I just got a call from Jen and we have to be strong and support her.” Gloria’s mom, Ann Tausk, a Holocaust survivor was used to surviving the worst in life without letting it affect her spirit. This time, she didn’t know if she had it in her to fight. Her own mother told Gloria she didn’t know if she could handle it.

Meanwhile, Jennifer was faced with telling her fiance. Upon being told, he reaffirmed his soon-to-be wife and was extremely supportive and offered to take care of her. Gloria thought he could have ran and said he didn’t want anything to do with her, but he stayed by her daughter’s side.


Back at the hospital, the doctors wanted to remove lymph nodes to find out if the breast cancer had spread.

They were relieved to learn the cancer was just contained in her one breast. After careful consideration, Jennifer then decided to have a mastectomy and have the breast removed. She also reduced the other breast, so it would not be that drastically noticeable. Jennifer wanted to remove the cancerous breast and had the most aggressive chemotherapy to get it out of her body.

She was told she would lose her hair, but she desperately wanted the disease out of her body. Jennifer had a full head of long, curly hair down to the middle of her back. She knew chemotherapy would mean sacrificing a part of her external looks at a time when she wanted to look her best — her wedding day.

Gloria remembers asking her daughter when she would take her wedding photos knowing she would lose her hair. Jennifer didn’t care. She said she’d make a turban since she would be completely bald. Jennifer did just that. Even though she was completely bald on her wedding day, she was a radiant, beautiful bride.

So beautiful that she was featured in the January 2001 issue of MAMM Magazine, Women Cancer and Community. The title of the article was fitting. It was called, “Bald is Beautiful” and it featured many women


In the magazine, Jennifer was quoted saying, “On March 30, 2000 at age twenty-eight, I was diagnosed with infiltrating ductal carcinoma. My fiance and I had been planning our wedding for nearly a year. People were traveling from all over the country and as far away as Australia and I was going to be in the middle of chemotherapy. My hair started to fall out a month before the wedding. After trying wig after wig, I gave up. I was afraid that without hair, I’d be an ugly bride. But I looked and felt beautiful. With the love of the people around me and the strength I had inside, we went through with the wedding.”

Jennifer was in the middle of her chemotherapy, and took a few weeks break from it so she wouldn’t feel nauseas during the wedding.

She got married and finished her chemotherapy two months following the wedding. And then she continued doing what she had to following doctor’s orders. She was on tamoxofin, her hair grew back and she kept it short. Yet, her hair wasn’t the only thing that would be short.

Her new marriage did not survive. Relatives and friends noticed Jennifer was nervous and unhappy. They didn’t know if it was the cancer or the marriage. Jennifer seemed irritable. Everyone assumed she wasn’t happy because of the illness.


In 2005, when she passed her five year milestone of being “clean”…it was called NED…No Evidence of Disease…a common term within the cancer community, Gloria received another call that made her heart skip a beat. Jennifer called to say, “I just reached my five year milestone AND my marriage isn’t working. I’m getting divorced”

She was married five years and had been cancer-free for five years. Jennifer told her mom that she needed to move on. Since she had begun therapy at this time, she realized that she was unhappy in the marriage. Jennifer felt she would live another fifty years and she wanted them to be happy and healthy. She went through marriage counseling, but had the courage to leave a marriage that wasn’t right for her despite everything else she had gone through.

Gloria, her husband Don, and the family, including her step-siblings Howard and Jennifer all supported her in her decision. Her daughter also decided to change jobs. She switched careers and went from computer graphics for another engineering firm to work in marketing for an engineering firm instead. She said she would rather be alone than not be happy within the marriage. Gloria wasn’t a stranger to divorce since she had been divorced from Jennifer’s father when Jennifer was four- years- old.

Soon after her divorce, Jennifer met Greg Hoffmann who was to be her second husband. Jennifer also decided to get active in the Susan G. Komen for the Cure Foundation. She met her future husband through participating in this foundation, and he would become the love of her life. They fell in love and Jennifer was happier than she had ever been.


Two years later, in 2007, Gloria received another dreaded call. Gloria was in the South Pacific with her husband and she hadn’t spoken to her daughter for three weeks because they had been vacationing on a freighter. Jennifer said she wanted to wait to tell Gloria the latest news until she got home, but couldn’t. The breast cancer was back but this time in the liver and ovaries. Gloria wanted to die. Jennifer told her not to worry, they were going to zap it and get rid of it. Gloria got off the phone and felt paralyzed. She remembers sobbing. Again.


That same year, Jennifer was planning to climb Mt. Whitney in California to put up a banner flag for cancer and she did it in between radiation treatments. Her new job was going well. She never missed a day of work. She got promoted and was thriving professionally. Greg was as courageous as Jennifer. His sense of humor helped. Jennifer felt supported, happy, in love and that she could conquer the world.

Jennifer started writing a blog in December of 2007 called, http://www.laceupyourgloves.blogspot.com where she gave a day by day description of her experience. So many people wrote on it when she passed away in 2009. Jennifer came up with the name for the blog because that was her motto: “Time to lace up my gloves and keep fighting” when she got diagnosed.

Again, Jennifer surprised her mother by announcing that in April 2008 she and Greg planned to go to Sante Fe and marry in a Chapel there. Just the two of them. Gloria supported her decision, even though she would have loved to have been there.

Jennifer had MRI’s every three months. In November 2008, she would learn that the breast cancer had gone to her brain. She had to have radiation. Jennifer told her mother they would zap it. Gloria couldn’t believe the news once again. Jennifer had the radiation and went for another MRI in the beginning of 2009 and she was told they got most of the cancer by zapping it with the radiation.

Gloria remembers going from New Jersey to Phoenix, Arizona to see her daughter in February 2009. She just wanted to hug her daughter and be with her in person. Gloria saw that her daughter was fine on the surface, but also knew that Jennifer was good at hiding any weakness. At this time, Jennifer only confided in her husband and didn’t want her mom to worry, so she put up a brave front during her visit. Gloria saw a vibrant daughter and returned to New Jersey feeling good about her daughter’s health and future.


Two months later, on the evening of Friday, April 10, 2009, Gloria would get a call from Greg saying that it was urgent that she and Don come to Phoenix because Jennifer was in the hospital. Gloria, and her husband, Don dropped everything and flew to Phoenix, as did Jennifer’s siblings, Howard and Jennifer and their significant others.

There were no flights going west that same night due to the lateness of the hour and Gloria was so frustrated that she couldn’t teleport herself there. When Gloria arrived at the hospital, she saw her daughter hooked up to a lot of machines and on painkiller drugs. Jennifer asked her mom why she was there and that she was going to be okay and didn’t know why her mother had traveled there.

Jennifer’s oncologist told Jennifer and her husband Greg that there was not much they could do. Jennifer’s response was that she wasn’t ready to slip on the banana peel just yet, and she would be alright. Jennifer didn’t want to hear anything negative.

The doctor spoke to Jennifer in front of the whole family. The doctors wanted to do a spinal tap to see if there was cancer there, but it was risky and against odds. They tried it, but they didn’t find what they were looking for. They wanted to do it again, but then Greg, Gloria and Don made the decision that there was nothing to be gained to do it again.

Gloria believed in her daughter and that she would live a long time. Gloria never said goodbye. Instead, she told her daughter, “I am so blessed to be your mother. You have shown so much courage and inspired so many people. Thank God I have a daughter like you.”

Her daughter told her the past five years had been her best ever. She said she had such a wonderful, blessed life. Gloria said, “I love you, Jen.” and Jennifer replied, “I love you too, Mom.”

That was the last conversation they had.


The day before, Don called Gloria’s sisters to tell them to tell Jennifer’s grandmother that Jennifer was in the hospital and the prognosis was not good. Gloria asked her sisters and her mother to come to Phoenix to see Jennifer. At 82-years-old, Gloria’s mother arrived and told Jennifer, “We’re survivors in our family. You have to be strong.”

Four days later, Greg in consultation with Gloria and Don agreed that allowing Jennifer her dignity was paramount at this time and they made the decision to stop aggressive treatment and transfer Jennifer to a hospice.

Once they brought her to hospice, Jennifer was in a coma. Even though she wasn’t conscious, Gloria felt her daughter knew she was there sleeping by her side 24/7 every night. Gloria whispered to her that it was okay to let go.

The last day, the hospice nurse said she could tell by Jennifer’s labored breathing that it would be 24-hours before she would pass away. Jennifer had her entire family there. Jennifer’s family and Jennifer’s husband’s family were there when she passed away.

Greg stood by the bed and Jennifer tightened his hand, kicked her foot and then she was gone. Gloria feels so blessed that her daughter allowed her to be in the room for her last breath. Her love of her life was there. April 21, 2009 next week is the one year anniversary of her passing.


Today, Gloria continues to keep her daughter’s memory alive. Jennifer’s husband, Greg is a crusader for cancer and started the Desert Cancer Foundation of Arizona, which raises money for The Banner Desert Medical Center and Mobile On-Site Mammography, a mobile way for women to get their mammograms.

The On-Site Mobile Mammography is funded by The Jennifer Hoffmann Memorial, the charity set up by Jennifer’s parents, husband, friends and family specifically for women who can not afford mammograms.

On April 10, 2009, they had a screening and 45 women who signed up were given free mammograms. These are women who do not have medical insurance.

Jennifer wanted to be cremated and have her ashes scattered at the Grand Canyon because she loved going there to hike with her husband, who followed her wishes. He did so alone.

Her husband, Greg Hoffmann is going there on Wednesday, April 21, to commemorate Jennifer’s passing.

He plans to continue Jennifer’s fight for a cure.

Greg is now on the board of the Foundation. Each November, his team, THRIVR, walks in the Three Day Walk for Susan G. Komen Walk for Cancer, as do other members of Jennifer’s family.


Despite her diagnosis, Jennifer went on with her life. A life that meant divorce, marriage, work, family, friends. She continued to live. The message she gives is that illness does not have to prevent someone from living as if they would live forever.

After Jennifer passed away, Gloria received so many letters telling her what an inspiration Jennifer was to them during this time.

Jennifer’s friend is a photographer named Jill Stafford in California has made an exhibit with Jennifer’s sayings from her blog and she gifted the photograph with the saying to Gloria. The saying reads:

“…and then we go on with the business of living whether or not the scenery has changed. We have no choice in what we are dealt, but we have a choice in how we deal with it.”

That saying keeps Gloria going. It also keeps Jennifer’s husband going. He wrote the following tribute.

In memory of Jen…

On April 21, 2009, the world lost one of the good ones to breast cancer. My wife, Jen Hoffmann, after a 9-year battle with the beast, elegantly unlaced her gloves and did what all of us should aspire to do — she left the world a better place.

Much more than just a survivor, I called her my “thriver.” Literally and figuratively, she climbed mountains, and while doing so, she inspired thousands, courageously fighting a disease that just wouldn’t let go, reminding us all what a precious gift it is just to be alive. Never a woman dying of cancer, she was always a woman living with cancer — and oh how she lived.

She was a five-time participant in the Arizona Breast Cancer 3-Day, and the team she founded, Team THRIVR, will once again hit the pavement in November 2009, determined more than ever to raise money to find the cure.

We’ll walk with heavy hearts, and we’ll walk with the sweetest memories of a life well-lived. We’ll walk, because everyone deserves a lifetime — and because far too often, not everyone gets one.

Godspeed, beautiful girl. Thrive on.

–Greg Hoffmann

Gloria Glickman and Greg Hoffmann want to keep her daughter’s spirit, courage and message alive. They encourage women to get regular mammograms. All women are at risk of breast cancer with advancing age, regardless of their age.

But like her young daughter, Jennifer — if your family does have a history of breast cancer in the family, she wants you to make sure you schedule an appointment and if you don’t have health insurance, she wants you to know there is someone you can contact.

The Mobile Mammography Screening was set up in honor of her daughter, Jennifer to help others who may not be able to afford early detection. Gloria Gickman continues to this day to raise awareness about breast cancer in her daughter’s honor, which is exactly what Jennifer would want.

Jane Eyre – Charlotte Bronte’s Inspirations for Lowood School

Schools in nineteenth-century England were brutal and uncompromising institutions. Lowood School from Charlotte Bronte’s Jane Eyre is a typical girls school of that era, and its depiction was derived from the author’s own experiences at The Clergy Daughters’ School, located in Cowan Bridge, a village in the county of Lancashire.

When the apothecary Mr. Lloyd inquires whether the child Jane would like to go to school, the protagonist recalls her nursemaid Bessie’s observations of school being “a place where young ladies sat in stocks, wore back-boards, and were expected to be exceedingly genteel and precise” (I, 3, p.25).

Bessie’s remarks echo the reality of much girls schooling in the early nineteenth century, as well as going some way to anticipating Jane’s grueling experiences at Lowood, where the pupils are mistreated, and the accommodation, sanitation, and provisions are all of a very poor quality. These aspects are vividly illustrated in several passages, such as the serving of burnt porridge to the girls at breakfast: “I saw an universal manifestation of discontent when the fumes of the repast met the nostrils of those destined to swallow it” (I, 5, p.45), and the building’s lack of heating: “this morning we were obliged to dispense with the ceremony of washing: the water in the pitchers was frozen” (I, 6, p.52).

Many of these incidents are drawn from Charlotte’s own experiences at Cowan Bridge school, as are several of the characters who figure in them.

Lowood School’s headmaster and treasurer is Mr. Brocklehurst, a grim and pious man who runs the institution as cheaply as possible. When Jane first encounters him the fleeting impression she gets at first glance is that of “a black pillar!” (I, 4, p.31). Mr. Brocklehurst has an original in the Reverend William Carus-Wilson (1791-1859), the founder of The Clergy Daughters’ School. Carus-Wilson was a Calvinist Evangelist, ordained in 1816. He was also the son of a prosperous landowner. Revelations concerning Carus-Wilson’s running of the school caused much controversy in later years.

The kindly superintendent Miss Temple who Jane develops a close friendship with has a real life counterpart in Ann Evans, who was the superintendent at Cowan Bridge school. Charlotte’s favourable depiction of Miss Temple is considered a ‘just tribute’ to Ann Evans’s character.

Another Lowood staff member who was modeled on an actual person is Miss Scatcherd, the History and Grammar teacher who mercilessly bullies Jane’s friend Helen Burns. Miss Scatcherd is apparently based on a Miss Andrews, who taught at Cowan Bridge school when the Bronte sisters attended, and Charlotte’s portrayal of her is quite the opposite to that of Ann Evans. In fact, along with John Reed, Miss Scatcherd is arguably the most unpleasant character in the novel. In her Life of Charlotte Bronte, Elizabeth Gaskell alludes to the harsh behaviour of Miss Andrews, cruelties echoed in the Lowood section of Jane Eyre, such as when Helen is birched by Miss Scatcherd for having dirty fingernails, despite being unable to wash them due to the water being frozen that morning.

The character of Helen Burns is generally thought to be modeled on Charlotte’s eldest sister Maria, who died of consumption in 1825, aged only 11. She developed the illness from her insalubrious surroundings at The Clergy Daughters’ School. Charlotte herself maintained that the school’s privations permanently affected her health as well and that she didn’t exaggerate any details in her descriptions of Lowood in relation to the school at Cowan Bridge.

Syros Greece – Byzantine Years – Frankish and Turkish Domination

For about 900 years frequent pirate invasions were the main characteristic in the history of the island. They were in full swing in the Aegean Sea particularly in the 7th century and afterwards. Saracens, Arabs and Slavs have left their marks on the island (as many place-names by the sea show) and doomed it to introversion and oblivion.

The only inhabited part of the island that could be seen from the sea at that time was the rock of (nowadays called) Ano Syra very close to the ancient densely populated town. The establishment of this naturally protected settlement of the people of Syros hunted by the invaders, is thought likely to have taken place in the early 9th century AD. Being part of the Byzantine Aegean Sea dominions, Syros was under the rule of the Diosece of Delos, then that of Athens and finally that of Kea – Thermia – Serifos.

After the fall of the Byzantine to the Francs, Syros is subjected to the Venetian rule and is included together with most of the Cycladic islands in the Dutchy of the Aegean Sea, in 1207.

The Venetians attempted to impose feudal administrative and financial system but to no avail. At the same time Catholicism was established and officially recognised by the residents while both the Greek language and the Greek customs remained equally alive and unchanged. Numerous place-names, the preservation of Orthodox worship ceremonies, the Eastern church calendar as well as a great number of historical sources of the era written almost exclusively in Greek are representatives of national identity preservation.

The Venetian domination was marked by constant strife between various Frank rulers on the domination of the islands. Typical of this was the siege of Syros by the Duke of Tinos, Bartholomew Gizis, in 1286. The pirate invasions that ensued in all the Aegean Sea affected Syros too although the island was under the protection of the Western powers and the Roman Catholic Church in particular. During all this time Syros was part of the Dutchy of the Aegean Sea, but with its own governor mainly assigned to collect taxes. The Catholic clergy was politically and financially powerful on the island.

The Turkish domination in the Aegean Sea grew constantly and in the mid-16th century in the Cyclades the Turkish – Venetian clashes turn on the Turkish side. In 1537 Syros is seized by the Turks. The Turkish rule was limited to tax paying while local government started to develop.

The residents (approximately 300 then) suffered constant raids by Frank pirates, who were in conflict with the Turks. Quite often the locals were compromised by such conflicts with the hottest part being the beheading of the (Catholic) bishop of Syros Andreas Kargas by Captain Ali Passas in October 1617. The pasha considered the islanders under their bishop’s commands as plotters against the Turkish domination.

Meanwhile, the pirate raids had resulted in the depopulation of many Aegean Sea islands. This is also certified in a 1563 Venetian report, according to which out of 16 islands of the Dutchy of the Aegean Sea only 5 were still inhabited with Syros being one of them. The population number reached a new low after the 1617 calamity as it is shown in Catholic Bishop Marengo’s report on 27 June 1626. The two Turkish – Venetian Wars that ensued caused new sufferings to the island.

In 1633 Capuchin monks establish in Syros. Towards the end of the 17th century, both the administration (local decisions, taxation, etc.) and the juridical decisions became favourable to Syros. Local administration was enacted: the people’s assembly, the delegates and the elders. All men over 30 participated in the first. The assembly gradually attained the power to legislate. The delegates were elected by the assembly for one year with administration power, the mere ratification of which was by the Sublime Porte. The elders were old delegates, also elected by the assembly, who contributed to the local administration and juridical decisions.

In 1680 the Community of Syros exempted from all taxes the port of the island and this way the basis for trade development was laid. The island was under the jurisdiction of the Turk Chief Justice residing in Andros. There were no Turks on the island and the bishop was appointed by the Pope. A growing French influence contributed towards the above development since France had got a number of privileges on behalf of the local clergy from the Turks. Signs of security as well as financial development for the residents resulted in a growth in population and in the second half of the 18th century more than 2.500 people inhabited the island (according to the testimony of a local abbot Della Roca), all of them Catholics except for a few Orthodox families. The island started being intensively cultivated. Young people were sent to Italian universities to become educated under the auspices of the Pope. That progress was cut short by a cholera epidemic in 1728.

During the Russian – Turkish war (in 1771 all the Cyclades were seized by the Russian fleet) Syros was ruled by three commanders with emergency powers. At that time taxation was dual (in money and goods). Meanwhile a great number of local antiquities were pillaged with the active participation of the Russian admiral.

After the islands were recaptured by Captain Pasha, reprisal was avoided due to the positive contribution of Stephanos Mavrogenous, a pasha interpreter from Paros (later ruler of Wallachia). Syros between 1779 and 1803 was subjected directly to the Sultan’s niece who instituted reduction in taxes and encouraged local institutions (elders, etc.).

In 1814, the privilege of the appointment of moneyed people in key power positions was called off after a popular uprising and lower class representatives were appointed instead in local administration.

The sea routes in the Eastern Mediterranean were safe again circa 1800 and afterwards after the decline of the piracy and the entailing dangers in the Aegean Sea. Consequently, Syros having a key geographical position, the constant support of the western powers and self-rule develops rapidly into a maritime centre and its port is revived. At that point the Greek War of Independence starts.

Power Resistor Selection Criteria

Power resistor devices are used in a wide range of applications from simple power supplies to complex military systems such as RADAR and SONAR. Although, in principle, selection of a power resistor for a particular application should be a simple procedure in practice there are many factors to consider. This article covers the key points to evaluate.

One of the most basic laws of electronics (Ohms Law) states the current through a resistor is directly proportional to the voltage across it and inversely proportional to the resistance. The current through a resistor produces heat and it is consideration of heat dissipation that is a major element affecting resistor selection.

Any power resistor chosen for a particular application must be able to withstand the heat generated without any physical damage or short or long term deterioration in performance. The current through the resistor produces a rise in temperature of the resistor above the ambient temperature and this heat must be dissipated in some way and/or the resistor must be able to physically withstand the rise in temperature.

The ability of a resistor to both withstand and dissipate heat is directly related to both its construction (materials) and its physical size therefore key elements to consider when choosing a power resistor include:

1. The required resistance value

2. The Watts to be dissipated by the resistor

3. The required physical size given volts, Watts dissipation (2), maximum temperatures, environmental and mounting conditions.

4. The most appropriate resistor construction.

The resistance value will be determined by the application, the circuit and the correct application of Ohms Law. The power or Wattage can then be calculated using P=I2R. As the power equation is a square law it is important to remember that only a small change in current or voltage will produce a proportionally much higher change in the Wattage so maximum voltage and the actual current should be used.

The required physical size and the resistor construction are then linked. For power resistors thick film resistor and wirewound resistors are the most common constructions. The choice of the most appropriate construction and the required size and mounting method (including heat sinking) is a complex decision involving a number of factors. Some of these factors may not be known and may only be estimated or measured.

Power resistor selection is therefore far from as simple a task as it may first appear and experience and technical knowledge play a major part in correct device selection.

Breaking Up Wax Is Hard To Do – Setting A Wick In A Container Candle – Candle Making Additives

The following article contains three topics that are related to candle making: How to Break Up a Slab of Wax, How to Secure a Wick in a Container Candle, Candle Additives.


Wax generally comes in 10 pound slabs. How do you break up the slabs?

If it’s a slab of soft container wax – a sharp knife can be used to cut the slab into pieces.

If it’s a slab of hard wax – place the slab in a sturdy trash bag and lay it on a sidewalk or cement floor. Place a piece of lightweight cardboard on top and then break up the slab with a hammer. The trash bag keeps the wax clean and keeps the pieces in one place – and the cardboard prevents the hammer from tearing through the plastic bag.


Vybar 103 – Opaque wax hardener. Use in high meltpoint waxes (pillar and votive candle wax) / raises the meltpoint of the wax, making the wax harder / softens dye color and increases opacity, giving candles a creamier look / reduces seepage of the fragrance oil from the wax / eliminates mottling.

Vybar 260 – Opaque wax hardener. Use in low meltpoint waxes (container candle wax) / raises the meltpoint of the wax, making the wax harder / softens dye color and increases opacity, giving candles a creamier look / reduces seepage of the fragrance oil from the wax / eliminates mottling.

Stearin (also known as Stearine or Stearic Acid) – Opaque hardener. Stearin raises the meltpoint, making the wax harder / softens dye color and increases opacity, giving candles a creamier look / reduces seepage of the fragrance oil. (Vybar is generally preferred in place of Stearin).

Gloss Poly (Polyethelene) / Luster Crystals – Opaque hardener. Improves glossy appearance.

Translucent crystals Translucent hardener. These crystals can be added to straight paraffin to make it more translucent. Increases the meltpoint of the wax.

Microcrystalline (Micro Wax) 180 – Translucent hardener, increased elasticity. Increases the hardness but not the opacity. Elasticity makes wax less brittle.

Microcrystalline wax (micro wax) 195 – Translucent hardener. Micro 195 will increase the hardness, raise the melt point, and reduce or eliminate mottling. Recommend for pillars and tapers.

UV Inhibitor– A small amount helps reduce fading and discoloration from exposure to light (especially sunlight).


First, place the candle wick in a length of drinking straw that’s about ½” shorter than the wick itself. This makes it easier to place the wick tab where you want it to go.

Apply a drop of hot glue – or super glue – or double sticky tape to the bottom of the wick tab and then secure the wick tab in the center of the container and remove the drinking straw.

Pros And Cons Of Quartz Wall Tiles

Quartz wall tiles suit well on the floors, walls, pathways, porticos, kitchen countertops and backsplashes. All the interior designers recommend them on the high-traffic areas. They are water and temperature resistant. They are available in plenty of colours, designs and patterns. The black and white colours are famous. They make the floor look beautiful and glittery. They are non-porous, which never allows the moisture or germs and they are easy to clean. Regular cleaning is highly recommended and they are affordable, easy to keep up.

Contact the local dealers and check about the latest models of quartz wall tiles. Try to acquire all the features about these tiles before you meet them. There are online dealers who will explain everything about these tiles with the sample at your doorstep. Avail them and discuss with your family members. There are suppliers who offer the guarantees and discounts. Evaluate the cost and the quality before you buy them. Get extra tiles to balance the wastage. Go with the large size tiles to avoid the wastage. The following points will guide you to understand the properties of this wonderful wall tiles:


Wonderful appeal – since they are available in plenty of colours these tiles are available in many colours and patterns. They are easily matched to every decor. The mirror flecks on the surface offer a lot of shine. When you use these tiles on your walls, the light reflection makes the room bigger and more spacious.

Durable- they are long-lasting only for their non-porous nature. You don’t have to spend on the sealant or the conditioners. Take essential to avoid the colour fades, scratches and stains. Since Kitchens and bathrooms are high traffic areas, they are lot of chances for the dirt and grime entries, guard them with these tiles. They are water and moisture resistant, that makes us stay hygienic.

Easy preservation – the cleaning work is effortless, just sweep them daily with the soft brooms. Try to clean the settled dirt’s with the wet cloth weekly twice. Avoid the acids and other ammonia liquids on them. Wash them with the water and the special liquids recommended for these tiles alone.

Different shapes, colours and sizes- quartz wall tiles are natural stone kind but in the manufacturing process they are usually molded into several shapes and sizes. The pigments are then added to get different colour shades.


Heaviness- since you find heavier than the natural rocks, you might have to hire a professional contractor.

Price – When compared to others, they are expensive and money- worth.

All the flooring materials have the pros and cons; it is our choice to select the right one.

Tips for Making an Outdoor Fireplace

Having an outdoor fireplace is one way you can transform your yard into an attractive, comfortable living space all year. Before you start the project there are a few important factors that you need to consider. You need to consider the location where your outdoor fireplace is going to be built, what materials you are going to use, the fuel source, and your budget. You also need to figure out the proximity of your fireplace is in regards to any objects that are flammable. You will also need to research any local regulations and laws in regard to construction projects like these before you can begin. It is important to keep in mind that building this will take a significant amount of time from beginning to end. If you are using brick you may need to hire a professional so the structure will be built correctly. Bricklaying is a difficult thing to do and requires knowledge and experience and if the project is not done correctly it could lead to an injury or repairs that are costly if it collapses.

You can use concrete because it is easy to work with but to make it attractive you will have to tint or paint it. Another important thing to do is assemble all of the proper tools ahead of time. What tools you will need will depend on the type of fireplace you are building, including the shape and size. For a large fireplace you may need to rent a small excavator or power tamp while a small one may only require a pickaxe or shovel. If you have decided to use brick and lay it yourself you will need the equipment that is necessary for bricklaying. If you decide on concrete you will need a cement mixer and a trowel.

The next thing to consider is how you are going to power the fireplace. If you have decided to use gas you will have to have a professional to run a gas line from the fireplace to your home. This has to be done safely and correctly to help ensure the reliability of the outdoor fireplace and to make sure there is no gas leak that could cause it to explode or catch fire. If you are going to use a wood fire then you will need to dig a pit so the fire will be beneath the surface of the fireplace area and enclosed to help prevent spreading the fire and stray sparks. If you are unsure if you can complete the project call a professional to do it.