Domestic Consumer Units and Circuit Protection Devices – A Glossary

Consumer Units, Circuit Protection Devices and Accessories – A Glossary

Consumer Unit

A consumer unit is the electrical device used to distribute power throughout a domestic dwelling. Acting as a safety device, protecting against injury through electrical shock, a consumer unit houses protection devices which also protect household appliances from overload.

A consumer unit’s first function is the organisation of electrical ‘circuits’, such that the different ways in which we use electricity throughout the home may be safely and more easily managed. A typical domestic installation, for example will have the following circuits: Ring main for power sockets and items like washing machines and TVs, Lighting, smoke alarms, cooker, shower etc.

Main Switch

This is the ‘Double Module’ device which sits on the far right hand side of a consumer. It usually has a big red bar switch and acts to isolate the entire board. This means that by manual operation it can cut power to every circuit in the installation. Main Switches are almost always rated at 100 amp, allowing it to isolate an installation which pulls no more than 100 amps in total across all circuits.

MCB

Mini Circuit Breaker. An MCB protects its circuit against overload. When for example a bulb blows on a lighting circuit the MCB cuts the power to the that circuit, thus protecting the other lights. No other circuits on the consumer unit have been affected. An MCB does not protect people against electric shock.

RCD

Residual Current Devices protect multiple circuits against earth leakage. This is a vital function of a consumer unit as it is earth leakage which causes electrical shock. RCDs measure the amount of electricity flowing into the consumer unit against the amount flowing out. When it detects an imbalance between the two it cuts the electricity supply to the bank of circuits it’s protecting.

It should be noted that this means that a fault on one circuit will result in a cutting of the power to any other circuit protected by that RCD. For example an RCD may protect the ring main and indoor and outdoor lighting circuits. In this instance a fault on the outdoor lighting circuit will knock out the indoor lighting and all power sockets.

It is for this reason that the 17th Edition Regulations demand ‘Division of Circuits’ to avoid ‘Nuisance Tripping’

RCBO

Residual Current Breaker with Overload (RCBO). This clever device combines the functionality of an MCB and RCD and therefore allows for independent protection on individual circuits against both overload and earth leakage.

Din Rail

The mounting rail upon which are fitted the Main Switch, RCDs, MCBs and RCBOs.

Busbar

The device which connects electrically the Main Switch, RCDs, MCBs and RCBOs.

Neutral Bar

The terminal bar which accepts all the neutral wires from the RCBOs and MCBs.

Die Casting – Advantages and Disadvantages

Die casting is a process in which molten metal is forced under high pressure into mold cavities. The metal hardens to get a desired shape. In recent times, plastic molded parts have replaced die-casting, as they are cheaper and lighter than die cast parts. Die-casting can be done using a cold chamber or hot chamber process.

About Die Casting Process

Die casting is a widespread non-expendable technique in which metal are forced into the mold cavity under high pressure. Die casting mold that are known as dies can be used repeatedly to produce castings in a variety of sizes, shapes and wall thickness. The mold cavities are designed with intricate designs that enables in producing complex shapes with accuracy, surface finish and attractiveness..

History of Die Casting

In the early days of die casting only low-pressure injection method was used, but today high-pressure casting techniques like squeeze casting and semi-solid die casting methods are use to cast more than 4500 pounds per square inch. Initially, only tin and lead were die caste, but now magnesium, copper and other alloys are also to cast using this highly popular process.

Die Casting Process

In this process molten metal or other materials are forced, under high pressure into the cavities of the steel mold. Dies are two part molds that are made of alloy tool steel – The fixer die half and the ejector die half. The die or mold is fabricated with the impression of the component that is to cast. There are four types of dies:

Single cavity to produce one component

Multiple cavity to produce a number of identical parts

Unit die to produce different parts at one time

Combinations die to produce several different parts for an assembly

The molten metal is injected into the die under high pressure and high speed, which helps in producing a casting that is smooth and precise as the original mold. The pressure is maintained on the mold until the hot metal solidifies. When the metal is hardened, the die is opened to remove the casting.

There are several variations on the basic process that can be used to produce castings for specific applications. These include:

Squeeze casting – A method by which molten alloy is cast without turbulence and gas entrapment at high pressure to yield high quality, dense, heat treatable components.

Semi-solid molding – A procedure where semi-solid metal billets are cast to provide dense, heat treatable castings with low porosity.

Alloys used

Aluminum, copper, lead, zinc and tin based alloys are predominantly used in die-casting.

Automation

In modern day, sophisticated die casting machines are used that ensures consistent quality control. Every machined die-casting differs in the method in which molten meal is poured into the die. Automations are used to lubricate dies, pour the metal into the chamber, etc. Two processes called the hot chamber and the cold chamber methods are used for die casting.

Applications

Die casting is most suitable for casting medium sized parts with complex details. Die-casting is the largest casting technique that is used to manufacture consumer, commercial and industrial products like automobiles, toys, parts of sink faucet, connector housing, gears, etc. Most die castings are done from non-ferrous metals like aluminum, magnesium, etc.

Advantages

Economical process that can be used for a wide range of complex application

Parts have longer service life, dimensional accuracy and close tolerance

Post machining can be totally eliminated

A process that can be fully automated

Mold can be use repeatedly.

Disadvantages

Casting weight must be between 30 grams.

Casting must be smaller than 600 mm (24 in)

High initial cost.

Limited to high-fluidity metals.

5 Things You Didn’t Know About Pilates Back Extension Exercises

It is logical to emphasize and feature back extension exercises in a pilates program. Pilates back extension exercises counterbalance the numerous forward bending movements in our everyday life. One of the most common complaint of back pain is occupational; that of having to sit for more than 10 hours in the job!

If you can put a figure on the number of times you have to bend forward and the amount of forward inclined daily activities, you will be surprised it is an astounding four figure number. When you slouch in your chair or when you work, rounded over in front of the computer all day, you definitely suffer from back pain from time to time.

So how does Pilates back extension exercises work for you?

How will it change the quality of your program and your life?

Here are 5 reasons why you want to put those Pilates extension exercises into action now!

A Great Back Strengthener

As you bend over more than you do any other movements daily, your back muscles become over strained and weak from continued rounding. They forget how to work to support the back when you need to sit upright. These back extensor group of muscles must be retrained to play their role of supporting your spine. Back extension exercises specifically target areas of the back in holding up your posture in all possible acts of play and work. They also help to prevent any possible onset of back pain due to poor posture and form.

“Swan” is a specific back extension routine which is simple and easy to perform. Lie on your stomach with both palms down at the side of your chest near your armpits. Keep both knee caps lifted and engaged as you press gently into the floor and lift chest away from ground. This action of keeping the chest off the ground helps to train your back to be stronger. It also challenges your pelvis and abdominals to target back muscles.

Makes You Taller

The muscles that are in charge of making you stand taller, sit taller and walk taller are the back extensor group. You will need to keep your posture lifted, as in lifting your chest up and keeping the back of the neck long like a well trained dancer akin to a ballerina. In the process, other important muscles of the body are also challenged. Your chest is expanded and lifted. Your abdominals, quadriceps, and hip flexors are properly stretched.

“Swimming” is another great pilates exercise to include in your repertoire. Over time, you achieve good posture and form.

Improves Breathing Mechanics

As you begin to keep the chest lifted, you will notice there is a visible difference in the way you look and breathe. If you have a rounded forward posture, your ribcage is in a collapsed/dropped position all the time. This position does not promote proper breathing. In fact, it is impossible to do proper breathing at all. Shallow breathing is the only possible way to breathe in this position. The lifting of the sternum, which we also called the breastbone, means muscles of the back are working hard to effectively keep the ribcage up and the lungs are in their proper position to initiate correct full breathing.

Creates Shoulder Girdle Stability

Some examples of pilates back extension exercises like the modified “Plank” is great to challenge stabilization of your shoulder girdle musculature. It also challenges your abdominals as they have to work to stabilize your lower body. In time, your core strength will improve. The development of core strength is crucial to the maintenance of good posture until it becomes a good habit. Core stabilization also means some areas of the body do not have to be strained to compensate for other weaker muscles.

Exercises Rejuvenate & Revitalize

All Pilates back extension exercises work to regulate and balance your body with the right movements. If you are rounded for most hours of your waking times, you want to do an activity in extension. Our body is designed to be in an upright position from birth. Look at any picture of a standing anatomy chart of a body – it is upright and in extension.

Your quality of life improves tremendously with continual maintenance of this correct posture. You will feel stronger and more energized!

Medicare Supplement Plans – Medigap Plans M and N

Medicare Supplement plans have been primarily the same since 1992, when they were originally standardized. However, as of June 1, 2010, two new plans, M and N, are being introduced, among other changes to Medicare Supplements. This article is intended to explain how the two newest plans, Medigap Plan M and Medigap Plan N, work and the coverage that they will provide.

Medicare Supplements, Plan M and N, are the newest standardized Medigap plans offered by private insurers in South Carolina and nationwide. These two new plans provide a lower-premium alternative to the existing Medicare Supplements, and many feel that these new plans will gain traction as very popular choices in the Medicare Supplement marketplace, particularly with the upcoming major changes to the Medicare Advantage program.

Medigap Plan M

Plan M, one of the two new standardized plans, uses cost-sharing as a method to keep your monthly premiums lower. What this means is that, in exchange for slightly lower monthly premiums, those on M would split the Medicare Part A deductible ($1068 in 2009) with the insurance company 50/50. The insurance company pays half, and you pay the other half. Plan M does not cover the Medicare Part B deductible at all; however, there are no doctor’s office co-pays after you meet the Part B deductible. Most analysts project this plan’s premiums to be around 15% lower than current F (most common plan) premiums.

Medigap Plan N

Plan N, one of the two new standardized plans, also uses cost-sharing as a method to reduce your monthly premiums. However, rather than uses the deductible-sharing method, like M, it uses co-pays to help reduce the premium costs. The system of co-pays is set at $20 for doctor’s visits and $50 for emergency room visits. It is currently projected that this co-pay system will take effect after the Medicare Part B deductible is met. This plan should provide 30% lower premiums than the Medigap Plan F premiums.

These plans, M and N, may particularly be of interest to those coming off of the Medicare Advantage program, either by necessity (cancellation of their plan) or by choice, since the Medicare Advantage premiums are expected to go up with upcoming changes and the premiums for these two plans will be going down (from the original Medicare Supplement plan premiums). Most expect there to be a small, if any, difference in the M and N premiums when compared to the new Medicare Advantage premiums.

When these plans are released in June of 2010, those on Medicare Advantage programs, as well as those on existing Medicare Supplement plans, should carefully consider the merits of the two new plans as compared to their current coverage.

The Dangers of Stairs

Don’t be fooled by their commonplace appearance; stairs are a serious danger that cause over a thousand deaths every year. Obviously, the danger that stairs pose is that of falling. However, the damage can vary widely based on any of a number of factors, from what direction you’re heading, to how high up you were at the time of the fall..

Falls are one of the top reasons why people have to go to the hospital, and stairs are the top place where people fall. With a few precautions, though, you can mitigate your chances of falling or sustaining serious injury if you do fall.

Who’s Most At Risk?

Unsurprisingly, the people most at risk from a serious fall on the stairs are the elderly and young children. However, secondary groups like pregnant women, the immuno-suppressed, those with poor vision or balance, and hemophiliacs need to take special caution around stairs as well.

Simple Risk Reducing Steps

There are many small risk reducing steps you can take in your own home and sometimes on other stairs that can reduce your risk of a fall.

  • Install guard rails – guard rails not only allow for you to have something to catch should you start to fall, but also give you a guide to follow if visibility is low.
  • Light stairs well – by lighting stairs well, you reduce the likelihood that someone will trip because they could not see properly. Keep nightlights on near steps for nighttime use.
  • Never keep anything on the stairs – teach children to keep toys off of steps and make sure you don’t put any of your own clutter on steps to ensure a clear pathway.
  • Avoid carrying dangerously large or heavy things up or down stairs if you can. It’s too easy to trip, fall, and not be able to recover if you are focusing on an unwieldy box or piece of furniture. If you must carry difficult objects up and down stairs, have a partner help you, even if it seems a little silly.

Stair Construction and Maintenance

Don’t assume that stairs are safe just because they are accessible or because you haven’t had a fall yet. Before using stairs, check to see if they are worn down or smooth in any way: this can make them slippery and difficult to get sure footing on, and stairs that are slightly worn are less obvious but still just as dangerous as heavily worn stairs. A difference in stair depth requires much more concentration and should not be taken lightly. Do the stairs meet building codes? Building codes are a minimum level of safety standards, so hopefully the stairs you encounter will exceed these codes. Avoid wet or icy stairs if at all possible, and keep a hand on the hand rail if it’s not possible to avoid such dangerous stairs all together.

Be safe.

Decorative Glass – Decorate It Beautifully

We like to decorate the place we live and spend our time in. We decorate our home, office, etc and we keep on adding new touch to it. Many times, we tend to think a lot about what newness to bring in our offices and what will look best and we look for options and choose the best one out of all. Many of us like using glass in the house and office decor. Decorative Glass is the best way to add beauty in your home.

Different types and forms of Decorative Glass

A glass can add several colors to the decor. The can completely change the look of the house and make it a better place to be. Glass looks beautiful, is very graceful and adds a soft touch to the place where it is used as they spread the light everywhere. Whereas wooden doors or a wooden divider give a very strong look and stops light also. Decorative Glass looks like a piece of artwork and gives your home a very well decorated look. There are many types of decorative glasses available in the market. They are available in different shapes and sizes and also are cost efficient. Glass doors can also be transparent, semi-transparent or opaque. They can be used in different ways also, for example, glass can be used as a showpiece, divider, door, etc.

Glasses are of many types as:

Fostered glass – These types of glasses are translucent and it maintains the privacy as well. Fostered glasses have different variations and they can be used at different places. Fostered glasses are either textured or designed. One can keep these types of glasses transparent or translucent also.

Stained glass- These types of glasses are more designer glasses and it can be used in the main door or at the place where you would want to add beauty. This glass can also be used in kitchen, cupboard door etc. They look beautiful wherever they are placed.

Personalize your Decorative Glass

One can also give their personal element to the glass and decorate in their own way. One can get the designs and colors the way they want. There are many options available in the market today of some great interesting designs. For example in a coffee shop, the door could be plain or embossed with some attractive coffee mugs and coffee beans. Hence, in this way, different places having different audiences can have different views and different requirement and one has to just identify the need and get something that suits their requirement the best.

Decorative glass does not always have to be the main doors. It can be used in the bathroom door, shower cabin’s door, room doors, cabinet doors, cupboard doors, window doors, coffee shop, office, malls etc. Such glass doors look beautiful and attractive wherever they are kept. They will always add to the beauty and enhance the looks.

It is beautiful; it is cost effective and it is very attractive. So decorate your place with a decorative glass of your choice and make your surrounding elegant.

The Role of an Ethernet Hub

An Ethernet hub is a piece of hardware that connects multiple computers or devices in order to form a network. An Ethernet hub is outdated and has been replaced by a network switch. There are still some special cases where a hub is advantageous to a switch, although none of the reasons to use a hub instead of a switch pertain to a typical network.

An Ethernet hub usually uses the RJ-45 connector on an Ethernet CAT5 cable, although they can also use other legacy (old) connectors. You don’t need to worry about specifics because the typical network cable is a CAT5 with an RJ-45 connector. Simply plug one end of the Ethernet cable into the Ethernet port of your computer and the other end of the cable into the Ethernet port of the hub.

An Ethernet hub typically has 4 or 5 Ethernet ports. But you can also find Ethernet hubs with 6, 8, or 16 Ethernet ports. You can also connect an Ethernet hub to other hubs, routers, and switches.

A hub is a relatively simple device. A hub receives a signal from a computer on the network and re-broadcasts that signal to all other computers and components attached to the hub. Because all signals sent to the router are rebroadcast to all ports on the router you have the potential for a data collision. This is where a computer is trying to send an outgoing signal during an incoming signal.

A hub is able to detect data collisions on the network and then broadcast a jam signal to all ports on the network. Due to these data collisions the number of hubs attached to one another is limited. For a 10 megabit a second network speed you can attach up to 4 hubs to each other and only 2 hubs can be connected for a 100 megabit a second network speed.

In addition to detecting collisions some hubs are able to troubleshoot network problems. These hubs can detect if a particular port has excessive collisions or jabbering. Advanced hubs are able to disconnect these bad ports from the rest of the hub.

When using a hub the speed of the network is limited by the slowest device connected to the hub. For example if an old computer with a 10 megabit per second network adapter is connected to a 10/100 megabit per second hub the entire network’s speed will be 10 megabits per second. Dual speed hubs overcome this problem and function at 10 and 100 megabits per second.

Hubs have been replaced by switches. A switch is more efficient than a hub because it sends information solely to the computer it is intended for and not to every device connected to the switch.

After a Car Accident or Whiplash Injury: Symptoms of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (MTBI)

We have all had this happen, or know someone this has happened to. Suddenly, someone crashes into the back end of your car and you feel your head extend back over the headrest and then rebound forwards, almost hitting the steering wheel with your forehead. When the police arrive and start asking questions about what had happened, you try to piece together what happened but you’re not quite sure of the sequence of events. Your memory just isn’t that clear. Within the first few days, in addition to significant neck and headache pain, you notice your memory seems fuzzy, and you easily lose your train of thought.

Although whiplash injuries are quite common, research is only beginning to describe the diverse symptoms that can develop when the neck has been traumatized. Because whiplash symptoms are often subtle and non-specific, it’s quite normal for patients not to complain about them. In fact, we almost always have to describe the symptoms and ask if any of these symptoms sound familiar to the patient.

As pointed out above, patients with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (MTBI) don’t mention any of the previously described symptoms and in fact, may be embarrassed to discuss these symptoms with their Las Vegas chiropractor when they first present after a car crash. This is because the symptoms are vague and hard to describe and, many feel the symptoms are caused by simply being tired or perhaps upset about the accident. When directly asked if any of these symptoms exist, the patient is often surprised there is an actual reason for feeling this way.

The cause of MTBI is due to the brain actually bouncing or rebounding off the inner walls of the bony skull during the whiplash process, when the head is forced back and forth after the impact. During that process, the brain which is suspended inside our skull, is forced forwards and literally ricochets off the skull and damages some of the nerve cells most commonly associated with either the brain stem (the part connected to the spinal cord), the frontal lobe (the part behind the forehead) and/or the temporal lobe (the part of the brain located on the side of the head). Depending on the direction and degree of force generated by the collision (front end, side impact or rear end collision), the area of the brain that may be damaged varies because it could be the area closest to initial impact or, the area on the opposite side, due to the rebound effect. Depending on which part of the brain is injured, the physical findings may include problems with walking, balance, coordination, strength, as well as difficulties with communicating, processing information, memory, and altered psychological functions.

The good news is that most of these whiplash injuries will recover within 3-12 months but unfortunately, not all do and in these cases, the term, post-concussive syndrome is sometimes used.

We realize you have a choice in medical providers for spine injuries. If you, a friend or family member requires care for whiplash, we sincerely appreciate the trust and confidence shown by choosing our expertise and look forward in serving you and your family presently and,anytime in the future.

Was Jesus A Megalomaniac?

This is an important subject. What we think of Jesus and his self-identity is the biggest single issue in today’s arena of thought. Oscar Wilde expressed a view, quoted in an interesting book by Rivkah Zim, that Jesus was a deluded mystic, whose creative imagination was the source of all his ideas. So, was Jesus merely a mystic Jewish peasant teacher, who conjured up fabulous visions of himself as the I AM, of his God, and of heaven and hell, or is he who he claimed to be? Are we able to distinguish between megalomania; a person with a vast deluded sense of self-importance and true deity?

• GREAT DIVIDE

This is where no one stays on the fence. Jesus is the great divider of humanity. Like Oscar Wilde with his, ‘Out of his own imagination entirely did Jesus of Nazareth create himself’ [1] you form a judgement based on whatever views you have gathered about Jesus, and are ready to condemn him as a deluded mystic. Or to use Stephen Fry’s view of Jesus, he was ‘twee'[2] – quaint or sentimental. But each must form their own conclusion.

Here is a cluster of subjects that may help in any evaluation.

• WITNESS

The first is the issue of the historical and factual nature of the Scriptural information about Jesus. This includes the quality of eye-witness reports, the nature of the relationship to Jesus of the people who knew him, and their eye-witness claims. Here, we ask, were these people prone to exaggerate, perhaps for spiritual favours or material self-advancement, and if so what motivations were there, for unschooled Jewish men, to transform a peasant teacher into God-incarnate? Was this merely a common trait of Jewish messianic extremism, of which Jesus’ followers were conspicuous examples?

• BALANCE

A second subject might concern the psychological balance of Jesus as portrayed in the New Testament. Are their elements of grandiosity, a serious delusional disorder, which, if part of a person’s psyche today, would require treatment? Or was Jesus well-integrated, and how would we assess that?

Allied with this, a third question might ask if Jesus was subject to mood swings. Was he a prime case of a manic-depressive, whose genius fired a brilliant moral and ethical splendour, but which then quickly sank to depths, when he washed the feet of others and taught them he was destined for a sacrificial death?

• CLAIMS

A fourth investigation might check the truthfulness of Jesus. This would help to see if he was prone to make claims to impress, but then used doubtful means to try to fulfil those claims. If we could see through a fa├žade, beneath which was a complex psyche absorbed in intrigue or spinning webs of deceit or conspiracy to advance his high popularity, this might be illuminating.

A fifth and final area might look at the emotional maturity of Jesus. How well-adjusted was he in coping with change? Was he outgoing, were his responses to others appropriate, or did he tend to demand his own way, and was angered when events went against his wishes? Was he well-integrated in his various relationships? Or did he make himself the centre of attention by exploiting the weaknesses of others in a way that betrayed an obsessive or insecure temperament?

• PERSONAL

My own assessment is not unique to me. I have read many authors, both non-Christian and Christian, on this subject. And if the Apostle Paul was ‘the very least of all the saints’ (Ephesians 3:8), very ordinary, unremarkable Christians like myself are not claiming to be expert witnesses. But I do wholly concur that the biblical witness to Jesus is transparent, objective, not flattering or insincere, but is wholly trustworthy – not relying on unwarranted prejudice, or relativistic insights, it is the inspired record, in which human writers were moved by God himself. Remarkably I see a deep unity of purpose with the Jewish Old Testament Scriptures, of promise and detailed fulfilment, which has the hallmarks in parts of being eyewitness testimony. And it also includes a lot of what Jesus’ opponents thought of him. All is offered to your own scrutiny and assessment.

• GOD-MAN

When I look at Jesus’ life I see a man asleep in a small boat, who when roused, quells the fury of the storm as God, with a word, ‘Peace! Be still!’ (Mark 4:37-41). I see a man who has ‘nowhere to lay his head’ (Matthew 8:20), but who as deity, says of God ‘the Father who dwells in me’ (John 14:10). I see a man anguished in the face of death, yet who, as the Lord of life, calls Lazarus from his tomb with, ‘Lazarus, come out’ (John 11:33 &43). I see a man, who spoke as God, the final source of abundant life for all, ‘If anyone thirsts let him come to me and drink’ so that even his enemies said ‘No one ever spoke like this man!'(John 7:37 & 46). I see a man, who as the ever-living God says, ‘before Abraham was I AM’ (John 8:58). I see a man who, as the compassionate Son of God, blesses little children (Matthew 19:13), but who rages as the God of wrath against the racketeers in the Jerusalem Temple (Matthew 21:12-13).

• LORD

I see a man, bleeding and broken with a crown of jagged thorns pushed on his brow, standing as if crushed and powerless before Pilate, the authorised agent of Rome, supreme world power, but I also see Jesus as supreme Lord, come to die, willingly bearing the curse for others as the Lamb of God, teaching Pilate there is a higher throne, ‘You would have no authority over me at all unless it had been given you from above’ (John 19:11).

• GLORY

Well, who is judging who – was Jesus a megalomaniac? Oscar Wilde and Stephen Fry have merely created a ‘Jesus’ entirely out of their own imaginations. But when we weigh up Jesus, we find he is doing the same to us, and we discover, with millions down the ages, that we are the ones for whom the tide goes out, leaving us high and dry, empty shells in need of life everlasting, and Jesus high and lifted up, the lowly Christ of the cross, the exalted resurrected Lord, glorious in his eternal divine majesty, before whom every knee shall bow and ‘every tongue confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father’ (Philippians 2:11).

1. De Profundis, Oscar Wilde, ed Ian Small (Oxford University Press, 2005), p117.

2. Stephen Fry interviewed by Gabriel Byrne on Radio Telefis Eireann (Irish Television), ‘The Meaning of Life, 1st Feb. 2015.

Electronic Circuit Boards – Breadboard, ‘Veroboard’ and the ‘PCB’

When you try to build a robot for the first time, you have to be an expert in electronics, mechanical and programming. Today, let us talk about or delve into the field of electronics. Did you know there is a subject called Field Theory, studied by Electronics undergraduates? Now, just for laughs, Field Theory is often called as Failed Theory. Yes, as scary as they sound, they are actually fine, these electronics when you can see them straight in the eye.

I believe many people think electronics is such a tough field because things are not so concrete at first. Power, current, voltage are things that cannot be seen by the naked eye, but yet very real. They do exist and serve us in somehow, invisible ways.

First, get to know what are the functions for each of the electronic parts. Be it the wire, transistor, resistor, capacitor, batteries, and so on. It is like building a castle. To build one, you will need every brick to support the huge castle. Just like life, it takes many experiences to excel.

Second, once you know about them, it is time to burn them. What I mean by this is, most electronic projects require assembling a particular board. This is due to electronics nature. Remember when I had told you about building castles? Well, in this case, burning is referred to soldering of the electronic components.

Only then, you will practice the skills applied in soldering and how to speed up. You will also go through what many electricians go through the first time they dive into this field.

Electrical Safety for Kids: Power Cords, Instruction Manuals and Electric Shocks

If you’re going to learn about electrical safety for kids, you should know the dangers of damaged or faulty electrical cords. Have you ever wondered why appliances have cords with a rubbery coating?

The rubber coating is actually an insulating layer that keeps the electricity trapped inside. An insulator is like the opposite of a conductor. A conductor lets electricity travel through it, whereas an insulator doesn’t.

An appliance cord has both a conductor and an insulator. The conductor is on the inside, letting electricity from your wall socket reach the appliance. The insulator is on the outside, trapping the electricity within the cord and protecting you from electrical shocks.

It’s very important to make sure that you use appliances and cords only the way they were intended to be used. That’s why manufacturers provide instructions and safety information in manuals.

Apart from the general ‘how-to’ instructions, manuals tell you what not to do. When it comes to electrical safety for kids, knowing what not to do is just as important as knowing what to do. When you follow the manufacturer’s instructions word for word, you’ll be doing all the right things for your electrical safety, giving yourself the best chances of avoiding an electrical mishap.

Following instructions and using appliances only the way they were intended to be used will ensure that you don’t damage the insulating layer on the cord. Remember, the insulating outer layer of the cord is what keeps the electricity trapped inside. Without it, the electricity could ‘escape’ and travel through you when you touch it.

No education of electrical safety for kids can be complete without understanding what a ‘live wire’ is. A live wire is essentially a cord with electricity passing through it, but without the insulating outer layer. Since a live wire is not insulated, touching it would allow the electricity from the cord to pass through you.

Sometimes, a live wire inside an appliance or a toy may come into contact with the inside of the device. When this happens, touching the device would be just like touching a live wire. Since you cannot tell just by looking whether there is an exposed live wire inside an appliance or toy, you should always consider the possibility, and be as safe as you can.

If an electrical appliance looks old or damaged, inspect it first before plugging it in. Most devices we come across are built rather sturdily, and chances you won’t come across any live wires, or get shocked from a damaged device.

An electric shock is not always fatal, but it always hurts. What you should know is that even a very small amount of electricity can kill, and that you should never experiment with it. Even ‘just to see how it feels.’

It’s not that just big power lines or big appliances are dangerous; even regular-sized electrical appliances around the home can cause shocks that can kill.

When learning about electrical safety for kids, you should take a moment to understand how electricity is measured. Electrical current is measured in amperes. 1 milliamp is 1000th of an ampere, meaning that 1,000 milliamps is equivalent to 1 ampere and 2,000 milliamps is 2 amperes, and so on.

The most that 1 milliamp will do is give you a small shock that you can just feel. It’s an uncomfortable, tingling sensation. A 5- to 10-milliamp shock has a ‘glue’ effect, holding onto the person and not letting go easily. Understandably, it’s much more painful than glue.

A 20- to 50-milliamp shock has serious consequences, with burn injuries, rapid heart and pulse rates, and in some cases, death. Electric shocks over 60-milliamps are almost always fatal.

You can see how careful you have to be with electricity when you consider that even ordinary electrical devices can easily deliver shocks above 60-milliamps, including mundane things like electric shavers, light bulbs, hairdryers and the like. For your electrical safety, always take all precautionary measures before operating appliances.

Depending on the severity, an electric shock can cause weakness, muscle spasms, shallow breathing, rapid pulse rate, burns, unconsciousness and even death. In an electric shock, the part of the body that the electricity flows through becomes very hot, very rapidly. Severe burns can result on the body, along the path of the electricity. The skin is most susceptible to burns, especially around the parts where electricity enters or leaves the body.

Learning about electrical safety for kids is easy. And it’s even easier to implement the tips, follow the advice and go by the rules. There are only a few things you have to remember. And if you do, you’ll be practicing electrical safety for the rest of your life.

Garage Door Openers – Which One is Right For You?

So you go to your local Sears store and there is a whole wall of garage door openers. The sales associate is helpful and shows you ALL the items. But you just leave confused. I’ll make it easy here and give you the simplest way to figure out which Craftsman garage door opener is best for you.

There are five basic steps to help you get the right door opener and installed in you location.

Step One, Measure the height of you door:

Step Two, Select the HP (horsepower):

Step Three, Select the type of garage door opener:

Step Four, Select the type of remotes you need:

Step Five, Professional Installation or Install it yourself:

Step One, Measure the height of you door:

Measure the height of the opening, not the door itself. Most garages door openings are around 7 feet high. If your opening is 8 feet, 9 feet or 10 feet you will have to buy an extension in addition to the garage door opener itself. If it is around 8 feet buy the 8 foot extension. If it is 9 or 10 feet buy the 10 foot extension.

Step Two, Select the HP:

There are two horsepower ratings for most garage door openers. 1/2 HP and 3/4 HP.

If you have an aluminum, aluminum insulated, or fiberglass door a 1/2 HP is plenty strong to open both a single car (7 to 9 feet wide) or a double car (16 feet wide) door.

If you have a wood door, a door with windows installed in it, a steel door or one of the new doors that look like they are off an old carriage house I recommend you go with the 3/4 HP door. (If a magnet sticks to your door it is steel.)

A new single car carriage style door can use a 1/2 HP opener. If you have an extra tall door (9 or 10 feet) or a door that is wider than 16 feet I also recommend you go with the 3/4 HP door. If you have a one-piece door (usually and old door made out of wood) I recommend a 3/4 HP door.

Step Three, Select the type:

There are three basic types of garage door openers. Chain drive, belt drive, and screw drive.

Chain drive garage door openers are what you are used to. They are reliable, noisy and usually last a long, long time. They come in many different sizes. For example, Sears has an economy version, homeowner versions and heavy duty versions. These chain drive garage door openers are usually the best value and can be easily sized for you garage door. You can buy extensions for the opener for 8 foot and 10 foot doors.

A Belt drive garage door opener is relatively new on the market. It uses a metal reinforced belt instead of a chain to make the drive much quieter than a chain drive. It’s usually a little faster than a chain drive opener. If your garage is under the living space of your house and it sounds like a herd of elephants in your bedroom when someone uses the garage door the quiet belt drive may be the best choice for you. You can buy an 8 foot extension kit but not a 10 ft.

Screw drive units feature the fewest number of moving parts. They are powerful and quieter than chain drives. I believe Stanley was the first to introduce the screw drive garage door opener 15 years or so ago. Stanley is not making garage door openers anymore but Sears and Genie still have these available. I expect the screw drives to be replaced with “torsion spring” technology in a few years. You can buy an 8 foot extension for this type but not a 10 foot.

Step Four, Select the remotes: There are different types of remotes. Single button – one button, one door. Mini – small remote to hook right on your key chain. Three function – more buttons to control more doors and even the light in your home. Wireless keypads – attach this to the outside of your garage to open the door securely and safely. Finger Print Wireless Keypad – accepts only the fingerprints you have programmed into it. Great for families with children. Door Monitor – You can use this inside your home to check if the garage door is open or not.



Sears offers different “packages” with the garage door openers to give you the best value.

Step Five, Professional Installation or Install It Yourself

I put this choice as a separate step because there is a good amount of work to install a garage door opener. Yes, your father-in-law can probably do it, but do you really want to pay for a case of beer and at least two trips to the hardware store? If you have not installed one yourself before plan on 4 to 6 hours for a new installation and 2 to 4 hours to replace an existing opener. Sears offer professional installation at a very reasonable price (in my area $109 and the installers have put in hundreds of openers) so it is worth a discussion whether it is a good choice for you to install it yourself.

To find out more about garage door openers and reviews in one convenient place please go to ToolBoxHero.com.

The Best Way to Toss a Cornhole Bag

Have you ever tried tossing a bag into a 6 inch diameter hole 30 feet away from you? If so then you have played the backyard game corn hole. Cornhole, also known as bag toss, soft horseshoes, and many others is an ever increasing tailgating sport played by all ages. Whether you’re with your family at home or at a football game grilling and drinking, this game can enjoyed by all.

The hardest part to this game is tossing the bags at their respective holes. There are many different techniques out there that you can try. When it comes to tossing the bags at the cornhole boards, there are two main things you will need to focus on. The first has to do with the style of toss. Most people like to palm the bag and toss it that way. However there have been many other forms and techniques. Below are the 3 most popular you can try. Like I said before, go with the ones that works the best for you.

1. Flat Toss – This involves holding the cornhole bag completed flat in your hand. This will make sure that the corn inside the bag stays even throughout the toss. It is always best to throw it underhand as you will have more control on distance and accuracy

2. Single Fold Toss – This involves the same technique as the Flat Toss, but before you throw fold the bag in half.

3. Sling Toss – This involves holding the bag at one corning and flipping your wrist when throwing. Not always the most accurate and takes a lot of practice until you can master this technique. Once you have figured out which style of throw you would like to use, the next step is finding the correct arch. Most people will tell you that when throwing a bag, you want to include arch as well as room for the bag to slide once it hits the board. It is always could to account for both techniques as you will have a more well rounded game and can adjust your throw according to where you are playing, type of bags, etc..

1. Throwing a bean bag with too high of an arch can cause the bag to just sort of plop down on the board and stick. If this is the method you choose, you sole goal will be to aim directly for the hole cut out in the board.

2. Throwing a cornhole bag with too low of an arch will cause the bag to slide. If you choose this method, you need to make sure you are accurate or the bag will slide right off the board. This is why you need a combination of both. Once you have a throwing technique and an arch to match it, mastering this cornhole game will be a cinch. Just remember, everybody has a different throw and yours will be unique to how you play the cornhole game. Keep tweaking it until you have the perfect throw.

Top 5 Types of Watches

One of the most common accessories out there, watches have been for more than 100 years not only an objective to track time but a fashion element. Executives wear them, Lawyers, Doctors, Teaches, Mums, Students, Kids wear them to as the varieties are endless. Digital, Quartz, Manual, Steel bracelet, Rubber Bracelet, Pilots, Divers, are common among the population. It is fact that over the years, watches have been part of our daily lives and will be for a long time.

This article has the goal to discuss which types of watches are most popular among consumer, why they are popular and who wear them.

Stainless Steal Watches

They are seemed as a product of luxury, used by actors portraying businessmen and attorneys, those Stainless Steal Watches always send out the impression of success. Omega, Role x, Tag Hauer, are classic watch manufacturers that not only mastered the art of creating a sophisticated stainless steal watch, but also makes sure that their watches have technological advances and advertising messages relating to sports figures, movie characters and even influencing organisations such as NASA.

Pilots Watch

The highly acclaimed Swiss watches are also known as Pilot watches. The finesse that those bring to the table are incomparable with any other type of watch out there. They have a precise way of manufacturing, a precise size, precise leather bracelets, simply a masterpiece. IWC was formed in 1868 and since then, it has been producing the pilots in which has been as always be a symbol of brilliance.

Diver Watches

Categorized as watches with a greater water resistance than 10 ATM, Diver watches are not made only for diving or any sort of water activity, they represent an active man that although one is wearing a suit, one is adventurous. The Omega “Marine”, introduced in 1932 was the first diver watch to be created and instantly after it’s release, it was a huge success among Navy officers and therefore being named the official watch for the Royal Italian Navy.

Military Watches

Do not be fooled by their simple design and their robust feel. Military Watches are considered to be what real man uses, of course everyone will say that about their own watches, however Military watches can be seem in the wrist of Generals, Air Forces official and the brave and courageous soldiers from every war ever fought. What brought up a new kick to military watches in the past 5 years is the Nite brand in which consists or the most modern military technology relating to time tracking. Features such as a rare illumination technology and Uni-directional bezels for elapse timing are part of the Men’s Military Watch.

Sport Watches

Different designs, diverse features, loads of brands in one market. For the companies manufacturing these watches, it is a fierce and competitive exercise. The designs for Sport Watches are being more sophisticated since the jogging culture came around and therefore by now 2010, sophistication, comfort, style, finesse are sometimes all involved in a watch that basically is marketed as something to take it with when going for a walk in the park. Features have also become rather ambitious in those types of watches, something that counts the steps you take on a quick run are not amusing to sport watches enthusiast any more.

Natural Lighting is So Much Better Than Artificial Light

Sunlight is a free resource and is one which could be utilized more in our homes and offices. By making use of this free light, we can cut our electricity costs and reduce carbon production. In this modern age of electrical consumption, anything we can do to reduce this is worth while. Having lots of strategically placed electric lights might be aesthetically pleasing, but it will make a big difference to your electricity bill. Also, electric lighting isn’t nearly as pleasing or as pretty as sunlight.

There are so many benefits of natural light, it has been proven to reduce the occurrence of seasonal affective disorder or SAD, which can be a real problem for sufferers during winter months in Northern climes. Of course you can buy special daylight light bulbs which can relieve the problem, but it would be better to make use of natures gifts. Natural light also enhances mood, which in turn makes people happy and happy people make for a productive workforce and a healthier population. There are several documented health problems with artificial light, some of which include headaches, tired eyes and depression.

Natural light enhances your home as it makes the rooms look bigger, brighter and more airy. You can improve the flow of natural lighting into your home by use of skylights. Skylights can be fitted relatively easily and you will be able to regulate the amount of light received by using blinds, shades or curtains. The angle and size of the skylights dictate how much light you will receive. Thought must go into which rooms would benefit the most and obviously you would not want your east facing bedroom to have huge skylights as this will wake you up very early during the summer months.

However, careful placement and use of skylights that open for extra ventilation can make a bedroom feel really light and fresh. Your kitchen and bathroom can be transformed by using skylights. These rooms can become can become rejuvenated and in fact your bathroom can have an ambiance similar to that of an expensive spa by careful placement and use of skylights. Entrance halls can be made to look more welcoming and sitting rooms can look bright and elegant. Virtually every room in your home can be improved by making use of sunlight.

There are many different types of skylight and you must discuss with your contractor what would suit your needs best and what is actually possible to do. Think about what you want to achieve from your skylights and as well as enhancing the rooms which are used the most, try to lighten the darkest rooms first. Do take care when putting skylights into bedrooms, after all nobody really wants to be woken up at first light during the summer months, as this can be around 4am in the UK. By making the most of daily sunlight, your home can be transformed by careful use of skylights. Not only will you and your family benefit but your houseplants will thrive too.