So You Were Injured at a Hotel – What Should You Do Now?

Every year hundreds of thousands of people flock to Florida Hotels for vacation. It is a shame when that long awaited vacation is ruined by an injury at a hotel. Accidents of all types occur in busy and crowded hotels. Slip and falls, trip and falls, balcony falls, electrocutions, burn injuries, accidental pool drowning, elevator accidents, escalator injuries and falling objects are just some of the injury causing accidents that happen at hotels. In the following paragraphs you will find some useful information on what to do if you are injured in a hotel.

The first thing to do when you have had an accident at a hotel is make sure you get the proper medical care you need. Make sure to notify the hotel staff and ask them for the help you need. If your injury is serious ask the staff to call 911. Your health and well being are the most important things. Make sure to seek medical treatment as soon as possible.

Second, as soon as you are able, you should gather and preserve the evidence of your injury. This evidence should include the names, phone numbers and addresses of witnesses, pictures of where the injury occurred, as much information as possible on why the injury happened, a letter to the hotel demanding that they save and preserve all evidence of your injury in their possession, pictures of your injury and your medical records.

Third, you should consult with an Injury Attorney. The Attorney can gather the evidence for you and present it to the insurance company in a manner designed to maximize your recovery. The Injury Attorney will shield you from the adjusters, investigators, and lawyers whose sole purpose is to deny your injury claim. The Attorney will have access to and experience with the types of expert witnesses that you will need to prove your claim. The Injury Lawyer will be prepared to take your case to trial if necessary.

Hotels can commit negligence in many ways. They include allowing an unsafe condition to exist, failure to properly inspect their property, failure to properly maintain their property, failure to properly operate their facility, inadequate security, failure to warn of danger, criminal acts by hotel staff, hiring staff with criminal histories, defective equipment, and the list goes on.

Hopefully all of your vacations will be injury free, however, if you are injured in a hotel be sure to follow the three steps I have listed for you.

Simple Improvements to My QB78 and the Advantages and Disadvantages of Co2 Airguns

Although this article focuses on improvements to my QB/XS 7 co2 gun, the information would most likely transfer directly to most or the basic co2 rifles. The QB 78 is a good gun out of the box and the one I currently own and use. I have only made three alterations to my QB since new:

1) I tuned the trigger, which is an easy job for anyone who can handle a screw driver and needs no additional parts to make a huge improvement. Further improvement could be gained by adding some shims either side of the trigger to stop the slop, which is fairly noticeable though I have not as yet bothered with this. The feel of the trigger is now smooth and sure whereas before it was distinctly jerky making it hard to judge when the gun was going to fire.

2) I improved the stock by adding some height to the comb to make the gun more comfortable and improve my accuracy, especially using telescopic sights. This was a more complex job though easy enough for anyone with some basic woodworking skills and access to a table saw or otherwise more skilled at hand sawing than myself!

3) I added an adjustable butt plate/pad. This was an easy job with some filing of the new butt plate to do and simply screw it all together in what ever position suits the shooter.

These measures have greatly improved its performance and feel.

Advantages and disadvantages of co2 guns over other types of air weapon

One of the biggest advantages of co2 airguns is their relatively low cost compared to comparable springers and more so, pre charged pcp guns. Co2 guns will give you the recoil free action of a pcp which is a great advantage over spring guns in terms of accuracy especially for the less experienced air gunner. They are also often reasonably easy to tune as in the case of the QB

Wanting a cheap but powerful and accurate gun for hunting and never really mastering marksmanship with a springer is what attracted me to these guns in the first place. I had been using an ASI Magnum spring powered gun which was a great gun for the money though I had been used to using a Sharp Innova pump up pneumatic beforehand and found this much easier to hit the mark with. I was however fed up with pumping it up every shot and since the UK gun laws had changed making co2 guns legal, I decided to give one a go.

The disadvantages I have found are that there is a considerable power drop once the powerlet begins to empty. I have found that I get approximately 80 – 90 shots from a powerlet yet only the first 50-60 are consistent. With the QB it is necessary to shoot off the excess co2 before changing powerlets. This can be done without loading pellets into the gun but is laborious. Unscrewing the tube cap before the powerlets are empty (the QB takes 2 powerlets at a time) can cause damage to the seals. Co2 guns are also subject to a loss of power as temperature drops. This is most noticeable below 5 degrees C.

In conclusion, co2 power has a great advantage over spring power guns in terms of recoil and therefore can be more accurate. There are good out of the box guns around that are excellent with minimal work. The power drop as the powerlets empty can make recharging them laborious and they are adversely effected by cold weather, however as an entry level gun they have some great advantages as well as being great fun!

Restaurant Equipment Required For Starting Up a Restaurant

The list of equipment necessary for opening a restaurant is as varied as the type of establishment you’re going to run. Some of the equipment that crosses all lines include the following:

– adequate cooking facilities (stove burners, oven, salamander or other warming equipment like food lamps needed to keep food warm, etc.) to prepare your food at peak times so the patron doesn’t have to wait undue amounts of time to get their order. The stove and other cooking appliances don’t have to be big, just reliable and adequate enough in size to handle what you are likely to prepare as a part of your menu offerings.

– proper refrigeration/freezer storage to keep your food supplies fresh and spoilage free. Again, the refrigeration and freezers that you use do not have to be big, just sturdy and of enough size that you can comfortably accommodate what you are likely to have in storage to make your menu selections.

– a dishwasher or appropriate dishwashing facilities so that you can continue to keep your food preparation utensils sanitary. If you don’t own some sort of dishwashing machinery outright, you might want to consider the addition of counter space where dishes may dry properly or perhaps adding a spray head with flexible hose as a part of the sink to facilitate rinsing and washing or obtaining water for cooking without running the risk of cross contamination from unclean dishwashing water.

– a sturdy mixer of commercial grade to facilitate the mixing of any batters, sauces or doughs, etc. needed in the preparation of menu your particular offerings. If your menu doesn’t regularly need items like these, you might be able to get by with a lower end personal home model, but if you have to rely on it extensively, it’s worth the investment to obtain something that’s equal to the job both in size and durability.

– adequate pots and pans to facilitate the easy preparation of your menu offerings. These items can include things like stockpots of 10 gallons or larger, large sized baking sheet pans or sauté pans that would allow the preparation of larger food amounts than those traditionally found in home kitchens. In the case of the preparation of specialty items like those used in weddings (cakes, etc.) or bakeries (cupcakes, individual cookies, small quick breads, or brownies) it would be necessary to include any specialty pans needed. Appropriately sized kitchen utensils like knives, mixing tools, large ladles, etc., would likewise need to be chosen.

– food preparation devices like slicers or food processors to facilitate the preparation of the various components needed for your menu items. When properly used by trained employees, this can save the restaurant time in prepping the food needed on a regular basis like components for salads, sandwiches, or dishes that are regularly prepared, allowing the delivery to the patron in a more timely manner.

– adequate dishware and linens for a dine-in locale. (It goes without saying that if take out fare is offered, supplies would need to include disposable packaging.) The minimum amount you should figure on is whatever is sufficient to serve 100 patrons.

While there are other, more specific lists available elsewhere, these are just a few of the choices a prospective restaurateur should consider when making choices for restaurant equipment.

Putting Together an Effective Hot Stone Massage Kit

Hot stone massage has become one of the most popular forms of affordable luxury and while there is lots of pre-made hot stone massage kits available on the retail market, these sets tend to be expensive. Making one yourself not only saves you money but also allows you to make a kit more specific to your own needs. If you want a kit that focuses more on the tools needed for a facial massage, you can focus on choosing only smaller rocks. Or if you want to exclusively do full-body massages, you can be sure you have rocks of varying shapes and sizes available.

The most obvious tool needed for your hot stone massage kit is the stone themselves. Basalt rocks work best for retaining heat and you may be able to find these on your own at a rock quarry or a landscaping company. The rocks sold in pre-made kits are often polished and while these are appealing to the eye, they may not hold the heat as well as those in a more “natural” state. There are websites selling these stones if you’re unable to locate them locally. Some therapists find that even the most basic river rock works just as well.

The key in choosing the right rocks, once you find the appropriate type, is to find those that are smooth and generally flat, as you’ll need to keep in mind these will be massaged into the skin of clients and need to be comfortable enough. You want to choose several stones ranging in size from a quarter to large oval stones that are up to 8 inches long. You want to be sure you’re prepared for the kind of hot stone massage you want to deliver.

A warmer is needed for heating these stones and while you might see specific warmers available online for these stones, a large tabletop skillet that comes with a lid, or even a slow cooker, are just as effective. If you want to heat all of your stones at once, be sure you purchase a slow cooker that holds at least six quarts.

Accessories are an important part of your hot stone massage kit, and you’ll need a strainer. This is used for rinsing the rocks after cleansing. A slotted spoon or tongs will be needed for removing the heated stones from the warmer. A food thermometer will help you gauge the temperature of your stones and a good set of towels for drying stones will be needed.

When you’re ready to heat your stones, you can make sure they’re evenly heated by stacking them uniformly, according to size, in your warmer. The warmer must then be filled with water until your massage stones are fully submerged. The warmer should be set on a steady surface for heating.

Making your own hot stone massage kit takes some time but you will save money by finding your own supplies. The key to a great kit is a set of stones that hold heat well and are shaped best for your massage needs

Battery Design: Flat Plate Versus Tubular

The flat plate and tubular are the two types of UPS batteries that are available to the users these days. Companies such as American Power Conversion (APC) manufacture all sorts of UPS models, some with flat plate batteries and others with tubular batteries. Basically, it is the design of the positive plate that differentiates a flat plate battery from a tubular battery. The biggest difference is that the flat plate design comprises of a tough alloy grid, which contains a special compounded paste, while the tubular design comprises of parallel tubes that contain lead oxide. Learning how these two types of batteries are produced can help in understand the differences in their performance.

Flat Pasted Plate Batteries

A tough cast iron grid made of lead alloy that usually contains around three to six percent of antimony is used to produce a flat plate battery. A specially compounded mixture that contains lead oxide water, and sulfuric acid is used to paste the grids on an automatic machine. A process in which the active material is converted in the plate to the required composition is used to cure the plates once they have been pasted. As a result of this the paste sets to a hard mass similar to cement. The plates are very tough and striking them produces a ringing bell-like sound. Apart from being consistent, batteries made of flat plates possess the following traits:

– A flat plate battery performs excellently

– These batteries are quite long lasting

– These batteries are durable and tough

– The pasted material in the plates is also long lasting

– The plates in the battery also have a glass wrap over them

Tubular Batteries

The tubes in tubular batteries have a more complex design, and the manufacturing process used to produce them is quite different too. Firstly, the grid is produced, which comprises of a sequence of 15 parallel lead spines cast onto a bar or rods. Lead alloy containing six to ten percent antimony is used for fabricating the grid. A sequence of parallel porous glass fiber tubes is attached over the grid spines. A plastic fitting is knocked onto the ends once the tubes are filled. The lead oxides are then converted to lead sulfate by soaking the assembly in dilute sulfuric acid. Batteries made of tubular plates possess the following traits:

– A tubular battery performs decently, but not as efficiently as a flat panel battery

– Tubular batteries are as long lasting as flat-panel batteries.

– The active material and lead in these batteries do not last long

– Cell life is shortened due to sensitivity to active material shedding

– Plate area is significantly lost due to sensitivity to top bar breakage

– Spines can end up off center of the tube


While users do not pay much attention to their UPS battery, but flat plate and tubular batteries are significantly different from each other. From the mentioned facts, it is apparent that the flat plate design is more efficient, long-lasting and reliable. Nonetheless, companies like APC manufacture UPS models with both flat plate and tubular batteries.

How to Lose 100 Lbs in 2 Weeks

Recent studies show that there has been a greater increase in the number of obsessed Americans in comparison to the last 50 years. The hectic life style coupled with stress is the major reason. The lack of active life style and unhealthy eating worsens this further. Obese people have higher risks of heart diseases, high blood pressure, cholesterol levels, hypertension, cancer, arthritis, sleep apnea, strokes, brain damage and diabetes.

Apart from this, obese people also have low self esteem and face appearance issues. People look upon them as unhappy, unhealthy, tired, sick or lazy individuals, most of the time. Weight loss and shape up are their dream cravings, which they feel will increases their self esteem, induces the feel good factor and enhances their appearances, besides making them healthy.

Are you one of those overweight people I am talking about? Desperately wanting to shed your extra weight and realise your dreams? Get rid of those extra 100 pounds in just two weeks! Is that even possible? The answer is -yes. There are many success stories in weight loss from people around the world. So, why not try it yourself, and start looking and feeling good in a couple of weeks. All it takes is some knowledge and a good amount of hard work on your part. Here we are to help you out with this. Follow these simple techniques below, and lose 100 pounds in two weeks starting today!

First of all I’d like to be frank with you. Losing 100 lbs is not a matter of joke. You cannot take 100 pounds for granted. It is a massive target requiring a great deal of hard work and determination.

Self confidence plays the key role in achieving your goal as it is needed to create in you the right mind set. Confidence derives its strength from past successes – either one’s own or someone else’s. So, I’d like to let you know of this person Rob, who in 1990 weighed 475 pounds. In less than two and a half years, he was able to get rid of almost 300 lbs. We are not going to make you strive that long. Be confident, you will be doing that in just 2 weeks from now.

Mental attitude can help you succeed. Achieve your desired weight loss with the right thinking about yourself. Self image is connected to the success or failure of the goal you are seeking after. List down all the negative thoughts you have about yourself. Like “I can’t do it”, “I won’t be able to finish successfully”, “I’m not active enough”, etc. Be determined that nothing will put you down. Next list down the positives – the ones you love about yourself. This list should be lengthier than the first one. Now, for every negative thing listed, write down the corresponding positives. Like, instead of “I can’t”, write “I can”. Now say it again and again to yourself until you no longer have that negative self image. Hang the list of potentials in a place where you often look at. Read it every now and then. This will reprogram your thoughts, and incorporate a positive self image in you.

Things to do

You have achieved your right mind set. Now you have certain things to do. Drop your calorie intake. Avid all junk foods and carbonated drinks. Say no to anything that has high calorific value -candy, cookies, soda, chips, butter, French fries, etc. Every single pound in your body weight is made up of almost 3500 calories! So every single calorie intake counts. Restrict your calorie intake to a previously decided amount.

Keep your tummy full so that you don’t go hungry. Eat loads of fruits and vegetables. Make sure that the fruits do not have high sugar content. Take more fibre rich food stuffs like fruits, cereals, wholesome grains, etc.

Exercise, involve yourself in a lot of physical activities, and keep active! Do intensive aerobic and strength exercises. Running, rowing, cycling, swimming and hiking are good exercises that burn calories fast. Try exercising vigorously. They are more beneficial in weight reduction than the modular ones. Work on specific areas that need more attention- like doing abdominal crunches in case your belly is in bad shape. You should also maintain strict disciplines regarding the timings. Exercising each morning is better than working out in any other time of the day. Because, you will breathe fresh air and morning sun rays rich in vitamin D at dawn. For at home weight loss exercises, learn and try; push ups, pull ups, weight squats, step ups, plank and stick ups. Warming up before exercising would help you exercise for a longer duration of time.

Detoxify your body of potentially toxic substances. There are harmless dietary regimes called the detox diets that have detoxifying effects. It is harmless as per physicians, dieticians and scientists. Follow a juice based detox diet like the lemonade diet. It will cleanse your body and make you lose weight within a short period.

Drink lots of water. Eight glasses of water a day will work your way to weight loss by speeding up your metabolism and ensuring proper digestion. It keeps you hydrated. An adequately hydrated system functions faster. Intake of proper amount of water makes you feel more.

Raise your metabolic rate. It is a simple and sensible way to weight loss. Have several frequent meals a day. This will burn down the calories faster.

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A Sample Catering Business Plan Template

Before you start a catering business it is wise to put together a comprehensive business plan. It is important to set out clearly what you hope to achieve in business and to set measurable goals. Having a business plan will give you direction and keep you on a course for success.

A plan may be essential in order to prove that your concept is viable when it comes to talking to investors or seeking funding from other sources. However, even if you are independently funded and have nothing to prove to anyone a plan will still be useful. It will help you to confirm that your plans are indeed possible and it will give you a place to compile all the data that you collect from your research.

Once you start your catering business it is important to continue to refer to your business plan to make sure that you remain on track to meet your goals. You can also make changes to it if necessary as your business develops.

There are many ways to set out a business plan. Below we offer a sample catering business plan template that is divided into twelve sections.

Cover and Table of Contents

Wrap the plan in a binder. On the cover you should give it a title and state clearly who the main contributors are and when it was prepared.

Then you can include a contents page that clearly divides the report into sections with page numbers so that interested parties can easily find the information that they are looking for.

Executive Summary

This is basically an introduction where you can summarise the other sections of the report and give a very basic outline of what the proposed business is about.

Mission Statement

Try to sum up what the business will be about in a few short sentences. A mission statement is similar to a slogan. It is a quick way of letting readers know about the ideals and standards that a company represents. Putting profits aside for a minute, try to think about the purpose of the business. How is your catering business making people’s lives better?


Include some information on the catering industry at both the national and local levels. Take note of industry trends and try to forecast future developments

Include a personal background. There are many good reasons to start a catering business and you should let readers know why you are drawn to this industry above all others. Outline your working history and attach any relevant reference letters as an appendix to the plan.

Outline any competitive advantages that you may have. Do you have any catering business qualifications or skills? Have you have experience in the hospitality industry? Do you have existing relationships with suppliers or prospective clients?


Set out some growth targets and other goals over the short and medium terms. Goals for a catering service could be the number clients, the number of events, total revenue or average profit margins on events. Refer to your business plan regularly and push yourself to keep up with the goals that you set.

Startup Costs and Considerations

List out startup costs and initial operating costs and then calculate the total amount of startup capital that is required before you can open your doors to clients.

Make a note of the sources of funding that are available to you and the advantages and disadvantages of each option.

Outline all of the other hurdles that must be overcome before you can start operating as a catering service. Depending on the requirements in your state or country you will have a number of licenses and permits to obtain. You may even have to do a short course to get certified in food management or hygiene. It is important to set out the costs involved as well as a time frame for compliance with these local regulations.

Ownership and Management

This section of your catering business plan should suggest whether you intend to structure your business as a sole proprietorship, a partnership or a limited liability company.

If the business will have multiple owners then you should set out clearly what their respective interests will be and the role that they will play in the management of the business.

Set out a basic management structure outlining who has responsibility for various aspects of the business. This will be easy in the beginning but eventually you may have marketing staff, administration staff, kitchen staff and servers. Make it clear how you plan on delegating tasks, leadership and responsibility for decision making down to your employees.


This section is important for including details on how the business will operate on a daily basis. Information that should be mentioned here includes location, administration, employees and equipment.

Set out a plan of attack for catering an event. Outline some of the problems that you will be facing and offer some solutions.

Market Analysis

Undertake some market research to get a better idea of the opportunities that currently exist in your market.

Do a competitive analysis to get a better understanding of your competitors. Once you understand more about them, set out a plan for competing against them by offering something different in the way of menus and services.

Marketing Plan

There are many different catering niche markets. Before you start your marketing efforts it is important to have a good idea of your menus and the niches that you are targeting. Try to identify a gap in the market that is not being met by other caterers and go after it.

Once you have a better idea of what you are selling you can then look at how you can sell it effectively. Start by packaging your offerings nicely into menus, brochures and a website. Then work out a system for pricing catering jobs profitably.

Outline how you plan on getting leads and enquiries. You can run advertising, buy leads or try many other marketing strategies.

Lastly, you need to have a sales strategy. Tell readers how you plan on selling your catering products and services in a way that you make the most of the limited number of enquiries that you receive.

Financial Planning

Perhaps one of the most important parts of any business plan is the financial plan. You need to make some forecasts of revenue and expenditure over a period of several years. You can then estimate when you will reach a break even point and how much profit will be possible in the future.

Set out anticipated monthly cash flows in a spreadsheet program on your computer. As businesses often don’t grow as fast as their owners expect them to you should outline several scenarios. One scenario can show your expected outcome, one can show a more optimistic forecast and the third one can show a worst case scenario.


Attach an appendix to your report with your resume and photos of menu items. Also include anything else that is relevant or that you have referred to in your catering business plan.

Having a good catering business plan template can help you to write your own as you have a basic layout to follow and you can make small adjustments for your own unique situation.

Windermere’s Refit

Windermere, a Classic 37′ yawl, was designed by the New York firm, Sparkman and Stephens, and built in 1966 by Grampian Yachts for Murray Koffler of Canadian drugstore fame. After two more owners in between, the boat came into my possession in the early eighties. I commissioned a major refit of the boat’s interior in the mid ’80’s by Steve McNaughton, master carpenter, articled at the Camper Nicholson Boat Yard in Southampton, England. He is a very skilled craftsman, blessed with a joyful disposition which made him a joy to be with! It was great working and planning things with him.

One of his favourite expressions when I sometimes pondered the amount of work to be done was, “Nobody said it was going to be easy, Gerry!” Of Windermere, with all its deck gear, he would say, “She’s a busy boat, Gerry. She’s a busy boat!”

And that she was because over the years changes had been made, to the running rigging in particular, without older winches etc being removed. If my memory serves me correctly, there were seven winches on the deck, two on the mizzen mast and three or four more on the main mast. I can think of four winches, at least, that could have been removed. When I first took possession of the boat, the main and mizzen sails tended to give the boat too much weather helm, even when the No 1 was used.

I think Windermere was originally designed as a sloop, although Grampian did make Classic 37’s rigged as yawls. But one could see in the deck moulding the outline of where the hole for the mast should be cut if it was to be yawl rigged. I measured the distance between the two possible mast positions and that gave me some idea of how much farther forward the jibstay needed to be. Windermere had probably been converted to a yawl rig sometime after leaving the Grampian yard, but the mast remained stepped to the keel in its original location. To move it forward would have involved major modifications to the head area etc, which were cost prohibitive. The result was that the centre of effort was too far aft.

We corrected that by having a bowsprit custom designed and installed by Klacko Marine Ltd, an Oakville firm at a cost of $1,600. They did a magnificent job, producing a bowsprit which enhanced Windermere’s looks and functionality . It allowed the forestay to be moved forward almost two feet. The effect on Windermere’s sailing characteristics was amazing! Her sail balance was improved immediately, and the problem of excessive weather helm was solved

The bowsprit also gave us a place to secure two large anchors, ready to go at a moment’s notice by simply removing a stainless steel retaining pin from each anchor. Its design also made going aboard the vessel over the bow easier. A small seat, added by Steve, right at the front of the bowsprit facing aft gave one a wonderful view of the deck. It was exciting to be seated there when Windermere was sailing fast with a moderate degree of heel,

But I wouldn’t have wanted to sit there when the No 1 Genoa was hanked on and she had her lee rail awash. On several occasions in the past I had sat up on the windward side of the boat at the wheel, with sea water rushing right around the mizzen deck and forward to where I was sitting! At times like that we usually started to think of taking off a little sail!

The main mast was the original, built in by Chichester Yachts in England. It was a very solid affair with heavy walls, so that one never need fear it breaking. On the other hand it was very heavy, and one had to veritably press-gang four or more men to carry it to its winter trestles. Stepped to the keel, it was measure of the solid nature of the boat.

I located the company that made the cabin cushions for the CS 36′, and persuaded them to make custom designed cushions for Windermere to the same high specifications as C S Yachts. The inside of the cabin roof was covered with a “naugatuck” type of material mounted on one quarter inch mahogany plywood, and the “ceilings” along the porthole walls were covered with moulded (light-coloured) ash, also mounted on thin mahogany plywood.

Lee cloths were installed on my bunk, located where the two “stacked” pilot berths had been, with fastenings that tied to the handrails above it. In heavy weather that was the place to be, snugged down knowing that you couldn’t be thrown across the cabin at any moment. I should add that we encountered very little heavy weather sailing on the Bahamas cruise. We have experienced far worse weather in earlier times when cruising Lake Ontario. Trips to the Thousand Islands, running across to the US shore and back, even day sailing had provided exciting moments when we wished we had taken up golf instead of sailing!

Other changes included doing away with the quarterberth by extending the bulkhead at the companionway out to the hull on the starboard side of the boat. Getting into the quarterberth had always been a problem for me. Removing it made room for a second deep sail locker. The lid for the new deeper locker already existed. It originally opened on to a broad but shallow shelf for winch handles, etc. With the quarterberth gone, the locker was open right down to the hull.

Forward of the new bulkhead, and butted to the aft end of the chart table, a bin was installed for charts, light lists, epirb etc. Its lid served as an addition to the surface of the chart table. In the new bulkhead itself we installed a small microwave, which proved to be invaluable on the cruise. All in all, the removal of the quarterberth did away with a hard to access catchall area. In its place, we acquired an extended chart table, an extra deep bin for chart storage, a bulkhead installed microwave and a second full-sized sail locker, accessed from the cockpit.

All the old Brooks & Gatehouse instruments and radios were gradually replaced with more modern instruments, including VHF radio, depth sounder, knotmeter, and Micrologic Loran. The electrical system, which was extensive, was completely overhauled by Thornton Marine Electric. We installed Surrette marine batteries; one starter battery plus one very large deep and heavy storage battery, stored in a separate compartment on the cabin sole beneath the companionway atop the Atomic Four motor.

One major improvement that was made after the cruise to the Bahamas, was to replace the Atomic 4 gasoline engine with an Atomic 4 30 hp diesel engine. We were limited to what kind of diesel we could use because the engine compartment was below the cabin sole, which meant the motor had to have a very low profile. The only motor fitting that constraint was the Atomic 4 Diesel, designed especially to fit in the same space as its gasoline predecessor. The new diesel was purchased from Southern Diesel of Florida for Cdn$6,674 and installed by Cape Marina in Cape Canaveral, Fla for Cdn$1,100.

To power the microwave and frig, and to charge batteries, we carried a small generator which we ran occasionally on deck. It would have been nice to have been able to run it more frequently than we did but the noise it made, reverberating like a drum on the hollow deck, was hard to take.

By all modern comparisons, Windermere was a narrow boat. The main cabin was only 10’3″ at its widest point, which was near the forward bulkhead of the main cabin level with the main mast. Her design was more suited to ocean racing of a byegone age, or to making an ocean crossing, than it was for cruising in comfort. Before her refit, she had sported two narrow pilot berths, one above the other, on the starboard side of the main cabin. But they weren’t designed for a 6’4″ tall person like myself. (I found it necessary to have an opening cut in the forward bulkhead of the main cabin so that I could stretch out my legs, letting my feet find some room amid the foul weather gear hanging in the locker beyond.)

Windermere was a very seaworthy boat and stood up well in rough weather, thanks to her wonderful design by Sparkman & Stephens, the first class boat construction by Grampian Yachts of Oakville, ON and the 7,500lbs of lead in her keel. I have always looked upon her as a descendant of the famous ocean racer, “Dorade”, winner of the 1931 Transatlantic and Fastnet races. Dorade, like Windermere, was designed by Sparkman & Stephens. She, too, was rigged as a Bermudian yawl . Of course, Dorade was much larger than Windermere. Dorade was 52” in length and displaced 15 tons versus Windermere’s 37′ length and 10 ton displacement. But the remarkable thing is that, despite Dorade’s significantly larger size, her maximum beam was still only 10’3″; exactly the same as Windermere’s!

Living on a small boat for any extended period of time is a challenge, mainly because of its space limitations. The boat itself has needs, and I guess one could say that those needs take priority over everything else. Upon them depends the ultimate safety of the crew (and the occasional passenger). Every boat is different, so please keep in mind that my comments apply only to Windermere, and are not meant to be generic in any way.

After living aboard and cruising for the best part of a year, I would say that Windermere proved to be adequate in size, but too small for real comfort. Even though she was 37′ long, excluding the bowsprit, her waterline length was more like 27′. The “missing” ten feet were given over to a fine clipper bow, and a long counter running aft. Of course, the counter added to her beauty, and it also served a practical purpose by increasing the waterline length substantially while sailing with even moderate angles of heel. (The speed of a boat with a displacement keel is limited by its waterline length, and the long counter helped to improve speed without violating its race rating.)

I suppose one could sum it up by saying, “There’s more room in a beamier tub!” But who wants to sail a tub? Windermere was and still is a fast moving sailboat provided,of course, you have fifteen knots of wind!

Why You Should Use Fake Stone for Your Landscape Patio

Some people who favor natural stone for patios say that concrete pavers designed to mimic real stone looks fake. When you compare the cost, durability, maintenance and safety factors between natural stone and manmade concrete pavers, your decision may come down to choosing a material that is both affordable and looks great.

It is too easy to have tunnel vision and focus only on the patio surface without factoring in the overall landscape theme or style you are trying to achieve. This is where aesthetics comes into play. So let us now look at material choices from a design perspective.


Aesthetics however is something you and your designer must consider for the overall design. Together with cost, maintenance, durability and safety, you will be prepared to make a confident decision about your next Sedona patio.

Aesthetics is the primary consideration for the style or theme of a paving surface. If your home is reminiscent of an old European villa, you would not want to choose something like concrete Kool Decking which is more appropriate for a more contemporary setting. On the other hand, you may find decorative concrete coatings that are applied in a way to mimic the look of real stone to look fake.

You cannot beat the natural beauty of real stone, but compared to manmade alternatives, real stone cannot only be a more expensive option, but also involve more ongoing maintenance. Many homeowners love the look of old rustic stone, but don’t want to wait 20 years for it to age naturally.

Here are a few design styles or themes to consider:

Contemporary, modern, clean lines, elegant simplicity

Rustic, old world, European, cottage look

Formal, symmetrical, traditional, stately

Asymmetrical, informal, casual chic, eclectic

If what you are trying to achieve or prefer fits into one of these themes, then the choice of patio surface material will be that much easier and you can start to eliminate some of the choices.

Fake vs. the Real Thing

Today we have manufacturers that can do very well to mimic the look and feel of natural stone surfaces. Look at all the buildings that are veneered with “manufactured stone”. These are so realistic because real stone is used to create molds that capture their natural textures. Just like veneers, molds are used to create surface texture on concrete pavers. Though not as realistic, the manufacturers are getting very good at mimicking the look and feel of natural stone paving surfaces.

Stamped concrete and decorative concrete coatings can be applied over a concrete base and crafted into simulated stone. Sometimes called faux flagstone, concrete coatings are applied in a way to mimic the natural grout lines of cut flagstone or slate. Some critics find this technique to be less than desirable since they tend to have a plastic appearance due to the sealers used.

Interlocking concrete pavers that are designed with various sizes and surface textures to mimic the look and feel of natural stone cannot compete with the inherent aesthetic qualities of real stone. The random veins and sparkles you see in slate for instance cannot be reproduced through manufacturing. What gives manmade surfaces credibility is their own inherent beauty. It may look like real stone at a quick glance and that should be as far as the comparison goes.

Aside from the other factors in choosing a paving surface such as cost, maintenance, durability and safety, if you have an aversion to having something that is not the real thing, you may perceive it as fake and therefore diminish its value. Personal preferences must be taken into account when choosing between real vs. manmade.

Top Advantages of Concrete Pavers Over Natural Stone

  1. Lower cost
  2. Ease of maintenance
  3. Do not require placement on a concrete slab
  4. Durability
  5. Multiple applications (patios, pool decks, steps, driveways, walkways)
  6. Design options (multitude of shapes and colors)

Design Tips

  1. Choose a type of paver based on a design theme or style such as contemporary, old world, rustic or traditional
  2. Cover up existing gray concrete patios to avoid the added on look. Note: some pavers are available in 1 ¾” thickness to minimize the height added to a concrete surface and stay below the main floor of the inside of the house.
  3. Use a strong border to define the edge. Some paver styles are not conducive to using one of the pieces as a border, so don’t be afraid to mix different kinds of pavers in order to create a border that complements the main field of pavers.

How to Troubleshoot Snowmobile Problems

As fall blends into winter we shift from our land & water recreational vehicles to our snowmobiles. The snow has fallen and the snowmobile is calling. You pull it from its shed, crank the engine and nothing happens. Did you know that due to the extreme winter conditions, snowmobiles require more frequent maintenance that any other recreational vehicle? With that in mind let’s troubleshoot & see what’s wrong with your snowmobile. Keep in mind that the construction of snowmobiles will vary, so you should refer to your owner’s manual before troubleshooting. The owner’s manual will provide a diagram of the snowmobile’s engine and where to find all of its components.

Is the engine stop switch pushed in the off position? The “Engine stop” switch is located on the snowmobile’s control panel. Double check to make sure that the switch is not stuck in the off position.The “Engine stop” switch (if pushed down) will prevent the motor from starting.

Is there gas left in the fuel tank since last winter? Next you must investigate the fuel tank. Gasoline can degrade over time. That can lead to a number of problems- hard starting, rough running, or no starting at all. Gasoline has highly volatile components that tend to evaporate over time. The less volatile components in the fuel cause the gasoline to burn less effectively. The result is poor engine performance. In other words, your engine may still start and run, but it probably won’t run as well. Not only will the gasoline degrade over time but when a snowmobile sits for long periods of time without a protective snowmobile cover water and condensation can enter the gas tank. Water, of course, does not work too well as a fuel in the internal combustion engine of a snowmobile. It will cause hard starting and rough running until it has been run through the engine. Water can also contribute to internal rusting of the gas lines and tank.

How can you tell if the gas is old? You can check your old gas against gasoline that you know is fresh by placing both in clear glass containers and comparing their color. Oxidized fuel often turns darker over time. It may even have a sour smell. If the old gas is considerably darker than the fresh gas, then your gas has gone bad. If you find that you have “old gas” in your snowmobile, you should drain the gas tank and re-fill it with fresher gasoline. If you insist on leaving gas in your engine for more that six months at a time, then you need to add a stabilizer to the fuel system so that it will preserve the gasoline and keep it from deteriorating over time. It is probably a good idea to drain your fuel system at the end of the winter before storing your snowmobile for the summer in a protective snowmobile cover.

Is the battery dead? The easiest way to check the battery is by turning on the headlights. No lights- no charge in the battery.

Have you checked the cylinder head gasket nuts? Locate the cylinder head nuts on top of the engine’s cylinder block. If they are loose, tighten the head nuts with a wrench and then check the gaskets for damage. Loose head nuts can cause a loss in compression. Replace any worn or damaged gaskets.

Are there blockages in the fuel line? The next step is to check your fuel line for blockages. Remove the shroud that covers the engine. The fuel line runs from the tank to the engine and is usually clear so blockages will be easy to see. Blockages are caused by improper storage of your snowmobile. If you find a blockage, remove the fuel line, clean out the blockage and return it to its original position. If it is damaged, replace it.

What do the spark plugs look like? You should check the spark plugs in the snowmobile. Clean away carbon or other corrosion with a wire brush. Check out the porcelain part of the spark plug. Does it appear to have changed color? The white porcelain is the insulator of the spark plug. If the porcelain has turned beige or a light tan color, then it is still in good working order. If the spark plug is very white you could have an air leak. If it has changed to other colors then you have a problem with the engine.

Is there plenty of coolant? If the coolant levels are low, put fresh coolant into the snowmobile, following the owners’ manual guidelines.A recommended coolant/antifreeze is ethylene glycol (the green kind) to resist freezing. A 50/50 mixture has a freeze protection of about -32 degrees. A good additive to use with ethylene glycol is Royal Purple Ice. This will allow you to drop the engine operating temperature about ten degrees.

Now what? At this point if troubleshooting has not solve the problem and you are unable to get your snowmobile running, it is time to see a professional repair service agent for a full inspection. Only a qualified snowmobile service technician can check & evaluate your carburetor, piston, cylinder and the V belt clutch settings for the more technical problems associated with your snowmobile. Most services will clean, lubricate and adjust your snowmobile along with the inspection. They can also adjust the carburetor & clutch settings for the altitude at which you will be operating your snowmobile

How To Deal With Headaches Behind The Eyes

Pain behind the eyes may be a symptom of different types of headaches and even other health problems. Most commonly people complain to have an extreme one-sided headache especially involving the area around or behind one eye. This is a typical description of cluster headache. Other symptoms associated with cluster headache are eye redness or tearing, smaller pupil on the affected side of the face and stuffy, runny nose.

Cluster headaches are very severe and last from 25 minutes to a couple of hours. They may recur several times a day for up to 8 weeks and than disappear for a few months or even years.

One of the most effective and safest treatments for cluster headaches is oxygen mask that raises levels of oxygen in the blood and as a result relaxes constricted blood vessels. If that does not help injections of sumatriphan and dihydroergotamine may provide relief from the headache behind the eyes.

Over-the-counter painkillers are not a good alternative for relieving pain as headaches often goes away before the pill starts working.

Both cluster headaches and migraines are considered vascular headaches and are linked to abnormal function of brain’s blood vessels due to hormonal chemical change in the brain. Since those two types of headaches are closely linked together, during migraines, headache may start in the area surrounding one or both eyes.

Migraine headache often begins with visual disturbance called “aura” (a person is seeing zigzag lines or flashing lights or have blurred vision). Later migraine is often accompanied with such symptoms as vomiting, fatigue, nausea, sensitivity to lights and loud sounds.

People suffering from cluster or migraine headaches should avoid use of alcohol and tobacco, certain foods, especially the ones containing nitrates (food coloring, processed meats, preservatives), bright and glaring light, stress and certain medications that lead to hormonal changes (oral contraceptives, estrogens).

Sometimes infection of the frontal sinuses can lead to a dull, throbbing pain between or behind the eyes. It tends to get worse in the mornings and is accompanied with frequent tearing, congestion, runny nose, fever and sensitivity to light. Diving in dirty water, airborne allergies, cold or flu may cause sinus headache.

To eliminate pain behind the eyes, you should reduce inflammation and sinus swelling. Inhaling steam and applying heat over affected area combined with Vitamin C and zinc intake will facilitate the mucus drainage and help to boost immune mechanism to reduce sinus headache.

Other factors that can be the main reason for the headaches behind the eyes are eyestrain and glaucoma. Eyestrain occurs if the eyes are forced to focus on a close object (a newspaper, computer screen) for a long period of time, without focusing periodically at distant objects or due to uncorrected vision problems.

Glaucoma is caused by increased pressure within the eyeball that requires immediate medical attention as it may lead to optic nerve damage and loss of sight. Nowadays glaucoma may be treated by prescription drugs or surgery.

History of Clark Fork, and Hope, Idaho

The Hope/Clark Fork area stretches along the shores of Lake Pend Oreille from the Pack River to the mouth of the Clark Fork River, the major waterways that feed mighty Pend Oreille. Lake Pend Oreille is one of the West’s largest freshwater bodies of water with several islands near the Clark Fork estuary, including the islands off Hope and the Hope Peninsula, Warren, Cottage, Pearl, Eagle, and Memaloose Islands, as well as the Islands at the end of the Clark Fork River, called the Clark Fork Flats, which includes Derr Island. There are three major peninsulas that thrust into the lake: Sunnyside, the Hope Peninsula, and Sagle. Sagle is actually more like an area the lake wraps around, but nonetheless is a major abutting feature of Lake Pend Oreille.

It is important to note that the histories of the two communities are closely tied to one and other. They have a shared past of railroads, mining, and logging, and sportsman activities. More recently, both Lake Pend Oreille and the Clark Fork River have been a draw for tourists seeking the mountain/lake lifestyle. In recent years the area has attracted national public attention, being featured on several broadcasts, in articles, and by developers. The most famous golf course in this part of North Idaho, Hidden Lakes, was purchased by Jack Nicklaus, and is slated to open in 2009 as the Idaho Club. However, with the federal and state owning over 70% of the land, growth has been measured.

Glacial Floods and Lake Pend Oreille

The most prominent feature of Hope and Clark Fork, Idaho is Lake Pend Oreille. With 111 mile of coastline and 148 square miles, it is one of North America’s prominent lakes, and the nation’s fifth deepest. Formed by cataclysmic floods when the mile high Ice Age ice dam broke time after time, the features of the land and lakes of Bonner County and Western Montana all the way to the coast in Oregon were formed by these monumental floods. Just one of these deluges was ten times the combined volume of all the rivers on earth, with walls of water moving at super highway speeds. To learn more about the Ice Age Floods visit Ice Age Floods

Centuries before white man discovered the region, the Kalispell and other Indian tribes, such as the Flatheads, inhabited North Idaho. Visit North Idaho History The first white men to trade in North Idaho were the intrepid adventurers “Big Finan” McDonald and explorer and “land geographer” David Thompson, who established the first permanent wooden structure in 1809 on the Hope Peninsula, taking advantage of Lake Pend Oreille and the Clark Fork River. This trading post, Kullyspell House, is still standing as a stone building on the shores of the lake. Kullyspell House still stands on the Peninsula, Idaho’s most historic home. It sits at the end of Kullyspell Road. As you turn right on David Thompson Road, you will pass several white houses on the left. This grouping of summer homes is the family retreat of the Kienholz family. Ed Kienholz is easily one of our nation’s most famous artists.

The first true transportation the region enjoyed were the steamboats of the Oregon Steam Navigation Company, which brought its first engine and hardware from Portland, building the 108-foot Mary Moody in 1866.

As the railroads came into the area, Northern Pacific Railroad built the 150-foot Henry Villard in 1883 to supply the men laying the rails. Steamboats continued to be an integral part of transportation around Lake Pend Oreille until the 1930s. Later in the era, steamboats became popular excursions, much as Pend Oreille Cruises is today, and dignitaries staying at Hotel Hope and other resorts would spend days on the water.

In 1864 Congress granted the Northern Pacific Railroad a charter to build a line from Lake Superior to Puget Sound on a route north of the 45 parallel. In 1872, the Clark Fork Pend Oreille route was chosen. With the railroad came the people who established the towns of Clark Fork and Hope.

Railroads came to prominence in the 1880s, as local construction began on the northern transcontinental line in 1881. Trestle Creek, at more than a mile long, became the line’s longest structure. It was at this time that Hope became the center of railroad activities and the largest city in the county. Along with Chinese Coolies, over 4,000 rough and ready railroad workers lived in a tent city along the Clark Fork River. Railroads brought people, and the lumber industry, which began to service the rails and trains, became the stalwart of the North Idaho economy for the next 100 years.

History of Hope, Idaho

At first Hope was just a stopping point along the railroad, but in 1890, the Northern Pacific moved its division point west from Montana to the shores of Lake Pend Oreille. Hope was incorporated on July 17, 1891. East Hope was incorporated on June 28th 1902. Hope was a busy port in its early days. Steamboats crossed the lake carrying supplies and mail to mining sites around the shore before roads were built. The boats were used to carry supplies up the Clark Fork River to Cabinet Gorge while the railroad was being constructed. The lake had long supported a fishing fleet, bringing in tons of fish every day. The populations were decimated by the introduction of tiny krill. The Federal government added these small shrimp in an attempt to increase fish populations; the experiment had the opposite effect. Recent years have seen a small recovery in fish populations, and now Hope is the center of some fine sports fishing.

Hope began to grow in 1882 when the Northern Pacific came through and in 1900 set its Rock Mountain division point in the hillside village. Incorporated in 1903, the village was named in honor of the veterinarian who tended the construction horses. A wise and kindly man, Dr. Hope was widely respected. Hope was the largest town in the area during the 1880s, achieving prominence as the Rocky Mountain division point on the Northern Pacific line. Engines turned around in the large roundhouse, and the railroad built shops, offices, and a “beanery” there.

The Hotel Jeannot, now known as Hotel Hope, was able to capitalize on this business with its location right above the depot, and with its tunnels providing easy access for passengers to the hotel. Many say that the tunnels were used to entertain the Chinese “coolees,” working on the railroads, who were normally not allowed in the establishments that served the locals and travelers.

In contrast to Hope’s early boom, Sandpoint grew slowly following completion of the railroad. An 1883 visitor found only 300 people in town, and nine years later another traveler reported that “Sandpoint is made up of between three and four dozen rude shacks and perhaps a dozen tents.” The town experienced tremendous growth, however, following the turn of the century.

When the division point moved to Sandpoint, Hope began to decline. Hotel Hope continued to draw people until the 1960s, partly because the picturesque setting of the town beside Lake Pend Oreille attracted many tourists. Some of them prominent: J.P. Morgan, Teddy Roosevelt, Gary Cooper, and Bing Crosby.

The original Hotel Jeannot (Hotel Hope) was a wooden structure which burned down in about 1886. It was then that Joseph M. Jeannot started on his fireproof commercial building, which he shared with his brother Louis. He constructed one section at a time, and added on over the years, finally completing the three-bay, two story hotel in 1898. The rectangular building has two full stories above two separate basement sections. The facade is divided into three approximately equal bays which vary in design and building materials indicating that the hotel was built in sections over a period of years. This theory collaborated by the analysis of the structure during restoration as well as through oral accounts. The first section to be built was the first story of the east bay with its walls of rock-faced random-coursed granite ashlar with beaded joints. Next came the first story of the center bay with its lower facade walls of poured concrete. Following this, or possibly built at the same time, was the red brick second story over the center and east bays. The west bay was the last to be built, either all at once or in two stages. The first floor is of poured concrete with the second floor of red brick.

Various businesses have occupied the building over the years including a saloon, a restaurant, a general store, a meat market, and even a post office. The vaulted meat cooler adjoining the west basement was probably built when Louis ran his general store and meat market in the period from 1895 to 1897. Hotel Hope still stands as a testament to the times.

J. M. Jeannot’s hotel and saloon were not his only business interests. He was also involved in mining and had several claims across Lake Pend Oreille in the area of Green Monarch Mountain. Hope had a large Chinese population which had arrived with the railroad, and Jeannot supposedly took advantage of this source of cheap labor for his mines. According to one of Jeannot’s friends, he allowed these men to use the meat cooler under the hotel as a clubhouse. They gained access to this room through the small tunnel which connected it to the railroad depot, thus bypassing the more obvious entrances. This vault in the hotel is one of the few sites left in Hope which may be connected with the large number of Chinese who used to live in the town.

Jeannot’s mining operations as well as his losses at gambling led to his unstable financial condition which may have been one reason the hotel took ten to twelve years to complete. According to one source, the construction was held up for more than a year when Jeannot lost all of his money in a bet on William Jennings Bryan in 1896. Uncertain finances continued to plague Jeannot and he mortgaged and remortgaged the hotel over the years between 1907 and 1918, eventually losing the building in 1918. A friend paid off the debt in 1920, and ran the hotel until her death in 1968.

Today the era of lumber and trains has been supplanted by tourism and manufacturing in Bonner County, and Hope and Clark Fork have become known as an artist colony. This is in great part due to Ed Kienholz.

Born in 1927 at Fairfield, Washington. He studied at schools and colleges in the Inland Northwest. He first earned his living as a nurse in a psychiatric hospital, as the manager of a dance band, as a dealer in secondary cars, a caterer, decorator and vacuum cleaner salesman. In 1953 he moved to Los Angeles.

In 1954 he made his first reliefs in wood. In 1956 he founded the NOW Gallery, and in 1957 the Ferus Gallery with Walter Hopps. In 1961 he completed his first environment Roxy’s, which caused a stir at the documenta “4” exhibition in 1968. His retrospective at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art in 1966 provoked the County Board of Supervision to attempt to close the exhibition. The theme of his environments is the vulnerability of the private life of the individual to intervention by the environment and social convention.

In 1972 he met Nancy Reddin in Los Angeles. In 1973 he was guest artist of the German Academmic Exchange Service in Berlin. He moved to Hope with his wife Nancy, and around this time also established himself in Berlin . His most important works during this period were the Volksempfänger (radio receiving apparatus from the National Socialist period in Germany). In 1975 he received a Guggenheim Award.

He died in 1994, but his wife, Nancy Reddin Kienholz continues as a world-renown artist, frequently visiting Hope.

Because of their notoriety, and the astonishing beauty of the area, we now have over 600 artists in our enclave.

The Kienholz couple befriended many wealthy patrons in Berlin, and over the years, two families have also created their own family retreats on the Hope Peninsula. As you turn from David Thompson Road on to Kullyspell Road, the Max Factor group of homes is on your right. These go down to the beginning of the property line for Kullyspell House. The other family is the Groenke family. Klaus Groenke is the managing director and part owner of Trigon Holding GmbH, a Berlin based international real estate company. He is also reported to be a leading share holder in Coca Cola Company, and a regional board member of the Deutsche Bank Berlin/Brandenberg. They built the Groenke Estate, a 150 acre compound at the end of David Thompson Road that becomes Kienholz Road. It is here that a full section of the Berlin Wall stands, encased in lexiglas, graffiti and all intact as it was before its fall. Recently the family sold half the estate, where many multi-million dollar homes have been built or are planned.

Today Hope, Idaho is a tourist and summer lake destination, with numerous artists and eclectic folk. It is a bedroom community to Sandpoint, and is considered by many, with its spectacular lake and mountain views, to be among the most picturesque areas of North Idaho. In fact, many travel magazincalled the journey along the cliffsides from Sandpoint to Hope one of the most beautiful drives in the world.

History of Clark Fork, Idaho

While totally distinct towns, many in North Idaho think of Clark Fork and Hope as one community. In fact, the two share the same Chamber of Commerce website: []

The City of Clark Fork also became a viable town in the early 1880’s as the construction by the Northern Pacific Railroad continued through the nearby Bitterroot and Cabinet Mountains. This small community has been geared towards mining, logging, sawmills, farming, Forest Service activity, fish hatcheries, dam construction, fur trapping activity, collegiate studies and homes for teens. Also, for most of its history the railroad maintained a station and section crew in Clark Fork. Clark Fork was incorporated 1912. Today the University of Idaho Clark Fork Field Campus is located there.

In the 19th century the Clark Fork Valley, like the shores of Lake Pend Oreille around Hope, was inhabited by the Flathead tribe of Native Americans. It was explored by Meriwether Lewis of the Lewis and Clark Expedition during the 1806 return trip from the Pacific. The river is named for William Clark. A middle segment of the river in Montana was formerly known as the Missoula River.

Much of Clark Fork’s story over the following years had to do with crossing the river. The bridge fording the Clark Fork River provided one of the only passes to the north, and with the steamboats bringing miners making the arduous journey to the Kootenai gold rush, this was one of the only ways to travel. Before a bridge was built, Clark Fork had a ferry to make the crossing. Early ferries were nothing more than logs lashed together. Later, some records indicate a ferry was operating in 1893, but this was a decade after the Northern Pacific line was put in place, so it is safe to assume there was a brisk business with ferry crossings during construction.

It is important to be reminded that the Cabinet Gorge Dam was not in place then, and reporters at the time wrote in 1916 that “The Clarksfork river handles a volume of water much larger than the Snake river. At times during high water, the flow amounts to as much as 94,000 cubic feet per second. The average width of the river is about 1300 feet. The velocity of the river at certain times is very large, about eight miles an hour. Due to this it is necessarily very hazardous to operate a ferry at Clarksfork at any time and very dangerous and at some times impossible to operate a ferry at all.”

Certainly this ferry crossing created a need and a place for travelers, not only to cross, but at times to rest, restock supplies, and take advantage of the occasional saloon.

Until WWI there was a lot of sawmill activity, then to a lesser degree through the 1950s. Early sawmills include McGillis and Gibbs, Lane and Potter. From the start until the late 1950s, mining operations played an important role in the community’s economy. The Whitedelph mine and mill located near the Spring Creek fish hatchery began operation in 1926 until it closed in 1958. It yielded galena ore assaying principally in silver, lead and zinc. The Lawrence mine was located on Antelope Mountain near Mosquito Creek and near the University of Idaho Clark Fork Field Campus. Area hills and mountains had numerous small mining holes tended by small operations and prospectors.

How To Repair Dell E173fpb LCD Monitor Easily

Troubleshooting DELL E173FPB LCD Monitor with power blink symptom is quite easy if you know the right procedure to test it. There are two sections in the monitor that can cause power to blink. It is either primary or secondary section or even sometimes both sections can be faulty. So to isolate as which section is giving problem. I used an automobile 12 volt light bulb (brake light) and connect it between the 12 volt supply line and cold ground with the fuse removed. If the bulb still blink chances is very high the power primary section have problem.

Do not overlook the other voltages line as well such as the 3.3 and 5 volts. If any components shorted that gets the supply from the 5 and 3.3 volts, the power also may blink. If the 12 volts bulb lights up we can assume that the power supply is working fine and something shorted further down the line that makes the power supply to blink. If the bulb lights and you continue to check the power section, it will be going to waste your time. You should now concentrate on the secondary section circuit such as the four transistors C5707 that drive the high voltage transformer in the inverter board.

Just think these transistors like horizontal output transistor (HOT) in the CRT monitor that drive the flyback transformer where it worked so hard and chances for it to breakdown is very high. Checking the four transistors off board found one of them have a shorted reading with an ohmmeter.. This transistor can get faulty by itself or it could be some others components that caused it to develop a short circuit such as a defective high voltage transformer but all of the four high voltage transformers checked to be okay with ringer and ohmmeter test.

Now, here is the secret that I’m going to reveal. If you just replace the defective transistor only, chances is very high the transistor or another C5707 transistor will breakdown again. Usually what a technician does is to test the other transistors with either an analog or digital meter. If you use both meters to test the transistors then you have missed out on the faulty transistor because both meters won’t reveal to you the hfe reading of the transistors. Only some digital meters have the hfe checking feature. In other words, you have to use test the hfe reading of a transistor. Although you can replace the other three transistors directly, why not we do some detective work to find the cause of the problem?

Using the Peak electronic atlas component analyzer, I could clearly see the different between a good and a bad transistor. A good C5707 transistor has hfe reading from 320 to about 390 but the bad one reads 467! The other two C5707 transistors have reading about 350. In the above case only two C5707 transistors were replaced and you save the other two. I had burn in test this LCD monitor for many days and it worked perfectly fine.

Conclusion- Whether you repair the DELL E173FPB LCD Monitor or any other model such as the E172FPB or E171FPB, basically the testing method is the same. You could also use this testing procedure on other brand of LCD Monitor too.

Top 10 Reasons For Neck Pain And How To Correct Them

Here is a list of the top 10 most common causes of neck pain and how to fix them so you can get rid of your neck pain once and for all:

#1 Misalignments in the spine – This is number 1 because it puts pressure on nerves which can cause muscle tension and more. I recommend seeing a good Chiropractor; first he can tell you if this is in fact your problem, then he can help correct it. Postural exercises and a good neck pillow will also help correct the problem.

#2 Poor Posture – Posture is a window to your spine and if you have poor posture that is what your spine looks like and inside – misaligned ! Look at yourself in the mirror or have someone else look at you from the front and the side. From the front your spine should be straight, shoulders even and hips even. From the side your spine should have smooth flowing curves, ear even with your shoulder and shoulder even with your hip socket.

#3 Bad sleeping habits – Sleeping on your stomach is the worst because you have to turn your head ninety degrees to the side to breathe. Sleeping with a pillow too thick or thin can be a major problem also. Get a good neck pillow to sleep with. Read #4 for our pillow recommendation.

#4 Not using a good pillow – A proper neck pillow is the best like the Cervical Traction Neck Pillow – it keeps the proper neck posture when sleeping on your back or side.

#5 Muscle strain and tension – Makes it difficult to move and creates inflammation, putting pressure on nerves causing pain. Try to perform occasion neck stretches to loosen the muscles and avoid motions or positions that are painful.

#6 Stress – Most people carry their stress right across the back of their neck. Stress, in fact doesn’t exactly cause anything, but it exacerbates anything and everything. Try your best to relax or take a beak from work if you are starting to get stressed. Take a couple deep breathes and smile, you’d be surprised at how much this helps.

#7 Work or Computer Station Set-up – If you are forced to be in an awkward position or have continued poor posture it creates misalignment and muscle strain therefore nerve pressure. The nerve pressure causes pain. Move around periodically and do some neck stretches to relieve tension starting to build.

#8 Improper exercise or work out, maneuvers – Sometimes lifting to much weight or not using proper mechanics or posture when working out can cause a major episode of neck pain. The most common mistake I see is people pulling on their neck when doing abdominal crunches. Keep your eyes at the ceiling and focus on crunching with your abs, not your neck.

#9 Putting your neck in awkward positions for extended periods – This relates to the previous 2 reasons for neck pain. Doing this creates tension – things like sleeping in awkward positions, reading with your head down, too many hours in one position at the computer, are just a few. Try to eliminate these things as much as possible.

#10 Lack of stretches before physical activity makes it easier to strain a muscle – Just like before you started gym class or basketball practice, you always did stretches 1st. Most seem to neglect the old stretching routine. It only takes second and could prevent many needless days of suffering.

Open a Coffee Shop With a Competitive Advantage

Opening a new coffee shop is not extremely difficult in and of itself, but opening one with a competitive advantage that allows it to thrive rather than flounder in the local market is a challenge that requires planning ahead. Nonetheless, there are several proven routes to competitive advantage used by coffee shops, and one may be successful for yours.

Quality Differentiation

The quality of your products can convert those who currently drink at other establishments to yours and hook those who might be one-time visitors to return. To ensure high quality, you have to check quality at every step of the service process, from the sources of your coffees and other products, to the systems, staff, and equipment you use to store, grind, brew, and serve. You may need to have unique or unusual sources for your products so that you are not competing closely with other shops who share the same suppliers. Researching suppliers may be the best method for this type of advantage, unless you have specific talent to develop your own products that will make your shop stand out.

Experience Differentiation

Some retail locations acknowledge that the experience of the visit is compelling differentiation for customers regardless of the products sold. By offering a specific atmosphere, theme, or entertainment, your shop can stand out even with relatively standard products. There will be costs associated with whatever unique environment you are trying to create, so make sure to research these and show how it will enable you to either charge a higher price or bring in more customers than you would have otherwise.

Price Differentiation

As you reach lower and lower prices for a basic cup of coffee, your shop can tap in to a much larger market by converting users who would making their own coffee. However, once you shoot to be one of the lowest price coffee shops in your neighborhood, it can be difficult to find other ways to distance yourself from the pack. Even though you will make up in volume some of what you lose in dollars per customer, you will probably have little money to play with to attempt unique marketing or decor to build a brand, and you will always be in fear of direct price competition from both independent and chain shops that try serve at low prices as well. A price differentiation strategy will work best for you if you have a unique way to cut your costs substantially, making more room for profits or branding.