How Does a Patio Misting System Work?

How does a patio mister work? Well it depends on which system you use. There are basically two types of misting systems on the market. One is an expensive system that utilizes a pump to pressurize the water and send it through pipes and tubing to spray out a nozzle in a fine mist. The finer the spray, the quicker it will evaporate, creating a cooling sensation. A good system will lower the ambient air temperature up to 30 degrees.

There are several different versions of the more expensive system, the main difference being the pump itself. In the lesser quality systems, the pump is fairly loud. With the high end systems, the pump is almost silent. You can build a screen around the pump and eliminate most of the noise and hide the system out of sight.

The inexpensive systems rely on the house hold water pressure to send the water out the spray nozzles. At one time, the quality on this type system was disappointing. The droplets were very large, which resulted in a light rain falling on you and your patio, getting everything wet in the process. It also only lowered the ambient air temperature about 10 to 15 degrees.

There have been some pretty innovative changes in the past couple of years in the spray nozzles. These now produce a finer mist at normal water pressures. As a result, the majority of the mist evaporates before it falls. This results in a lower ambient air temperature with much less mess. These systems can lower the temperature between 20 and 30 degrees, almost as well as the more expensive systems, and at a fraction of the cost.

If you are planning on getting a patio misting system, you need to determine your budget. Obviously, if money is not an object, you can opt for one of the expensive, commercial grade quality misting systems with a pressurizing pump. This will give you years of reliable service and will increase your home value.

However, for most of us, we are limited to how much we can spend on a misting system. You can choose an inexpensive system, that hooks up to your garden hose, which will produce large droplets and soak everything on your patio. Or, for about the same price, you can get a better quality system that will produce results like the systems that cost ten times as much.

When it comes to patio misting systems, it pays to do the research and find which system produces the best results.

Kaizen and Kaizen Blitz

6 important steps can be defined in the Lean Manufacturing Process.

  • understand customer value: the value of a product is defined solely by the customer
  • map the value stream: describes the flow of material and information through the production system
  • implement flow: linking of manual and machine operations
  • let customers pull: customer demand drives the manufacturing process
  • implement lean manufacturing tools: 5S, visual management, SMED, standardized work, TPM etc.
  • improve continuously

In this article, we will talk about the 6th step: continuous improvement or Kaizen.

Kaizen is composed of 2 Japanese words: “Kai“, which means “To Change“, and “Zen“, which means “Make Better“.

There are 2 versions of Kaizen: Continuous Improvement, and Kaizen Blitz (or Event).

1. Kaizen continuous improvement continuously makes small improvements in processes, and focuses on the overall value stream.

The underlying philosophy is that there is always room for improvement, and a culture of continuously becoming better is created.

Kaizen Continuous Improvements are carried out by multifunctional teams.

Value Stream, Current State and Future State Maps are used as roadmaps.

The main benefits are:

  • overall value stream improvement
  • improved communication
  • mutual respect
  • shared responsibility

2. A Kaizen Blitz (or event) focuses on individual processes, and tries to improve them in a short fixed time frame, typically 4 to 5 days.

During this time, a cross-functioning group of managers and employees work together as a result-oriented team.

This is a typical Kaizen Blitz agenda:

  • day 1: training (lean concepts, Kaizen, improvement tools)
  • day 2: observing the process, brainstorming, data gathering
  • day 3: solution development, start implementation
  • day 4: implementation and standardization
  • day 5: assessment of obtained results

The specific Kaizen Blitz benefits are:

  • immediate results
  • other improvement opportunities are discovered

Learn How to Draw a Car – Top Two Tips For Car Drawing

Thousands of people every day are trying to find the best way to learn how to draw a car. So what is it that’s so hard and how can you learn how to draw a car properly and make it look real? I’ll be giving you some tips I’ve learnt that you can apply to your drawings and hopefully create a car that looks like it’ll drive right off your paper!

Most car drawings that I’ve show me that people lack a few key things when trying to draw a car. One of these is patience. It is obvious when someone has only spent half an hour on a drawing that they have tried to make up from scratch.

Drawing a car and making it look real is hard enough without having to make up every detail of your drawing. I highly recommend starting out drawing from reference picture. Yes you can trace right over pictures if you want, but this won’t help you much in the long run. You have to train your brain to look at lines and tones and be able to apply them to your drawings.

It’s a colorful world.. or is it?

One great tip that I use when I have trouble deciding what my drawing should look like is getting rid of the color. When you take out all the color of a car photo, you are just left with the black and white tones you need to replicate in your drawing. This makes it a lot easier to visualize what you need to do to make your car look real and accurate.

When your doing this, take note of how the light plays on different surfaces of the car. Is it shiny and metallic? Dull and rubbery? What makes it look different on a photo and how do you think you can represent that with pencil and paper? Getting a firm understanding of this process will allow you not only learn how to draw a car really well, but also you will be able to draw anything you want. Great artists have become great through practice and observation. You can do the same.

The tilt of doom!

What I notice in a lot of aspiring artists and something that I was also guilty of is the titling of your head. This might not seem like much but when you tilt your head without noticing it, you are effectively offsetting the position of your drawing and you will end up with a car that slants to the left or right. To avoid doing this stop every few minutes, stand back and look at your drawing from a different view point. Make sure everything that should be horizontal is and that it isn’t leaning on way or another.

Vintage Metal Glider – Refinishing That Old-Fashioned Gliding Wonder

If you have never refinished a vintage metal glider, I can tell you that it requires some work and a little patience and you will end up with a beautiful glider.

Before we begin, let me tell you that you must work in a safe manner, use proper ventilation, and always use safety equipment including protective clothing and a suitable mask. You are responsible for your own safety.

Removing The Paint

To do a really good job, all paint must be removed from the metal. An old outdoor glider will usually have been repainted several times, so you will have several coats of paint to remove. There are several methods you can use:

1) Paint Stripper is one method. Different brands have different formulas so it is important to follow the instructions on the can. Basically, paint stripper will soften the paint so you can scrape it off. You must be prepared with a receptacle for the soften paint. This can be messy but if you are organized and work in a pattern you should not have much trouble. Make further applications as necessary to sure you remove all the paint. Use further steps as instructed in the product directions on the can. Dispose of the removed paint according to local waste disposal guidelines.

2) Sanding is another method. Using a grinding sander and coarse sand paper, use light pressure and sand away the paint. Using light pressure is important because you can sand through the metal, especially the bottom apron area. Rust might have taken hold so take it very easy. Sand the entire glider as much as possible.

You will not be able to get into the corners and crevasses with a standard sander pad. So, when you are finished with the standard pad, switch to a sanding wheel which will allow you to get into crevasses. When you are complete, dust off the glider very well using some mineral spirits.

Priming

It should take about 10 cans of spray gray primer. Using a constantly moving motion, spray the entire glider with the primer. Make sure all areas are well covered.

Make sure it dries completely before you proceed. This will usually take an hour, longer if you have very high humidity.

Painting

A vintage metal glider will look best with a two-tone paint job. You will need:

  • 2 rolls of masking tape,
  • About 10 cans of the primary color spray paint (the outer areas),
  • About 5 cans of secondary color spray paint (the inner areas), and
  • About 4 cans of clear spray coating.

Mask off the inner areas of the outdoor glider, and then spray paint the outer areas with the primary color. Remove the masking tape immediately to prevent chipping.

Allow the paint to completely dry.

Mask off the outer areas allowing a little lap over, and then spray paint the inner areas with the secondary color. Remove the masking tape immediately to prevent chipping.

Allow the paint to completely dry.

Then spray the clear coating on the entire glider. Use three coats of clear coating to give a rich look.

Allow the paint to completely dry.

You are now finished. You now have a beautiful newly painted metal porch glider.

How to Add Reinforced Concrete Columns to an Existing Building

Reinforced concrete columns are mainly used to carry loads of a building. They transfer these loads to a suitable safe soil bearing capacity. Sometimes a building may have only the load bearing walls. These structure may not safely carry an additional floor above. The house may also need a roof change from light weight materials like galvanized iron sheets to the heavier concrete or clay roofing tiles. These will necessitate more bracing of the unit to carry these additional loads.

The reinforced concrete columns in a building can be finished using plaster render, cladding’s or left with the concrete color. Whatever the finish, it should give good aesthetics to the wall facades. These columns may be erected free standing or within the building fabric. They may have the usual rectangular or square shape, though it may also have the circular shape. It is important to assess the points where to erect columns. This is so that all the necessary supports are put in place before any cuttings are done safely.

The procedure of adding reinforced concrete columns, is by marking out all the points to add columns. The walls and roofs are supported using props and bracing. The columns should be place at all building corners and any load bearing walls intersections. The wall is cut carefully up to the beam level. Concrete at the roof beam level is hacked and removed to expose the reinforcements. The wall opening should have a masonry toothing. A pit is excavated for the foundation base and column starter bars. The base and the column is then cast and vibrated well.

The column starter is cured after seven days. Additional reinforcement is added to the roof level and joined with the beam steel. Hoop iron is done at alternate courses passing through the steel from both the wall ends. This is to allow the wall to be strengthened after the cutting. Form work is then done. Concrete is cast and vibrated. The form work is removed after seven days of curing. The process is repeated at every point where they will be a reinforced concrete column. The appropriate finish is then done to match with the existing wall surface facades.

Australia’s Top Ten Attractions

If you’re planning a trip down under, try to visit some or all of these outstanding attractions.

FRASER ISLAND

This, the largest sand island on the planet became a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1992. Lush rainforests, impressive sand cliffs and memorable freshwater lakes leave a lasting impression on the thousands who visit the island each year. Apart from its long beaches of white, glistening sand, Fraser Island also draws people hoping to catch a glimpse of its famous dingo population. The island covers over four hundred acres and lies of the east coast of Australia within the jurisdiction of Queensland. Some visitors opt to take day trips, but most choose to spend a night or two on the island. One of the more unusual tourist attractions is ship that ran aground during the cyclone of 1935.

SYDNEY HARBOUR BRIDGE

Known locally as ‘The Coat-hanger’, Sydney Harbour Bridge is instantly recognisable to many people around the world. Of the 1,400 men who constructed the bridge, 16 were killed before completion in 1932. The braver amongst you can do the ‘Bridge-climb’, an escorted walk to the top. As you ascend, the cars below become smaller and smaller. ‘The Rocks’, regarded as Sydney’s birthplace, is situated at the foot of the bridge. Today it is bustling with restaurants, shops, galleries and cafes, a far cry from the scene which would have met those arriving from Plymouth in 1788.

GREAT BARRIER REEF

Another UNESCO World Heritage site, The Great Barrier Reef is probably the most well known protected marine site in the world. It covers a staggering 86 million acres along the coast of North East Australia. At 1,429 miles long, the reef is home to 1,500 species of fish. Its area is actually larger than the combined size of Tasmania and Victoria. Apart from the natural beauty found here, there are 30 shipwrecks which are regarded as being of historical significance.

SCENIC WORLD BLUE MOUNTAINS

The Jamison Valley is home to the steepest railway journey in the world. In the valley floor, you’ll find over two kilometres of boardwalk through woodland and rain forest. You can return via the scenic cable car, which incidentally, is the steepest cable car journey in the southern hemisphere, and if that’s not enough, you can journey across the valley in the only switching, glass floored cable car in the world and enjoy views of the valley, Katoomba Falls and the famous Three Sisters rock formation.

KAKADU NATIONAL PARK

Rock paintings and archaeological sites are testament to 40,000 years of continuous habitation. The Kakadu National Park, a World Heritage site, covers almost five million acres in Australia’s Northern Territory. Today, around 300 Aboriginals live amongst the savannah woodlands and tidal wetlands.

SYDNEY OPERA HOUSE

Since its opening in 1973, The Sydney Opera House has been an Australian icon. Danish architect, Jorn Utzon, created one of the twentieth century’s greatest edifices. Standing on the Bennelong Point, the building receives more than four and a half million visitors each year. Tours including backstage and front of house are available.

PORT ARTHUR

Formerly a timber station, Port Arthur became one of the most notorious penal colonies in Australia. Regarded as ‘Hell on Earth, the prison housed inmates as young as nine. The life of the prison stretched from 1833 to 1877 when it was renamed Carnarvon in an attempt to shake off its murky history. However, in 1927, it regained its title of Port Arthur. These days, the prison doors are passable in both directions, with guided tours and harbour cruises available.

ULURU-KATA TJUTA NATIONAL PARK

Uluru, formerly known as Ayres Rock, stretches over 2 miles in the otherwise anonymous scrubland of the park. At 1,142 feet high, it is the largest rock monolith in the world. Uluru is revered amongst the Aboriginal people who believe its origins date back to the creation of the Earth.

AMP TOWER CENTREPOINT

At just over 1,000 feet high, the Sydney Tower is the highest building in the city. Spectacular views across the harbour are afforded from the observation deck and the revolving restaurant.

NATIONAL GALLERY OF AUSTRALIA

Many of Australia’s finest art collections are housed in the National Gallery. A permanent collection of more than 100,000 works shares the building with international art and photography exhibitions.

Artificial Christmas Trees Buying Guides

If you’re trying to save time this year during the hectic Christmas season, you may be rethinking the quaint but unwieldy custom of getting a real Christmas tree. There are plenty of great reasons now to opt for a synthetic tree, not the least of which is saving gas and avoiding the blustery temperatures outside. If you just are tired of pricking your fingers and picking up stray pine needles off the floor, then getting an artificial tree can save you lots of time, money, and aggravation from

year to year.

TREES AT A GLANCE

Artificial christmas trees have become more sophisticated over the years. Some are made to look as much like the real thing as the ones you find in the Christmas tree lots. These include mimics of the Alaska Fir, the Norway Spruce, the California Cedar, and even the Montana Pine amongst many others. But, in addition, there are those that have a designer look that a real tree can’t provide. Maybe you want an all-white tree or a tree with many colored optical fibers. The sizes can vary to accommodate any ceiling height, which makes it convenient if you are trying to put one in a 9 foot foyer or frame it in your bay window. You can get them with or without lights, with pre-lit trees that come in many colors too.

When you are looking for a synthetic tree, there are many considerations on quality that need to be taken into account. There is the sturdiness of the tree itself and the stand. You want to make sure that the branches and lights are dense enough so that the tree appears full and well-lighted. With a prefabricated tree, you will have to assemble it, so ease of assembly is important too. If you

want stands and trees that are more durable, you might want to choose metal ones. They are also safer than the lighter plastic models which can tip over precariously without notice. Make sure your tree is made of high-quality materials, from the structure, to the stand, to the branches. It will affect the way the tree looks and how long it lasts too. Lighting is important too. You want lights that are UL rated for safety. That should include burn-out protection in that if one light fails the rest will remain lighted. You will want to keep a nice ratio of lighting to tree branches throughout the height of the tree. If you really want ease of assembly, seek out the hinged branch construction Christmas trees. They are easier to install than their hook-in branch cousins.

For the accessories, you will want to get christmas ornaments, and a christmas tree skirt. Safety is an issue that can be addressed with power strip/surge protectors for the lightig needs. You will also need to get some tree storage bags or boxes to help protect your purchase when it is off-season. Stands come with most artificial trees.

A high quality tree can last as much as a decade, sometimes more. Trees often come with warranties too. The warranties for the tree are usually more extensive than those for the lighting. If you were to add up how much it costs to get an artificial tree versus a real one, you will find that you end up saving a lot of money over the years.

Of course, some people like that fresh-cut fir smell in their living rooms. Well, you can still have that with an artificial tree if you buy plug-in tree fragrance kits. There’s no reason you have to sacrifice the nice smell just because you want to buy a prefabricated tree.

WHAT SIZE TREE?

You will have to have a good idea of where you plan on putting your tree before you go out and purchase it. You want to measure the ceiling height and floor space to get one that looks good in the space while not overwhelming it entirely.

A good rule of thumb is to get a tree that is a .5 foot less than your ceiling height. For an 8 foot ceiling, a 7.0 foot to 7.5 foot tree would look best. Cathedral ceilings obviously require taller trees.

The width of a tree can vary according to personal preference. Some people like slim trees, and others prefer a full tree. Another good rule of thumb for the width is to get a tree that has a height of about twice the width. You can tweak the ratio from there to make sure the tree looks good in your space.

If you have a small space, an upside-down tree might help you to make the most of your limited floor space. Slim trees, also called pencil trees, can take up less floor space too. If you don’t even have room for a stand-up tree, you can always use a table-top version to bring the Christmas spirit into your home.

YOUR CHOICE OF STYLES

Do You Want It Pre-lit or Not?

If you are scrambling for time, then a pre-lit tree can be a good time saver. The problem is that the lights will last less than the actual tree, and is often reflected in the differing warranties. A pre-lit tree will usually cost more than an unlit tree too. It is, however, more convenient and for that reason many people choose this style. Even if you choose a pre-lit tree, you still have the option to choose clear or multi-colored lights. If you are trying to save time and are not so worried about the money, pre-lit trees are a convenient option.

A Traditional Appearance

Traditional artificial trees are for people who desire the convenience of an artificial tree with the look of a real one. A really good knock-off of a traditional tree is usually pricier and of higher quality than other synthetic trees.

The branches are made to mimic the look of real Christmas trees with a dark green color. They come in different species, just like the real trees. You can find artificial trees that mimic an Alaska Fir, a Norway Spruce, and a Montana Pine, amongst other choices. The height can vary from table-top to anywhere upwards of 20 feet or more. The most common ones are between 4 and 10 feet tall. Traditional trees can be either full or slim.

A Unique Appearance

There is no classic definition of a unique tree. There are so many different varieties and novelties that show up year after year. There are upside down trees, and spiral trees. You can get revolving trees and sparkling fiber optic trees too. The metal trees come in tinsel needles, sculpted forms, and a wide variety of color, shapes and sizes. People often add a unique tree in a different area of their home to complement the traditional one. They can add a bit of festive fun to the Christmas season.

More Features and Considerations

Artificial trees can even come with fake pine cones and berries

on the tree branches. Flocked and frosted trees give a wintry wonderland feel to your home. These are initially beautiful, even though they age to a yellow tinge after some time.

How the tree looks is also affected by your choice of ornamentation. Multi-color lights can solid colored metal

christmas ornaments in a monochromatic scheme.

If you want the ornaments to be highlighted instead of the light display, choose a subtle backdrop of clear lights. This is gorgeous

on a conservative full-bodied tree. White trees offer some interesting designer choices, from dark ornaments to all white-schemes. You should make sure that

the ornaments aren’t too weighty for the tree and that you don’t overload the tree branches with too many Christmas ornaments.

DIFFERENT TYPES OF STANDS AND CENTER POLES

You can get stands and center poles in metal or plastic options. Metal makes a good, long-lasting and fire-safe

choice. If you have a need for a large tree, getting one that is metal can keep it from having a tendency to tip over. It

is more expensive than plastic, but worth the added durability and safety. For smaller trees, plastic is also a good choice. However,

the stand and center pole should be sufficient to hold up any lights and ornamentation you want to put on the tree.

DIFFERENT TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION

How well a tree is constructed can often herald how easy it is to assemble. The two basic structures for trees that look real

are hinged branches or hook-in construction.

Hinged Branch Construction

This is the most expensive type of construction, but they are also easier to assemble than the hook-in versions. The tree is

usually already set up except for two or three parts that need to be snapped together. The branches are already constructed

into the center pole of the tree. All you have to do is snap a few pieces together and fluff out the permanent branches to

make them look good. They might even already have the lights assembled too. Get an

artificial christmas tree with metal hinges which last longer

than plastic ones.

Hook-in Branch Construction

The hook-in branch construction takes a little more forethought to put together. You will need to pull out the branches from

the box and assemble them according their color-coded tags. These tags will let you know what part of the tree they need to be

hooked into. Each branch has to be individually hooked in to the center pole and then fluffed out. This can make it a far

more lengthy process than the hinged construction. However, they are also less expensive to buy. They don’t come in pre-lit versions.

WHAT ABOUT THE BRANCHES/NEEDLES?

Of course, the look of the branches and needles will impact the look of your tree. If you want a traditional tree, you need

to get a higher quality tree that carefully mimics Mother Nature. You will want to get a tree that has long, thick, sculpted

needles and branches. Cheap trees usually have sparse needles with cut-off branches that aren’t sculpted.

Tip Count and Density

Tip count is important, but you will find that density is more telling of how it will look assembled. A traditional tree is

usually not sparse enough to be able see the inside of the tree from any perspective. You should also have plenty

of branches to hang your ornaments. The needles should also look lush and thick.

Your Choice of Materials

Needles for traditional-looking trees come in two choices:

Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC,) and Poly Ethylene (PE). PVC is more common than PE. Either choice of material,

when of high quality, is a good choice. They each, however, have a different look.

Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC): PVC works great for realistic looking Christmas trees. The needles are made

my pressing PVC into a thin film of different thicknesses. If you have a thicker needle, you create a higher quality

tree. The film is then cut into thin strips, that look needle-like. The more expensive trees have sculpted tips, while the cheaper

models have cut tips. You can have two or more ply of PVC for the needles, but it costs more and is higher quality.

Wire is used to form the branches and the needles are attached to the wire. A heavy gauge of wire is used to help be sturdy

enough for ornaments. PVC, in high quality, can be fade resistant and fire retardant.

Poly Ethylene (PE): PE is more expensive than PVC. It is costlier to manufacture and harder to make

needles with it. It is also more realistic, however, and that’s why it is popular on traditional Christmas trees.

The process of making needles for using PE requires molds that mimic the realistic look of certain trees, by using

actual tree tips to create the molds in the first place. The liquid PE is poured in the molds and this forms

into realistic tree tips. The better the mold, the better the final result and appearance. PE can be treated to be

fire-retardant.

LIGHTING

Pre-lit trees come with lights, but the longevity and density still need to be considered. The lights should be securely

attached, and they should be UL rated for safety. That means that when one light blinks out the rest still stay on. A good

milliamp rating is one that is greater than 170mA. A lower rating will cause the lights to burn out more quickly.

Lights are usually warranted for about three years, whereas a tree can have a warranty of up to 10 years.

If you are looking for non-traditional lighting options seek out fiber optic and LED choices.

Light Count and Density

Density is really important in lighting, more so than light count. You should have about 80 to 100 lights per foot if you want a

tree that looks full and brilliant. A top quality seven foot tree can even sport 560 to 700 lights. The thinner your tree generally the less lights per

foot you need. Pre-lit trees often have models that can let you visually evaluate them before you make a purchase.

OTHER ACCESSORIES

When you buy a tree, check to see what’s included in the box. Even though stands

are almost always included a

tree skirt may not be included.

Storage bags, other accessories that are usually not included, are needed for when you plan on putting the tree away. You have to know whether the tree comes

with lights or whether you have to buy some. A power strip/surge protector is an additional accessory that is not included that is a good investment. On top of

these accessories, you also need

ornaments.

THE PRICE RANGE

How much do you want to spend on your tree? The price can depend on many factors, including quality, style, size, and ease of

assembly. A top quality pre-lit, six to nine foot tall tree can even cost within the range of $250 to $500; however, smaller trees can be available in the

$100 to $250 price range. Lower cost trees are usually smaller and don’t come with lights.

SOME TOP MANUFACTURERS

Good Tidings, Barcana,

Plow & Hearth,

National Tree Company

How To Quickly Make A Bootable USB Stick With FreeBSD

Install FreeBSD, or use an existing FreeBSD installation, and follow these steps:

1) First, you need to prepare and format your USB stick:

fdisk -BI /dev/da0
bsdlabel -B -w da0s1
newfs -U -O1 /dev/da0s1a
boot0cfg -v -B da0
(“-U -O1” [“O” like in Olympus, not zero] is for UFS1 which provides much faster copying than UFS2; if you decide for UFS2, type “-U -O2” – but expect that the copying will be slower)

2) Then mount it: mount /dev/da0s1a /usb
3) Copy all directories (FreeBSD) to the stick
4) After copying, modify the /usb/boot/loader.conf (explained below)
5) In the /boot directory on your USB stick you must have MFS (Memory File System – mfsroot.gz), which you will make (instructions are below)
6) Modify your /etc/fstab in MFS and put the following line (only) there:
/dev/md0 / ufs rw 0 0
7) After you boot your computer with the stick, you will be in the MFS environment from which you will mount your USB stick with mount_nullfs (described below)

Modification of /boot/loader.conf on your USB stick

You must have the following lines in your /boot/loader.conf (some lines are optional):

mfsroot_load=”YES”
mfsroot_type=”mfs_root”
mfsroot_name=”/boot/mfsroot”
nullfs_load=”YES”
splash_bmp_load=”YES”
vesa_load=”YES”
geom_uzip_load=”YES”
geom_label_load=”YES”
bitmap_load=”YES”
bitmap_name=”/boot/splash.bmp”
snd_driver_load=”YES”
kern.maxfiles=”25000″
kern.maxusers=”64″
vfs.root.mountfrom=”/dev/md0″

# Additional filesystem drivers

udf_load=”YES”
linux_load=”YES”
fuse_load=”YES”
ntfs_load=”YES”
ext2fs_load=”YES”
reiserfs_load=”YES”

Making your own MFS

FreeBSD, after the kernel boots, can use the root file system in memory (mfsroot_load=”YES” command in /boot/loader.conf will do the trick). To build such a memory file system, type the command:
dd if = /dev/zero of = mfsroot bs = 1024k count = 42

The mfsroot file of about 40 MB in size will be created. You need to format it, mount it and copy the most important files into it from your FreeBSD system (/bin, /sbin, /etc, /root….):

mdconfig -a -f mfsroot md0
newfs /dev/md0
mount /dev/md0 /mnt

Once copied, you must unmount it and gzip it: gzip mfsroot

Optionally, you can chroot it to see if everything works, then copy the mfsroot.gz to /usb/boot onto your USB flash drive (or disk). If you think it may be a problem to pick the most important files for your MFS (from your FreeBSD installation), search for mfsbsd in Google and either use its toolset or the MFS image alone (contained in the downloadable ISO of mfsbsd).

After booting from the USB stick (you will jump into MFS), you must mount the physical USB stick:

/sbin/mount -o ro /dev/da0s1a /usb
/sbin/mount_nullfs /usb/boot /boot
/sbin/mount_nullfs /usb/usr /usr

The above commands will help you use the big /usr directory on your USB stick instead of the /usr dir in MFS. mount_nullfs /usb/boot /boot is optional, as in your MFS/boot directory only the following files are needed for the little MFS to boot (/boot/kernel directory in MFS): geom_label.ko, geom_uzip.ko, zlib.ko a their debug symbols (zlib.ko.symbols, etc.). By mounting the /usb/boot dir via mount_nullfs into the /boot directory in your MFS you will be able to load kernel modules.

Benefits and Disadvantages of Power and Hand Tools

Make sure you have the right skills to use power and hand tools like sidchrome tools. Accidents happen all the time, so it is important to use the proper equipment before using power and hand tools. This article discusses the advantages and disadvantages of these.

Eventually, you have to fix some things at home using either a power or a hand tool. Every house should have a decent set of power and hand to repair damaged equipment and areas. Whether it is the garage, attic, kitchen, car, or lawn, it is always important to keep your tools accessible. This article describes the advantages and disadvantages of power and hand.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Hand Tools

Hand tools offer precision because you can manipulate them easily. Cabinets, musical instruments, and decorations would not be possible without these. It takes a lot of skill to use, which is why you should be careful when using them. Unlike power tools, it does not require any power from a motor. This allows you to use them anytime and anywhere. Because hand do not require motor power to work, they are lightweight and portable.

Despite these advantages, hands have several limitations. It takes a lot longer to finish tasks if you are using hand. For instance, it is faster to hammer something using an air nailer compared to a regular hammer. Apart from that, you need more skills to finish your work if you are using hand.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Power Tools

Unlike hand tools, power sidchrome tools are faster, which makes it easier to finish more tasks in less time. For instance, cutting a large piece of lumber using a handsaw will take you hours even if you have two or three people helping you. With a powered saw, however, you can cut down many pieces of the same lumber in just a few minutes. Another great thing about power tools is they can do tasks that are impossible to do manually. For instance, a jackhammer does not have a manual equivalent. These advantages make power tools the top choice of many workers.

Even with these advantages, power tools are more complex to use than hand tools. Power tools also need more maintenance because they contain motors, gears, and power connections. Any damage to these components can cause power tools to fail. Apart from that, it is also more dangerous to handle power tools because of their increased power and speed. You have to be very careful if you are using power tools. Wear the right safety gear and make sure you know how to operate the tool before using them.

Safety Precautions

Many people make the mistake of using power and hand tools without wearing the right safety equipment. Before using any tool, be sure to wear safety goggles, gloves, boots, and other protective apparel. Be sure to have a first aid kit in the working area in case an accident happens.

Power and hand tools like sidchrome tools make working faster and easier. By using the right tools, you can finish the tasks assigned to you as quickly as possible.

5 Modern Bathroom Design Ideas

Would you say your overall design style is sleek and chic? Do you enjoy the true architecture of a space with its linear simplicity rather that an overly adorned and accessorized space? If you’d like to translate your modern vision into your Master Bath here are a few design ideas to help get you started.

1. Cabinetry

  • When it comes time to selecting the design of your cabinetry lean toward clean, crisp and streamlined furniture.
  • To create a lighter and sleek bathroom environment consider cantilevered cabinetry secured to the wall creating a minimal look to the vanity piece. Create some drama with strip lighting added to the bottom side of the cabinet – which will cast a warm glow to the floor below.
  • Provide additional built in wall-to-wall storage elsewhere in the bathroom to compensate for the reduced storage in the vanity area.
  • Deep dark rich woods evoke a sense of warmth to the clean lines of contemporary design.

2. Fixtures

  • Crisp clean and sleek white fixtures speak to the contemporary/modern design. If space allows introduce one of the hottest trends – a free- standing bathtub.
  • They are available in all shapes and sizes and nothing creates a more dramatic focal point in the bathroom than an exquisite free-standing tub. Simply position it in front of a spectacular picture window with a breathtaking view as the backdrop.

3. Surfaces and Materials

  • Utilize solid surfaces for countertops, whether quartz, limestone, granite, concrete or glass to give it a clean contemporary look. Keep the edges simple and square for easy maintenance and sophisticated style.
  • Always introduce an interesting backsplash material in contrast to the counter top color and material. Whatever the surface I like to apply it on all walls from floor to ceiling. It creates instant architecture and adds great detail and drama to the space.
  • Glass tile, mosaic, stone or ceramic details are just a few of the highly decorative backsplash products out on the market today that create a sense of modern style.
  • Keep geometry in mind when selecting the material for your contemporary backsplash. Consider tile shapes that are rectangular, oversized, or small mosaics to create detail in the pattern of the application. If the tile is oversized and rectilinear install it in a brick pattern. If it’s shape is longer and thinner then stacking the tile creates a very interesting modern vibe. Stay away from the common square tile in any size.

4. Luxurious Shower

  • Create a steam shower with multiple rain heads, and body sprays. If your budget allows, add chromatherapy and aromatherapy to your master bath wish list as well. These fittings represent the epitome of modern luxury design. Don’t forget a built in bench and access panel to hide the steam system.
  • Design a full seamless glass enclosure from floor to ceiling and finish the interior with complimentary mosaics or stone tile to set it apart from the rest of the space. This glass enclosure creates a more visually open space within the overall space.

5. Accessories

  • Remember to keep clutter and display to a minimum.
  • Accessorize with towels in a bright color for punch or stainless steel and woods. Keep everything to a minimum and clutter free.
  • Select chrome, nickel or silver toned drawer/door pulls, towel bars, towel hooks and paper holders for sparkle.
  • Frame vanity mirrors in woods or silver tones – in similar finishes to the other accessories adorning your modern bath.

Now draw a bath and enjoy the modern luxuries of your new space.

How to Prepare Your Palette for Oil Painting

In oil painting palette has two meanings. The first refers to the surface on which your paint is mixed; the second meaning is the array of colors employed for painting.

Most artists prefer a wood palette. Some use a thick piece of glass placed atop a sheet of gray paper. But a glass palette is restricted to studio use and working from a taboret, which is a small table that holds the bulk of your painting gear.

My preference is for the wood palette. Wood palettes come in a variety of shapes and sizes; the most popular is the oval shape that is designed to fit in the crook of your elbow and is gripped with your thumb through the hole in the palette. The wood palette can be either a small, dinner-plate size or a large platter. As a teacher I recommend that beginners use the smaller size palette.

Before the palette can be used for painting it needs to be prepared with a sealant. Unsealed palettes will leach the delicate oils from your paint and rob them of their lustre.

There are three different methods for preparing a palette for painting. One can lightly apply a few coats of shellac letting each coat dry thoroughly before the next. Some artists who have invested in an expensive, counter-weighted palette will painstakingly seal it with a French polish giving it the look of a fine antique. There is, however, a serious drawback to these two preparations: the warm, umber hues of varnish make it difficult to accurately gauge color mixing.

The better method is this: invest in a litre of linseed oil. It needn’t be artist grade. Raw linseed oil that is available in hardware stores suffices well.

Pour a couple of tablespoons of linseed oil onto your palette and with a clean cloth rag evenly spread the oil over your palette. Let the oil sink in for about an hour then repeat six to eight times. To keep your palette from warping it is not a bad idea to work both sides evenly.

The goal is to saturate the wood with oil. Once fully saturated set your palette aside and allow it to air dry for several days. Even after a week, however, your palette will still feel oily. This is a good sign. It means your palette is ready to begin its journey.

Even though your palette is now fully laden with oil it will still leach the delicate emollients from your paint. But only for a little while.

At the conclusion of every painting day you should clean your palette. NEVER, EVER use turpentine to mop up your paints. Turpentine is a solvent and it will strip your palette like a thief run amok in a foreclosed housing development.

Instead scrape your paint off with a painting knife and rub the remainder into your palette with a cloth. In a short time a soft, wax-like surface will develop that will literally love your oil paint. This waxy surface also acquires a neutral gray color that enables you to accurately mix and gauge your color’s hue, tone and temperature.

Your painting palette is an indispensable tool and like your brushes should be well taken care of.

Why People Collect Antique Plates

Those who don’t have a passion for collecting antiques often wonder why people collect these objects at all. Usually they see the items as worthless or junk, things that clutter up a home. Maybe it’s because the objects don’t fit in with their design philosophy, or maybe it’s because they don’t see the point in keeping such things. One often misunderstood item are antique plates.

Because they are functional and useful, people use plates, even old ones. They don’t understand why others will simply keep these items in a display case or tucked away somewhere. The truth is, these plates are often collected for sentimental value more than anything else. And the people who tend to collect them are those who have a love for porcelain.

There are many types of antique plates that can be collected. The most common are dinner plates and the items that go with them such as bread plates and soup bowls. Next are platters or serving dishes, butter dishes, and gravy boats. Afterwards, special plates, such as those made of orange porcelain, those with an art deco design, and those that depict a scene (such as a Christmas scene) are quite popular. All of these pieces are beautiful and timeless in their own way. They reflect the period they were created in, especially those that were hand painted.

When collecting antique plates, make sure you check the items for cracks and chips. Cracks can get bigger over time, so you if you want to keep a piece for a very long time, it’s best that it doesn’t have any cracks. If you want to wash the items, hand wash them with some gentle soap and lukewarm water. Washing them can make them sparkle and bring out their true beauty so try to do this once a year. What you should never do, however, is use them to eat. When you use plates, they tend to get scratches from the knife marks. Also, food can stain or ruin the items, while very old objects can ruin the food. Not to mention the fact that you increase your risk of breaking them.

If you inherited your grandmother or great-grandmother’s china set, you may already have some antique plates. Be sure to keep the set safe and try to stop using it. You can go to an appraiser to see if this particular set is rare or is a known collectible. If it isn’t yet, just hang on to it because it may be someday.

Holy and Unholy Numbers

Many of our great religions hold that numbers contain hidden meanings that in turn hold the mysteries of the universe and God within them. Ancient Hebrew mystics referred to this as Gematria. Numbers are also given corresponding associations to various deities, colours, plants, gemstones, and superstitions. Here are a brief list of associated correspondences and lore for the numbers 1 through 13.

The Number 1

In the faiths of Islamic, Jewish and Christian cultures the number 1 is associated with the unity of God. For medieval alchemists and metaphysicians the number was associated with the Philosopher’s Stone, the unknown catalyst that was thought to transform base metals magically into gold.

The number 1 is also associated with Aphrodite, the Greek Goddess of Love; Apollo, the Greek God of Beauty and Truth; Diana, the Roman Goddess of the Hunt; Vesta, the Roman Hearth Goddess; Freya, the Norse Goddess of Fertility, and the Chinese God Pangu.

The number 1 is associated with the colors red, crimson, scarlet and cherry. Gemstones associated with the number 1 are ruby and garnet. Flowers associated with the number are red roses and red carnations.

Common superstitions about the number one are:

Break one egg and you will break a leg

It is unlucky to walk around the house in one slipper.

Only keep money in one pocket or you will lose it.

People with one hand are psychic.

A one-eyed person is a witch.

Seeing one magpie bodes a death in your future.

Seeing one white horse brings bad luck.

If you wash your hair on the first day of the month you will have a short life.

It is unlucky to get married August 1st or January 1st.

If you dream about the number 1 you have received a direct message from God.

The Number 2

In the Tarot deck, the number two represents duality, choices, decisions and partnerships. The Chinese believe that it represents the polar forces of Yin (the receptive, constrictive female energy) and Yang (the creative expansive male energy.)

Early Christians believed that the number represented the Devil or the division between soul and God. Similarly, the Zoroastrians believe the number represents the forces of good and evil locked in an eternal, yet equal, struggle.

The number 2 is also associated with the Ceres, the Greek Goddess of the Grain from whose name we have the word Cereal; Frigga the Norse Goddess of Hospitality and Wife of Odin; Freya, the Norse Goddess of Fertility and Venus, the Roman Goddess of Love.

2 is associated with the colors orange, gold, tangerine and peach. Flowers associated with 2 are freesias, orange roses and orange lilies. Gemstones associated with the number 2 are gold and coral.

Superstitions about the number two are:

If two crows fly over the house there will be a wedding in the family.

If two people sneeze at the same time both will have good luck.

If two shoots grow from the root of a single cabbage, you will have good luck.

Two people should never pour tea from the same pot.

It is lucky to have two holes in the same sock.

Breaking two eggs accidentally is a sign that you will find your soul mate.

Finding an egg with two yolks means there will be a death in the family.

If you wash your hair on the second day of the month you will have good fortune.

It is unlucky to get married January 2nd and September 2nd.

If you dream about the number 2 somebody is jealous of you.

The Number 3

Christians interpret the number 3 as representing the Trinity of Father, Son and Holy Ghost. The great psychologist Carl Jung interpreted as meaning the merging of the will with the heart and the soul. The ancient Babylonians and Celts interpreted this number to represent creation being born out of the union of 2 and thereby being a 3rd and distinct thing.

The number 3 is associated with Cronos, the Greek Titan who fathered the Olympians; Hecate, the Queen of the Witches and Goddess of the Crossroads; Pluto, the Roman God of Death; Saturn the Roman equivalent of Cronos and Tyr, the Norse God of Battle and Strength.

3 is associated with the colors yellow, lemon, beige and cream. Flowers associated with the number are yellow roses and orchids. The gemstone associated with 3 is topaz.

Some superstitions about the number three include:

A series of unlucky events always happen in threes.

It is bad luck to see three butterflies sitting on a leaf.

Spitting three times shoos away the devil.

It is unlucky to light three cigarettes from the same match.

If an owl hoots three times, there will be misfortune.

If a cat washes his ears three times you can expect a visitor.

A three-legged dog brings luck.

Try anything a third time and it will succeed.

If you wash your hair on the third day of the month you will

have great wealth.

It is unlucky to get married May 3rd.

If you dream about the number 3, you will lose your lover.

The Number 4

For the ancient Hebrews, the number 4 was considered to be especially significant. This connects to a mystical understanding of YHVH, the four-letter name of God, which was traditionally never written down. The number 4 and its equivalent geometrical shape, the square, were considered to be sacred by ancient cultures that believed the world was flat.

Many modern Pagan religions find within the number 4 a representation of the four directions (north, south, east and west) as well as the four elements of earth, air, fire, and water.

Deities associated with the number four are the fatherly Gods such as the Roman God Jupiter, the Norse God Odin and the Greek God Zeus.

Number 4 is associated with the colors green and emerald. The gemstones symbolized by 4 are jade and emerald. Plants associated with four are ivy, bamboo and baby’s breath.

Some superstitions about the number 4 include:

A four-leaf clover brings luck.

If four cookies fuse together in the oven while you are baking there will be a wedding.

Four ravens clustered together on a tree branch means there will be a wedding.

Finding four colors in one pansy petal bodes health, wealth, happiness and prosperity.

A house with the number 4 in the address is very inauspicious.

Keeping the four aces of an ordinary playing deck on your person is thought to bring power (spades), wealth (diamonds), love (hearts) and popularity (clubs).

Finding four colors in one pansy petal bodes health, wealth, happiness and prosperity.

If you hold the four of clubs while playing a card game, you will always lose.

If you wash your hair on the 4th day of the month you will go gray early.

It is unlucky to get married June 4th or October 4th.

If you dream about the number 4, you will soon be handed a lucky opportunity.

The Number 5

Pythagoras believed that 5 represented man in perfect balance with the universe and containing the sum of the male and female elements. At times this was taken to symbolize marriage. For the Sikhs, the number symbolizes the five sacred objects that are worn by all males.

The Chinese believe the number represents the 5 elements that are used in the divination oracle The I Ching as well as on the Pa’ Kua that is a device used for determining Feng Shui: earth, air, water, fire and metal.

In Wiccan circles, five can be found in the star shaped pentagram that symbolizes the four elements of earth, air, fire, and water surmounted or united by spirit.

Deities associated with the number 5 include Dionysus, the Greek God of Wine and Ecstatic Revelation; Ishtar, the Babylonian Goddess of Love, Sex and War; Mars the Roman God of War and Thor the Norse God of Thunder.

The colors sky blue and turquoise symbolize the number 5. The gemstones associated with 5 are turquoise and aquamarine. The flower associated with 5 is the anemone.

Some common superstitions about the number five are:

A five-leafed clover is even luckier than a four leafed one.

Wearing a five-pointed star turns away evil.

If five cookies fuse together while cooking a funeral will take place.

If you twist the stem of an apple and it breaks on the fifth twist you will be married within the year.

In the hoodoo tradition, a talisman featuring a hand displaying all five fingers is known as the Lucky Hand and is used to ward off misfortune as well as for luck in gambling.

If you wax your hair on the fifth day of the month you will go bald.

It is unlucky to get married on November 5th.

If you dream about the number five you will soon be famous.

The Number 6

For Christians, Jews and Moslems, the number 6 represents the day that man was created. Mathematicians revere the number 6 because it is the first perfect number.

Deities associated with the number 6 include Athena, the Greek Goddess of Wisdom; Bacchus, the Roman God of Wine and Hermes, the Greek God of Communication.

The number 6 is symbolized the colors deep blue, navy and royal blue. Gemstones associated with 6 are sapphire and lapis lazuli. Flowers that symbolize the number are thistles and bluebells.

Some common superstitions about the number six are:

It is unlucky to purposely turn the number six upside down in jest as it means your projects will not be completed.

If you find a rose with six petals it means you will be lucky in love.

If you find a pansy petal with six colors in it, it means you will receive an unexpected visitor.

A talisman with the number 6 worn on it means you will be protected against hurricanes and tornados.

It is unlucky to get married October 6th or November 6th.

If you dream about the number 6 you will soon have sex.

The Number 7

The number 7 is equally sacred amongst Islamic, Christian and Jewish religions. According to Jewish and Christian mythologies it took six days to create the world with the seventh day being the holiest day – a day of rest. The Bible, Zohar and other religious texts also recommend that fields were to be left fallow every seventh year as means of allowing the earth to regenerate itself. Some Christians believe the number 7 represents the seven levels of hell.

It is Hebrew tradition to mourn, or sit Shivah, for a period of 7 days.

Deities associated with the number 7 include Frigga; Minerva, the Roman Goddess of Intelligence and Wisdom and Mithras the Sun God in Zoroastrian lore.

The number 7 is associated with the colors violet, purple and plum. 7’s gemstone is amethyst.

Flowers associated with 7 are irises and deep purple roses.

Some common superstitions about the number 7 are:

If your date of birth can be reduced to a single number that can be divided by seven then you will have a particularly lucky life.

Shattering a mirror brings 7 years of bad luck.

If you sing before 7 am then you will cry before 11 am.

Wrapping her husband’s belt 7 times around a tree causes a woman to become fertile.

The seventh child of a seventh child is said to have psychic powers.

If you wash your hair on the 7th day of the month you will have trouble with the law.

It is unlucky to get married April 7th or December 7th.

If you dream about the number 7, you will soon meet a soul mate.

The Number 8

The ancient Greeks associated the number 8 with unhappiness and imperfection. The psychologist Carl Jung equated the number with the secret and dark movements of the subconscious that constantly folds into itself like a snake eating its tail.

According to the principles of Chinese Feng Shui the number 8 represents abundance and prosperity. It is considered lucky to have a house number that contains an 8.

Gods and goddesses associated with the number 8 include: Mercury, the Roman Messenger God; Gaia, the Greek Earth Mother; and Hera, the Greek Queen of Heaven.

The number 8 is represented by the colors pink and rose. 8’s gemstones are rose quartz and pearl.

Flowers associated with the number are pink roses and pink carnations.

Some common superstitions about the number 8 are:

If you fall ill eight days after a new moon, you will die by the full moon.

If you give 8 pennies away you will receive 108 times that amount.

Repeating your own name 8 times while staring into your own eyes in a mirror is thought to bring prosperity.

It is unlucky to give a person a bouquet with 8 flowers.

A house with the address 88 will bring you double happiness.

If you wash your hair on the 8th day of the month you will live to a ripe old age.

It is unlucky to get married February 8th and June 8th.

If you dream about the number 8, you will soon lose a great deal of money.

The Number 9

In occult circles, 9 is considered to be the number of completion and is closely connected with the Dead, especially one’s personal ancestors, and with the forces of the cemetery and the Underworld. The nine is also associated with Hecate, the Queen of the Witches.

In Chinese mythology, the number composes the lo-shi, a magic square that comprises the first nine single digits on the number line.

Gods and goddesses associated with the number nine include: Juno, the Roman Queen of Heaven; Luna, the Roman Goddess of the Moon and Odin, the All-Father & Ruler in Norse mythology.

The number 9 is symbolized by the colors white and pearl. 9 is associated with the silver, platinum, diamond and pearl. Flowers associated with the number are white carnations, white roses and lily of the valley

Common superstitions about the number 9 include:

You will be blessed if you find nine peas in a pod.

Tying nine knots in a strand of your lover’s hair will convince him to come to you.

Tying nine knots around a photograph of an enemy will cause them to give up the battle against you.

An address with the number nine in it brings you a long life.

If a young man wants to marry he should count 99 stars in the sky for 9 days. On the tenth day he will meet his soul mate.

Misfortune befalls the person who finds the Nine of Diamonds card on the street.

The moon that falls nine days after the New Moon in May is considered to be an unlucky day.

If you wash your hair on the ninth day of the month your marriage will be happy.

It is unlucky to get married December 9th.

If you dream about the number nine, your home will soon be blessed with a child.

The Number 10

For Christians, the number 10 symbolizes the Ten Commandments that were delivered through Moses from God at Mt. Sinai.

Deities traditionally associated with the number 10 include the Greek Gods Atlas, who bore the weight of the world on his shoulders and Uranus who was responsible for imagination and technology.

A common superstitious is that if you wash your hair on the 10th day of the month, you will receive a promotion at work. Another is that if you dream about the number 10 your mate is unfaithful.

The Number 11

The number 11 and in particular the number 11:11 (as seen on a clock) is considered, by many light workers and channellers to be a portal to other astral dimensions. The number 11 is also considered to be a ‘master number” in schools of numerology.

Deities associated with the number 11 are the Sea Kings such as the Roman God Neptune and the Greek God Poseidon.

A common Chinese superstition is that washing your hair on the 11th day of the month will improve your eyesight.

The Number 12

The number 12 is associated with the Twelve Apostles, the number of people on a jury as well as The Twelve Days of Christmas.

The number 12 is also identified with the Roman Two-faced God Janus.

A common superstition is that washing your hair on the 12th day of the month will bring you misfortune. Another is that if you dream of the number 12, a solution will soon be found to a nagging problem.

The Number 13

Usually considered an unlucky number, this double-digit represents Judas, who was the guest at the Last Supper who betrayed Jesus. As a result it is also thought to be unlucky to have a dinner party with 13 guests.

Many hotels are missing a thirteenth floor or have omitted the number from their room doors.

Gods associated with the number 13 are Hades, the Greek God of the Underworld and Pluto, the Roman God of Underworld.

The color associated with the number 13 is black.

Some common superstitions about the number 13 are:

It is unlucky to have an address with the number 13.

It is also unlucky to have 13 numbers in your name.

Friday the 13th of any month is said to be an unlucky day.

The moon that falls thirteen days after the New Moon in August is considered to be an unlucky day.

Washing your hair on the 13th of the month ensures that you will give birth to a son.

The Coolest Snowmobile Gear

Outdoor winter weather gear has changed a lot over the years the accessories that we are use to wearing such as gloves and boots are now better that ever at protecting us from the cold weather and giving us the protection we need to enjoy outdoor winter activities, such as snowmobiling. There are also more gadgets than ever to help keep us comfortable, safe and add to the fun of a day out on the trails.

Clothing

Your clothing should be layered in cold weather. Layers keep warmth in and cold out. Many of the new synthetic fabrics are excellent at regulating body temperature which is necessary for any outdoor winter sports enthusiasts. The optimal fabric choice for long-term cold exposure is something that is breathable in order to release perspiration, while keeping warmth in and is also effective at keeping moisture out. There are many synthetically designed fabrics one type is drirelease Wool, which really isn’t much wool at all but dries 4 times faster than regular wool and maintains a natural feel. It is comprised of 85-90% hydrophobic-synthetic fabric and 10% natural- hydrophilic fibers. Sympatex is another synthetic fabric that marketed both windproof and waterproof. New technologies are always emerging that are really good at keeping you warm and dry for winter sports.

Gadgets

  • What could be cooler than making a video diary of your outdoor adventures. The problem with most video cameras is that they are bulky and hard to carry. There is a new 1080p video camera made by Contour, which is specifically designed for the outdoor sports enthusiast. It is water-resistant, lightweight, wireless and mounts to your helmet or goggles for a first person view of your adventures while out on the snowmobile trails.
  • Rider-to-rider intercom systems are a new hi-tech way to keep in touch with the other riders in your group while out on the trails. The top of the line systems also have Bluetooth technology allows for using your cell phone when the range of the intercom is not sufficient. Many of the best headsets also have built in GPS and Mp3 players.
  • If you are riding in the backcountry you and your entire party should carry an avalanche receiver. In the event of a snow burial, your receiver would emit a signal which the other transceivers will pick up, to help locate you. Transceivers have two modes, send and receive. You should always keep your unit on send unless you are trying to locate. The best receivers have both visual and audible location signals.
  • If you need an efficient easy way to carry your gear, there are great backpacks that have really cool features to make them more than just a backpack. Many now have a hydration system with a chamber for holding your water and a tube attached for easy access. You can also find backpacks that come with compact tool kits in specially designed compartments. The tools that are included are things such as a saw and a compact shovel.
  • Heated boots, socks and helmets and jackets that can recharge by plugging in to your snowmobile or have a battery pack, are cool accessories to have when out in the winter snow or your snowmobile. They can keep your warm and out enjoying the outdoors for hours of fun.

Hydraulic Jack – An Important Instrument in The Construction Industry & Workshops

Have you ever gone to a service station? The Cars are usually loaded onto a platform which rises gradually. This platform uses the same tool called The Hydraulic Jack. This device or a mechanical instrument is used to raise heavy objects manually with the need of human effort. The most common ones are the mechanical jacks. However there are few others like floor jacks and bottle jacks which are often used. All of them employ the same basic phenomenon but they differ in their shape.

A hydraulic jack uses a fluid, which is incompressible and is constrained into a cylinder by a pump piston. Oil is utilised, as the plunger backs away, it guides oil out of the source by a suction valve in side the pump chamber. When the piston displaces ahead, it drives the oil through a discharge check valve into the piston chamber. The suction valve ball is within the chamber and cleals with each pass of the plunger. The dispatch valve ball is out of the chamber and opens when the oil is forced into the cylinder. Now the suction ball inside the chamber is closed and pressure of the oil increases in the piston chamber.

The Jacks are usually used to lift heavy objects. They can use different methods like the car jack uses the lead screw to lift the heavy car. The Acme threads withstand heavy weighed cars. Likewise, the Hydraulic jack is also used to lift heavy objects by a manual force. Pascal’s principle is used here, which states that the pressure in a closed container is same at all points. A force divided by area using this equation defines the pressure. Hydraulic jack is built with two cylinders, one big while the other small. One application of a small force can lift heavier objects placed on the bigger cylinder; both these cylinders are filled with oil.

Hydraulic jacks are distributed to different types with a difference in construction. There are Floor Jacks in which the horizontal piston presses on the short end of a bell crank, with the long arm providing the vertical motion to an elevating pad, kept level with a horizontal linkage. Floor jacks usually include castors, which allow compensation for the curve adopted by the lifting pad. This mechanism allows for a low profile when collapsed, for comfortable operation beneath the vehicle, while providing extensive elongation.

In Bottle Jacks the piston is upright and directly holds a bearing pad that holds the object being hoisted. With a single action piston the elevation is slightly less than twice the folded height of the jack, making it appropriate only for cars with a comparatively high clearance. For elevating structures like houses the hydraulic interconnection of multiple perpendicular jacks through valves enables the level distribution of forces while sanctioning close control of the lift.

The Hydraulic jack is quite an important instrument in construction industry and workshops because it decreases a lot of work for the mechanics and laborers, and they have vast applications in these fields.