Water Ski Racing and a Skier’s Safety Equipment

Water ski racing is a fast, action packed sport and without the correct safety equipment, a skier can suffer a lot of injuries if they should have a big enough fall. The correct equipment can prevent many serious injuries from happening.

Dead arm, is a common water ski racing injury. This is where the nerves in the shoulder are severed of permanently damaged during a fall where the skiers arm is twisted over the skiers head rotating at the shoulder socket. This injury normally results in partial paralyses of the affected arm.

Helmet: a correct fitting helmet should be worn by the skier. The helmet needs to cover the ears and have a firm strap with a clip rather than a buckle. The helmet will prevent head injury in the event of impact with the skier’s race ski or any number of other objects. The clip on the chin strap enables the helmet to come from the skiers head if the water grabs the helmet. This can prevent neck injuries.

Goggles: Goggles are more for comfort as at high speed the wind and water spray can nearly blind a skier. Yet they are required for safety also. Correct fitting goggles should be worn and should be specialised H2O goggles. H2O goggles are manufactured using materials that are water resistant so that the goggles last longer.

Wetsuit: A custom fitted buoyancy wetsuit should be worn. The suit should have at least 3 torso straps, knee straps and knee braces. A correctly fitted wetsuit helps support the skier’s joints and helps protect the body from injury upon impact with the water. Sufficient buoyancy should be built into the suit to keep the skier afloat in the water, especially after a fall, where the skier could be unconscious.

Neck Brace: A neck brace is recommended to be fitted to the suit to enable support of the head and neck in the event of a fall. This can assist in preventing serious neck injuries.

Arm restraints: Correctly fitted arm restraints are recommended as they can prevent dead arm in the event of a fall. Arm restraints can be purchased attached to a neck brace, or they can be fitted to a short sleeve wetsuit. The arm restraint restricts the travel of the upper arm preventing it from being wrenched.

Ski Bindings: ski bindings should be correctly fitted so that they are snug, but not too tight. In the event of a fall your feet should come out of the bindings to prevent injury while tumbling with the ski still attached. The binding should not be too loose either as a snug fitting binding is required for proper ski control while racing.

That covers all the necessary safety equipment for water ski racing. Many skiers may use other items for comfort or injury prevention for existing ailments, but the above items are the main necessities for a safe seasons water ski racing. If the above equipment is correctly fitted and worn religiously while practicing, training and racing injury can be minimised or even prevented in the case of a minor or even serious fall.

What Makes A Great Shopping Mall?

When you want to purchase the things you need and want, one of the best places where you consider going is the shopping mall. Almost every city or town in the world has shopping centers. The existence of shopping malls has been a necessity nowadays. It is where you can find and shop for your basic necessities and the things you wish to buy with varying prices. There are a lot of shopping centers you can find in your area, but what makes a shopping mall perfect for shoppers is the list of things it can provide.

A Great Shopping Mall Has:

Impressive Structure – What encourages mall-goers to shop is the structure of a mall. When the structure itself provides ease and convenience to everyone, then people will surely keep on coming back.

Convenient Opening Hours – A great mall has convenient opening hours for all its shoppers. The usual opening hours of shopping centers daily is between 10 am to 9 pm. Although, malls have different opening hours, most mall open at 10 in the morning, which allows shoppers to shop for what they want and need.

Enough Space and Size to Accommodate Shoppers – Nowadays, malls have spacious buildings in order to accommodate a huge amount of shoppers at a certain time. Mall-goers usually love a shopping center which is huge and can provide them ample space to move around.

Variety of Shops and Restaurants – Of course, a shopping center is not just a place to shop. It is also a place to have a great dining experience. Malls have variety of shops and restaurants which go from affordable to luxurious types.

Impressive Movie Theaters – If you are a movie goer, then you can check the latest movies in your favorite mall. Nowadays, malls have movie theaters inside which make it easier for everyone to see the latest movies.

A Clean Food Court – A food court is always found in every mall. A great shopping center has a clean food court where various types of cuisine and refreshment can be bought.

Parking Space – A shopping mall must always have a parking lot where shoppers and customers can park their own car.

The Shopping Mall of Today

Nowadays, shopping malls have their own way of providing services and conveniences to all its customers. There are malls which consist of several buildings. For a convenient shopping, these malls have put up interconnecting walk ways to make it easier for shoppers and visitors to move from one building to another. Also, shopping centers nowadays have free Wi-Fi connection within its premises so that shoppers can search online using their cellphones or laptop while enjoying their time at the mall.

Indeed, a shopping center is not just a place for shopping; it is also a hub for a great dining experience, entertainment, business, and leisure. It is a place where you can spend quality time with your family and friends.

The best shopping mall offers you with everything you need, giving you a whole new level of shopping experience.

Notepad Golf

Notepad golf is thinking your way to better golf. If you have ever been at a golf tournament or watched closely when golf tournaments are on television you will probably notice or have noticed something just about all of the pros do as they play their round of golf. They keep a small notepad which they read at the start of the hole prior to teeing off and as they are getting ready for their shots to the green.

For those golfers who are serious about their games or for those golfers who are interested in getting better and lowering their handicap we have some suggestions that will help their games without even hitting the ball in anger. When golfers retire to the 19th hole to recount their battle with the course they almost always remember the very good and very bad shots, the lucky and unlucky shots and mistakes they made during the round. However, a week or two later those memories are faded and useless so far as improving their golf game.

To improve your golf game we strongly suggest you do the following during this upcoming golfing season:

Take a small notebook with you when you play a round of golf and keep it in your back pocket or attached to your golf cart. Put down the date of the round and the name of the golf course. Note the clubs you are using because many golfers have multiple sets of irons, drivers and putters and tend to switch periodically even during the course of a year. This note pad will eventually be a historical account of that day’s round of golf and will yield significant and valuable information to you about how you play the game.

This point goes for most of the shots you play and it is the fact that your golf shots are largely determined by your grip, grip pressure, stance, swing speed, tempo, weather and course conditions, and mental attitude. Although we do not address it in every point below, in your notes you should note these different factors if you are not hitting your shots, be they drives or iron shots the way you visualize them or thought you would execute them.

On each hole where a wood of some kind is required, note if you used a driver, fairway wood, long iron, or utility wood. Notepad golf is critical here. There may be some holes that are par fours or par fives but because of woods on either side of the fairway, traps on the edges of the fairway in the driving area, out of bounds hazards, or water hazards you may have used a utility wood rather than a driver. Besides showing the end result of whatever wood or long iron is used, your notes will show how you were thinking that day, whether aggressively or conservatively, and how that thinking paid off with the result.

When using a driver off the tee, note where the drive went, and how far it went. Was the placement of the drive approximately where you planned it to go in your mind. As the driver is the most aggressive weapon in a golfer’s arsenal how the day goes with the driver plays an important part on the psyche of the golfer that day and can influence his play over the balance of that hole and future holes. For example, if on a given round you observe looking back from your notes, that you were constantly pulling or pull hooking your driver shots, in practice or future rounds you should consider examining your grip, stance, swing tempo and attitude towards the particular hole or holes where you had these pulls or pull hooks. If this pattern shows up consistently over much of the summer or a number of months, it should help you to evaluate making some kind of change in every aspect of how you use your driver and when you use it. You may have to consider changing to a lighter driver or a driver which has a longer shaft or you may have to switch for a while to a three wood.

Record at the end of each hole where each of your iron shots went directionally and distance wise. This is potentially very important to improving your game as we all have swing tendencies that tend to produce repetitive results, depending on whether we have warmed up properly, or are under stress or perhaps fatigue. Noting the direction of our iron shots, whether fades, slices, or draws and hooks should be noted against the type of iron shot we were attempting as well as the weather condition at the time, and which iron it was we were hitting. A seven iron can for example be hit many ways from 150 to 160 yards off level and hard ground to 180 yards on a downhill lie or 125 to 150 yards if the wind is blowing against you and a lower trajectory shot is in order. All these things should be noted for the golfer to see how he is hitting his irons and where reevaluation or practice is in order. Also, note if your iron shots are always to the left of the green or hole or right, whether you are usually short of the green by 5 to 15 yards as most amateurs are rarely long. Note if you are choking up on your iron shots to get better control or gripping the club as close to the end as you can. Note that most pros tend to choke up a bit on most full iron shots. Note your grip in relation to the end result of your shot. Maybe you are using a hook grip all the time or a slice grip and you do not even know it. Note your stance as this can significantly effect the direction of your iron shots.

On chip shots around the green or close to the green, write down whether you were short or long, left or right. Chip shots are usually not too hard but they tend to produce increased grip pressure for instance, and bad thinking as well. Too many times golfers stay with the same club (i.e. it may be a pitching wedge or it could be a seven iron as examples) regardless of the type and distance of the chip. Trying to hit consistently low running shots on wet greens early in a morning round, or high flop shots all the time even though are no impediments or undulations in the way can show if your thinking is good as well as whether your shot execution is good as well. Chipping is one area where practice can be used to correct both bad thinking on different chip shots as well as weak execution or improper club selection.

On sand or bunker shots around the green, note how the shot turned out in terms of distance from the hole, and accuracy. Your notes should indicate whether there was a lip and you exploded or whether there was no lip (i.e. a flat trap) and you tried to chip the ball off the sand and run it to the hole. Your notes should note if the bunker or sand shot was from a perfect lie or buried lie and if it was a buried lie whether you used a pitching wedge or nine iron to extricate the ball from the sand or you stayed with your sand wedge. You should note if you are consistently short of the hole on normal sand shots with some type of lip or whether you are always way long. You should note the sand conditions such as whether the sand was wet from a previous night’s rain or from the green-side sprinklers or if the sand is soft but dry or hard packed and dry. All this data will help you to become a better sand player around the greens if you are willing to take the time to make good notes. You should also note whether you are putting any back spin on your sand shots and whether you are opening the club head or keeping the club head square to the ball all the time.

On putts, notepad golf is critical because you need to reflect in your notes, if you were long or short, right or left of the hole. Here is another area where good notes are critical. As putting is not a physical strength issue, keys in note taking are what are your putting tendencies, under different weather, green type, and competitive conditions. Pressure is always an issue so you should note if you are always pulling or pushing your puts particularly if you are under pressure, and whether you are frequently short or long on most of your putts. You should note if you are choking up on some puts but not choking up on other puts, whether you putt differently on very long putts versus three to five footers. Most golfers have many putters be they mallets or blades and good note taking can help assess if a change in putter is needed.

Note what kind of golf ball you played during the round and if you changed balls, record what change in ball you made. Noting how you are playing with a particular golf ball is important because these days there are all kinds of golf balls including hard balls, soft balls, high spin, low spin balls, solid core and liquid core, number of dimples, shape of dimples and other variations. Should you change balls during the round for some reason you should note what impact it is having on your game from your drives, to iron shots to putts, especially on putts. Many of us play the wrong balls either because we do not have enough of the same balls if we should lose one in the woods or water, or because we do not care, or because we find a new ball in the woods and it is newer and whiter than the ball we were playing. We should try to use golf balls that fit our games including our club speed, not what the top pros use. Remember take notes.

Note at the start of the round what kind of prevailing weather conditions existed such as was it raining, misting, cold, hot, mild, windy etc. Note if it is raining during the entire round, or if you have to stop for a half hour for a thunderstorm. Note if there is a frost on the greens for the first five or six holes if you usually start early in the morning even in the fall/early winter period. Note if it is cold or damp when you are playing especially at the start of the round, and if the greens and fairways are always wet either due to the sprinkler system or from overnight rains. Note if it was a windy day and if you played poorly into the wind but a bit better with the wind. If you are always short on shots into the green when playing into the wind you should rethink your iron selection.

There are other issues that can and may effect how you play on a given day and these might include, the composition and playing styles of your playing partners, your mental outlook or mood as you come to the course, illness, some family issue that is on your mind, and other factors that can influence you such as having a real slow group in front of you for example. At least you should note these so you can try to avoid them if possible the next time.

You may think this is significant and perhaps difficult work to do and will detract from your enjoyment from the game. You are correct to a degree, it is work, but not that difficult once you get used to doing it. If you take good notes during your round you will find tendencies in each part of your game, some good and some bad. The point of all this is so that you will become a better planner and thinker around the golf course. For example, if you know from your notes as well as experience that you may pull your putts or push your irons and wood shots when under greater than normal pressure, you should be able to compensate in the future when under pressure and take those kind of shot tendencies into account. These notes should also help you if you are a golfer who has the time, desire, and facilities to practice so as to correct swing errors and build better swing and or putting patterns and habits.

A seasoned note pad of your game over the course of a golf season will also help you if you visit a new and different course as it can help you navigate the course perhaps without taking penalties for errant shots especially if you are not completely familiar with the lay of the land. Your notes can also be used to help you practice before your weekday or weekend round if you have the practice facilities. With respect to your use of golf balls, for example, you can see if you are using a golf ball that is too hard and not giving your the best playability and distance due to your swing tempo or swing speed, or if you are playing a ball which is too susceptible to scuffing and nicks and cuts due to the thickness and type of cover.

You may say after reading this that this is too much work and it may be, but it will work if you work hard at taking good notes, reading and thinking about the notes following the round, perhaps a few days later, and trying to correct poor or unsatisfactory swing, shot execution and thinking tendencies you may see from you notes. Remember that notepad golf is thinking your way to playing better golf!

Masonic Lodge Symbol – The Acacia and Immortality of the Human Soul


“I will plant in the wilderness the cedar, the shittah tree, and the myrtle,

and the olive tree; I will set in the desert the fir tree, and the

pine, and the box tree together:”

Is. 41:19

The symbolism of the acacia, or evergreen is well-known as a Masonic Lodge Symbol throughout Freemasonry. It was planted to mark the spot of the burial of a celebrated artist important to Masonic teachings. A sprig of evergreen is used by the Funeral Master during every Masonic funeral ceremony. The shittim-wood that was reputedly used by the children of Israel in the construction of Moses’ Tabernacle, as well as is the building of the Ark of the Covenant is a species of the acacia. Being a thorny tamarisk, it also grew around the dead body of Osiris in the Egyptian legend and constituted the crown of thorns crushed to the brow of the Christ during his Passion. In all of those events, the acacia represented immortality, because of its tenacity of life. Without question, the tamarisk was extraordinarily difficult to kill.

The ancients identified the acacia with the more sensitive plant known as the mimosa. A Coptic legend informs us that the mimosa was the first of all trees and shrubs to actually worship the Christ. Indeed, some of the early fathers of Christianity used the tree to symbolize the Christ. As such, the ancients meant to convey the notion that trees, plants and shrubs were living, breathing life forms that were animated with the Divine Light.

Trees are often mentioned in both the Old and New Testaments, as well as in the writings of the so-called pagans. As examples, we find messages about creation hidden with such symbols as the Tree of Life, which represents the spiritual point of balance or equilibrium, and the Tree of Knowledge, which represents polarity in the form of good and evil. Moses heard the voice of God emanating from a burning bush. Buddha received his illumination while under the bodhi tree and the consecrated rod of Hermes was nothing more than a type of tree.

Philosophers and priests were frequently referred to as trees. The very name of the Druids allegedly means “the men of oak trees.” Initiates into certain Syrian mysteries were called “cedars.” In fact, the famous “cedars of Lebanon” described in the First Degree of Masonry were initiated sages which constituted the true supports of King Solomon’s Temple. If one listens closely to the lessons in the First Degree, he will hear that the three pillars in the lodge symbolically represent the Worshipful Master, Senior and Junior Wardens – originally regarded as three exceptionally wise and talented men who spiritually led the Entered Apprentices, Fellowcrafts and Masters, or overseers of the work.

As opposed to symbolizing specific people, Freemasonry uses the acacia to represent certain principles of spirituality that all people should aspire to attain. First, it is the emblem of the vernal equinox, or annual resurrection of the sun from the death of winter. Second, it signifies purity and innocence – traits also embodied in the legendary character Hiram Abif. Third, it typifies human immortality and the regeneration of life. The evergreen represents that immortal part of man that survives the destruction of the physical body and which will never, never, never die. Finally, it is the revered emblem of the ancient Egyptian Mysteries, to which Masonry owes much of its foundation.

The legend of Hiram Abif is liberally drawn from the Egyptian Mystery ritual of the murder and resurrection of Osiris. As such, the sprig of acacia also represents to Hiram’s resurrection to all Masons. In the Egyptian legend, the chest containing the body of Osiris, who was viciously murdered by Typhon, was washed ashore and lodged in the roots of a tamarisk, or acacia. The tamarisk grew into a mighty tree enclosing within itself the body of the murdered god. Some writers have theorized that this legend is the basis upon which the story was based about the sprig of acacia left at Hiram’s grave. Others also have asserted that the present-day Christmas tree is a continuation of the mystery of the evergreen.

Among Freemasons the essential lesson taught by the acacia pertains to the permanence of the human soul. The theme of permanence is bundled up into the various theologies and philosophies arising out of the notion of the resurrection. Today, certain religions teach that when a human dies eventually both his soul and material body continue in a heavenly environment. Other religions hold that only the soul continues to live. Most accept the contention that souls always were and ever will be living organisms. Regardless of the interpretation one selects regarding an afterlife, Freemasonry attaches an equally important significance to this life.

For centuries, men have asked the same question: what is the purpose of human life? Hundreds of thousands have joined Freemasonry over the years in hopes of learning an answer, but have learned that the Craft returns them to their churches, synagogues, mosques and other places of worship to seek more knowledge. As a candidate passes through the degrees of Masonry, he is informed that true knowledge is never to be found in one place. A man must search everywhere there is knowledge to understand his relationship with the Great Architect.

During that search, it is like that the inquiring mind will, sooner or later, stumble across the teachings of Origen, who lived, wrote and instructed between 185 A.D. and 254 A.D. At one period in Christian history, Origen was regarded as the most accurate of all interpreters about the human soul. Although later discarded by the Church as a heretic, he originally taught that souls repeat themselves in material incarnation – a teaching that now is termed reincarnation. Origen believed that each human being contained a spark of the Creator that had no beginning and no end. In his literary work entitled De Principils, Origen wrote: “Every soul…comes into this world strengthened by the victories or weakened by the defeats of the previous life. Its place in this world as a vessel appointed to honor or dishonor, is determined by its previous merits or demerits. Its work in this world determines its place in the world which is to follow.”

Without either accepting or rejecting reincarnation, Freemasonry makes a similar demand of its members about how each should live the life given them. Masons are called to live spiritually strong lives; not lives weakened by self-centeredness. When Pike wrote that every man had a work to do, he challenged every Mason to not only make the best of the circumstances in which he found himself, but to do so by serving others. Pray for others, feed the hungry, give to the poor, lavish love upon your neighbor and provide for the spiritual growth of your family – it is these that Masonry inculcates into the hearts and souls of the honored members of the Craft.

The acacia reminds us that while our lives are not limited by time, our material existence is time-controlled. No man knows how much time he has, but he should know that time is running out. If a good work is to be done during this lifetime, it must be done today, for tomorrow is in God’s hands. While we breathe, stand, walk and talk we may do something that improves the lot of our brethren. When time shall be no more, that work will be done by those left behind and we ourselves shall give no more. Though life shall always continue beyond man’s earthly existence, man’s loving, giving and sharing with others will cease when he shall return to the earth and his soul to God, who gave it.

Pros and Cons of Installing Dimmer Switches

An easy way to save money in the home is to install dimmer switches for the light fixtures in various rooms. This project can typically be completed in just a few hours and can dramatically change the entire look and feel of a space. Of course, as with any home improvement project, switches for lighting fixtures have their various pros and cons.

Benefits of Dimmer Switches

The biggest benefit to the dimmer switch is that it saves money. Dimming a light in a room can save anywhere from 10 percent up to 90 (or more) percent on your electric bill for that light fixture. This is because they reduce the amount of electricity sent to the light fixture, thus directly reducing how much money is spent on the electricity. To maximize savings, consider installing more eco-friendly light bulbs such as compact fluorescent (CFL) bulbs into the ceiling fixtures and any other fixtures that may be on the dimmer switches.

Another huge benefit to installing one is that the homeowner has ultimate control over how much light is in the space. This can be extremely beneficial for setting the mood or brightening a space for a family gathering.

They can also be installed to work together with remote controls. Remote controls can change the lighting in the room for various light fixtures with the single click of a button, creating ultimate control for home lighting.

Furthermore, they also lengthen the lifespan of the bulb. When the lights are dimmed, even by very little, it extends the overall life of the bulb. For example, a light fixture with a traditional incandescent bulb may last less than a year. However, installing one onto that same light fixture with that same incandescent bulb can easily extend the bulb’s lifespan up to three or four years.

Lastly, dimmer switches can be installed in every room of the home: bedrooms, bathrooms, the dining room, living room, kitchen and beyond. They can be used on a number of different light fixtures: lamps, track lights, ceiling fixtures, bathroom lights, pendant lights and even under cabinet lighting or wall sconces.

Negative Aspects of Dimmer Switches

Perhaps the biggest negative of the dimmer switch is that it may not necessarily work with all the lights in a home. When installing them, it is a must that owners research their existing fixtures to see if a dimmer switch is safe to use with the fixture. If the owner plans to install new lights, this is typically less of a problem as they can simply purchase a light fixture that will safely work with the switch.

Secondly, since installing a switch is electrical work, some owners may not feel safe or be comfortable handling electricity, even when the power is shut off (which it must be). This may require the owner to contact a professional and pay for an hour or two of work to have the professional install the dimmer switches in the desired rooms.

In short, dimmer switches offer more benefits than negative aspects. They save money and give ultimate control over a home’s lighting, so it’s hard to see why anyone wouldn’t want to install one!

Detox Diets – Why You Should Avoid Wheat & Dairy

Most detox diets exclude wheat and dairy products. Yet we are always being told that wheat fiber is good for the bowels and that we need dairy products to supply the calcium for strong bones. So why do we need to exclude them when on a detox diet?

Wheat is probably one of the most consumed foods. Many people eat wheat three times a day. Wheat cereal for breakfast, a sandwich for lunch, pasta or pizza for dinner with snacks of muffins, cakes and cookies in between. With so much wheat in our diets it can become a toxin and the detox diet aims to reduce toxins.

How wheat becomes a toxin.

Wheat is a relatively new food for the human race. Ancient man, the hunter-gatherers, lived on meat from the animals they hunted, fish and wild vegetables, fruit, nuts and seeds that they gathered. It was not until the agricultural period that began about 12,000 years ago that wheat and other grains were introduced.

Wheat contains gluten, a family of proteins, that as many as one in three people may be sensitive to. Gluten is also found in rye, barley and oats. The gluten in oats, however, is very different and can be tolerated by many people who react to the other gluten grains.

Genetic testing has discovered that people have simply not adapted to the introduction of wheat into the diet. Researchers have detected gliadin, the principle type of wheat gluten, in the blood of 15% of people they tested.

Your digestive system provides a barrier between the foods you eat and your blood stream but if this barrier breaks down gliadin gets into the blood stream. The immune system reacts to it and it becomes a toxin. Your detox system has to deal with this so all gluten grains including spelt, an ancient wheat, kamut and triticale all contain gluten and are best avoided on a detox diet.

How does the barrier become leaky?

Many things can cause the intestinal barrier to” leak”. Drugs, alcohol, food allergies or sensitivities, constipation, gastric infections, aging, nutritional deficiencies are some of the things that can cause damage to the sensitive and delicate lining.

Wheat because of its complex structure is also hard to digest and almost all normal people fail to absorb a large amount of starch from wheat. These starches get fermented by the bacteria in the digestive system which produces acids that damage the lining.

People with many intestinal conditions like Ulcerative Colitis, Crohn’s, diverticulitis, Celiac improve when they avoid gluten. Many people are surprised to find that they do react to wheat when they start eating it again after being on a detox diet.

What’s wrong with dairy?

Although we are always being told that a daily glass of milk is good for you half the world manages quite well without it. According to genetic researchers human adults were not designed to digest milk. Many southern Europeans, most Asians and many Africans cannot digest milk products. It is only as a result of genetic mutation that some humans tolerate lactose at all.

As many as 75% of people naturally lose the ability to digest the lactose, a milk sugar, once they are weaned. Lactose intolerance can cause gastric upset which causes irritation and a leaky intestinal barrier that places a heavy load on the liver detox system.

One of the most common allergies or intolerance is to cow’s milk. Again dairy products appear in many food items as milk protein, whey or casein.

Non organic milk can contain traces of environmental chemicals and hormones which all place an extra burden on the detox system. It makes sense to exclude it when on a detox diet.

What to eat instead.

As so many people have wheat and dairy allergies it has become much easier to find products that do not contain them. Manufacturers have produced cereals, pasta and bread made with non-gluten grains.

Other grains or grain like seeds that can be eaten include brown rice, quinoa, millet, amaranth, buckwheat, gram flour (garbanzo or chickpea flour) and maize.

Dairy alternatives include rice, soy, almond, oat and coconut milks, soy yogurt, pumpkin seed or nut butters and cashew cream. Calcium can be obtained from nuts seeds, leafy vegetables, grains, peas and beans.

So although excluding dairy and wheat when on a detox diet may take some planning you will still be able to eat tasty meals. It will be well worth it when you find that many niggling symptoms disappear and you feel and look so much better.

How to Break a Love Spell With White Magic

Have you ever wondered how to break a spell of love? If you want to break a spell of love done by you or by someone else for you, there are many reasons why it may be important to you to learn how to break a tie of love. In this article you’ll learn some simple ways to undo spells. But caution, this don’t mean that you must do and undo spells as a game, because sometimes it can bring you undesirable consequences.

How to dispose a love spell made by another person

As I said above, for those who want to know how to undo a spell of love, here’s an example of magic that will work. What you need:

• 3 cloves of garlic.

• Some chamomile.

• 1 white candle.

• Water.

• A glass.

• A picture of you or the person who made the tie-down.

Let’s see how to break a spell with the following elements:

Light the white candle and meditate on the subject of the love spell. If you’re doing this magic for yourself, then imagine that you don’t feel any more love for that person and you feel free from her or his spell.

Say the next verse 16 times: “free of this spell, when this candle is consumed. Free of this magic, that will happen.”

Combine all ingredients into the jar. While you focus on undoing the spell of love, place the picture into the jar. While the candle is still burning, bury the bottle on the ground. Do this magic during the waning moon for best results.

A quick way to break a spell of love

You must have a photo of the two lovers. With scissors, cut each figure. Then, you must put the two figures together, folding the pictures several times. Now burn the paper until it is completely consumed.

If you think that a wizard or witch has put a magical curse on you, your house, or your family, carry out this spell that will help you to break a spell of love. You should try this at any moment on the year. Light a new white candle and let burn some of the following materials in a fireproof container: nails, hyacinths, lilac, pine, or sage. With this you will enforce the breaking of the spell.

I hope that you will find useful this article on how to break a love spell. Remember to always make a responsible use of white magic.

A Simple E-Shop Application Using PHP and MySQL


Write a simple E-shop application using PHP and MySQL*. This may be a bookshop, music shop, clothes store, or anything else you wish. There should be a “user” interface to allow customers to select and purchase items (don’t worry about the payment side of things). Ideally there should also be a password-protected “owner” interface, to allow the E-shop operator to view/edit stock and pending orders.

The exercise is deliberately “hard” given the short deadline, and I do not expect everyone necessarily to complete it to perfection. This will be taken into account in the marking.


[A 5%] Ability to write working HTML code (i.e. code that creates successful markup on a browser window).**

[B 5%] Ability to post an HTML web-page on a server such that it is visible on the World Wide Web. ***

[C 10%] Ability to make an HTML form communicate with a PHP script.**

[D 10%] Ability to make a PHP script interact with a MySQL database.**

[E 40%] Functionality (the extent to which the software’s operation complies with – or exceeds- the original specification).

[F 10%] User friendliness (the extent to which the browser displays are clear and self-explanatory).

[G 10%] Presentation. (This could include appropriate use of images, colour, text fonts, style-sheets and dynamic HTML functions.)

[H 10%] Clarity and readability of coding and related documentation (e.g. use of comments, appropriate indentation etc.)


*If you wish to use different web-based technologies (e.g. ASP, JSP, Pearl) please do so. However, please do NOT use high-level software packages which require no programming skills (e.g. “wysiwyg” HTML editors), as these rather defeat the purpose of taking this module.

** In categories A to D, the marks are awarded in a “binary” manner (i.e. the student receives either the entire weighting mark or else zero). Thus 30% can be obtained simply by demonstrating a basic knowledge of HTML, PHP and MySQL. The remaining categories are marked in a “continuous” fashion (i.e. any number of marks between zero and the weighting value can be awarded).

*** In the event of server failure (or other irresolvable technical difficulties) Category B will be removed and the weightings of the other categories scaled accordingly.


My electronic shop application is for the sale of books and other assorted item sold by the Wandle Industrial Museum.

This development is a logical extension to an existing static website. The data and basic layout of my application are derived from this pre-existing work.


the initial screen, not including the original frames used in the Museum website. Most of the content in the top and bottom frames is non functional and is included for completeness, this also helps demonstrate the dynamic HTML that provided secondary navigation structures.

This screen shown the main body of the shop information and the “shopping basket” functions at the button. This page provides access to:

1) A complete list of the online “catalogue”;

2) A subset of the catalogue listed by product category;

3) A subset of the catalogue based on user defined search terms;

4) More detailed information about an item;

5) Ability to add items to a session based “shopping basket”;

6) Ability you registered users to write book reviews;

If a user is new to the application, he/she is shown the message “Welcome. Already a customer? Click here to sign in”, otherwise they see their user name and a button to the right named “My account” which allows them to edit their information . This information is stored in a client side cookie that is retained for 30 minutes.


The summary of items shows the item code, title, price, description and stock level of all items. The display also includes two additional other possibilities, 1 items that are out of stock are show in red text. 2 items that are not sold through the online shop are “grayed-out” in both these cases the “buy” button is removed from all displays for a given item.


The Basket Initially there is not shopping basket until the user adds an item, until such time clicking on the “view basket button shows a default screen.

When an item is added, its quantity is set to one by default, this can either be increased by adding the same item to the basket again or by clicking in the increment button on the basket display screen shown here. Once a basket is created and the user enters the system the following options are available under the product description:

1) Clear cart;

2) Continue shopping;

3) Checkout;

If the item is de-incremented to zero then it is removed from the basket.

The basket is based on PHP sessions and unlike the users identity, which is reined for 30 minutes, will not persist after the instance on the browser is closed.

If the user is unknown to the application when he/she attempts to complete the transaction, they will be asked to sign in, if the user has an account he/she can login and continue with the transaction.

If the user has not got an account he/she must register before being able to finish buying anything.


Items can be added to shopping basket either from any summary listing, or an item description page.

A summary page displays basic item information in a tabular format whithout images, such as the one shown right by clicking on the “buy” button at the left on the item line.

This can also be done from the item detail page, which is displayed by clicking the items code shown on the left of the summary display.

Each item detail page also includes a “buy” button as well as the other shopping basket tools” These are on the summary page but at the bottom so require scrolling

The database supports two forms of items, “books”, as shown above, which include information specific to reading materials, and “goods” which only include basic item information, item code, title and price.

Where images ae not available a replacement is automatically instituted until the administrator specifies a real image.


If the user is unknown to the application when he/she attempts to complete the transaction, they will be asked to sign in, if the user has an account he/she can login and continue with the transaction

If the user has not got an account he/she must register before being able to finish buying anything. Here we see the effect of an invalid attempt to register a new account. The user is given a text description of the error and the suspect entities are highlight in sequence until all anomalies have been resolved.

After the user has registered he/she is asked to print the form for his/her reference. Then is logged in and can bypass authentication when buying.

The application has been hard coded with one administrative account, the username is “system” and the password is “god” Note there is currently no way to change this.

The administration display allows the users to:

1) define new item types;

2) Edit and delete users;

3) Add, edit and delete categories;

This screen allows the user to either edit an existing data item in a given category identified by its product code or create a new product date item. The application includes a specific set of validation criteria as shown in the next image. Items are listed alpha numerically, left to right.

Here we see the result of a failed data entry operation denoted by crosses to denote invalid or missing entries for given fields, likewise a tick indicates the field is valid.

It is possible to have a blank correct entry – eg, if there are no images these boxes should be left clear.

The question mark is to double check the intention to leave blank in certain cases

This screen shows that theadministrator has chosen to delete a user’s account from the database – the edit and delete functions use the same display except that the edit function does not show the delete warning

The interface The image shows the initial (welcome) screen, not including the frames used in the Museum website.

This screen shown the main body of the shop information and the “shopping basket” functions at top and the button. This page provides access to:

1) A complete list of the online “catalogue”;

2) A subset of the catalogue listed by product category;

3) Ability to order the catalogue listed by product code, price or title, in acceding order;

4) A subset of the catalogue based on user defined search terms;

5) More detailed information about an item;

6) Ability to add items to a session based “shopping basket”;

If a user is new to the application, he/she is shown the message “Welcome. Already a customer? Click here to sign in”, otherwise they see their user name and a button to the right named “My account” which allows them to edit their information. This information is stored in a client side cookie that is retained for 30 minutes.

The administration display allows the users to:

1) Define new item types;

2) Edit and delete users;

3) Add, edit and delete categories;

4) Add, edit, move and delete products;

5) Edit and add help information;

6) Create and restore dumps of tables;


A data dictionary defines the common terms, codes, and conventions used. Listed below are the database lookup tables required for the shop database application.

Table: bookinfo:

Comments: Book specific metadata. Field Type Null Default
code varchar(5) No No
author varchar(50) No Unknown
publisher varchar(100) No Unknown
isbn varchar(15) No None
illustrations varchar(15) Yes Yes - gray
date date Yes NULL
dimensions varchar(100) No Unknown
summary text No
type varchar(16) No

Table: categories:
Comments: Product metadata Field Type Null Default
id int(3) No
name varchar(50) No
etype int(1) No 2
Keywords varchar(100) No

Table: customers:
Comments: Customer billing information. Field Type Null Default
uname varchar(15) No
first_name varchar(25) No
last_name varchar(25) No
phone varchar(20) No
email varchar(50) No
zip varchar(10) No
city varchar(50) No
country_code int(2) No 0
bill_address varchar(90) No
changed timestamp(14) Yes NULL

Table: orderdata:
Comments: Customer order information Field Type Null Default
ordernumber int(5) No 0
itemcode varchar(5) title varchar(100) No
quantity int(3) No 0
total float No 0
status int(11) No 0
stamp timestamp(14) Yes NULL

Table: orders:
Comments: customer order refferance data. Field Type Null Default
uname varchar(15) No 0
ordernumber int(5) No
status int(1) No 0
date date Yes NULL

Table: reviews:
Comments: user book reviews and rations. Field Type Null Default
uname varchar(15) No 0
type int(1) No
rating int(1) No 0
stamp timestamp(14) Yes NULL
review text No

Table: products:
Table comments: Primary product data. Field Type Null Default
code varchar(5) No
category_id int(3) No 1
title varchar(100) No
keywords varchar(255) No
small_image varchar(15) No nopic.jpg
large_image varchar(15) No nopic.jpg
description text No
price decimal(5,2) No 00.00
date_modified date No 0000-00-00
status int(1) No 1
Table: purchase:
Comments: Primary product data. Field Type Null Default
code varchar(5) No
date timestamp(14) Yes NULL
stock int(3) No> 15
cost decimal(5,2) No 00.00

Table: pwl:
Comments: User password/access information. Field Type Null Default
uname varchar(15) No
upass varchar(100) No 5d2e19393cc5ef67
created timestamp(14) Yes NULL

Table: syshelpindex:
Comments: System help subject index.Field Type Null Default
cat int(2) No 0
subject varchar(30) No

Table: syshelpinfo:
Comments: system help information.Field Type Null Default
cat int(3) No 0
title varchar(30) No
info text No
image varchar(20) No
type int(1) No 0


The electronic shop application is for the sale of books and other assorted item sold by the Wandle Industrial Museum. This development is a logical extension to an existing static website.

The application’s files are stored in 9 subdirectories. These are as follows:

../htdocs/order.htg/ This is the root directory of the web application, it contains all resources related to the website. All generic files and ancillary elements are stored at this level. (3.74mb 263 files)

  • continfo.php – contact and ordering information (PHP 4.01kb).
  • create_db.sql – Database structure (SQL dump 5.82kb).
  • credit-cards.gif – Usable credit cards types (image 2.02kb).
  • cvc.jpg – Clarifying where to find a CVC value (image 6.0kb).
  • dictionary.txt – MYSQL Data Dictionary (text 2.85kb).
  • discount.gif – Animalised 10% discount for members notice (image 111.kb).
  • discount1.gif – Advertising a 10% discount for members (image 53.6kb).
  • avicon.ico – Depiction of a simple waterwheel (icon 318b).
  • index.htm – Custom website 404 error page (HTML 1.76kb).
  • new_ani.gif – An animation of the word ‘new’ (image 1.66kb).
  • offers.gif – Graphic of the text ‘check these special offers’ (image 1.77).
  • pleasenote.gif – A burning animation of the text ‘please note’ (image 14.7kb).
  • reset.gif – Graphical input form reset button (image 1.28kb).
  • shop.gif – Small photograph of the real museum shop (image7.31kb).
  • submit.gif – Graphical input form submit button (image 1.18kb).

../htdocs/order.htg/common.htg/ This directory contains all common utility scripts and other resources that the web application depends upon.(185kb 50 files)

  • about0.gif – Graphic of the text ‘home page’ (image 0.98kb).
  • alart.gif – Animalised rotating red warning bulb (image 2.04kb).
  • alert.gif – A human skull with the word ‘warning’ (3.39kb).
  • archive0.gif – Graphic of the text ‘archive’ (image 970b).
  • backg.jpg – Wallpaper drawing depicting a watermill as a watermark (image 13.6kb).
  • background.jpg – Wallpaper featuring a marble stone type effect (image 4.59kb).
  • basic.css – Website formatting and formatting descriptions (style sheet 7.53kb).
  • brics.gif – Animalised exposed circuits in a wall behind the wallpaper (image 7.46kb).
  • caurtion.gif – Animalised rotating caution road sign (image 6.53kb).
  • cnote.htm – Website copyright and attribution information (HTML 1.95kb).
  • constants.inc – Application global data values (PHP include 161b).
  • contact0.gif – Graphic of the text ‘contacts’ (image 976b).
  • db_lib.php – Common database access functions and utilities (PHP 25.2kb .
  • disclaimer.gif – Animalised flashing graphic of the text ‘disclaimer’ (image 4.57kb).
  • email2.gif – Drawing of an mail out box over a globe (image 1.12kb).
  • fax.gif – Drawing of a basic fax machine (image 231b).
  • feed0.gif – Graphic of the text ‘feedback’ (image 990b).
  • focus.js – Script to place focus on a hidden popup window (javascript 165b).
  • home0.gif – Graphic of the text ‘general’ (image 967b).
  • iiv.gif – Transparent graphic of the Investing in Volunteers logo (image 2.63kb).
  • iiv.fpg – Opaque graphic of the Investing in Volunteers logo (image 4.49kb).
  • index.htm – Custom website 404 error page (HTML 1.76kb).
  • info.gif – Transparent museum logo with contact information (image 2.31).
  • jfooter.js – Code to dynamically generate page footer information (javascript 2.41kb)
  • letter.gif – Drawing of two simple letters (image 698b).
  • linksb.jpg – A spider in a web on a small depiction of a browser (image 1.18.kb).
  • linkware.gif – Transparent graphic of the text ‘all materials on this website are link ware’ (image 1.56).
  • map0.gif – Graphic of the text ‘sitemap’ (image 989b).
  • members0.gif – Graphic of the text ‘members’ (image 984b).
  • misc.inc – Freeola SQL service access authentication data (PHP include 144b).
  • news0.gif – Graphic of the text ‘news letter’ (image 947b).
  • l_misc.inc – SQL authentication data for my server (PHP include 144b).
  • nopic.jpg – Notice of there being no available photo (image 5.40).
  • order0.gif – Graphic of the text ‘Mail Order’ (image 0.96kb).
  • phone.gif – Transparent graphic of a red telephone (image 281kb).
  • print.css – Screen formatting descriptions (style sheet 3.65kb).
  • registered.gif – Opaque graphic of the registered museums logo (image 428b).
  • registered3.gif – Transparent graphic of the registered museums logo (image 2.80b).
  • resize.js – Code to dynamically change a window to the image size (javascript 1.05kb).
  • search.gif – Graphic of the text search’ (image 108b).
  • sqldumper.inc – Code to dynamically create an SQL dump file (PHP include
  • stop.gif – Transparent graphic of a red hand (image 2.64kb).
  • time.js – Code to dynamically display a countdown timer (javascript 591b).
  • toc.js – Code to dynamically display a navigation structure (javascript 3.34kb)
  • wandlemuseu.gif – Transparent animated graphic of the text ‘The Wandle Industrial Museum’ (image 42.3kb).
  • webbo.gif – Transparent graphic of webbo’s head (image 1.16kb).
  • webo1.gif – Transparent graphic of webbo (image 3.81kb).
  • wimlogo.gif – Opaque graphic of the museum’s waterwheel logo (image 417b)

../htdocs/order.htg/data_backup/ This directory is used to store SQL dump files..(242kb 3 files)

../htdocs/order.htg/help/ This directory is used to store graphics for help desk database. (336kb 26 files)

../htdocs/order.htg/images.htg/ This directory is used to store graphics for the shop database. (2.41mb 91 files)

../htdocs/order.htg/mysqlsnips This directory contains a set of text files related to example SQL commands.

../htdocs/order.htg/shop.htg/ This directory contains all the source files related to the public areas of the shop database utility scripts and other template resources that the web application depends upon. (85.1kb 20 files)

  • basket.php – Create and maintains a session based shopping basked (PHP 9.29bk).
  • book_detail.php – Code block for displaying detailed information for a selected book (PHP 2.41kb).
  • buttons.inc – Code block for displaying action bottoms related to product information (include 2.43kb).
  • catalog.php – Generates users view of the primary catalogue interface (PHP 6.63kb).
  • checkout.php – Script for updating the product and order database (PHP 5.02kb).
  • help.php – Display users view of the system help desk interface (PHP 6.71kb).
  • login.php – Script for user and database administration login operations (PHP 7.91).
  • old login.php – Obsolete login script (PHP8.99kb).
  • orderend.php – Code block for displaying shopping basket buttons (PHP 1.36kb).
  • ordertop.php – Code block for displaying shot information and primary controls (PHP5.73kb).
  • pagefoot.inc – Code block to create the ending HTML page structure (Include 801b).
  • pagehead.inc – Code block to create the starting HTML page structure (Include 854b).
  • product_detail.php – Code block for displaying detailed product information (PHP 1.15kb).
  • product_list.php – Code block for displaying summary item information (PHP 3.07kb).
  • product_show.php – Code block that displays alternative summary information (PHP3.16).
  • prompt.inc – Code block for displaying a message to the user (include 897b).
  • signin.php – Display logon simple login screen.(PHP 3.08kb).
  • terms.php – Display terms and conditions (PHP 5.83kb).
  • terms2.php – Display terms and conditions far a child window (PHP 5.75kb).
  • thankyou.php – Display final confirmation screen (PHP 3.28kb).

../htdocs/order.htg/update.htg/ This directory contains all the source files related to the administration areas of the shop database and other utility scripts. (240kb 34 files)

  • addcat.php – Add additional item categories to the database (PHP 2.18kb).
  • addproduct.php – Add additional items to the database (PHP 6.30kb).
  • admin.php – Website content management interface (PHP 65.9kb).
  • backup.php – Generates database dump files (PHP 5.21kb).
  • berror_form.inc – Current errors for new book database items (Include PHP 3.0kb).
  • bookinfo.inc – Code block for book data entry (Include 6.64kb).
  • bookup.inc – Display editable book information (Include 10.2kb).
  • buttons.inc – Code block to create editing command buttons (Include 4.41kb).
  • change.php – Source code for update confirmation messages (PHP14.4kb).
  • edithelp.php – Enables editing and creation of help desk information (PHP14.0kb).
  • entbuttons.inc – Code block for data entry forms command buttons (Include 1.21kb).
  • error.gif – Transparent graphic of a cartoon cross (Image 118b).
  • fine.gif – Transparent graphic fo a cartoon tick (Image 126b).
  • help.php – Display administrators view of the system help desk interface (PHP 6.22kb).
  • index.php – Administrative access to database modification functionality (PHP 12.5kb)
  • invoice.php – Generate display customer invoices for printing (PHP 5.33kb).
  • mysqlsend.php – Enable user to execute custom SQL instructions (PHP 4.59)
  • newcat_form.inc – .Display new the category name error correction (Include 773b).
  • newname_table.inc – Display new product entry form (Include 438b).
  • newproduct.php – Update/delete data from the inventory database (PHP 781kb).
  • newtypeform.inc – Display new category entry form (Include 563kb).
  • note.inc – Display system information messages (Include 524b).
  • oldorders.php – Display summary data for closed orders (PHP 3.22kb).
  • orders.php – Display selected open order information (PHP 7.77kb).
  • perror_form.inc – Display product information Errors (Include 1.99).
  • productinfo.inc – Display product input form (Include 3.68).
  • productup.inc – Display editable product information (Include 7.02kb).
  • quest.gif – Transparent graphic fo a question mark (Image 114b).
  • stock.php – Administrative stock data summary (PHP 9.07).
  • upload.jpg – Graphical upload button (image 1.84kb).
  • upload.php – Copy images to the images.htg directory on the server (PHP 5.40kb).
  • userorders.php – Display user order history (PHP 2.36kb).
  • users.php – Display editable user login information (PHP10.04kb).

Marble Tiles As Materials For Outdoor Home Use

Marble Tiles have historically been seen as attractive and elegant materials for home or commercial applications.

These tiles have graced historic castles, palaces, monuments and churches, and have been esteemed for their durability and elegant radiance. These days, marble is utilized for many residential and commercial applications, from living room tiling to bathroom, kitchen and outdoor use.

Are These Stone Types Good For Outdoor Use?

Mable has had the historical attributes of being heavily used in outdoor construction and architecture.These types of tiles have been laid-out in large buildings, monuments, churches, castles, mansions and small homes as well for centuries.

There are many unique marble types, which are best suited for either indoor or outdoor applications. This natural stone material is generally utilized for a wide range of indoor and outdoor applications, like flooring, countertops, wall covering, fireplaces and exterior facades.

However, there’s kind of a downside when using these types for high-traffic areas, since marble is not considered to be the toughest of natural stones. Therefore, it may not fit well as a floor covering material in extremely high traffic areas, although it would perfectly suit well in most areas of the home or office, as well as in other light commercial uses. For homes and private residences, the most common residential uses of marble are for window sills, fireplaces hearths, decorative foyers, bathroom floors, outdoor garden pathways, columns, steps and other surfaces.

This material could also effectively complement bathrooms, and they could be installed as wall coverings, backsplashes, tub decks and showers. Because of their durability and ability to counter the ravages of time and the strain of daily, public use, some marble patterns and designs have proven to be tough for use as outdoor furnishings, like the ones used as covering for stone posts, benches and flower boxes.

Proper Installation Is Needed For These Tiles To Weather The Elements

Natural stone materials such as marble can be truly appealing to the senses. But, because it is a natural material, these stone variants are a little less uniform in colors and patterns, and may require further planning when being installed. Because most natural stone tiles are mass-produced, they usually will have uniform length and width dimensions.

Natural stone tiles that have split, or riven surfaces are usually sandblasted to help them become more slip-resistant materials, and these will be of help when using marble for outdoor use. The hardness of natural stone floor tiles could vary such that some of the softer stone, like limestone tiles, are not suitable for very heavy traffic floor areas.

There are marble tile types that are literally “tumbled” in a machine, wherein the process knocks off the edges and roughens the textures to create an “antiqued”, or old-world look. Tumbled marble has a rather rough, semi-sand-blasted appearance, which makes it less slippery, and can be effectively utilized in most outdoor applications, such as lawn or outdoor pathways.

There is however a downside to using marble tiles, particularly for outdoor use. Aside from the fact that they require more thorough and extra maintenance, natural marble tiles generally cannot be installed and laid out in a visually seamless process. The main reason is that most natural marble types have subtle veining and color variations that will, generally not permit a perfect visual match.

http://tilenet.net – Home Tiles

Generator Diesel Fuel Day Tank – Application Guidelines and Important Considerations

Day tanks are fuel containment systems designed for installation in close-proximity to an engine to provide a reliable supply of diesel fuel. They are often mandatory when the engine-mounted fuel pump is unable to draw fuel from a remote-mounted fuel tank due to distance or elevation issues. For safety and reliability, these fuel systems are configured as suction-type, meaning that the day tank draws fuel from the main tank, and the engine draws fuel from the day tank.

There are key differences in the configuration of these systems when used with above-ground storage tanks (AST) or under-ground storage tanks (UST). There are also important considerations that relate to tank accessories.

Integration with AST – in this type of application, attention should be given to the elevation of the day tank in relation to the main AST. Because of the possibility for syphoning between the day tank and AST, certain components should be installed in the fuel piping. Typically, a solenoid valve and strainer are installed on the tank’s pump inlet. This is an electrically-operated valve that will be normally closed. It will only open when the tank level is sensed to be low, at which point the solenoid valve is opened and the supply pump is energized. As the tank reaches a full level, the solenoid valve and pump are de-energized, which stops the flow of fuel and closes the fuel inlet to the tank. Additional components that are recommended on these systems are manually-operated ball valves and fusible link valves that automatically close in the event of a fire. These should be installed on the inlet and outlet of the tank to allow isolation of the equipment for emergency or regular scheduled maintenance purposes.

A well-designed system requires that the day tank be capable of returning any excess fuel back to the AST. Failure to stop a fill pump or close a solenoid valve could result in continuous filling of the tank. Without the means to return excess fuel, a spill will be inevitable. The overflow return pump is generally mounted on the tank and should be sized to be able to overcome the supply pump. Its outlet should be equipped with a check valve to prevent backfeeding when the return pump stops.

Some applications will have the AST in a remote location that is too far for the day tank pump to draw fuel reliably. In these cases, the day tank is equipped with an overflow pump, and a stand-alone supply pump is mounted near the main tank to draw fuel from the AST and push it to the day tank. The remote pump would still interface with the tank’s level controller to receive start/stop signals.

Integration with UST – in this type of application, consideration should be given to the possibility that the day tank supply pump might lose its prime. For this reason, a foot valve is generally installed on the main tank, and a hand pump, check valve and solenoid valve are installed on the day tank. The hand pump allows for emergency filling and also provides the means to restore fuel prime on the line that feeds the motor-operated pump. The check valve and solenoid valve act to restrict any backflow to the main UST. In UST applications, overflow (return) fuel is generally piped from the day tank to the UST and gravity is enough to prevent overflowing of the day tank. As in AST designs, should the day tank be too far from the UST, the supply pump should be located by the UST.

General configuration recommendations – following are additional recommendations to consider for a properly configured system:

1. Insist not only in UL142-compliant day tanks but also in UL508-compliant controls.

2. Size the tank to allow for a minimum 2 hours of engine run-time without need to refill.

3. The supply pump should be sized to three-times the full-load fuel consumption of the engine (or engines if the tank feeds multiple engines). In the example above (120GPH or 2GPM consumption), the pump should be sized at minimum of 6GPM.

4. The return pump (if applicable) should be sized to exceed the capacity of the supply pump.

5. Size all accessories (such as ball valves, solenoid valves, etc.) no smaller than the fuel lines that connect to the accessories.

6. Specify double wall construction with rupture basin leak detection sensor. This sensor is interconnected to the supply pump to stop its operation in the event of a leak in the main containment. The controller should also indicate the condition with a visual alarm.

7. Always specify that the appropriate pressure relief vent caps be included with the tank. These allow for emergency venting should the normal atmospheric vent become obstructed. In interior installations, the working vent must be piped to the exterior.

8. Review local authorities having jurisdiction (AHJ) to understand whether controls and accessories should obtain power from engine batteries (i.e.: 24Vdc) or whether a 120Vac emergency accessory circuit would be acceptable.

9. Most diesel engines draw more fuel than is required for combustion. The excess fuel is typically returned to the day tank. Depending on rate of fuel return, you may need to consider routing it to the main tank, or you may need to design your system with a larger day tank or a fuel cooler to avoid heating of the fresh fuel supply. Heated fuel will diminish the engine’s horsepower rating, and may lead to engine shutdown if the building loads exceed the power capability of the engine.

10. On a prime-duty application, increase system reliability by specifying a duplex fuel supply pump set with cast iron pump housings and steel rotors. Duplex pumps allow for lead/lag or simultaneous operation at the operator’s discretion. The heavier duty cast-iron pump will last longer and produce less operating noise.

11. Insist on the following local and remote alarms from your vendor:

a) low level alarm and remote annunciation output contact.

b) high level alarm and remote annunciation output contact.

c) critical high level alarm, pump shutdown and remote annunciation output contact.

d) critical low level alarm, engine shutdown (prevents loss of fuel prime) and remote annunciation output contact.

e) tank leak detection alarm and remote annunciation output contact.

The guidelines above may help in the selection of the appropriate product for your application. However, we recommend that you contact your vendor to review any options or accessories that might be needed to insure reliable and safe operation of a specific fuel system application. For additional resources related to day tanks and related fuel systems, you may visit http://www.hurtado.cc/resources.htm.

Expediting Continuous Testing and Delivery Through LeanFT


HP LeanFT has been specifically developed for software developers and testers. It is a new automated testing solution that ensures continuous testing and continuous delivery of an application. It can be easily integrated into existing development frameworks. It thus helps in rapid development, testing and deliver secure and higher quality applications. The test scripts can be written in C# and Java.

In the present day market, it is important for businesses to move forward with speed and agility. It needs to capitalize on the opportunities for delivering new solutions and business systems. This has brought the Agile Methodology into practice which implements the principle of continuous testing and continuous delivery over the traditional sequential delivery process. This shifts the testing process more towards the left by implementing testing early into the development cycle.

HP LeanFT implements the concept of shift left by using the key characteristics of the Agile development methodology. It integrates seamlessly into the existing environments and frameworks which support the test driven and behavior driven development. It is a powerful and light-weight test automation tool. Test scripts here can be written in C# or Java.

Benefits of HP LeanFT:

Faster Delivery:

The comprehensive set of tools provided by HP LeanFT accelerates the design and maintenance of the tests. The Object Identification Center in it automatically generates the codes and abstraction models for the application under tests.


HP Lean FT improves the collaboration between the developers and automation engineers by providing project templates for the standard unit testing frameworks. This reduces the application testing time and helps in the early identification of the defects in the development cycle.

Reduced costs:

HP Lean FT fully integrates with the existing IDEs and also provides the related plugins. With test authoring capability using C# and Java, developers can utilize the same resources and the same development environment.


The Application Defender of HP rapidly discovers the vulnerabilities and the inconsistencies of the software during the development and the test phases. Here changes to be made are less costly. The HP Application Defender offers continuous, real-time testing.

Professional Expertise:

HP LeanFT is supported by HP Enterprise Services. This helps to deliver high quality, key applications faster on Agile and DevOps Environment. This expands the capabilities of HPES to identify and eliminate the defects in the development cycle further accelerating the time to market of the application.

HP LeanFT is also integrated with Application Lifecycle Management, Mobile Center and Quality Center. It reduces the costs of maintenance, share test resources and deliver Mobile Applications.

The functionalities of UFT (Unified Functional Testing) are combined with the key features of Selenium to form Lean FT thus providing the users with the best options from both the tools.

DevTesters, Subject Matter Experts and the Test Automation Engineers are the three main targeted users of LeanFT. It is easier to use LeanFT with an existing knowledge of UFT. The migration of UFT scripts to LeanFT can be accomplished through proven migration tools. Using migration tools make the task easier and faster as they come with library files which are predefined for mapping the programming artifacts of UFT into the corresponding methods of LeanFT.


However, LeanFT has its share of drawbacks. LeanFT does not provide for Web Service Testing. Record and Playback feature is also not available. Further, it does not provide integration of Business Process Testing. The process of testing becomes very critical for a speedy application delivery. HP LeanFT helps to balance these twin parameters of speed and quality, leveraging the proven skills in development and testing.

Getting Rid of Droopy Eyelids With Ptosis Surgery? Get the Facts First

Eyelid ptosis can also be known as an upper eyelid that droops. If the edge of the lid droops down enough, a person’s eyesight is affected and in some cases can block vision. In some severe cases of ptosis, some may need to tilt their head back some in order to see and they may even need to use a finger to lift the droopy eyelid out of the way.

Causes of Ptosis

Congenital ptosis is seen at birth and is caused from a muscle that is poorly developed. However, it’s more commonly seen in adults where the eyelid muscle thins and causes the drooping eyelid. It happens with age, from some type of trauma, tumors, with those who wear contact lenses and even some neurological problems including myopathy or nerve palsy.

Who is a Good Candidate for Ptosis Repair?

You will be referred to an oculoplastic surgeon who will examine your eye or eyes. They will take a look at both the upper as well as the middle part of your face to see if they notice any asymmetry. They will also take some measurements of the eyelids and photos are taken as well. Your surgeon also examines the surface under the lids as well as the front surface with a microscope. They will then give you your options.

The Ptosis Treatment

For the surgery, you are usually only under local anesthesia and is done in a day. Drops of anesthetic are placed on the eyes and you will also have anesthetic placed in the upper eyelids to help with the numbing. An incision is made where your natural crease is and the muscle that helps to raise the eyelid is shortened to better lift the lid. There will be dissolving sutures placed on the inside of the lid as well as on the skin.

After Surgery

You may be advised to wear an eye patch for at least 24-48 hours after the procedure. You may notice some swelling in the upper eyelid for about a week or so. You should make sure the wound is clean at all times and you should also keep it dry. There should not be any type of discharge coming from the wound and if you do notice some you should notify your surgeon at once. Your doctor will give you detailed directions on how to care for your wound and you may or may not be prescribed with an antibiotic cream or ointment to use on the wound.

Are There Risks With This Procedure?

There are some minimal risks as there are with any procedure. Some of the common risks that are associated with this procedure include:

• Some swelling or possible bruising of the eye area

• Some infection from the wound

• Sometimes the eyelid may be too corrected leading in a high eyelid

• There may be under correction meaning the eyelid is too low and a second surgery may be required

• Some may notice it hard to close their eyelid that may be either permanent or even temporary. In this case lubricant eye drops may be needed.

Benefits of the Surgery

There are benefits to the surgery and can include:

• Symmetry and cosmesis are improved

• Appearance of the eyelid looks normal again

• Visual field is improved as well as the quality of vision from where the eye was covered


The cost of ptosis surgery can vary depending on many factors. The calibre of your surgeon, the location, the type of surgery required and other factors affect the cost. In some cases, insurance may cover the cost of the procedure if ptosis becomes a problem and affects your vision drastically. The average cost of the procedure can range from $1,500 to $5,000.

Choosing a Ptosis Procedure Surgeon

When it comes to choosing a surgeon, it does not matter what the procedure is, you need to feel comfortable with them. It is ok to ask questions and also asking for photos to see the type of work they deliver. When it comes down to it, it is all about how you personally feel about the surgeon.

Great Reasons to Use Wood Planter Boxes

Trees, flowers and other plants enhance the look of any home or business.

Using planter boxes makes gardening possible where enough space for a garden is not available. You can also create a more elegant landscaping design. They will enhance any entryway, patio or garden, especially some of the beautiful wood planter boxes.

A bench planter box combo can add elegance to any garden while serving multiple purposes.

In addition, many commercial establishments use beautiful planters to display their landscaping around their buildings.

Different plants like different types of soil and food in order to look their best. When using a nice planter box, You have total control of the soil and nutrients being used for your flowers and vegetables.

Remember, when using planter boxes, the soil will tend to dry out much faster than traditional gardens. So be sure the plants are getting all the water and other nutrients required.

Another advantage of planter boxes is their mobility.

You can place them in the sun, shade, patio, deck or garden. You also have the choice of small individual boxes or large heavy duty planters for shrubs or trees.

And of course, don’t forget about a window box and indoor planter box.

A high quality Redwood planter box will not rot or decay for 10 to 30 years, depending on the age of wood grain.

You can paint or stain the wood planters to complement the exterior of your home and so they will blend in with any landscape color. However, using a clear protective coat on redwood keeps them looking nice.

A quick power washing every 5 or 6 years will quickly clear away the accumulated grim, UV surface burning and the old sealant. When power washing, be careful not to spray to close to the surface or you may cut into the grain of the wood. Once it’s dry, you can smooth out any rough spots by lightly sanding if desired.

After sanding, choose any stain/sealant you like. I prefer a Transparent Premium Sealant for outdoor planter boxes. For indoor planters, I use a wax finish.

In year-round unprotected weather, planters may eventually develop a surface cracks from the expansion and contraction caused by changes of temperature and moisture. But, if your crack has a rough edge, take a few minutes to sand it smooth as mentioned above. After sanding, if you want the sanded area to match the rest of the furniture, power wash and then reseal.

If you want to keep wood looking like it did new, don’t wait until it has faded completely. Every 18 months or so, take a few minutes and scratch up the surface with 2 sheets of sandpaper (100 and 220 sandpaper, Scratch lightly in the direction of the grain. Dust off and apply one coat of the finish. Wipe off the excess within 10 minutes to keep it from gumming up.

If you do this touch up, in four or five years the finish will accumulate and will no longer penetrate the wood. So, at that point, power wash the set to remove the accumulated finishes and start over

Pros and Cons of Aluminum Carport and Patio Covers

Aluminum carports and patio covers have become a popular and attractive home improvement. The product itself has been in use for years. As a light weight and durable material, aluminum can be a great alternative to stick built or steel structures. Features, colors, and styles have evolved over the years to give homeowners many choices. Today we will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of these popular aluminum structures.


1) Durability – My parents have been living in the same house for over 30 years. Their patio cover was installed in the late 1960s, and is still standing and functional. This product will stand the test of time with little more than a cleaning once a year. Most companies engineer their units to withstand wind and snow loads. As a result, baring natural weather disasters, your patio cover or carport should give you years of use.

2) Attractive – As stated above with a little maintenance your carport or patio cover will stay looking good for years. The aluminum pans will never rust. There are a variety of colors to choose from and several styles of framework that should satisfy any homeowner.

3) Structural simplicity – Because of the light weight nature of aluminum, a patio cover can be attached directly to your patio slab, and carports can be attached directly to your driveway. Also attachment to the house requires minimal anchoring. Note: some areas may require posts to be set in concrete, check with the codes department in your area. One of the best advantages of Aluminum structures is the minimum fall required for installation. Aluminum carports and patio covers require only ¼” of fall /ft. spanned. A shingled roof requires a minimum of 4″ of fall /ft spanned, which often creates problems with head room on the outside.

4) Functionality – Very few home improvement projects can provide the quality usefulness that an aluminum patio cover or carport can. Patio covers over decks and patios offer escape from direct sun and weather, and can make them much more useful and enjoyable. Aluminum carports (free standing or attached) can provide great shelter for your vehicles when a garage is not available .


1) Bird Nests – The W-pan aluminum is notorious for attracting birds. There are several plugs that manufacturers offer and it is highly recommended you insist on these at the time of installation. They do add cost but will save you from the endless hassle of cleaning out the pans.

2) Trees – All Aluminum carports and patio covers come with built in gutters and downspouts, in the fall if you live in a wooded area leaves are a constant problem. Since aluminum structures do not require as much slope on the roof, leaves and debris is much more likely to accumulate. The most common problem I see is where this accumulation of leaves is left unattended, stopping up gutters, backing up water and ultimately causing the panels to bow and leak.

3) Rust on framework – Most aluminum patio covers and carports are installed with steel bar joists, and posts, and while painted before installation, the natural exposure to the elements will eventually cause the parts to show rust (especially at ground contact)

4) Hail – The single most, problem with aluminum carports and patio covers is hail. We replace several of these each year. Because of the light weight nature of aluminum a hail storm can leave small unattractive dings in the panels. Most homeowners insurance cover this and in most cases if hail is hard enough you will have other damage to your home

As a contractor for many years, I have learned to appreciate the functional beauty of aluminum carports and patio covers. The advantages of these products far out weigh the disadvantages. Almost all the disadvantages can be prevented with simple maintenance.

Top 10 Things to Do in Lake Havasu, AZ

It amazes me how many people that I’ve met that live in Arizona, or the surrounding areas that have never been to Lake Havasu City, Arizona. The deserts of Southern California and throughout Arizona offer numerous outdoor activities like hiking, off road driving, and beautiful scenery. But in my opinion, Lake Havasu City is one of Arizona’s, America’s hidden treasures.

Located off I-40 on Hwy 93, roughly 2 ½ hours south of Las Vegas Nevada, is where this desert playground is located. Lake Havasu was formed when the Parker Dam, located south of Lake Havasu City, was constructed in the 1930’s, creating the lake now known as Lake Havasu. Robert McCullough, the Godfather of Lake Havasu, bought the London Bridge for 2.5 million dollars, and spent another 7 million dollars to dismantle it, and ship it over from England. What used to be just a peninsula is now an island after a channel was dug out for the bridge. And yes, the song “The London Bridge is falling down” is about the Lake Havasu’s London Bridge.

The below list includes some of the biggest attractions that Lake Havasu has to offer, and that only few insiders know about. So, in order to fully enjoy every minute of your stay, do yourself a favor and make sure that you schedule some time to fit them all in. Lake Havasu can be enjoyed year round, but the best times of the year are during the spring and summer months; especially if you plan on playing in the water. Winter and fall are ideal if you don’t plan on swimming, boating and skiing.

So, don’t let the heat from May through September stop you. Just stock up on 150 SPF plus sunscreen and enjoy yourself.

1. London Bridge – Get the bridge out of the way first. This is a no-brainer. If you go to Lake Havasu and don’t see the bridge, then there’s a chance you already have heat stroke. The English Village surrounds the bridge to give you the feel of London, except surrounded by a desert. Don’t get me wrong, it’s pretty cool, but for some reason unknown to me, the English Village doesn’t stack up to its crown jewel, the London Bridge. Some really cool shops and attractions are long gone, but it’s still worth your while to grab an ice cream cone and some souvenirs. Don’t forget to go back at night.

2. Spring Break – College-aged kids love it, and the locals hate it. In my opinion Lake Havasu is the West Coast’s best kept secret when it comes to spring break spots. If you can pull it off, try to make reservations at the Nautical Inn on the island, or the London Bride Resort located in the channel next to the London Bridge. Not to mention Lake Havasu’s hottest nightclub, Kokomo’s, is also located there.

3. Water sports – This is Havasu’s bread and butter. Swimming, boating and jet skiing is what Lake Havasu is all about. You should have no problem finding boat rentals under the London Bridge. If you’re traveling in group, consider renting a houseboat for the day. Be sure to check out the sand bars located north of the city. Just ask the locals, they’ll point you in the right direction. Check out the swimming holes in the area as well. Rotary State Park located at the end of Smoketree Ave, and The State Beach located on the island, are great spots for kids and families. There are numerous swimming holes on the island if you like privacy, but make sure that you wear shoes. Lake Havasu doesn’t have the plush, sandy beaches like southern California, and the rocks will tear your feet apart.

4. Fishing – If you’re an angler, then you’ll have a blast in Lake Havasu. Striper bass, catfish and blue gill populate the region, just to name a few. Lake Havasu is notorious for its countless coves and inlets that are just begging to be fished in. You don’t have to have a boat either. So if you just want to pull up a lawn chair and relax, the island has plenty of fishing holes. Don’t forget to buy a license.

5. The Island at night – Now this is what it is all about. Most of Lake Havasu’s homes can see the lake because of its layout. So when you are down by the lake you can see the entire city. And, at night it’s absolutely beautiful. The clear nights give way to the heavens-you get a clear view of the stars in all of their glory. Make sure to go to the very end of the island near Site Six. Just follow McCullough Blvd over the bridge until you reach the end and pull off anywhere to find a good spot. But be careful, there are a lot of dangerous ravines, and if don’t pay attention it could get ugly. You’ll see what I’m talking about once you are there. You can hear wild donkeys on some nights across the lake in California, or boaters living it up. I can’t even tell you how many nights I spent down there throwing a few cold ones down my throat, and just taking it all in.

6. Copper Canyon – Havasu boating residents have always known about this hot spot, but MTV took this little cove to Hollywood. Made famous by MTV’s 1994 Spring Break visit, Copper Canyon is now a must-see if you have a boat and like to party and jump off cliffs. During Spring Break, packed boats make for a floating walkway. This also goes for Labor Day, 4th of July, and Memorial Day weekend. If a lot of people are not your thing, you might want to experience Copper Canyon during another time of the year.

7. Boat Tours – If you just want to relax and hang out for a couple hours, and take in all of the sites, then maybe a boat tour will interest you. Narrators give you a step-by-step, play-by-play experience that is truly second-to-none. View wildlife, enjoy a dinner or relax; the choice is yours.

8. Bison Blvd – I’m about to upset the neighbors, but the view from the desert off Bison Blvd via Kiowa are too good not to tell you about. Pavement will only take you so far though, a car will do the trick if you drive very slowly; we advise only using a truck if possible. Bison is located at the base of the mountains behind Lake Havasu. See the city from the other side, and like the island, there are amazing views of the cosmos. During the day, the desert is an off road neophyte’s paradise; this is where the desert really opens up.

9. Cliffs – I you like jumping off cliffs, then this is the spot for you. Located north of Lake Havasu City off I-93 in the desert hills are the cliffs ranging from 15-150 feet tall. This is not a park and parking is limited, unless you access this area using an off road vehicle or boat. The water is deep enough, but you should use extreme caution if you plan on jumping off the big boys. Again, just ask the younger locals for exact directions.

10. Off Road – The desert is wide open to the north, south and west for Lake Havasu. There are numerous dune buggy rentals in the area to choose from. But like I said, be prepared by having water, a GPS device, cell phone and a spare tire. Rent a dune buggy and hit the open desert trails. Just be careful, because if you get into trouble out there during the summer months, the Arizona heat is not very forgiving.